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Sample records for diesel exhaust particulate

  1. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  2. Toward Distinguishing Woodsmoke and Diesel Exhaust in Ambient Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Huggins, F.; Kubatova, A.; Wirick, S.; Maricq, M.; Mun, B.; McDonald, J.; Kelly, K.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning and diesel exhaust has distinct X-ray spectroscopic, carbon specific signatures, which can be employed for source apportionment. Characterization of the functional groups of a wide selection of PM samples (woodsmoke, diesel soot, urban air PM) was carried out using the soft X-ray spectroscopy capabilities at the synchrotron radiation sources in Berkeley (ALS) and Brookhaven (NSLS). The spectra reveal that diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) matter is made up from a semigraphitic solid core and soluble organic matter, predominantly with carboxylic functional groups. Woodsmoke PM has no or a less prevalent, graphitic signature, instead it contains carbon-hydroxyl groups. Using these features to apportion the carbonaceous PM in ambient samples we estimate that the relative contribution of DEP to ambient PM in an urban area such as Lexington, KY and St. Louis, MO is 7% and 13.5%, respectively. These values are comparable to dispersion modeling data from nonurban and urban areas in California, and with elemental carbon measurements in urban locations such as Boston, MA, Rochester, NY, and Washington, DC.

  3. Exposure of miners to diesel exhaust particulates in underground nonmetal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H J; Borak, J; Hall, T; Sirianni, G; Chemerynski, S

    2002-01-01

    A study was initiated to examine worker exposures in seven underground nonmetal mines and to examine the precision of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5040 sampling and analytical method for diesel exhaust that has recently been adopted for compliance monitoring by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Approximately 1000 air samples using cyclones were taken on workers and in areas throughout the mines. Results indicated that worker exposures were consistently above the MSHA final limit of 160 micrograms/m3 (time-weighted average; TWA) for total carbon as determined by the NIOSH 5040 method and greater than the proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists TLV limit of 20 micrograms/m3 (TWA) for elemental carbon. A number of difficulties were documented when sampling for diesel exhaust using organic carbon: high and variable blank values from filters, a high variability (+/- 20%) from duplicate punches from the same sampling filter, a consistent positive interference (+26%) when open-faced monitors were sampled side-by-side with cyclones, poor correlation (r 2 = 0.38) to elemental carbon levels, and an interference from limestone that could not be adequately corrected by acid-washing of filters. The sampling and analytical precision (relative standard deviation) was approximately 11% for elemental carbon, 17% for organic carbon, and 11% for total carbon. An hypothesis is presented and supported with data that gaseous organic carbon constituents of diesel exhaust adsorb onto not only the submicron elemental carbon particles found in diesel exhaust, but also mining ore dusts. Such mining dusts are mostly nonrespirable and should not be considered equivalent to submicron diesel particulates in their potential for adverse pulmonary effects. It is recommended that size-selective sampling be employed, rather than open-faced monitoring, when using the NIOSH 5040 method.

  4. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2...

  5. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Yuichi, E-mail: furuyama@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan); Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira [Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Fukae-Minami-Machi, Higashinada-Ku, Kobe 658-0022 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  6. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  7. Simply scan--optical methods for elemental carbon measurement in diesel exhaust particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, James A

    2014-08-01

    This article describes a performance assessment of three optical methods, a Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer, a Hach-Lange Microcolor II difference gloss meter, and a combination of an office scanner with Adobe Photoshop software. The optical methods measure filter staining as a proxy for elemental carbon in diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure assessment and the suitability of each as a replacement for the existing Bosch meter optical method. Filters loaded with DEP were produced from air in a non-coal mine and the exhaust gases from a mobile crane. These were measured with each apparatus and then by combustion to obtain a reference elemental carbon value. The results from each apparatus were then plotted against both the Bosch number and reference elemental carbon values. The equations of the best fit lines for these plots were derived, and these gave functions for elemental carbon and Bosch number from the output of each new optical method. For each optical method, the range of DEP loadings which can be measured has been determined, and conversion equations for elemental carbon and Bosch number have been obtained. All three optical methods studied will effectively quantify blackness as a measure of elemental carbon. Of these the Magee Scientific OT21 transmissometer has the best performance. The Microcolor II and scanner/photoshop methods will in addition allow conversion to Bosch number which may be useful if historical Bosch data are available and functions for this are described. The scanner/photoshop method demonstrates a technique to obtain measurements of DEP exposure without the need to purchase specialized instrumentation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  8. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  9. Diesel exhaust controls and aftertreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubeli, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed the safe use of diesel fuels in underground mines, with particular reference to advanced technology engines and system technology options for mines. The use of diesel fuels underground requires well designed diesel engines with an effective preventive maintenance programs utilizing diesel emissions testing. The mines must have a well-engineered ventilation system and an adequate air quality monitoring system. An outline of diesel pollutant formation was included in the presentation. Diesel emission control technologies can address localized air quality problems and control emissions at the source. This presentation summarized the best available diesel emission control technologies for underground mines, namely diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC); diesel particulate filters (DPF); active diesel particulate filters (A-DPF); selective catalytic reduction (SCR); water scrubbers; and fume diluters. An emissions control plan using aftertreatment technology should target the vehicles that are the biggest contributors to diesel exhaust. Low sulphur fuel is a prerequisite for most emission control technologies. The successful control of emissions requires knowledge of the high emitting vehicle groups; an integrated ventilation and emission control technology application plan; ambient and tailpipe emissions testing; and training of operators and mechanics. tabs., figs.

  10. Diesel exhaust emissions : health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    Despite modern day ventilation, underground miners are exposed to diesel particulate matter (DPM) composed of elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulphates, metals and ashes. Diesel exhaust contains over 40 air contaminants that have been recognized as toxic, carcinogenic or reproductive and developmental hazards. Nearly all components of diesel exhaust interact with the human body at the bloodstream or tissue level. This presentation discussed the following 4 potential levels of threat posed by the physical and chemical nature of diesel exhaust: (1) cancer of the lungs and bladder, (2) toxins that affect the nervous, endocrine, reproductive and immune system as well as the liver and kidneys, (3) fine particulate matter that can cause premature death and an increase in respiratory illness, and (4) nitrogen oxides that contribute to increased ozone and smog. Non-cancer health effects from short-term exposure include acute irritation and respiratory symptoms. This presentation also referred to cancer risk assessments of diesel exhaust by national, state, and world health organizations. Particulate exposure standards for Canada, Quebec, Ontario and the United States were listed along with the percentage of DPM samples in excess of various exposure limits in 2008 according to Canadian underground mine data. DPM concentration levels in mines are in the range that environmental agencies would consider high for general population exposure. Solutions for underground mines include pollution control at the source; use of modern engines with certification for underground mining; emissions based maintenance; exhaust treatment; use of clean or alternative fuels such as hydrogen; regular sampling and monitoring; ventilation; training and technology transfer; and regulations. tabs., figs.

  11. Pre-study of exhaust gases of diesel engines with 'open' and 'wall-flow' diesel particulate filters and their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, R.; Rabe, E.

    2007-04-01

    size distribution and on health effects. The results were discussed with TNO specialists in the areas of catalysis, chemical analysis and toxicology. It is concluded that the emission of potentially toxic components will be reduced with the wall-flow diesel particulates filter and will likely be reduced with the open filter. In line with this, a positive influence is expected on health effects. This will generally also apply to the application of an oxidation catalyst alone. Diesel passenger cars are already standard equipped with an oxidation catalyst. For the open filter there is no specific reason to conclude that there would be a large risk for the emission of potentially toxic components or which could otherwise result in health effects. It is recommended, however, to carry out a comprehensive experimental study for diesel cars with open filters and to compare the results with those of diesel engines with wall-flow filter or without filter. It is advised to measure the chemical composition of diesel exhaust emissions and to perform in vitro and/or in vivo experiments to investigate toxicity, including mutagenicity and genotoxicity. The preparations for such a study are already started. For both passenger cars and trucks it is also recommended to monitor the performance of the retrofit devices via in-use compliance testing. Specifically the real life filtration efficiency, average back pressure and NOx emissions should be investigated

  12. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diesel exhaust particulate material expression of in vitro genotoxic activities when dispersed into a phospholipid component of lung surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X C; Keane, M J; Ong, T M; Harrison, J C; Slaven, J E; Bugarski, A D; Gautam, M; Wallace, W E, E-mail: mjk3@cdc.go [US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cell chromosomal and DNA damage in vitro assays were performed on a diesel exhaust particulate material (DPM) standard in two preparations: as an organic solvent extract, and as an aqueous dispersion in a simulated pulmonary surfactant. U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology DPM SRM 2975 expressed mutagenic activity in the Salmonella reversion assay, and for in vitro genotoxicity to mammalian cells as micronucleus induction and as DNA damage in both preparations: as an acetone extract of the DPM mixed into dimethylsulfoxide, and as a mixture of whole DPM in a dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. Dispersion in surfactant was used to model the conditioning of DPM depositing on the deep respiratory airways of the lung. DPM solid residue after acetone extraction was inactive when assayed as a surfactant dispersion in the micronucleus induction assay, as was surfactant dispersion of a respirable particulate carbon black. In general, a given mass of the DPM in surfactant dispersion expressed greater activity than the solvent extract of an equal mass of DPM.

  14. Black carbon concentrations in California vehicles and estimation of in-vehicle diesel exhaust particulate matter exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.; Rodes, Charles E.

    This research assessed in-vehicle exposures to black carbon (BC) as an indicator of diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures. Approximately 50 h of real-time Aethalometer BC measurements were made inside vehicles driven on freeway and arterial loops in Los Angeles and Sacramento. Video tapes of the driver's view were transcribed to record the traffic conditions, vehicles followed, and vehicle occupant observations, and these results were tested for their associations with BC concentration. In-vehicle BC concentrations were highest when directly following diesel-powered vehicles, particularly those with low exhaust pipe locations. The lowest BC concentrations were observed while following gasoline-powered passenger cars, on average no different than not following any vehicle. Because diesel vehicles were over-sampled in the field study, results were not representative of real-world driving. To calculate representative exposures, in-vehicle BC concentrations were grouped by the type of vehicle followed, for each road type and congestion level. These groupings were then re-sampled stochastically, in proportion to the fraction of statewide vehicle miles traveled (VMT) under each of those conditions. The approximately 6% of time spent following diesel vehicles led to 23% of the in-vehicle BC exposure, while the remaining exposure was due to elevated roadway BC concentrations. In-vehicle BC exposures averaged 6 μg m -3 in Los Angeles and the Bay Area, the regions with the highest congestion and the majority of the state's VMT. The statewide average in-vehicle BC exposure was 4 μg m -3, corresponding to DPM concentrations of 7-23 μg m -3, depending on the Aethalometer response to elemental carbon (EC) and the EC fraction of the DPM. In-vehicle contributions to overall DPM exposures ranged from approximately 30% to 55% of total DPM exposure on a statewide population basis. Thus, although time spent in vehicles was only 1.5 h day -1 on average, vehicles may be the most

  15. Diesel exhaust particulate extracts inhibit transcription of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cell viability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, Kathleen A.; Klinge, Carolyn M. [University of Louisville School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we tested the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particulate extracts (DEPEs), prepared from a truck run at different speeds and engine loads, would inhibit genomic estrogen receptor activation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, we examined how DEPEs affect NRF-1-regulated TFAM expression and, in turn, Tfam-regulated mtDNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, MTCO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI) expression as well as cell proliferation and viability. We report that 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), and raloxifene increased NRF-1 transcription in HUVECs in an ER-dependent manner. DEPEs inhibited NRF-1 transcription, and this suppression was not ablated by concomitant treatment with E{sub 2}, 4-OHT, or raloxifene, indicating that the effect was not due to inhibition of ER activity. While E{sub 2} increased HUVEC proliferation and viability, DEPEs inhibited viability but not proliferation. Resveratrol increased NRF-1 transcription in an ER-dependent manner in HUVECs, and ablated DEPE inhibition of basal NRF-1 expression. Given that NRF-1 is a key nuclear transcription factor regulating genes involved in mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, these data suggest that DEPEs may adversely affect mitochondrial function leading to endothelial dysfunction and resveratrol may block these effects. (orig.)

  16. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Liou, Yi-Jyun [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Man-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erh-Jen Road, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 60036, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jim-Shoung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores <16 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of biodiesel blend and load. - Abstract: Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N{sub TOT}) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N{sub TOT} and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N{sub TOT} at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N{sub TOT} post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of

  17. Chemical Composition of Diesel/Biodiesel Particulate Exhaust by FTIR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry: Impact of Fuel and Driving Cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovicheva, O.B.; Irimiea, C.; Carpentier, Y.; Ortega, I.K.; Kireeva, E.D.; Shonija, N.K.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Fosca, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2017), s. 1717-1734 ISSN 1680-8584 Grant - others:MHER(FR) ANR-11-LABX-0005 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : diesel engine * particulate emission * environmental pollution Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2016

  18. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Yereb, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Blair, Aaron; Portengen, Lützen; Stewart, Patricia A; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T

    2010-10-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental carbon (EC). We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposure levels of respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, particularly lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners by back-extrapolating 1998-2001 REC exposure levels using historical measurements of carbon monoxide (CO). The choice of CO was based on the availability of historical measurement data. Here, we evaluated the relationship of REC with CO and other current and historical components of DE from side-by-side area measurements taken in underground operations of seven non-metal mining facilities. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the natural log-transformed (Ln)REC measurements with the Ln(CO) measurements was 0.4. The correlation of REC with the other gaseous, organic carbon (OC), and particulate measurements ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Factor analyses indicated that the gaseous components, including CO, together with REC, loaded most strongly on a presumed 'Diesel exhaust' factor, while the OC and particulate agents loaded predominantly on other factors. In addition, the relationship between Ln(REC) and Ln(CO) was approximately linear over a wide range of REC concentrations. The fact that CO correlated with REC, loaded on the same factor, and increased linearly in log-log space supported the use of CO in estimating historical exposure levels to DE.

  19. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelec, Andrea; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Finney, Charles E.A.; Daw, C. Stuart; Foster, Dave; Rutland, Christopher J.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Schulz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nondestructive neutron computed tomography (nCT) measurements of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as a method to measure ash and soot loading in the filters. Uncatalyzed and unwashcoated 200cpsi cordierite DPFs exposed to 100% biodiesel (B100) exhaust and conventional ultra low sulfur 2007 certification diesel (ULSD) exhaust at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP) are compared to a brand new (never exposed) filter. Precise structural information about the substrate as well as an attempt to quantify soot and ash loading in the channel of the DPF illustrates the potential strength of the neutron imaging technique

  1. The diesel exhaust in miners study: III. Interrelations between respirable elemental carbon and gaseous and particulate components of diesel exhaust derived from area sampling in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Yereb, D.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Portengen, L.; Stewart, P.A.; Attfield, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon oxides (CO(x)) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the

  2. 14C-labeled diesel exhaust particles: chemical characteristics and bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Dutcher, J.S.; Brooks, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Little is known about the deposition, retention and biological fate of the organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust particles. In the studies reported here, a one-cylinder diesel engine was operated on diesel fuel spiked with 14 C-benzene, 14 C-hexadecane or 14 C-dotriacontane to generate 14 C-labeled diesel exhaust. Approximately 1% of the exhaust radioactivity was associated with the particulate phase of diesel exhaust. Chemical fractionation of the particle extract showed the 14 C to be present in each of the various chemical class fractions collected. Serum removed approx. 60% of the dichloromethane extractable radioactivity from these diesel particles while saline removed only approx. 6%. This suggested that the organic compounds may be removed from diesel particles in vivo. Future inhalation exposures of rodents to 14 C-labeled diesel exhausts are planned to gain additional information on the health risk of human exposure to diesel exhaust

  3. Design and Optimisation of Electrostatic Precipitator for Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivaas, A.; Sathian, Samanyu; Ramesh, Arjun

    2018-02-01

    The principle of an industrially used emission reduction technique is employed in automotive diesel exhaust to reduce the diesel particulate emission. As the Emission regulation are becoming more stringent legislations have been formulated, due to the hazardous increase in the air quality index in major cities. Initially electrostatic precipitation principle and working was investigated. The High voltage requirement in an Electrostatic precipitator is obtained by designing an appropriate circuit in MATLAB -SIMULINK. Mechanical structural design of the new model after treatment device for the specific diesel exhaust was done. Fluid flow analysis of the ESP model was carried out using ANSYS CFX for optimized fluid with a reduced back pressure. Design reconsideration was done in accordance with fluid flow analysis. Accordingly, a new design is developed by considering diesel particulate filter and catalytic converter design to ESP model.

  4. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  5. The evaluation of a ceramic diesel particulate filter in an underground mine laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.H.; Bucheger, D.; Patton, M.; Johnson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper details the collection of diesel exhaust particulate from the instrumented Wagner ST5A load-haul-dump vehicle during a simulated ore loading and hauling operation. An evaluation of the exhaust included measurements to determine the effect of the Corning diesel particulate filter (DPF) on air quality, and the effect of operating variables and fuel additives on DPF regeneration. The results demonstrate the important effects of other mine particulate sources on the particulate collection efficiency

  6. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  7. Diesel Exhaust Exposure, Wheezing and Sneezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7. PMID:22754710

  8. Diesel exhaust particles are mutagenic in FE1-MutaMouse lung epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Cohn, Corey Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The particulate phase of diesel engine exhaust is likely carcinogenic. However, the mechanisms of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) induced mutagenicity/carcinogenicity are still largely unknown. We determined the mutant frequency following eight repeated 72 h incubations with 37.5 or 75 microg...

  9. PIXE analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Yao Huiying; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Xu Huawei; Mi Yong; Shen Hao

    2001-01-01

    PIXE technique on the analysis of vehicle exhaust particulate is introduced. The clement composition and concentration of particulate are obtained. Some elements which are related to environmental pollution such as sulfur lead, silicon and manganese, were analyzed and discussed in detail by PIXE technique Nowadays although unleaded gasoline is widely used, the lead concentration is still very high in exhaust particulate. The concentrations of silicon and manganese in exhaust particulate from different model vehicles are also quite high from measurements. It shows that an evidence for exhaust pollution control could be provided from this work

  10. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. ► Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. ► Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. ► The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores TOT ) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ∼10 4 cm −3 . This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored.

  11. Underground coal mine air quality in mines using disposable diesel exhaust filter control devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.H.; Johnson, J.H.; Bagley, S.T.; Gratz, L.D. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1996-07-01

    As part of a collaborative study with the US Bureau of Mines, in-mine studies have been conducted to assess the effects of a low temperature disposable diesel exhaust filter. The mines have been designed as mines R and S in US Bureau of Mines publications. Each mine operated three to four Jeffrey 4110 ramcar haulage vehicles in the test section. The ramcars were equipped with MWM D916-6 diesel engines, rated at 74.6 kW (100 hp), and were operated for 3 days with the disposal diesel exhaust filter and 2 days without in both mines. Average diesel particulate matter control efficiencies, as measured by samplers located on the coal haulage vehicle, were 80% in mine R and 76% in mine S. Diesel particulate matter average control efficiencies, as measured in the diesel engine tailpipe, were 52% for mine R (for two ramcar vehicles) and 86% for mine S (for four ramcar vehicles). The air quality index control efficiencies, as measured by samplers located on the coal haulage vehicle were 48% in mine R and 51% in mine S. The exhaust quality index control efficiencies from tailpipe measurements were 45% for mine R and 63% for mine S. As measured by a high volume sampler in mine S, diesel particulate matter and associated organics and mutagenic activity were reduced approximately 50% with the use of the disposal diesel exhaust filter. Similar results were found with modified personal samplers in mine R. Little effect was found on relative removal of semivolatile organics. The disposal diesel exhaust filter resulted in about a 50% reduction in the most volatile polynuclear hydrocarbons; however, there appeared to be little effect on the less volatile polynuclear hydrocarbons. The disposable diesel exhaust filter appears to be very effective in reducing the levels of all the diesel exhaust particulate components, while having minor effects on the relative breakdown of the individual components of the particulate. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; M?ller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this...

  13. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  14. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  15. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  16. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  17. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  18. PIXE analysis of exhaust gas from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hirosi; Michijima, Masami; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujitani, Tatsuya.

    1986-01-01

    The variation of elemental concentrations in exhaust gas of a Diesel engine with the outputs was studied. Particulates in high temperature gas were collected on silica fiber filters and analyzed by PIXE method. Concentrations of S and V were nearly proportional to particulate masses and fuel consumption rates per discharging rates of exhaust gas respectively. While, concentrations of Fe and Mn were markedly increased together with engine outputs, and Mn/Fe ratios were nearly equal to those of the material of piston rings and the cylinder liner. Concentrations of the elements contained in lubricant, such as Ca and Mo, were also conspicuously increased with the outputs. It was shown that PIXE analysis is a useful tool for engine diagonostics owing to its high sensitive multi-elemental availability without chemical treatments. (author)

  19. Gravimetric Measurements of Filtering Facepiece Respirators Challenged With Diesel Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Swathi; Swanson, Jacob J; Xiao, Kai; Viner, Andrew S; Kittelson, David B; Pui, David Y H

    2017-07-01

    Elevated concentrations of diesel exhaust have been linked to adverse health effects. Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are widely used as a form of respiratory protection against diesel particulate matter (DPM) in occupational settings. Previous results (Penconek A, Drążyk P, Moskal A. (2013) Penetration of diesel exhaust particles through commercially available dust half masks. Ann Occup Hyg; 57: 360-73.) have suggested that common FFRs are less efficient than would be expected for this purpose based on their certification approvals. The objective of this study was to measure the penetration of DPM through NIOSH-certified R95 and P95 electret respirators to verify this result. Gravimetric-based penetration measurements conducted using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP) filters were compared with penetration measurements made with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, TSI Inc.), which measures the particle size distribution. Gravimetric measurements using PP filters were variable compared to SMPS measurements and biased high due to adsorption of gas phase organic material. Relatively inert PTFE filters adsorbed less gas phase organic material resulting in measurements that were more accurate. To attempt to correct for artifacts associated with adsorption of gas phase organic material, primary and secondary filters were used in series upstream and downstream of the FFR. Correcting for adsorption by subtracting the secondary mass from the primary mass improved the result for both PTFE and PP filters but this correction is subject to 'equilibrium' conditions that depend on sampling time and the concentration of particles and gas phase hydrocarbons. Overall, the results demonstrate that the use of filters to determine filtration efficiency of FFRs challenged with diesel exhaust produces erroneous results due to the presence of gas phase hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust and the tendency of filters to adsorb organic material. Published by

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  1. INHIBITION OF TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY INITIATES RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of PM in urban areas and may contribute to PM toxicity through a mechanism involving pulmonary inflammation. Expression of inf...

  2. Peribronchiolar fibrosis in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.M.; Plopper, C.G.; Weir, A.J.; Murnane, R.D.; Warren, D.L.; Last, J.A.; Pepelko, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative changes in the pulmonary proximal acinar region following chronic exposure to diesel exhaust and following an additional 6 months in clean air. Cats (13 months of age) from a minimum disease colony were exposed to clean air (eight cats for 27 months and nine cats for 33 months), diesel exhaust for 8 hours/day, 7 days/week (nine cats for 27 months), or diesel exhaust for 27 months followed by 6 months in clean air (10 cats). Morphologic and morphometric evaluation using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed two major exposure-related lesions in proximal acinar regions of lungs of cats: peribronchiolar fibrosis associated with significant increases in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and interstitial macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions and bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia associated with the presence of ciliated and basal cells and alveolar macrophages containing diesel particulate-like inclusions. Peribronchiolar fibrosis was greater at the end of the 6 months in clean air following exposure, whereas the bronchiolar epithelial metaplasia was most severe at the end of exposure. Following an additional 6 months in clean air the epithelium more closely resembled the control epithelial cell population. The labeling index of terminal bronchiolar epithelium was significantly increased at the end of exposure but was not significantly different from controls or exposed cats following an additional 6 months in clean air. The ultrastructural appearance of epithelial cells remained relatively unchanged following diesel exhaust exposure with the exception of diesel particulate-like inclusions

  3. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  4. Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-02-18

    Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions.

  5. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust fumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, A. D.; Sadhra, S.

    2004-01-01

    There is currently no OEL for diesel fumes in the UK. This study reports parallel measurements of airborne levels of diesel fume pollutants in nine distribution depots where diesel powered fork-lift trucks (FLTs) were in use. Correlations between individual pollutants are assessed as well as their spatial distribution. Samples were collected on board FLTs and at background positions at nine distribution depots. Substances measured and the range of exposures by site were: respirable dust (n = 76) GM ≤ 80-179 μg/m 3 ; elemental carbon (n = 79) GM = 7-55 μg/m 3 ; organic carbon (n = 79) GM 11-69 μg/m 3 ; ultrafine particles (n = 17) range = 58-231 x 10 3 particles/cm 3 ; selected particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (n - 14) range = 6-37 ng/m 3 . In addition, a tracer method based on ultrafine particle measurements was used to estimate the spatial distribution of total carbon and PAHs at the sites monitored. The spatial distribution was found to be reasonably uniform. Major diesel fume aerosol components were, in general, well correlated (r = 0.62-0.97). CO 2 measurements were also made and found to be below the HSE guideline of 1000 p.p.m., with most levels below 600 p.p.m. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  8. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  9. EFFECT OF SHORT TERM DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE ON NASAL RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA IN ALLERGIC RHINITICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Recently published data suggest that diesel exhaust (DE) has special impact on allergic inflammation, suppressing Th1 and augmenting Th2 responses to allergen via oxidant stress effects on airway cells. Exposures to particulate air pollutants including DE are also a...

  10. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  11. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  12. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor. PMID:28218700

  13. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Hottner, Kathrin; Redel, Sabrina; Müller, Andreas; Moos, Ralf

    2017-02-18

    Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor.

  14. Comparative Study of Different Methods for Soot Sensing and Filter Monitoring in Diesel Exhausts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Feulner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasingly tighter emission limits for diesel and gasoline engines, especially concerning particulate matter emissions, particulate filters are becoming indispensable devices for exhaust gas after treatment. Thereby, for an efficient engine and filter control strategy and a cost-efficient filter design, reliable technologies to determine the soot load of the filters and to measure particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gas during vehicle operation are highly needed. In this study, different approaches for soot sensing are compared. Measurements were conducted on a dynamometer diesel engine test bench with a diesel particulate filter (DPF. The DPF was monitored by a relatively new microwave-based approach. Simultaneously, a resistive type soot sensor and a Pegasor soot sensing device as a reference system measured the soot concentration exhaust upstream of the DPF. By changing engine parameters, different engine out soot emission rates were set. It was found that the microwave-based signal may not only indicate directly the filter loading, but by a time derivative, the engine out soot emission rate can be deduced. Furthermore, by integrating the measured particulate mass in the exhaust, the soot load of the filter can be determined. In summary, all systems coincide well within certain boundaries and the filter itself can act as a soot sensor.

  15. System for exposing animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Mokler, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    One approach to determining the deposition and fate of inhaled diesel particles is the conduct of inhalation exposure studies with radiolabeled diesel fuel. A system was designed, constructed and tested for the simultaneous exposure of animals to radiolabeled diesel exhaust and collection of large quantities of radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles from a single cylinder diesel engine. The system performance was characterized and evaluated over a range of operating conditions: 0 to 1800 watts of engine load, 1000 to 2500 rpm and dilution air rates of 1:2 and 1:10. The exposure system met required design and operating criteria for safety, portability, space and flexibility

  16. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  17. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  18. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  19. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  20. Note on the sanitary impact of diesel particulates; Note sur l'impact sanitaire des particules diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    In the actual situation of scientific works, the epidemiology studies on environment do not allow to say the carcinogen contribution of diesel particulates at the concentration levels measured in the urban air. But according to the experimental data for the rat and the data observed for the personnel exposed to diesel particulates these particulates are classified as probably carcinogen. (N.C.)

  1. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  2. Vale nails down reduction of diesel particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmour, A.

    2010-09-01

    This article discussed innovations for reducing emissions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from light-duty underground vehicles. DPM is a byproduct of diesel-powered equipment. Controlling these emissions at the source of generation is necessary for a healthy work environment and more cost effective than fresh air ventilation to reduce contaminant concentrations. Previous diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems required extensive human intervention, but this was deemed too inefficient. A DPF system that does not require human intervention was developed and proved successful in filter regeneration, longevity, and reliability. This DPF system uses a sintered metal filter element, a base metal, fuel-borne catalyst with an on-board dosing system, an electric heater that uses on-board power, and a sensor-based control unit. Software in the control unit adjusts fuel dosing rates and heater timing to ensure filter regeneration for different engines and operating scenarios. The new filter system is robust, and it has a compact design and long service-intervals. The product is still being tested to determine the costs and service life of the filter. More testing on fuel additives was deemed to be warranted, as was designing filter elements for larger engines used in heavy-duty vehicles.

  3. Gluthathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione-S-transfera...

  4. Whole and particle-free diesel exhausts differentially affect cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, and autonomic balance in heart failure-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies strongly link short-term exposures to vehicular traffic and particulate matter (PM) air pollution with adverse cardiovascular events, especially in those with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) is a key contributor to urban ambien...

  5. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: ECunderground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies.

  6. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Gangal, M.; Goyer, N.; McGinn, S.; Penney, J.; Vergunst, J.

    2001-10-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m 3 . Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m 3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  7. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  8. Metal/nonmetal diesel particulate matter rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomko, D.M. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Safety and Health Technology Center; Stackpole, R.P. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, WV (United States). Approval and Certification Center; Findlay, C.D. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Arlington, VA (United States). Metal/Nonmetal Safety and Health; Pomroy, W.H. [United States Dept. of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Duluth, MN (United States). Metal/Nonmetal North Central District

    2010-07-01

    The American Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) issued a health standard in January 2001 designed to reduce exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) in underground metal and nonmetal mines. The rule established an interim concentration limit for DPM of 400 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon, to be followed in 2004 by a final limit of 160 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of total carbon. The 2001 rule was challenged in federal court by various mining trade associations and mining companies. The rule was subsequently amended. This paper highlighted the major provisions of the 2006 final rule and summarized MSHAs current compliance sampling procedures. The concentration limit was changed to a permissible exposure limit and the sampling surrogate was changed from total carbon to elemental carbon. The MSHA published a new rule in 2006 which based the final limit on a miner's personal exposure rather than a concentration limit. The final limit was phased in using 3 steps over 2 years. This paper also discussed engineering controls and a recent MSHA report on organic carbon, elemental carbon and total carbon emissions from a diesel engine fueled with various blends of standard diesel and biodiesel. In May 2008, about two-thirds of all underground metal/nonmetal mines achieved and maintained compliance with the rule. 20 refs.

  9. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no

  10. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, D.T.; Samanic, C.; Lubin, J.H.; Blair, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.L.; Travis, W.D.; Ziegler, R.; Wacholder, S.; Attfield, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most studies of the association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer suggest a modest, but consistent, increased risk. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has had quantitative data on historical diesel exposure coupled with adequate sample size to evaluate the

  11. Method for removing soot from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suib, Steven L.; Dharmarathna, D. A. Saminda; Pahalagedara, Lakshitha R.

    2018-01-16

    A method for oxidizing soot from diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine. The method involves providing a diesel particulate filter for receiving the diesel exhaust gas; coating a catalyst composition on the diesel particulate filter; and contacting the soot from the diesel exhaust gas with the catalyst coated diesel particulate filter at a temperature sufficient to oxidize the soot to carbon dioxide. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) material. A diesel exhaust gas treatment system that includes a diesel particulate filter for receiving diesel exhaust gas from a diesel engine and collecting soot; and a catalyst composition coated on the diesel particulate filter. The catalyst composition is a doped or undoped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2).

  12. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H.

    2003-01-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O 2 concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O 2 ) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO x gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO x but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases

  13. Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2003-11-01

    Although combustion is essential in most energy generation processes, it is one of the major causes of air pollution. Spiral fin exhaust pipes were designed to study the effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases (EGR) of Diesel engines on the chemical composition of the exhaust gases and the reduction in the percentages of pollutant emissions. The gases examined in this study were oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO). In addition, O{sub 2} concentration in the exhaust was measured. The two designs adopted in this study were exhaust pipes with solid and hollow fins around them. The first type uses air flow around the fins to cool the exhaust gases. The second type consists of hollow fins around the exhaust pipe to allow cooling water to flow in the hollow passage. Different combinations and arrangements of the solid and hollow fins exhaust pipes were used. It was found that decreasing the temperature of the EGR resulted in reductions in the oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but increased the carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gases. In addition, the oxygen (O{sub 2}) concentration in the exhaust was decreased. As a general trend, the percentages of reduction in the NO{sub x} gas concentrations were lower than the percentages of increase in the CO emissions as a result of cooling the EGR of a Diesel engine by a heat exchanger. Using water as a cooling medium decreased the exhaust gases temperature and the amount of pollutants more than did air as a cooling medium. In a separate series of tests, increasing the cooled EGR ratios decreased the exhaust NO{sub x} but increased the particulate matter concentrations in the exhaust gases. (Author)

  14. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  15. Investigation of microalgae HTL fuel effects on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions using surrogate fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Farhad M.; Nabi, Md. Nurun; Rainey, Thomas J.; Bodisco, Timothy; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Suara, Kabir; Rahman, S.M.A.; Van, Thuy Chu; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a microalgae HTL surrogate of biocrude fuel using chemical compounds. • Physiochemical properties of surrogate blends were analysed. • Experimentally investigated diesel engine performance and emissions using surrogate fuels. • No significant changes in engine performance were observed with HTL surrogate blends. • Major emissions including PM, PN and CO were reduced significantly with increasing of NOx emission. - Abstract: This paper builds on previous work using surrogate fuel to investigate advanced internal combustion engine fuels. To date, a surrogate fuel of this nature has not been used for microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude. This research used five different chemical groups found in microalgae HTL biocrude to design a surrogate fuel. Those five chemical groups constitute around 65% (by weight) of a microalgae biocrude produced by HTL. Weight percentage of the microalgae HTL biocrude chemical compounds were used to design the surrogate fuel, which was miscible with diesel at all percentages. The engine experiments were conducted on a EURO IIIA turbocharged common-rail direct-injection six-cylinder diesel engine to test engine performance and emissions. Exhaust emissions, including particulate matter and other gaseous emissions, were measured with the surrogate fuel and a reference diesel fuel. Experimental results showed that without significantly deteriorating engine performance, lower particulate mass, particulate number and CO emissions were observed with a penalty in NOx emissions for all surrogate blends compared to those of the reference diesel.

  16. A review on the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Natalina; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Tong, Chong Wen; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Silitonga, Arridina Susan

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels have gained much popularity because they are cleaner alternative fuels and they can be used directly in diesel engines without modifications. In this paper, a brief review of the key studies pertaining to the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends, exhaust aftertreatment systems, and low-temperature combustion technology is presented. In general, most biodiesel blends result in a significant decrease in carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. There is also a decrease in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the engine performance increases for diesel engines fueled with biodiesels blended with nano-additives. The development of automotive technologies, such as exhaust gas recirculation systems and low-temperature combustion technology, also improves the thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reduces nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions.

  17. Impact of fuels on diesel exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an investigation of the emissions from eight diesel fuels with different sulphur and aromatic content. A bus and a truck were used in the investigation. Chemical analysis and biological testing have been performed. The aim of this project was to find a 'good' diesel fuel which can be used in urban areas. Seven of the fuels were meant to be such fuels. It has been confirmed in this study that there exists a quantifiable relationship between the variables of the diesel fuel blends and the variables of the chemical emissions and their biological effects. 119 figs., 12 tabs., approx. 100 refs

  18. Ventricular transcriptional data provide mechanistic insights into diesel exhaust induced attenuation of cardiac contractile response and blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposures to near road ambient particulate matter and its major component, diesel exhaust (DE), have been associated with cardiovascular impairments however the mechanisms and the role of hypertension are not well understood. We have shown that DE exposure reduces blood pre...

  19. Exhaust emissions evaluation of Colombian commercial diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jaime; Bello, Arcesio; Sarmiento, Jose; Rostkowski, Jacek; Brady, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Ecopetrol, based on the results obtained in the study, The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter (Bello et al 2000), reformulated the diesel fuel distributed in Bogota, becoming it lighter and with lower sulfur content. In order to evaluate the environmental benefits that the reformulation of diesel fuel generate in Bogota, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (ICP), with the assistance of emissions research and measurement division (ERMD) from environment Canada, arranged a research project to determine the changes in CO, THC, NO x , CO 2 and particulate matter emissions. The research program was developed in two steps. First one, developed in Bogota, involved a fleet test with 15 public service buses that normally operate in Bogota's savannah, using a portable emissions sampling technology developed for ERMD (DOES2) and following a representative transient driving cycle. Second step, carried out in ERMD's Heavy-Duty engine emissions laboratory in Ottawa, tested a 1995 caterpillar 3406E 324/5 KW (435 HP) diesel truck engine on the same samples of Colombian diesel fuels used in the fleet tests performed in Bogota, baselining the tests with a Canadian commercial low sulfur diesel fuel. The two commercial Colombian diesel fuels used had the following properties: High Sulfur Diesel (HSD), with 3000 ppm (0,3 wt %) of sulfur and a final boiling point (FBP) of 633 K and the new reformulated diesel fuel, with 1000 ppm (0,1 wt %) of sulfur and FBP of 613 K, which is currently been distributed in Bogota. Fleet test show small reduction on CO, THC and TPM, and small increments on CO 2 and NO x but with not statistically significant results, while engine testing shows a strong reduction of 40/8% in TPM when you use the new reformulated diesel fuel (0,1 wt % of sulfur) instead of high sulfur diesel

  20. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  1. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  2. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  3. LOFT diesel generator ''A'' exhaust stack seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Exhaust Stack was performed to determine its reaction to Safe-Shutdown Earthquake loads. The exhaust stack silencer and supporting foundation was found to be inadequate for the postulated seismic accelerations. Lateral support is required to prevent overturning of the silencer pedestal and reinforcement of the 4'' x 0.5'' silencer base straps is necessary. Basic requirements for this additional support are discussed

  4. Fate of SO(sub 2) During Plasma Treatment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    Several catalytic aftertreatment technologies rely on the conversion of NO to NO(sub 2) to achieve efficient reduction of NO(sub x) and particulates in diesel engine exhaust. These technologies require low sulfur fuel because the catalyst component that is active in converting NO to NO(sub 2) is also active in converting SO(sub 2) to SO(sub 3). A non-thermal plasma can be used for the selective partial oxidation of NO to NO(sub 2) in the gas-phase under diesel engine exhaust conditions. This paper discusses how a non-thermal plasma can efficiently oxidize NO to NO(sub 2) without oxidizing SO(sub 2) to SO(sub 3). It is shown that the presence of hydrocarbons in the plasma is essential for enhancing the selective partial oxidation of NO and suppressing the oxidation of SO(sub 2)

  5. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  6. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  7. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  8. Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation--a review on advanced and novel concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ming E-mail: mzheng@uwindsor.ca; Reader, Graham T.; Hawley, J. Gary

    2004-04-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NO{sub x} reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed.

  9. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response

  10. Emissions of particulate-bound elements from stationary diesel engine: Characterization and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the emissions of airborne particulate matter (PM) from diesel engines because of their close association with adverse health and environmental impacts. Among the alternative fuels being considered, biodiesel made by the transesterification of waste cooking oil has received wide attention in recent years because of its low cost and the added advantage of reducing waste oil disposal. This study was conducted to make a comparative evaluation of the particulate-bound elements emitted from ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel (B100) and a blend of both the fuels (B50). It was observed that the PM mass concentrations were reduced by about 36% when B100 was used. Crustal elements such as Mg, K and Al were found to be in higher concentrations compared to other elements emitted from both B100 and ULSD. Zn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Ba, K were found to be higher in the biodiesel exhaust while Co, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr, and As were found to be higher in the ULSD exhaust. To evaluate the potential health risk due to inhalation of PM emitted from diesel engines running on ULSD and B100, health risk estimates based on exposure and dose-response assessments of particulate-bound elements were calculated assuming exposure for 24 h. The findings indicate that the exposure to PM of the B100 exhaust is relatively more hazardous and may pose adverse health effects compared to ULSD.

  11. Variability in onset of ECG changes indicative of ischemia after exposure to whole vs filtered diesel exhaust in hypertensive rats. Insight on mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gases including C02, O2, N02, CO, aldehydes, benzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as highly respirable particulate matter. DE is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which its...

  12. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  13. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  14. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance M Hallberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology, and modified fuel formulations, to bring about reductions in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides within the exhaust. To illustrate the impact of that technological transition, a brief overview of pre-2007 diesel engine exhaust biomarkers of genotoxicity and health-related concerns is provided, to set the context for the results of our research findings, as part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES, in which the effects of a 2007-compliant diesel engine were examined. In agreement with ACES findings reported in other tissues, we observed a lack of measurable 2007-compliant diesel treatment–associated DNA damage, in lung tissue (comet assay, blood serum (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] assay, and hippocampus (lipid peroxidation assay, across diesel exhaust exposure levels. A time-dependent assessment of 8-OHdG and lipid peroxidation also suggested no differences in responses across diesel exhaust exposure levels more than 24 months of exposure. These results indicated that the 2007-compliant diesel engine reduced measurable reactive oxygen species–associated tissue derangements and suggested that the 2007 standards–based mitigation approaches were effective.

  15. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  16. Controlling exposure to DPM : diesel particulate filters vs. biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugarski, A.D.; Shi, X.C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to comply with Mine Safety and Health Administration regulations, mining companies are required to reduce miners exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) to 160 μg/m 3 of total carbon. Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems, disposable filter elements (DFEs), and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) are among the most effective strategies and technologies for curtailing DPM at its source. Substituting diesel fuel with biodiesel blends is also considered to be a plausible solution by many underground mine operators. Studies were conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Diesel Laboratory at Lake Lynn Experimental Mine to evaluate various control technologies and strategies available to the underground mining industry to reduce exposure to DPM. The physical, chemical and toxicological properties of diesel aerosols (DPM) emitted by engines in an underground mine were also evaluated. The DPF and DFE systems were found to be highly effective in reducing total particulate and elemental carbon mass concentrations, total aerosol surface concentrations and, in most cases, concentrations of diesel aerosols in occupational settings such as underground mines. Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel fuels had the potential to reduce the mine air concentrations of total DPM, although the rate of reduction varied depending on engine operating conditions. The disadvantage of using biodiesel fuels was an increase in the fraction of particle-bound volatile organics and concentration of aerosols for light-load engine operating conditions.

  17. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop......Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  18. Pulmonary function testing of animals chronically exposed to diluted diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K B

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the potential effect that chronic inhalation of diesel exhaust may have on lung mechanics and lung volume. Noninvasive pulmonary function tests that produced data on lung air flows and volumes have been conducted repeatedly on 25 male Fischer-344 rats exposed to diesel exhaust at a particulate concentration of 1500 micrograms m-3, 20 h per day, 5 1/2 days per week, for 612 days. The same tests were conducted on 25 clean air control animals. When the data were normalized, the majority of tests did not reveal any significant deviation from the norm for the first year of exposure. In the second year, the functional residual capacity and its component volumes - expiratory reserve and residual volume, maximum expiratory flow at 40% of vital capacity, maximum expiratory flow at 20% of vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s - were significantly greater in the diesel exposed animals. The data are inconsistent with known clinically significant adverse health effects. Although the lung volume changes in the diesel exposed animals could be indicative of emphysema or other forms of chronic obstructive lung disease, this interpretation is contradicted by the air flow data which suggest simultaneous lowering of the resistance of the smaller airways. The observations are not consistent with documented clinical lung disease in man.

  19. Comment on the Nanoparticle Conclusions in Crüts et al. (2008, "Exposure to diesel exhaust induces changes in EEG in human volunteers"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Christopher M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent publication in this journal reported interesting changes in electroencephalographic (EEG waves that occurred in 10 young, male volunteers following inhalation for one hour of elevated levels of diesel-engine exhaust fumes 1. The authors then proposed a chain of causal events that they hypothesized underlay their observed EEG changes. Their reasoning linked the observed results to nanoparticles in diesel-engine exhaust (DEE, and went on to suggest that associations between changes in ambient particulate matter (PM levels and changes in health statistics might be due to the effects of diesel-engine exhaust (DEE nanoparticles on EEG. We suggest that the extrapolations of the Crüts et al. EEG findings to casual mechanisms about how ambient levels of DEE particulate might affect electrical signals in the brain, and subsequently to how DEE particulate might alter disease risk, are premature.

  20. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluder, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO(sub 2)-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles

  1. Health effects of subchronic exposure to environmental levels of diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Seagrave, J C; Seilkop, S K; Mauderly, J L

    2004-04-01

    Diesel exhaust is a public health concern and contributor to both ambient and occupational air pollution. As part of a general health assessment of multiple anthropogenic source emissions conducted by the National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC), a series of health assays was conducted on rats and mice exposed to environmentally relevant levels of diesel exhaust. This article summarizes the study design and exposures, and reports findings on several general indicators of toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Diesel exhaust was generated from a commonly used 2000 model 5.9-L, 6-cylinder turbo diesel engine operated on a variable-load heavy-duty test cycle burning national average certification fuel. Animals were exposed to clean air (control) or four dilutions of whole emissions based on particulate matter concentration (30, 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3)). Male and female F344 rats and A/J mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation 6 h/day, 7 days/wk, for either 1 wk or 6 mo. Exposures were characterized in detail. Effects of exposure on clinical observations, body and organ weights, serum chemistry, hematology, histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage, and serum clotting factors were mild. Significant exposure-related effects occurring in both male and female rats included decreases in serum cholesterol and clotting Factor VII and slight increases in serum gamma-glutamyl transferase. Several other responses met screening criteria for significant exposure effects but were not consistent between genders or exposure times and were not corroborated by related parameters. Carcinogenic potential as determined by micronucleated reticulocyte counts and proliferation of adenomas in A/J mice were unaffected by 6 mo of exposure. Parallel studies demonstrated effects on cardiac function and resistance to viral infection; however, the results reported here show few and only modest health hazards from subchronic or shorter exposures to realistic concentrations of

  2. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  3. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin [Denver, CO; Durrett, Russell P [Bloomfield Hills, MI

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  4. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  5. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  6. In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odagiri Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on the CNS. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to low concentration of diesel exhaust on behaviour and the monoaminergic neuron system. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and monoamine levels in the CNS were assessed. Methods Mice were exposed prenatally to a low concentration of diesel exhaust (171 μg DEP/m3 for 8 hours/day on gestational days 2-16. SLA was assessed for 3 days in 4-week-old mice by analysis of the release of temperature-associated infrared rays. At 5 weeks of age, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were used for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results and Discussion Mice exposed to a low concentration of diesel exhaust showed decreased SLA in the first 60 minutes of exposure. Over the entire test period, the mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust showed decreased daily SLA compared to that in control mice, and the SLA in each 3 hour period was decreased when the lights were turned on. Neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and noradrenaline, were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in the exposure group compared to the control group. The metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline also increased in the PFC. Neurotransmitter turnover, an index of neuronal activity, of dopamine and noradrenaline was decreased in various regions of the CNS, including the striatum, in the exposure group. The serum corticosterone level was not different between groups. The data suggest that decreased

  7. Investigation of Nitro-Organic Compounds in Diesel Engine Exhaust: Final Report, February 2007 - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, J.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2010-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory upgraded its ReFUEL engine and vehicle testing facility to speciate unregulated gas-phase emissions. To complement this capability, the laboratory contracted with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to study the effects of soy biodiesel fuel and a diesel particle filter (DPF) on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). CSM developed procedures to sample diesel particulate matter (PM) emissions from raw and diluted exhaust, with and without a DPF. They also developed improved procedures for extracting PAH and NPAH from the PM and quantifying them with a gas chromatograph-electron monochromator mass spectrometer. The study found the DPF generally reduced PAH emissions by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. PAH conversion was lowest for B100, suggesting that PAHs were forming in the DPF. Orders of magnitude reductions were also found for NPAH emissions exiting the DPF.

  8. Effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on postnatal development, behavior, genotoxicity and inflammation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Jensen, K. A.; Nordly, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Results from epidemiological studies indicate that particulate air pollution constitutes a hazard for human health. Recent studies suggest that diesel exhaust possesses endocrine activity and therefore may affect reproductive outcome. This study in mice aimed to investigate whether...... exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP; NIST 2975) would affect gestation, postnatal development, activity, learning and memory, and biomarkers of transplacental toxicity. Pregnant mice (C57BL/6; BomTac) were exposed to 19 mg/m(3) DEP (similar to 1.10(6) particles/cm(3); mass median diameter congruent...... to 240 nm) on gestational days 9-19, for 1 h/day. Results: Gestational parameters were similar in control and diesel groups. Shortly after birth, body weights of DEP offspring were slightly lower than in controls. This difference increased during lactation, so by weaning the DEP exposed offspring weighed...

  9. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  10. Biological effects of chronic inhalation of coal mine dust and/or diesel engine exhaust in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagianes, M.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Stuart, B.O.; Zwicker, G.M.; Teats, D.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were killed at 4, 8, 16, and 20 mo after the start of exposures to inhaled high-CWP bituminous coal mine dust separately and combined with unscrubbed exhaust fumes from a diesel engine operated under load-rpm cycling. General health and hematologic parameters were normal. Lung lesions and accumulations of particulate matter increased with length and type of exposure; however, no animals have developed lung tumors or precancerous tissue changes up to 16 mo postexposure

  11. Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human lung epithelial cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, G; Ferraraccio, F; Prati, M V; Annunziata, S; Bianco, A; Mezzogiorno, A; Liguori, G; Angelillo, I F; Cazzola, M

    2007-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM), an ingredient of urban pollution matter, is a mixture of solid and liquid particles differing in origin, dimension and composition. There is big concern about inhaled PM in urban areas, especially due to its adverse effects on the respiratory system. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), which constitutes the major part of PM, is characterized by a carbonic mixture composed of approximately 18,000 different high-molecular-weight organic compounds. Diesel engines release 10 times the amount of NO(2) aldehydes and breathable PM compared to unleaded gasoline engines and more than 100 times that produced by catalysed gasoline engines; these data gain great significance when taken into account the fact that diesel-powered vehicles are becoming more and more popular. DEP polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), once deposited on airways mucous surfaces easily pass through epithelial cells (ECs) membranes, bind themselves to cytosolic receptors and then affect cell growth and differentiation. Human lung epithelial cells and macrophages engulf DEP, this resulting in increased proinflammatory cytokines release (IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF). We investigated the biological effects of DEP-PM on the human lung EC line A549. Light microscopy analysis suggested the presence of cell wall alterations, and provided evidence of PM internalization and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Following PM stimulation, nuclei also were seen undergo clear gross morphological modifications. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect intracytoplasmic IL-6 and IL-8 expression.

  12. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  13. Physical characterization of diesel exhaust nucleation mode particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahde, T.

    2013-11-01

    An increasing concern of the adverse health effects of aerosol particles is forcing the combustion engine industry to develop engines with lower particle emissions. The industry has put most of their efforts into soot control and has achieved a significant reduction in diesel exhaust particle mass. Nevertheless, it is not clear that the large particles, dominating the mass, cause the harmfulness of the exhaust particles in the biological interaction. Nowadays, the harmful potential of diesel exhaust particles often connects with the particle surface area, and the view has turned to particle number below 100 nm size range. Unfortunately, the achieved low exhaust particle mass does not necessarily imply a low particle number. This text focuses on the physical characteristics of diesel exhaust nucleation model particles. The volatility characteristics and the electrical charge state of the particles are studied first. Second, the relation between the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions and the soot, the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions and the engine parameters are covered. The nucleation mode particles had distinctively different physical characteristics with different after-treatment systems. The nucleation mode was volatile and electrically neutral with a diesel particle filter after-treatment system. Without an after-treatment system or with an after-treatment system with low particle removal efficiency, the nucleation mode was partly nonvolatile and included an electrical charge. The difference suggests different formation routes for the nucleation particles with different after-treatment systems. The existence of the nonvolatile nucleation mode particles also affected the soot mode charge state. The soot charge state was positively biased when the nonvolatile nucleation mode was detected but slightly negatively biased when the nonvolatile nucleation mode was absent. The nonvolatile nucleation mode was always negatively biased. This electrical charge

  14. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  15. Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzyka, V.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Carcinogens, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Hiiu 42, Tallinn 11619 (Estonia); Scheepers, P.T.J. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre St Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen NL 6500 HB (Netherlands)

    2004-04-25

    The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207{+-}23 vs. 166{+-}14 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1{+-}3.8 vs. 54.8{+-}4.1 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring

  16. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Bunn, William B; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Valberg, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in "New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)" from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to "lung overload." The species specificity of the

  17. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM2.5, Σ15PAHs, Σ11NPAHs, Σ5Hopanes and Σ6Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83–99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments. PMID:25709535

  18. Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions contain numerous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) for which emission information is limited, especially for idling conditions, new fuels and the new after-treatment systems. This study investigates exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers from a heavy-duty (6.4 L) diesel engine at various loads (idle, 600 and 900 kPa BMEP), with three types of fuel (ultra-low sulfur diesel or ULSD, Swedish low aromatic diesel, and neat soybean biodiesel), and with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Swedish diesel and biodiesel reduced emissions of PM 2.5 , Σ 15 PAHs, Σ 11 NPAHs, Σ 5 Hopanes and Σ 6 Steranes, and biodiesel resulted in the larger reductions. However, idling emissions increased for benzo[k]fluoranthene (Swedish diesel), 5-nitroacenaphthene (biodiesel) and PM 2.5 (biodiesel), a significant result given the attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the toxicity of high-molecular-weight PAHs and NPAHs. The DOC + DPF combination reduced PM 2.5 and SVOC emissions during DPF loading (>99% reduction) and DPF regeneration (83-99%). The toxicity of diesel exhaust, in terms of the estimated carcinogenic risk, was greatly reduced using Swedish diesel, biodiesel fuels and the DOC + DPF. PAH profiles showed high abundances of three and four ring compounds as well as naphthalene; NPAH profiles were dominated by nitro-naphthalenes, 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene. Both the emission rate and the composition of diesel exhaust depended strongly on fuel type, engine load and after-treatment system. The emissions data and chemical profiles presented are relevant to the development of emission inventories and exposure and risk assessments.

  19. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  20. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Long, Christopher M.; Bunn, William B.; Lapin, Charles A.; McClellan, Roger O.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in “New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)” from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the “traditional diesel exhaust” (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to'lung overload."The species specificity

  1. Proinflammatory Effects of Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles on Scleroderma Skin Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mastrofrancesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are complex disorders of unknown etiology thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. We aimed to verify whether environmental pollution from diesel engine exhaust nanoparticulate (DEP of actually operating vehicles could play a role in the development of a rare immune-mediated disease, systemic sclerosis (SSc, in which the pathogenetic role of environment has been highlighted. The effects of carbon-based nanoparticulate collected at the exhaust of newer (Euro 5 and older (Euro 4 diesel engines on SSc skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro by assessing the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and fibroblast chemical mediators (metalloproteases 2, 3, 7, 9, and 12; collagen types I and III; VEGF. DEP was shown to stimulate cytokine gene expression at a higher extent in SSc keratinocytes versus normal cells. Moreover, the mRNA gene expression of all MMPs, collagen types, and VEGF genes was significantly higher in untreated SSc fibroblasts versus controls. Euro 5 particle exposure increased the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, and -9 in SSc fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner and only at the highest concentration in normal cells. We suggest that environmental DEP could trigger the development of SSc acting on genetically hyperreactive cell systems.

  2. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Sang Beom

    2008-02-01

    The diesel vehicle is relatively superior to gasoline vehicle on the fuel consumption, durability and combustion efficiency. However, exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles are known to be harmful to human health and environment. An experimental study of the diesel fuel reformation by a plasmatron and diesel engine exhaust cleaning by means of plasma chemical pretreatment of fuel is described. Plasma chemical reformation of fuel was carried by a DC arc plasmatron that was fabricated to increase an ability of the gas activation. Some portion of the fuel was activated in an arc discharge and turned into the hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. The yield of reformation for the diesel fuel showed 80 % ∼ 100 % when the small quantities of fuel (flow rate up to about 6 cc/min) were reformed. The regulation for an emission from the diesel vehicle is getting more stringent, the research in the field of the in-cylinder processing technologies (pretreatment) becomes more important issue as well as the catalyst after-treatment. The used high durability plasmatron has the characteristics of low contamination level, low anode erosion rate, low plasma temperature, and effective activation of the process gas. The developed fuel reformation system with the plasmatron was connected to the air feeding inlet sleeve of the diesel engine Kookje 3T90LT-AC (Korea) in order to study the reduction of NOx content in the engine's emission. Tubular reformation chamber was connected to the engine through the heat exchanger DOVER B10Hx20/1P-SC-S. Its cooling jacket was connected in series with the cooling system of the plasmatron. At the exit of this device gas temperature did not exceed ∼40 .deg. C at plasmatron power up to 1.5 kW which seemed quite acceptable. Gas composition was studied here using RBR-Ecom KD gas analyzer. The design of the DC arc plasmatron applied for the plasma chemical fuel reformation was improved boosting the degree of fuel-air mixture activation that provided the

  4. Reducing Children's Exposure to School Bus Diesel Exhaust in One School District in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Mary E.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Lamanna, Beth F.; Davison, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Children who are exposed to diesel exhaust from idling school buses are at increased risk of asthma exacerbation, decreased lung function, immunologic reactions, leukemia, and increased susceptibility to infections. Policies and initiatives that aim to protect school children from the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust range from…

  5. Diesel engine exhaust initiates a sequence of pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Boere, A.J.F.; Leseman, D.L.A.C.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spronk, H.M.H.; Frederix, K.; Ten Cate, H.; Knaapen, A.M.; Vreman, H.J.; Cassee, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the sequence of events leading to cardiopulmonary effects following acute inhalation of diesel engine exhaust in rats. Rats were exposed for 2h to diesel engine exhaust (1.9mg/m3), and biological parameters related to antioxidant defense, inflammation,

  6. Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Zheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of the incremental (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR. • Proposed one-step equations for transient/steady-state gas concentration estimation. • Defined an in-cylinder excess-air ratio to account for the recycled oxygen with EGR. • Demonstrated the use of intake oxygen as a reliable measure of EGR effectiveness. • Demonstrated the impact of engine load and intake pressure on EGR effectiveness. - Abstract: Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet NOx targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR

  7. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  8. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  9. EFFECT OF OXYGENATED HYDROCARBON ADDITIVES ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sundar Raj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of oxygenated fuels seems to be a promising solution for reducing particulate emissions in existing and future diesel motor vehicles. In this work, the influence of the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons to diesel fuels on performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine is experimentally studied. 3-Pentanone (C5H10O and Methyl anon (C7H12O were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced the production of soot precursors with respect to the availability of oxygen content in the fuel. On the other hand, a serious increase of NOx emissions is observed. For this reason the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR to control NOx emissions is examined. From the analysis of it is examined experimental findings, it is seen that the use of EGR causes a sharp reduction in NOx and smoke simultaneously. On the other hand, EGR results in a slight reduction of engine efficiency and maximum combustion pressure which in any case does not alter the benefits obtained from the oxygenated fuel.

  10. Exposure to diesel exhaust fumes in the context of exposure to ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bujak-Pietrek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diesel exhaust fumes emission is a significant source of ultrafine particles, the size of which is expressed in nanometers. People occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust particles include mainly workers servicing vehicles with engines of this type. This article presents the analysis of measurements of ultrafine particle concentrations occurring in the bus depot premises during the work connected with everyday technical servicing of buses. Material and Methods: The measurements were carried out in the everyday servicing (ES room of the bus depot before, during and after the work connected with bus servicing. Determinations included: particle concentrations in terms of particle number and particle surface area, and mass concentrations of aerosol. Results: Mean value of number concentration of 10- to 1000-nm particles increased almost 20-fold, from 7600 particles/cm3 before starting bus servicing procedures to 130 000 particles/cm3 during the bus servicing procedures in the room. During the procedures, the mean surface area concentration of particles potentially deposited in the alveolar (A region was almost 3 times higher than that of the particles depositing in the tracheo-bronchial (TB region: 356.46 μm2/cm3 vs. 95.97 μm2/cm3, respectively. The mass concentration of the fraction of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 0.02–1 μm (PM1 increased 5-fold during the analyzed procedures and was 0.042 mg/m3 before, and 0.298 mg/m3 while the procedures continued. Conclusions: At the time when bus servicing procedures continued in the ES room, a very high increase in all parameters of the analyzed particles was observed. The diesel exhaust particles exhibit a very high degree of fragmentation and, while their number is very high and their surface area is very large, their mass concentration is relatively low. The above findings confirm that ultrafine particles found in diesel exhaust fumes may be harmful to the health of the

  11. Monitoring diesel particulate matter and calculating diesel particulate densities using Grimm model 1.109 real-time aerosol monitors in underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbal, Kyle C; Pahler, Leon; Larson, Rodney; VanDerslice, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is no Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)-approved sampling method that provides real-time results for ambient concentrations of diesel particulates. This study investigated whether a commercially available aerosol spectrometer, the Grimm Portable Aerosol Spectrometer Model 1.109, could be used during underground mine operations to provide accurate real-time diesel particulate data relative to MSHA-approved cassette-based sampling methods. A subset was to estimate size-specific diesel particle densities to potentially improve the diesel particulate concentration estimates using the aerosol monitor. Concurrent sampling was conducted during underground metal mine operations using six duplicate diesel particulate cassettes, according to the MSHA-approved method, and two identical Grimm Model 1.109 instruments. Linear regression was used to develop adjustment factors relating the Grimm results to the average of the cassette results. Statistical models using the Grimm data produced predicted diesel particulate concentrations that highly correlated with the time-weighted average cassette results (R(2) = 0.86, 0.88). Size-specific diesel particulate densities were not constant over the range of particle diameters observed. The variance of the calculated diesel particulate densities by particle diameter size supports the current understanding that diesel emissions are a mixture of particulate aerosols and a complex host of gases and vapors not limited to elemental and organic carbon. Finally, diesel particulate concentrations measured by the Grimm Model 1.109 can be adjusted to provide sufficiently accurate real-time air monitoring data for an underground mining environment.

  12. Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2011-01-01

    (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates......The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants...... of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to maturity...

  13. Engine performance and exhaust emission analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with water-diesel emulsion fuel blended with manganese metal additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin Ithnin, Ahmad; Jazair Yahya, Wira; Baun Fletcher, Jasmine; Kadir, Hasannuddin Abd

    2017-10-01

    Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the alternative fuels that capable to reduce the exhaust emission of diesel engine significantly especially the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, the usage of W/D emulsion fuels contributed to higher CO emissions. Supplementing metal additive into the fuel is the alternate way to reduce the CO emissions and improve performance. The present paper investigates the effect of using W/D blended with organic based manganese metal additives on the diesel engine performance and exhaust emission. The test were carried out by preparing and analysing the results observed from five different tested fuel which were D2, emulsion fuel (E10: 89% D2, 10% - water, 1% - surfactant), E10Mn100, E10Mn150, E10Mn200. Organic based Manganese (100ppm, 150ppm, 200ppm) used as the additive in the three samples of the experiments. E10Mn200 achieved the maximum reduction of BSFC up to 13.66% and has the highest exhaust gas temperature. Whereas, E10Mn150 achieved the highest reduction of CO by 14.67%, and slightly increased of NOx emissions as compared to other emulsion fuels. Organic based manganese which act as catalyst promotes improvement of the emulsion fuel performance and reduced the harmful emissions discharged.

  14. Diesel Exhaust Particles Induce Impairment of Vascular and Cardiac Homeostasis in Mice: Ameliorative Effect of Emodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: There is strong epidemiological and clinical evidence that components of the cardiovascular system are adversely affected by particulate air pollutants through the generation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, which is commonly found in the roots of rhubarb plant, has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its possible protective effect on the cardiovascular effect of particulate air pollutants has never been reported before. Methods: We tested, in Tuck-Ordinary mice, the possible ameliorative effect of emodin on the acute (24h cardiovascular effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP, 1 mg/kg or saline (control. Emodin (4 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 7h after pulmonary exposure to DEP. Twenty four h following DEP exposure, several cardiovascular endpoints were assessed. Results: Emodin significantly prevented the increase of leukocyte (n=8, Pin vivo prothrombotic effect of DEP in pial arterioles (n=6, Pin vitro in whole blood (n=4-5, PConclusion: We conclude that emodin treatment has consistently protected against DEP-induced impairment of vascular and cardiac homeostasis in mice. Our study provides experimental evidence that the use of functional food such as emodin, pending further studies, can be considered a useful agent and may have the potential to protect or mitigate the cardiovascular detrimental effects observed in people living in cities with high concentrations of particulate air pollution.

  15. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  16. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  17. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  18. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... of action. Dams inhaled 20 mg/m(3) of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h/day on day 7-19 during pregnancy. Male offspring were killed on day 170 after birth. The dams that had inhaled SRM2975 delivered offspring, which in adulthood had reduced daily sperm...

  19. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  20. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of diesel fuels and exhaust emissions on biological effects of particle extracts: a multivariate statistical analysis of ten diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, M; Li, H; Banner, C; Rafter, J; Westerholm, R; Rannug, U

    1996-01-01

    The emission of diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects, e.g., cancer. The aim of the present study was to apply multivariate statistical methods to identify factors that affect the biological potency of these exhausts. Ten diesel fuels were analyzed regarding physical and chemical characteristics. Particulate exhaust emissions were sampled after combustion of these fuels on two makes of heavy duty diesel engines. Particle extracts were chemically analyzed and tested for mutagenicity in the Ames test. Also, the potency of the extracts to competitively inhibit the binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the Ah receptor was assessed. Relationships between fuel characteristics and biological effects of the extracts were studied, using partial least squares regression (PLS). The most influential chemical fuel parameters included the contents of sulfur, certain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), and naphthenes. Density and flash point were positively correlated with genotoxic potency. Cetane number and upper distillation curve points were negatively correlated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity. Between 61% and 70% of the biological response data could be explained by the measured chemical and physical factors of the fuels. By PLS modeling of extract data versus the biological response data, 66% of the genotoxicity could be explained, by 41% of the chemical variation. The most important variables, associated with both mutagenicity and Ah receptor affinity, included 1-nitropyrene, particle bound nitrate, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and emitted mass of particles. S9-requiring mutagenicity was highly correlated with certain PAC, whereas S9-independent mutagenicity was better correlated with nitrates and 1-nitropyrene. The emission of sulfates also showed a correlation both with the emission of particles and with the biological effects. The results indicate that fuels with biologically less hazardous

  1. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urea-SCR technology for deNOx after treatment of diesel exhausts

    CERN Document Server

    Nova, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Of intense interest both to academics and industry professionals, this groundbreaking book-length treatment of selective catalytic reduction of NOx using ammonia/urea includes papers by researchers at the leading edge of diesel exhaust abatement.

  3. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diesel particulate matter exposure in South African platinum mines: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling was conducted on nearly 300 mine workers in the diesel and non-diesel sections of three platinum mines in South Africa. Respiratory health questionnaires were administered to all of these workers...

  5. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  6. Comprehensive Characterization Of Ultrafine Particulate Emission From 2007 Diesel Engines: PM Size Distribution, Loading And Indidividual Particle Size And Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Imre, D.; Shimpi, S.; Warey, A.

    2006-12-01

    The strong absorption of solar radiation by black carbon (BC) impacts the atmospheric radiative balance in a complex and significant manner. One of the most important sources of BC is vehicular emissions, of which diesel represents a significant fraction. To address this issue the EPA has issues new stringent regulations that will be in effect in 2007, limiting the amount of particulate mass that can be emitted by diesel engines. The new engines are equipped with aftertreatments that reduce PM emissions to the point, where filter measurements are subject to significant artifacts and characterization by other techniques presents new challenges. We will present the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted at the Cummins Technical Center in which a suite of instruments was deployed to yield comprehensive, temporally resolved information on the diesel exhaust particle loadings and properties in real-time: Particle size distributions were measured by Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Total particle diameter concentration was obtained using Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD). Laser Induced Incandescence and photoacoustic techniques were used to monitor the PM soot content. Single Particle Laser Ablation Time-of- flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) provided the aerodynamic diameter and chemical composition of individual diesel exhaust particles. Measurements were conducted on a number of heavy duty diesel engines operated under variety of operating conditions, including FTP transient cycles, ramped-modal cycles and steady states runs. We have also characterized PM emissions during diesel particulate filter regeneration cycles. We will present a comparison of PM characteristics observed during identical cycles, but with and without the use of aftertreatment. A total of approximately 100,000 individual particles were sized and their composition characterized by SPLAT. The aerodynamic size distributions of the characterized

  7. Chemical characterization and toxicity assessment of fine particulate matters emitted from the combustion of petrol and diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Fei; Lou, Wenhao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-15

    Fuel consumption is one of the major contributors to air pollution worldwide. Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the diesel and petrol exhaust fine particulate matters (FPMs) are associated with increases of various diseases. However, the influences of different fuel types and their chemical components on toxicity have been less investigated. In this study, four kinds of fuels that widely used in China were burned in a laboratory simulation, and the FPMs were collected and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that black carbon was mainly soot with a dendritic morphology. For light diesel oil, marine heavy diesel oil, 93 octane petrol and 97 octane petrol diesel oil, the emission factors of FPMs were 3.05±0.29, 3.21±0.54, 2.36±0.33, and 2.28±0.25g/kg fuel, respectively. And the emission factors for the "16 US EPA" PAHs of FPM were 0.45±0.20, 0.80±0.22, 1.00±0.20, and 1.05±0.19mg/g FPMs, respectively. Fe is the most abundant metal in these FPMs, and the emission factors of FPMs were 2.58±1.70, 4.45±0.11, 8.18±0.58, and 9.24±0.17mg/g FPMs, respectively. We ranked the cytotoxicity of the FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>97 octane petrol>93 octane petrol>light diesel oil, and the genotoxicity of FPMs emission from fuels combustion: marine heavy diesel oil>light diesel oil>93 octane petrol>97 octane petrol. Significant correlations were found between PAH concentrations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Our results demonstrated that fuels exhaust FPMs have strong association with ROS activity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. These results indicated that fuels exhaust FPMs pose a potentially serious health, and emphasized the importance of assessing the health risks posed by the particulate pollutants in vehicle exhausts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of Pore Structure on Soot Deposition in Diesel Particulate Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the after-treatment of diesel exhaust gas, a diesel particulate filter (DPF has been used to trap nano-particles of the diesel soot. However, as there are more particles inside the filter, the pressure which corresponds to the filter backpressure increases, which worsens the fuel consumption rate, together with the abatement of the available torque. Thus, a filter with lower backpressure would be needed. To achieve this, it is necessary to utilize the information on the phenomena including both the soot transport and its removal inside the DPF, and optimize the filter substrate structure. In this paper, to obtain useful information for optimization of the filter structure, we tested seven filters with different porosities and pore sizes. The porosity and pore size were changed systematically. To consider the soot filtration, the particle-laden flow was simulated by a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Then, the flow field and the pressure change were discussed during the filtration process.

  9. Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst (ETV Mobile Source Emissions Control Devices) Verification Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Baumot BA-B Diesel Particulate Filter with Pre-Catalyst is a diesel engine retrofit device for light, medium, and heavy heavy-duty diesel on-highway engines for use with commercial ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The BA-B particulate filter is composed of a pre-catalyst ...

  10. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  11. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: V. Evaluation of the Exposure Assessment Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Blair, A.; Schleiff, P.; Lubin, J.H.; Attfield, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), was assessed for an epidemiologic study investigating the association between DE and mortality, particularly from lung cancer, among miners at eight mining facilities from the date of dieselization (1947–1967) through

  12. Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available Air pollution by diesel exhaust particles is associated with elevated mortality and increased hospital admissions in individuals with respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. During active inflammation monocytes are recruited to the airways and can replace resident alveolar macrophages. We therefore investigated whether chronic fourteen day exposure to low concentrations of diesel exhaust particles can alter the phenotype and function of monocytes from healthy individuals and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocytes were purified from the blood of healthy individuals and people with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in the presence or absence of diesel exhaust particles and their phenotypes studied through investigation of their lifespan, cytokine generation in response to Toll like receptor agonists and heat killed bacteria, and expression of surface markers. Chronic fourteen day exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages to concentrations of diesel exhaust particles >10 µg/ml caused mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, and a gradual loss of cells over time both in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease individuals. Chronic exposure to lower concentrations of diesel exhaust particles impaired CXCL8 cytokine responses to lipopolysaccharide and heat killed E. coli, and this phenotype was associated with a reduction in CD14 and CD11b expression. Chronic diesel exhaust particle exposure may therefore alter both numbers and function of lung macrophages differentiating from locally recruited monocytes in the lungs of healthy people and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  13. Use of water containing acetone–butanol–ethanol for NOx-PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off in the diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Tser Son; Wu, Chang-Yu; Chen, Shui-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Fuel blends that contain biodiesel are known to produce greater NO x (nitrogen oxide) emissions in diesel engine exhaust than regular diesel, and this is one of the key barriers to the wider adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel. In this study, a water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol) solution, which simulates products that are produced from biomass fermentation without dehydration processing, was tested as a biodiesel-diesel blend additive to lower NO x emissions from diesel engines. The energy efficiency and the PM (particulate matter) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) emissions were investigated and compared under various operating conditions. Although biodiesel had greater NO x emissions, the blends that contained 25% of the water-containing ABE solution had significantly lower NO x (4.30–30.7%), PM (10.9–63.1%), and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions (26.7–67.6%) than the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel, respectively. In addition, the energy efficiency of this new blend was 0.372–7.88% higher with respect to both the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel. Because dehydration and surfactant addition are not necessary, the application of ABE–biodiesel–diesel blends can simplify fuel production processes, reduce energy consumption, and lower pollutant emissions, meaning that the ABE–biodiesel–diesel blend is a promising green fuel. - Highlights: • Water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol)–biodiesel–diesel was tested in a diesel engine. • The addition of ABE to biodiesel–diesel blends can enhance the energy efficiency. • The addition of ABE can solve the problem of NO x -PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off when using biodiesel. • PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can be further reduced by adding ABE in biodiesel–diesel blends. • Fuel production was simplified due to the acceptance of water in ABE

  14. Analysis of exhaust composition after purification in dielectric barrier discharges - Sub-project: Diesel exhaust purification in pulsed plasmas. Final report; Analyse der Abgaszusammensetzung bei Abgasreinigung in stillen Entladungen - Teilvorhaben: Reinigung von Dieselabgasen in gepulsten Plasmen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Diesel engine exhaust purification by dielectric barrier discharges was investigated with varied pulse generators and with a combination of dielectric barrier discharge and catalytic converters and diesel particulate filters. The detailed exhaused analysis served to describe the reactions in the systems and to detect the formation of new and potentially harmful exhaust components. [German] Die Anwendung einer dielektrisch behinderten Entladung zur Reinigung dieselmotorischen Abgases wurde untersucht. Die Wirkung der elektrischen Entladung auf das Abgas wurde durch Variation der verwendeten Pulsgeneratoren sowie durch Kombination der Entladung mit Katalysatoren und Diesel-Partikelfiltern beeinflusst. Die detaillierte Abgasanalyse ermoeglichte die Erklaerung der in den Systemen ablaufenden Reaktionen. Insbesondere diente sie dazu, die moegliche Bildung neuer, moeglicherweise unerwuenschter Abgaskomponenten zu erkennen. (orig.)

  15. Role of biodiesel-diesel blends in alteration of particulate matter emanated by diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shahid, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study is focused on the investigation of the role of biodiesel in the alteration of particulate matter (PM) composition emitted from a direct injection-compression ignition. Two important blends of biodiesel with commercial diesel known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume) and B50 were used for the comparative analysis of their pollutants with those of 100% or traditional diesel (D). The experiments were performed under the auspices of the Chinese 8-mode steady-state cycle on a test bench by coupling the engine with an AC electrical dynamometer. As per experimental results, over-50 nm aerosols were abated by 8.7-47% and 6-51% with B20 and B50, respectively, on account of lofty nitrogen dioxide to nitrogen oxides (NO2/NO) ratios. In case of B50, sub-50 nm aerosols and sulphates were higher at maximum load modes of the test, owing to adsorption phenomenon of inorganic nuclei leading to heterogeneous nucleation. Moreover, trace metal emissions (TME) were substantially reduced reflecting the reduction rates of 42-57% and 64-80% with B20 and B50, respectively, relative to baseline measurements taken with diesel. In addition to this, individual elements such as Ca and Fe were greatly minimised, while Na was enhanced with biodiesel blended fuels. (author)

  16. Carbon nanotube-like materials in the exhaust from a diesel engine using gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with catalysts and sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Mori, Shinsuke

    2017-08-01

    Particulate matter from a diesel engine, including soot and carbon nanomaterials, was collected on a sampling holder and the structure of the materials was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result of employing gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with sulfur and ferrocene/molybdenum as catalyst sources, formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-like materials in addition to soot was observed in the exhaust gas from a diesel engine. It was revealed that CNT-like materials were included among soot in our system only when the following three conditions were satisfied simultaneously: high ethanol fraction in fuel, high sulfur loading, and presence of catalyst sources in fuel. This study confirmed that if at least one of these three conditions was not satisfied, CNT-like materials were not observed in the exhaust from a diesel engine. These experimental results shown in this work provide insights into understanding CNT-like material formation mechanism in a diesel engine. Recent papers reported that carbon nanotube-like materials were included in the exhaust gas from engines, but conditions for carbon nanotube-like material formation have not been well studied. This work provides the required conditions for carbon nanotube-like material growth in a diesel engine, and this will be helpful for understanding the carbon nanotube-like material formation mechanism and taking countermeasures to preventing carbon nanotube-like material formation in a diesel engine.

  17. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-01-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated

  18. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  19. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...... model. Four different models in the automotive diesel exhaust gas cleaning system are presented briefly. Based on the presented methodology, it is discussed which changes are needed to the models to create a modular model of the whole catalytic system....

  20. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  1. Isotopic Tracing of Particulate Matter from a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-in-Diesel Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.S.; Dibble, R.W.; Buchholz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) was used to investigate the relative contribution to diesel engine particulate matter (PM) from the ethanol and diesel fractions of blended fuels. Four test fuels along with a diesel fuel baseline were investigated. The test fuels were comprised of 14 C depleted diesel fuel mixed with contemporary grain ethanol (>400 the 14 C concentration of diesel). An emulsifier (Span 85) or cosolvent (butyl alcohol) was used to facilitate mixing. The experimental test engine was a 1993 Cummins B5.9 diesel rated at 175 hp at 2500 rpm. Test fuels were run at steady-state conditions of 1600 rpm and 210 ft-lbs, and PM samples were collected on quartz filters following dilution of engine exhaust in a mini-dilution tunnel. AMS analysis of the filter samples showed that the ethanol contributed less to PM relative to its fraction in the fuel blend. For the emulsified blends, 6.4% and 10.3% contributions to PM were observed for 11.5% and 23.0% ethanol fuels, respectively. For the cosolvent blends, even lower contributions were observed (3.8% and 6.3% contributions to PM for 12.5% and 25.0% ethanol fuels, respectively)

  2. Performance of biomorphic Silicon Carbide as particulate filter in diesel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, M Pilar; Gómez-Martín, Aurora; Becerra, José A; Chacartegui, Ricardo; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín

    2017-12-01

    Biomorphic Silicon Carbide (bioSiC) is a novel porous ceramic material with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that it may be a good candidate for its use as particle filter media of exhaust gases at medium or high temperature. In order to determine the filtration efficiency of biomorphic Silicon Carbide, and its adequacy as substrate for diesel particulate filters, different bioSiC-samples have been tested in the flue gases of a diesel boiler. For this purpose, an experimental facility to extract a fraction of the boiler exhaust flow and filter it under controlled conditions has been designed and built. Several filter samples with different microstructures, obtained from different precursors, have been tested in this bench. The experimental campaign was focused on the measurement of the number and size of particles before and after placing the samples. Results show that the initial efficiency of filters made from natural precursors is severely determined by the cutting direction and associated microstructure. In biomorphic Silicon Carbide derived from radially cut wood, the initial efficiency of the filter is higher than 95%. Nevertheless, when the cut of the wood is axial, the efficiency depends on the pore size and the permeability, reaching in some cases values in the range 70-90%. In this case, the presence of macropores in some of the samples reduces their efficiency as particle traps. In continuous operation, the accumulation of particles within the porous media leads to the formation of a soot cake, which improves the efficiency except in the case when extra-large pores exist. For all the samples, after a few operation cycles, capture efficiency was higher than 95%. These experimental results show the potential for developing filters for diesel boilers based on biomorphic Silicon Carbide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In Vivo Protective Effects of Nootkatone against Particles-Induced Lung Injury Caused by Diesel Exhaust Is Mediated via the NF-κB Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Abderrahim Nemmar; Suhail Al-Salam; Sumaya Beegam; Priya Yuvaraju; Naserddine Hamadi; Badreldin H. Ali

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced lung toxicity, a...

  4. Diesel Exhaust Particles Contribute to Endothelia Apoptosis via Autophagy Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that an increase of PM2.5 diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in ambient air corresponds to increased myocardial infarctions and atherosclerosis. When exposed to DEP, endothelial cells exhibit increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, but the role of autophagy in this DEP-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we suggest that acute DEP exposure produces intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to induction of DEP internalization, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-inflammation in an in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) model. This study found that increases in intracellular oxidative stress and cellular internalization of DEP occurred within 2 h of exposure to DEP. After 2 h of DEP exposure, Mdm2 expression was increased, which triggered cellular autophagy after 4 h of DEP exposure and suppressed cellular senescence. Unfortunately, phagocytized DEP could not be eliminated by cellular autophagy, which led to a continuous buildup of ROS, an increased release of cytokines, and an increased expression of anchoring molecules. After 12 h of DEP exposure, HUVEC reduced Mdm2 expression leading to increased p53 expression, which triggered apoptosis and ultimately resulted in endothelial dysfunction. On the other hand, when cells lacked the ability to induce autophagy, DEP was unable to induce cell senescence and most of the cells survived with only a small percentage of the cells undergoing necrosis. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrate the role cellular autophagy plays in DEP-induced atherosclerosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cooney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cooney1, Anthony J Hickey21Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, aerosol, inhalation toxicology

  6. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  7. Influence of preexisting pulmonary emphysema on susceptibility of rats to inhaled diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibilities of normal rats and rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema to chronically inhaled diesel exhaust were compared. Rats were exposed 7 h/day, 5 days/wk for 24 months to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as controls. Emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of elastase 6 wk before exhaust exposure. Measurements included lung burdens of diesel soot, respiratory function, bronchoalveolar lavage, clearance of radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses, lung collagen, excised lung weight and volume, histopathology, and mean linear intercept of terminal air spaces. Parameters indicated by analysis of variance to exhibit significant interactions between the influences of emphysema and exhaust were examined to determine if the effects were more than additive (indicating increased susceptibility). Although 14 of 63 parameters demonstrated emphysema-exhaust interactions, none indicated increased susceptibility. Less soot accumulated in lungs of emphysematous rats than in those of nonemphysematous rats, and the reduced accumulation had a sparing effect in the emphysematous rats. The results did not support the hypothesis that emphysematous lungs are more susceptible than are normal lungs to chronic exposure to high levels of diesel exhaust. The superimposition of effects of emphysema and exhaust, however, might still warrant special concern for heavy exposures of emphysematous subjects

  8. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  9. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Particulates emitted from combustion engines have been a great concern in past years due to their adverse health effects, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. The source of particulates can be stationary and transient, such as gas and oil fuelled engines, turbines and boilers. Particulate matter (PM) dispersed into ambient air can be classified in many ways: the mechanism of the formation, the size and the composition. Fine particles (PM2.5) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum and particles, greater than 2.5 mum in diameter are generally referred to as coarse particles (PM10). PM2.5 is also called the respirable fraction, because they can penetrate to the unciliated regions of the lung. Fine particles consist of so called ultrafine particles (an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 mum). The sizes of particulates emitted from combustion processes range between 10 nm and 100 mum, and are usually a mixture of unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons. Diesel exhaust particles have a mass median diameter of 0.05-1.0 mum. They are a complex mixture of elemental carbon, a variety of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, and other species. They consist of a numerous spherical primary particles, which are agglomerated into aggregates. Particles from natural gas engine emissions range from 0.01-0.7 mum. Increase in PM10 pollution has been found to be associated with a range of adverse health effects, such as increased use of medication for asthma, attacks of asthma in patients with pre-existing asthma, attacks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deaths from respiratory causes, admission to hospital for cardiovascular causes, deaths from heart attacks and deaths from strokes. While it is unknown, which particulate matter component is the most hazardous for humans, a number of factors suggest that ultrafine particles may be more toxic than larger particles. Ultrafine particles have a large surface area per

  10. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transport sample to analyzers. (I) Temperature sensor. A temperature sensor (T1) to measure the NO2 to NO... feet (1.22 m) from the exhaust duct. (iii) The sample transport system from the engine exhaust duct to.... (A) For diesel fueled and biodiesel fueled locomotives and engines, the wall temperature of the HC...

  11. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  12. Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Ramos, Manuel; Shah, Mittal; Wallace, James S; Pollitt, Krystal J Godri

    2018-03-01

    Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group). Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise. Exhaust was filtered to assess responses induced by the particulate and gas fractions. Short-term exposure to particulate matter from GDI engine exhaust induced upregulation of genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism ( Cyp1b1 ) and inflammation ( TNFα ) in the lungs of non-allergic mice. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the particulate fraction of the exhaust, and this response was therefore likely attributable to the presence of these PAHs. The particle fraction of GDI engine exhaust further contributed to enhanced methacholine responsiveness in the central and peripheral tissues in animals with airway hyperresponsiveness. As GDI engines gain prevalence in the vehicle fleet, understanding the health impacts of their emissions becomes increasingly important.

  13. Comparison of Airway Responses Induced in a Mouse Model by the Gas and Particulate Fractions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin L. Maikawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust has been associated with asthma, but its response to other engine emissions is not clear. The increasing prevalence of vehicles with gasoline direct injection (GDI engines motivated this study, and the objective was to evaluate pulmonary responses induced by acute exposure to GDI engine exhaust in an allergic asthma murine model. Mice were sensitized with an allergen to induce airway hyperresponsiveness or treated with saline (non-allergic group. Animals were challenged for 2-h to exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to a highway cruise. Exhaust was filtered to assess responses induced by the particulate and gas fractions. Short-term exposure to particulate matter from GDI engine exhaust induced upregulation of genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH metabolism (Cyp1b1 and inflammation (TNFα in the lungs of non-allergic mice. High molecular weight PAHs dominated the particulate fraction of the exhaust, and this response was therefore likely attributable to the presence of these PAHs. The particle fraction of GDI engine exhaust further contributed to enhanced methacholine responsiveness in the central and peripheral tissues in animals with airway hyperresponsiveness. As GDI engines gain prevalence in the vehicle fleet, understanding the health impacts of their emissions becomes increasingly important.

  14. Assessment of diesel particulate matter exposure in the workplace: freight terminals†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Marr, Linsey C.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-01-01

    A large study has been undertaken to assess the exposure to diesel exhaust within diesel trucking terminals. A critical component of this assessment is an analysis of the variation in carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) across trucking terminal locations; consistency in the primary sources can be effectively tracked by analyzing trends in elemental carbon (EC) and organic molecular marker concentrations. Ambient samples were collected at yard, dock and repair shop work stations in 7 terminals in the USA and 1 in Mexico. Concentrations of EC ranged from 0.2 to 12 μg m−3 among the terminals, which corresponds to the range seen in the concentration of summed hopanes (0.5 to 20.5 ng m−3). However, when chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment results were presented as percent contribution to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, the contribution of mobile sources to OC are similar among the terminals in different cities. The average mobile source percent contribution to OC was 75.3 ± 17.1% for truck repair shops, 65.4 ± 20.4% for the docks and 38.4 ± 9.5% for the terminal yard samples. A relatively consistent mobile source impact was present at all the terminals only when considering percentage of total OC concentrations, not in terms of absolute concentrations. PMID:18392272

  15. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  16. Adverse effect of diesel engine produced particulate matter on various stone types and concrete: a laboratory exposure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Antal, Ákos; Török, Ákos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of particulate matter on construction materials have been studied under laboratory conditions. For testing the adverse effects of diesel soot and particulate matter on stone and concrete a small scale laboratory exposure chamber was constructed. Blocks of 9 different stone types and concrete was placed in the chamber and an exhaust pipe of diesel engine was diverted into the system. Tested stones included: porous limestone, cemented non-porous limestone, travertine, marble, rhyolite tuff, andesite and granite. The engine was operated for 10 hours and the produced particulate matter was diverted directly to the surface of the material specimens of 3 cm in diameter each. Working parameters of the engine were controlled; the composition of the exhaust gas, smoke value and temperature were continuously measured during the test. Test specimens were documented and analysed prior to exposure and after the exposure test. Parameters such colorimetric values, weight, surface properties, mineralogical compositions of the test specimens were recorded. The working temperature was in the order of 300°C-320°C. The gas concentration was in ppm as follows: 157 CO; 5.98 CO2, 34.3 THC; 463 NOx; 408 NO; 12.88 O2. Our tests have demonstrated that significant amount of particulate matter was deposited on construction materials even at a short period of time; however the exposure was very intense. It also indicates that that the interaction of particulate matter and aerosol compounds with construction materials in urban areas causes rapid decay and has an adverse effect not only on human health but also on built structures.

  17. Cytokine expression in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles by inhalation. Role of tumor necrosis factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loft Steffen

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution has been associated with lung and cardiovascular disease, for which lung inflammation may be a driving mechanism. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF has been suggested to have a key-role in particle-induced inflammation. We studied the time course of gene expression of inflammatory markers in the lungs of wild type mice and Tnf-/- mice after exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs. Mice were exposed to either a single or multiple doses of DEP by inhalation. We measured the mRNA level of the cytokines Tnf and interleukin-6 (Il-6 and the chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein (Mcp-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (Mip-2 and keratinocyte derived chemokine (Kc in the lung tissue at different time points after exposure. Results Tnf mRNA expression levels increased late after DEP-inhalation, whereas the expression levels of Il-6, Mcp-1 and Kc increased early. The expression of Mip-2 was independent of TNF if the dose was above a certain level. The expression levels of the cytokines Kc, Mcp-1 and Il-6, were increased in the absence of TNF. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that Tnf is not important in early DEP induced inflammation and rather exerts negative influence on Mcp-1 and Kc mRNA levels. This suggests that other signalling pathways are important, a candidate being one involving Mcp-1.

  18. Dispersion and Filtration of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and Measurement of Nanoparticle Agglomerates in Diesel Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y H

    2013-01-14

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) tend to form bundles due to their geometry and van der Walls forces, which usually complicates studies of the CNT properties. Dispersion plays a significant role in CNT studies and we summarize dispersion techniques to generate airborne CNTs from suspensions or powders. We describe in detail our technique of CNT aerosolization with controlled degree of agglomeration using an electrospray system. The results of animal inhalation studies using the electrosprayed CNTs are presented. We have performed filtration experiments for CNTs through a screen filter. A numerical model has been established to simulate the CNT filtration experiments. Both the modeling and experimental results show that the CNT penetration is less than the penetration for a sphere with the same mobility diameter, which is mainly due to the larger interception length of the CNTs. There is a need for instruments capable of fast and online measurement of gas-borne nanoparticle agglomerates. We developed an instrument Universal NanoParticle Analyzer (UNPA) and the measurement results for diesel exhaust particulates are presented. The results presented here are pertinent to non-spherical aerosol particles, and illustrate the effects of particle morphology on aerosol behaviors.

  19. DETERMINATION OF CO2 MASSES IN THE EXHAUST GASES OF THE MARINE DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru COSOFRET

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, reducing CO2 emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect is currently under attention of the relevant international bodies. In the field of maritime transport, in 2011 International Maritime Organization (IMO has taken steps to reduce emissions of CO2 from the exhaust gases of marine diesel engines on ships, by imposing their energy efficiency standards. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine naturally aspirated by using to power it diesel and different blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel. The purpose of the study was to determine the formulas for calculating the mass flow rates of CO2 from exhaust gases’ concentrations experimentally determined. Determining the mass flow of CO2 is necessary to calculate the energy efficiency coefficient of the ship to assess the energy efficiency of the board of the limits imposed by the IMO.

  20. Diesel exhaust particles induce the over expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene in alvelor machrophage and failed to induce apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10), including diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been reported to induce lung injury and exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alveolar macrophages play a major role in the lung's response to inhaled particles and...

  1. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Roy, M.M. [Rajshahi Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2009-07-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N{sub 2} dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  2. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, E.; Kawahara, N.; Roy, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N 2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  3. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  4. BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM) - a study in underground mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Coggon, D.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil sha...... bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results....

  5. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  6. EFFECT OF OXYGENATED HYDROCARBON ADDITIVES ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sundar Raj; S. Sendilvelan

    2010-01-01

    The use of oxygenated fuels seems to be a promising solution for reducing particulate emissions in existing and future diesel motor vehicles. In this work, the influence of the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons to diesel fuels on performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine is experimentally studied. 3-Pentanone (C5H10O) and Methyl anon (C7H12O) were used as oxygenated fuel additives. It was found that the addition of oxygenated hydrocarbons reduced the production of soot precurs...

  7. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of leaflets and leaf area, leaf and total plant dry weight of Vinca rosea and Ruellia tuberosa were studied. The treatment of exhaust pollutants produced significant effects on root, shoot growth, number of leaflet and leaf ...

  8. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  9. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A; Northrop, William F; Bohac, Stanislav V; Assanis, Dennis N

    2012-11-15

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NO x brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM 2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM 2.5 . The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for

  10. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  11. Real-time diesel particulate monitor for underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, James; Janisko, Samuel; Mischler, Steven E

    The standard method for determining diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposures in underground metal/ nonmetal mines provides the average exposure concentration for an entire working shift, and several weeks might pass before results are obtained. The main problem with this approach is that it only indicates that an overexposure has occurred rather than providing the ability to prevent an overexposure or detect its cause. Conversely, real-time measurement would provide miners with timely information to allow engineering controls to be deployed immediately and to identify the major factors contributing to any overexposures. Toward this purpose, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a laser extinction method to measure real-time elemental carbon (EC) concentrations (EC is a DPM surrogate). To employ this method, NIOSH developed a person-wearable instrument that was commercialized in 2011. This paper evaluates this commercial instrument, including the calibration curve, limit of detection, accuracy, and potential interferences. The instrument was found to meet the NIOSH accuracy criteria and to be capable of measuring DPM concentrations at levels observed in underground mines. In addition, it was found that a submicron size selector was necessary to avoid interference from mine dust and that cigarette smoke can be an interference when sampling in enclosed cabs.

  12. Bio-derived fuels may ease the regeneration of diesel particulate traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Coda Zabetta; M. Hupa; S. Niemi [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Particulate is the most problematic emission from diesel engines. To comply with environmental regulations, these engines are often equipped with particulate traps, which must be regenerated frequently for the sake of efficiency. The regeneration is commonly achieved by rising the temperature in the trap till the particulate self-ignites. However, this method implies energy losses and thermal shocks in the trap. Alternatively, catalysts and additives have been recently considered for reducing the ignition temperature of particulate, but these techniques suffer from poisoning and undesirable byproducts. The present experimental study shows that the ignition temperature of particulate from seed-derived oils (SO) and from blends of SO with diesel fuel oil (DO) can be lower than that of particulate from neat DO. If substantiated by more extensive studies, such finding could have noteworthy implications on the future of fuels and traps. Short communication. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  14. Effect of diesel generator exhaust pollutants on growth of Vinca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The effects of exhaust pollutants of generator on root and shoot length, root and shoot weight, number of .... single cylinders with cooling system of air dry. The frequency is 50 .... and reproduction along CO2 gradients. Nonlinear.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  16. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  17. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  18. PRE-TREATMENT WITH DIESEL EXHAUST EXTRACT ALTERS INFLUENZA VIRUS REPLICATION IN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Exhaust (DE) has been demonstrated to generate inflammatory responses in the lung and modify immune responses to allergens. However, little is known about the effects of DE on common respiratory viral infections. We examined whether exposure to DE extracts (DEE) modifies i...

  19. Modulation of pulmonary inflammatory responses and anti-microbial defenses in mice exposed to diesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major component of urban air pollution and has been shown to increase the severity of infectious and allergic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DE exposure on pulmonary inflammation, mediator production and ...

  20. The diesel exhaust in miners study: I. Overview of the exposure assessment process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, P.A.; Coble, J.B.; Vermeulen, R.; Schleiff, P.; Blair, A.; Lubin, J.; Attfield, M.; Silverman, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major

  1. Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzyka, V.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as

  2. Highly selective NOx reduction for diesel engine exhaust via an electrochemical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shao, Jing; Tao, Youkun; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel engine exhaust due to the inhibiting effect of excess oxygen. In this study, a novel electrochemical deNOx system was developed, which eliminated the need for additional reducing materials or a sophisticated controlling system as used...

  3. Diesel Exhaust-Induced Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Impairment: The Role of Hypertension Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background–Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) particles and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is less well understood. Objective–1) To determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE, and 2...

  4. Formation of methyl nitrite and methyl nitrate during plasma treatment of diesel exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, TJ; Hoard, JW; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk

    2003-01-01

    FIR spectroscopy was used to identify CH3ONO and CH3ONO2 as products of the nonthermal plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust. This is the first observation of CH3ONO formation in such systems. The yield of CH3ONO relative to CH3ONO2 scaled linearly with the average [NO]/ [NO2] ratio in the...

  5. DNA adducts induced by in vitro activation of extracts of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractContext: Biodiesel and biodiesel-blend fuels offer a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel, but few data are available concerning the carcinogenic potential of biodiesel exhausts. Objectives: We compared the formation of covalent DNA adducts by the in vitro metabol...

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel; Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Hu, Wei; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Xu, Jun; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Zhou, Baosen; Yang, Jufang; Ye, Meng; Jia, Xiaowei; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Kim, Christopher; Bassig, Bryan A; Hosgood, H Dean; Silverman, Debra; Zheng, Yuxin; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE

  7. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  8. Ice-nucleating particle emissions from photochemically aged diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; Jathar, S. H.; Kodros, J. K.; Levin, E. J. T.; Galang, A. M.; Friedman, B.; Link, M. F.; Farmer, D. K.; Pierce, J. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; DeMott, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Immersion-mode ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations from an off-road diesel engine were measured using a continuous-flow diffusion chamber at -30°C. Both petrodiesel and biodiesel were utilized, and the exhaust was aged up to 1.5 photochemically equivalent days using an oxidative flow reactor. We found that aged and unaged diesel exhaust of both fuels is not likely to contribute to atmospheric INP concentrations at mixed-phase cloud conditions. To explore this further, a new limit-of-detection parameterization for ice nucleation on diesel exhaust was developed. Using a global-chemical transport model, potential black carbon INP (INPBC) concentrations were determined using a current literature INPBC parameterization and the limit-of-detection parameterization. Model outputs indicate that the current literature parameterization likely overemphasizes INPBC concentrations, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. These results highlight the need to integrate new INPBC parameterizations into global climate models as generalized INPBC parameterizations are not valid for diesel exhaust.

  9. On-line Analysis of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases by Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Dabill, D.; Cocker, J.; Rajan, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2004), s. 2830-2838 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : diesel exhaust analysis * NOx compounds * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2004

  10. Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar machrophages with in vitro exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted in vitro exposures of Wistar rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to compare and contrast the toxicity of particulate matter (PM) produced in combustion of biodiesel blend (B20) and petroleum diesel (PDEP). The PM contain detectable levels of transition metals and ions howe...

  11. CONTROLLED EXPOSURES OF HUMAN VOLUNTEERS TO DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST: BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion of diesel fuel contributes to ambient air pollutant fine particulate matter (PM) and gases. Fine PM exposure has been associated with increased mortality due to adverse cardiac events, and morbidity, such as increased hospitalization for asthma symptoms and lung infect...

  12. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were...... molecules in leukocyte subtypes. CONCLUSION: 3-h exposure to DE caused no genotoxicity, oxidative stress or inflammation in PBMCs, whereas exposure to noise might cause oxidatively damaged DNA.......Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel...

  13. Study of reaction between water and exhaust gases from diesel engines used in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazukhina, S.I.; Kalabin, G.V.; Romanov, V.S.

    1988-05-01

    A method of mathematical simulation, based on the principle of local equilibrium of the kinetic components, was proposed for formulating and solving problems related to the combustion of fuel and the treatment of exhaust gases from a diesel engine in underground workings. Results of a study of the effects of exhaust gas quantity and composition on the reaction between the gases and water are presented. It is shown that the kinetic model correlates well with the equilibrium model, adequately describes the process, and gives a reliable picture of the changes over a period of time. The proposed method can be used to study the gas emission with different fuel mixtures and liquid neutralizing agents with a view to reducing the toxicity of diesel-engine exhaust gases.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1343-88 - Calculations; particulate exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined from the following equation: er31au93.070 (1) Pmass = Mass of particulate emitted per test phase... (cubic meters) per revolution. This volume is dependent on the pressure differential across the positive... be applied before Vsf is determined. (4) Pf = Mass of particulate on the sample filter (or sample and...

  15. Influence of metallic based fuel additives on performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.t [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this experimental study, influence of the metallic-based additives on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engine were investigated. The metallic-based additives were produced by synthesizing of resin acid (abietic acid) with MnO{sub 2} or MgO. These additives were doped into diesel fuel at the rate of 8 {mu}mol/l and 16 {mu}mol/l for preparing test fuels. Both additives improved the properties of diesel fuel such as viscosity, flash point, cloud point and pour point. The fuels with and without additives were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. Maximum reduction of specific fuel consumption was recorded as 4.16%. CO emission and smoke opacity decreased by 16.35% and by 29.82%, respectively. NO{sub x} emission was measured higher and CO{sub 2} emission was not changed considerably with the metallic-based additives.

  16. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Thomas, Ronald F.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Bass, Virginia; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Richards, Judy E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Andrews, Debora [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Gilmour, M. Ian [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m{sup 3}), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses

  17. Validated analytical modeling of diesel engine regulated exhaust CO emission rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed F Faris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Albeit vehicle analytical models are often favorable for explainable mathematical trends, no analytical model has been developed of the regulated diesel exhaust CO emission rate for trucks yet. This research unprecedentedly develops and validates for trucks a model of the steady speed regulated diesel exhaust CO emission rate analytically. It has been found that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate is based on (1 CO2 dissociation, (2 the water–gas shift reaction, and (3 the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon. It has been found as well that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate based on CO2 dissociation is considerably less than the rate that is based on the water–gas shift reaction. It has also been found that the steady speed–based CO exhaust emission rate based on the water–gas shift reaction is the dominant source of CO exhaust emission. The study shows that the average percentage of deviation of the steady speed–based simulated results from the corresponding field data is 1.7% for all freeway cycles with 99% coefficient of determination at the confidence level of 95%. This deviation of the simulated results from field data outperforms its counterpart of widely recognized models such as the comprehensive modal emissions model and VT-Micro for all freeway cycles.

  18. CONCEPT AND MODELS FOR EVALUATION OF BLACK AND WHITE SMOKE COMPONENTS IN DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor BLYANKINSHTEIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring exhaust smoke opacity has been developed, which allows estimating the differentiated components forming black exhaust and those forming white smoke. The method is based on video recording and special software for processing the video recording data. The flow of the diesel exhaust gas is visualised using the digital camera, against the background of the screen, on a cut of an exhaust pipe, and with sufficient illumination of the area. The screen represents standards of whiteness and blackness. The content of the black components (soot is determined by the degree of blackening of the white standard in the frames of the video, and the content of whitish components (unburned fuel and oil, etc. is determined by the degree of whitening of black standard on the frames of the video. The paper describes the principle and the results of testing the proposed method of measuring exhaust smoke opacity. We present an algorithm for the frame-by-frame analysis of the video sequence, and static and dynamic mathematical models of exhaust opacity, measured under free-acceleration of a diesel engine.

  19. Impact of high soot-loaded and regenerated diesel particulate filters on the emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil-based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Yang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Young, Li-Hao; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Mwangi, John Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WCO-based biodiesel blends cannot stimulate POPs formation in uncatalyzed DPF. • Formation mechanism of POPs in diesel engines is homogeneous gas-phase formation. • The gas-phase POPs are highly dominant in the raw exhausts of diesel engines. • The regeneration of the DPF can drastically reduce the formation potential of POPs in the DPFs. - Abstract: This study evaluated the impact on persistent organic pollutant (POP) emissions from a diesel engine when deploying a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) combined with an uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), as well as fueling with conventional diesel (B2) and waste cooking oil-based (WCO-based) biodiesel blends (B10 and B20). When the engine was fueled with WCO-based biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) in combination with deploying DOC+A-DPF, their levels of the chlorine and potassium contents could not stimulate the formation of chlorinated POPs (PCDD/Fs and PCBs), although previous studies had warned that happened on diesel engines fueled with biodiesel and deployed with iron-catalyzed DPFs. In contrast, the WCO-based biodiesel with a lower aromatic content reduced the precursors for POP formation, and its higher oxygen content compared to diesel promoted more complete combustion, and thus using WCO-based biodiesel could reduce both PM_2_._5 and POP emissions from diesel engines. This study also evaluated the impact of DPF conditions on the POP emissions from a diesel engine; that is, the difference in POP emissions before and just after the regeneration of the DPF. In comparison to the high soot-loaded DPF scenario, the regeneration of the DPF can drastically reduce the formation potential of POPs in the DPFs. An approach was developed to correct the effects of sampling artifacts on the partitioning of gas- and particle-phase POPs in the exhaust. The gas-phase POPs are highly dominant (89.7–100%) in the raw exhausts of diesel engines, indicating that the formation mechanism of POPs in diesel

  20. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S; Morihisa, H; Tamanouchi, M; Araki, H; Yamada, S [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  2. Estimation of the Diesel Particulate Filter Soot Load Based on an Equivalent Circuit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Du

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the diesel particulate filter (DPF soot load and improve the accuracy of regeneration timing, a novel method based on an equivalent circuit model is proposed based on the electric-fluid analogy. This proposed method can reduce the impact of the engine transient operation on the soot load, accurately calculate the flow resistance, and improve the estimation accuracy of the soot load. Firstly, the least square method is used to identify the flow resistance based on the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC test data, and the relationship between flow resistance, exhaust temperature and soot load is established. Secondly, the online estimation of the soot load is achieved by using the dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF. The results show that this method has good convergence and robustness with the maximal absolute error of 0.2 g/L at regeneration timing, which can meet engineering requirements. Additionally, this method can estimate the soot load under engine transient operating conditions and avoids a large number of experimental tests, extensive calibration and the analysis of complex chemical reactions required in traditional methods.

  3. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load.

  4. Particulate emissions from road transportation (gasoline and diesel). Chemical and granulometric characteristics; relative contribution; Emissions particulaires par les transports routiers (essence et diesel) caracteristiques chimiques et granulometriques contribution relative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belot, G. [PSA-Peugiot-Citroen, 92 - La Garenne-Colombes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The formation process and chemical composition of diesel, leaded and lead-free gasoline combustion particulates are presented, and the effects of engine technology, post-treatments (oxidative catalysis), automobile speed and fuel type (more especially diesel type), on the granulometry of gasoline and diesel automotive particulates are studied. The emission contributions from the various diesel vehicle types (automobiles, trucks, buses), gasoline and diesel automobiles and other natural and anthropogenic particulate sources, are presented and compared

  5. Soot accumulation in diesel particulate filters using ULSD and B20 biodiesel fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonneau, P.; Wallace, J.S. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Soot accumulation in a diesel particulate filter was investigated using a newly developed dissection method that loads and dissects diesel particulate filters (DPFs). In particular, this study examined the differences in soot accumulation between ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and a B20 biodiesel blend. DPFs loaded for exposure times of 1, 2, 5 and 10 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the samples of the filter substrate. The differences in particulate size and number distribution between fuels were attributed to performance differences in DPFs. ULSD loaded filters experienced increased loading and a greater pressure drop across the filters. According to SEM images, the soot cake was a relatively shallow feature increasing in density to form discrete coarse agglomerates and cakes. It was concluded that this newly developed methodology has potential for future studies in DPF loading.

  6. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM_1_0 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM_2_._5 fraction contributes 66% of PM_1_0 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM_1_0 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM_1_0 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM_1_0 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM_1_0 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean

  7. Strength and fatigue of NT551 silicon nitride and NT551 diesel exhaust valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M.J.; Werezczak, A.A.; Kirkland, T.P.; Breder, K.

    2000-02-01

    The content of this report is excerpted from Mark Andrew's Ph.D. Thesis (Andrews, 1999), which was funded by a DOE/OTT High Temperature Materials Laboratory Graduate Fellowship. It involves the characterization of NT551 and valves fabricated with it. The motivations behind using silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) as an exhaust valve for a diesel engine are presented in this section. There are several economic factors that have encouraged the design and implementation of ceramic components for internal combustion (IC) engines. The reasons for selecting the diesel engine valve for this are also presented.

  8. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

  10. Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hazar; S. Sap

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating th...

  11. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    . Challenges with this technology include dosing the appropriate amount of urea to reach sufficient NOx conversion, while at the same time keeping NH3- slip from the exhaust system below the legislation. This requires efficient control algorithms. The focus of this thesis is modelling and control of the SCR...... parameters were estimated using bench-scale monolith isothermal data. Validation was done by simulating the out-put from a full-scale SCR monolith that was treating real engine gases from the European Transient Cycle (ETC). Results showed that the models were successfully calibrated, and that some......, and simulating the system....

  12. Effect of beadles from soybean on the exhaust emission of a turbocharged diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, G.E.; Jian, T.; Shah, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the regulated emissions in the light of cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR) from a 4-stroke direct injection (DI) diesel engine fuelled with neat soybean oil-based biodiesel, commercial diesel and 20% biodiesel-diesel blend. The engine was run using electrical dynamometer at four different engine conditions. The experimental results revealed that brake power (BP) of the engine decreased but brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with biodiesel as compared to diesel. Relative to diesel, the maximum combustion pressure (MCP) was higher; however, HRR curves were not much deeper in the ignition delay (ID) periods and the premixed combustion peaks were lower with biodiesel. Carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HC), smoke opacity, and particulate matter (PM) emissions decreased by 3% to 14%, 32.6% to 46%, 56.5% to 83%, and 71% to 87.8%, respectively; however, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) increased by 2% to 10% with biodiesel, compared to the commercial diesel. Both smoke and NOx pollutants were greatly influenced by the MCP, CO, HC, and PM emissions were higher at lower load conditions compared to higher load conditions, but NO/sub x/ and smoke pollutants were higher at higher load conditions relative to lower load conditions. (author)

  13. Characterization of a multiculture in-vitro cell exposure chamber for assessing the biological impact of diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimakopoulou, Akrivi; Daskalos, Manos; Chasapidis, Leonidas; Akritidis, Theofilaktos; Vlachos, Nickolaos D; Papaioannou, Eleni; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the various health influencing parameters related to particulate as well as to gas-phase pollutants emitted by Diesel engine exhaust, there is an urgent need for appropriate sampling devices and methods for cell exposure studies and associated biological and toxicological tests. In a previous paper [1], a specific concept for a cell culture exposure chamber was introduced to allow the uniform exposure of cell cultures to diesel aerosols. In the present work, this cell culture exposure chamber is evaluated and characterized with state-of-the-art nanoparticles measurement instrumentation to assess the local deposition of soot aggregates on the cell cultures and any losses due to particle deposition on the cell culture exposure chamber walls, and in addition an upgraded Multiculture Exposure Chamber (MEC) for in vitro continuous flow cell exposure tests is introduced with improved, compared to the previous version, features. Analysis and design of the MEC employs CFD and true to geometry representations of soot particle aggregates.

  14. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  15. Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Components in Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Garbak, J.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope-ratio measurement technique developed in the late 1970s for tracing long-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 14 C half life = 5760 y). The technique counts individual nuclei rather than waiting for their radioactive decay, allowing measurement of more than 100 low-level 14 C samples per day (Vogel et al, 1995). The LLNL AMS system is shown in Fig.1. The contemporary quantity of 14 C in living things ( 14 C/C = 1.2 x 10 -12 or 110 fmol 14 C/ g C) is highly elevated compared to the quantity of 14 C in petroleum-derived products. This isotopic elevation is sufficient to trace the fate of bio-derived fuel components in the emissions of an engine without the use of radioactive materials. If synthesis of a fuel component from biologically-derived source material is not feasible, another approach is to purchase 14 C-labeled material (e.g., dibutyl maleate (DBM)) and dilute it with petroleum-derived material to yield a contemporary level of 14 C. In each case, the virtual absence of 14 C in petroleum based fuels gives a very low 14 C background that makes this approach to tracing fuel components practical. Regulatory pressure to significantly reduce the particulate emissions from diesel engines is driving research into understanding mechanisms of soot formation. If mechanisms are understood, then combustion modeling can be used to evaluate possible changes in fuel formulation and suggest possible fuel components that can improve combustion and reduce PM emissions. The combustion paradigm assumes that large molecules break down into small components and then build up again during soot formation. AMS allows us to label specific fuel components, including oxygenates, trace the carbon atoms, and test this combustion modeling paradigm. Volatile and non-volatile organic fractions (VOF, NVOF) in the PM can be further separated. The VOF of the PM can be oxidized with catalysts in the exhaust stream to further decrease PM. The effectiveness

  16. Composition of diesel exhaust with particular reference to particle bound organics including formation of artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lies, K H; Hartung, A; Postulka, A; Gring, H; Schulze, J

    1986-01-01

    For particulate emissions, standards were established by the US EPA in February 1980. Regulations limiting particulates from new light duty diesel vehicles are valid by model year 1982. The corresponding standards on a pure mass basis do not take into account any chemical character of the diesel particulate matter. Our investigation of the material composition shows that diesel particulates consist mainly of soot (up to 80% by weight) and adsorptively bound organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The qualitative and quantitative nature of hydrocarbon compounds associated with the particulates is dependent not only on the combustion parameters of the engine but also to an important degree on the sampling conditions when the particulates are collected (dilution ratio, temperature, filter material, sampling time etc.). Various methods for the analyses of PAH and their oxy- and nitro-derivatives are described including sampling, extraction, fractionation and chemical analysis. Quantitative comparison of PAH, nitro-PAH and oxy-PAH from different engines are given. For assessing mutagenicity of particulate matter, short-term biological tests are widely used. These biological tests often need a great amount of particulate matter requiring prolonged filter sampling times. Since it is well known that facile PAH oxidation can take place under the conditions used for sampling and analysis, the question rises if these PAH-derivates found in particle extracts partly or totally are produced during sampling (artifacts). Various results concerning nitro- and oxy-PAH are presented characterizing artifact formation as a minor problem under the conditions of the Federal Test Procedure. But results show that under other sampling conditions, e.g. electrostatic precipitation, higher NO2-concentrations and longer sampling times, artifact formation can become a bigger problem. The more stringent particulate standard of 0.2 g/mi for model years 1986 and 1987 respectively

  17. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  18. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...

  19. Experimental Study on the Plasma Purification for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zu, Kan; Wang, Mei

    2018-02-01

    It is known that the use of ternary catalysis is capable of significantly reducing the emission of pollutants from petrol vehicles. However, the disadvantages such as the temperature and other limitations make it unsuitable for diesel engines. The plasma-assisted catalyst technology has been applied in dealing with the diesel exhaust in the experiment in order to do further research on the effects of plasma in exhaust processing. The paper not only includes the experimental observation on the change of particle concentration after the operation of purification device, but also builds the kinetic model of chemical reactions to simulate the reactions of nitrogen oxides in plasma through using the software of Matlab, then compares the calculation results with experimental samples and finally gets some useful conclusions in practice.

  20. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  1. Experimental investigation of particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with diglyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    2010-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the base fuel and diglyme as the oxygenate component to investigate the particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at two engine speeds of 1800 rev min -1 and 2400 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 5%, 10.1%, 15.2%, 20.4%, 25.7% and 53% by volume of diglyme, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 20% by mass of oxygen, are studied. The study shows that with the increase of oxygen in the fuel blends, smoke opacity, particulate mass concentration, NO x concentration and brake specific particulate emission are reduced at the two engine speeds. However, the proportion of soluble organic fraction is increased. For each blended fuel, the total particle number concentration is higher while the geometric mean diameter is smaller, compared with that of ultralow-sulfur diesel, though the particle number decreases with the oxygen content of the blended fuel. Furthermore, the blended fuels also increase the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 nm.

  2. Biophysical Assessment of Single Cell Cytotoxicity: Diesel Exhaust Particle-Treated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yangzhe; Yu, Tian; Gilbertson, Timothy A.; Zhou, Anhong; Xu, Hao; Nguyen, Kytai Truong

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major source of traffic-related air pollution, has become a serious health concern due to its adverse influences on human health including cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. To elucidate the relationship between biophysical properties (cell topography, cytoskeleton organizations, and cell mechanics) and functions of endothelial cells exposed to DEPs, atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied to analyze the toxic effects of DEPs on a model ...

  3. Prediction of emissions and exhaust temperature for direct injection diesel engine with emulsified fuel using ANN

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKKÜLÜNK, Görkem; AKDOĞAN, Erhan; AYHAN, Vezir

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust gases have many effects on human beings and the environment. Therefore, they must be kept under control. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), which is concerned with the prevention of marine pollution, limits the emissions according to the regulations. In Emission Control Area (ECA) regions, which are determined by MARPOL as ECAs, the emission rates should be controlled. Direct injection (DI) diesel engines are commonly used as a prop...

  4. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of direct-injection Diesel engine when operating on shale oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a naturally aspirated, four stroke, four cylinder, water cooled, direct injection Diesel engine when running on Diesel fuel and shale oil that is produced in Estonia from local oil shale. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of practical usage of the shale oil as the alternative fuel for a high speed Diesel engine as well as to evaluate the combustion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, emission composition changes and the smoke opacity of the exhausts. Test results show that when fuelling a fully loaded engine with shale oil, the brake specific fuel consumption at the maximum torque and rated power is correspondingly higher by 12.3% and 20.4%. However, the brake thermal efficiencies do not differ widely and their maximum values remain equal to 0.36-0.37 for Diesel fuel and 0.32-0.33 for shale oil. The total nitrogen oxide emissions from the shale oil at engine partial loads remain considerably lower although when running at the maximum torque and rated power, the NO x emissions become correspondingly higher by 21.8% and 27.6%. The smoke opacity of the fully loaded engine at a wide range of speeds is lower by 30-35%, whereas the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in the exhausts at moderate and full load regimes do not undergo significant changes

  5. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  6. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  7. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  8. Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Shihnan, A.H.; Nasri, N.S.; Sharer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine and emission characteristics of biodiesel DDF engine system were measured. • Biodiesel DDF fuelled system produced high engine performance. • Lower hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide was emitted by biodiesel DDF system. • Biodiesel DDF produced slightly higher carbon monoxide and nitric oxides emission. - Abstract: Biodiesel derived from biomass is a renewable source of fuel. It is renovated to be the possible fuel to replace fossil derived diesel due to its properties and combustion characteristics. The integration of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engine known as diesel dual fuel (DDF) system offered better exhaust emission thus become an attractive option for reducing the pollutants emitted from transportation fleets. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emission of HINO H07C DDF engine; fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, diesel–CNG, and biodiesel–CNG, were experimentally studied. Biodiesel and diesel fuelled engine system respectively generated 455 N m and 287 N m of torque. The horse power of biodiesel was found to be 10–20% higher compared to diesel. Biodiesel–CNG at 20% (B20-DDF) produced the highest engine torque compared to other fuel blends Biodiesel significantly increase the carbon monoxide (15–32%) and nitric oxides (6.67–7.03%) but in contrast reduce the unburned hydrocarbons (5.76–6.25%) and carbon dioxide (0.47–0.58%) emissions level. These results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel especially the heavy transportation fleets

  9. Monitoring of diesel engine combustions based on the acoustic source characterisation of the exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Gu, F.; Gennish, R.; Moore, D. J.; Harris, G.; Ball, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    Acoustic methods are among the most useful techniques for monitoring the condition of machines. However, the influence of background noise is a major issue in implementing this method. This paper introduces an effective monitoring approach to diesel engine combustion based on acoustic one-port source theory and exhaust acoustic measurements. It has been found that the strength, in terms of pressure, of the engine acoustic source is able to provide a more accurate representation of the engine combustion because it is obtained by minimising the reflection effects in the exhaust system. A multi-load acoustic method was then developed to determine the pressure signal when a four-cylinder diesel engine was tested with faults in the fuel injector and exhaust valve. From the experimental results, it is shown that a two-load acoustic method is sufficient to permit the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities in the pressure signal, caused by the faults. This then provides a novel and yet reliable method to achieve condition monitoring of diesel engines even if they operate in high noise environments such as standby power stations and vessel chambers.

  10. DNA damage and defence gene expression after oxidative stress induced by x-rays and diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risom, Lotte

    2004-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is one the most important environmental health factors for people living in cities. Especially the exhaust particles from traffic are possible causes for cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) by inducing oxidative stress and analyse the underlying mechanisms. Methods for determining oxidative stress, DNA damage, and gene expression were validated and calibrated in lung tissue by studying the dose response relations after ionizing radiation. The study showed the feasibility of partial-body x-ray irradiation as an in vivo model for induction and repair of oxidative DNA damage, of DNA repair enzymes expression, and antioxidant defense genes. A 'nose-only' mouse model for inhalation of ultra-fine particles showed that particles induce oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. The exposure increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 mRNA. The levels of 8-oxodG and OGG1 mRNA were mirror images. Colon and liver were analysed after administration of DEP in the diet with or without increasing doses of sucrose. This study indicated that DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress through formation of DNA strand breaks, DNA repair enzyme expression, apoptosis, and protein oxidisation in colon and liver at relatively low exposure doses. The thesis is based on four published journal articles. (ln)

  11. DNA damage and defence gene expression after oxidative stress induced by x-rays and diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risom, Lotte

    2004-07-01

    Particulate air pollution is one the most important environmental health factors for people living in cities. Especially the exhaust particles from traffic are possible causes for cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases. The aim of this thesis was to characterize the health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) by inducing oxidative stress and analyse the underlying mechanisms. Methods for determining oxidative stress, DNA damage, and gene expression were validated and calibrated in lung tissue by studying the dose response relations after ionizing radiation. The study showed the feasibility of partial-body x-ray irradiation as an in vivo model for induction and repair of oxidative DNA damage, of DNA repair enzymes expression, and antioxidant defense genes. A 'nose-only' mouse model for inhalation of ultra-fine particles showed that particles induce oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. The exposure increased the expression of HO-1 mRNA and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase OGG1 mRNA. The levels of 8-oxodG and OGG1 mRNA were mirror images. Colon and liver were analysed after administration of DEP in the diet with or without increasing doses of sucrose. This study indicated that DEP induces DNA adducts and oxidative stress through formation of DNA strand breaks, DNA repair enzyme expression, apoptosis, and protein oxidisation in colon and liver at relatively low exposure doses. The thesis is based on four published journal articles. (ln)

  12. Comparative study of different exhaust heat exchangers effect on the performance and exergy analysis of a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatami, M.; Boot, M.D.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the effect of three designed heat exchangers on the performance of an OM314 diesel engine and its exergy balance is investigated. Vortex generator heat exchanger (HEX), optimized finned-tube HEX and non-optimized HEX are considered and mounted on the exhaust of diesel engine.

  13. Particulate Matter from the Road Surface Abrasion as a Problem of Non-Exhaust Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Penkała

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with house heating and industry, emissions from road traffic (exhaust and tire, brake, car body or road surface abrasions are one of the primary sources of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere in urban areas. Though numerous regulations and vehicle-control mechanisms have led to a significant decline of PM emissions from vehicle exhaust gases, other sources of PM remain related to road and car abrasion are responsible for non-exhaust emissions. Quantifying these emissions is a hard problem in both laboratory and field conditions. First, we must recognize the physicochemical properties of the PM that is emitted by various non-exhaust sources. In this paper, we underline the problem of information accessibility with regards to the properties and qualities of PM from non-exhaust sources. We also indicate why scarce information is available in order to find the possible solution to this ongoing issue.

  14. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; van Berlo, Damien; Cassee, Flemming R; Schins, Roel P F; Wang, Kate; Campbell, Arezoo

    2010-05-17

    The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM), present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP), derived from a specific source (diesel engine), and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE) using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha) were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-kappaB) and (AP-1) was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI). Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution, however, it is valuable to assess if and to

  15. Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induces primary DNA damage: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huawei; Jia, Xiaowei; Zhai, Qingfeng; Ma, Lu; Wang, Shan; Huang, Chuanfeng; Wang, Haisheng; Niu, Yong; Li, Xue; Dai, Yufei; Yu, Shanfa; Gao, Weimin; Chen, Wen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and is carcinogenic to humans. To seek early and sensitive biomarkers for prediction of adverse health effects, we analysed the components of DEE particles, and examined the genetic and oxidative damages in DEE-exposed workers. 101 male diesel engine testing workers who were constantly exposed to DEE and 106 matched controls were enrolled in the present study. The components of DEE were analysed, including fine particulate matter (PM2.5), element carbon (EC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Postshift urine samples were collected and analysed for 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), an internal exposure marker for DEE. Levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidised purines, defined as formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG) sites in leucocytes, were measured by medium throughput Comet assay. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was also used to determine the level of oxidative stress. We found higher levels of PM2.5, EC, NO2, SO2 and PAHs in the diesel engine testing workshop and significantly higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations in exposed subjects (p<0.001). Compared with controls, the levels of parameters in normal Comet and FPG-Comet assay were all significantly higher in DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), and in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. There were no significant differences between DEE-exposed workers and controls in regard to leucocyte FPG sensitive sites and urinary 8-OHdG levels. These findings suggest that DEE exposure mainly induces DNA damage, which might be used as an early biomarker for risk assessment of DEE exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Experimental investigation into the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of particulate matter from diesel engine fuelled with diesel/polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Xinghu; Wang, Yan; Mu, Mingfei; Li, Xuehao; Kou, Guiyue

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on oxidation reactivity and nanostructural characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel engine fuelled with different volume proportions of diesel/polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) blends (P0, P10 and P20). PM was collected using a metal filter from the exhaust manifold. The collected PM samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The TGA results indicated that the PM produced by P20 had the highest moisture and volatility contents and the fastest oxidation rate of solid carbon followed by P10 and P0 derived PM. SEM analysis showed that PM generated from P20 was looser with a lower mean value than PM emitted from P10 and P0. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution TEM images presented that fringe length was reduced along with increased separation distance and tortuosity with an increase in PODEn concentration. These trends improved the oxidation reactivity. According to Raman spectroscopy data, the intensity, full width at half-maximum and intensity ratio of the bands also changed demonstrating that PM nanostructure disorder was correlated with a faster oxidation rate. The results show the use of PODEn affects the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of PM that is easier to oxidize.

  17. Effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using diesel-methanol blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk; Gumus, Metin [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Ilhan, Murat [Raytheon Training International GmbH, GM Academy, 34843 Istanbul (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)]|[Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Environmental concerns and limited resource of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. For diesel engines, alcohols are receiving increasing attention because they are oxygenated and renewable fuels. Therefore, in this study, the effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated by using methanol-blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The tests were conducted for three different injection timings (15 , 20 and 25 CA BTDC) at four different engine loads (5 Nm, 10 Nm, 15 Nm, 20 Nm) at 2200 rpm. The experimental test results showed that Bsfc, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased as BTE, smoke opacity, CO and UHC emissions decreased with increasing amount of methanol in the fuel mixture. When compared the results to those of original injection timing, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, smoke opacity, UHC and CO emissions increased for the retarded injection timing (15 CA BTDC). On the other hand, with the advanced injection timing (25 CA BTDC), decreasing smoke opacity, UHC and CO emissions diminished, and NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions boosted at all test conditions. In terms of Bsfc and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings gave negative results for all fuel blends in all engine loads. (author)

  18. 77 FR 33002 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure...

  19. A poluição gerada por máquinas de combustão interna movidas à diesel - a questão dos particulados. Estratégias atuais para a redução e controle das emissões e tendências futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust emissions of vehicles greatly contribute to environmental pollution. Diesel engines are extremely fuel-efficient. However, the exhaust compounds emitted by diesel engines are both a health hazard and a nuisance to the public. This paper gives an overview of the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust compounds. The worldwide emission standards are summarized. Possible devices for reducing diesel pollutants are discussed. It is clear that after-treatment devices are necessary. Catalytic converters that collect particulates from diesel exhaust and promote the catalytic burn-off are examined. Finally, recent trends in diesel particulate emission control by novel catalysts are presented.

  20. Health effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, R O

    1987-01-01

    Diesel-powered vehicles emit substantially more particles than do gasoline-powered vehicles with contemporary emission control systems. The DEP are submicron in size and readily inhaled. Approximately one-fourth of the particle mass inhaled by people is deposited in the pulmonary region, some of which is retained with a half-life of several hundred days. In animal studies, exposure to high levels of DEP overwhelms the normal clearance mechanisms and results in lung burdens of DEP that exceed those predicted from observations at lower exposure concentrations. A variable amount of the mass of DEP is extractable with strong organic solvents. The extracted material contains more than a thousand individual compounds and is mutagenic in a number of bacterial and mammalian cell assays. Bioassay-directed chemical analysis of DEP had identified several hundred compounds. Many are PAHs, some of which are considered to have human carcinogenic potential. A number of nitrated compounds have been identified that account for a significant portion of the mutagenicity assayed in bacteria. The mutagenicity of the DEPE is generally reduced by addition of an S-9 cellular fraction or of serum proteins. Macrophages rapidly reduce the recoverable mutagenic activity associated with DEP. These findings support a hypothesis that detoxification of DEP-associated organics occurs rapidly in vivo. The association of benzo(a)pyrene and nitropyrene with DEP prolongs their retention in the lungs. This increased retention suggests the need to clarify the relative importance of competing mechanisms that detoxify particle-associated compounds and those that serve to enhance the retention of toxicologically important compounds. Some extracts of DEP evoke tumorigenic responses in skin-tumor bioassays, suggesting their carcinogenic potential in mammals. A number of large-scale studies have been conducted with laboratory rodents to evaluate the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to DE. An increased

  1. A Mathematical Model for the Exhaust Gas Temperature Profile of a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a heat transfer model for the exhaust gas of a diesel power generator to determine the gas temperature profile in the exhaust pipe. The numerical methodology to solve the mathematical model was developed using a finite difference method approach for energy equation resolution and determination of temperature profiles considering turbulent fluid flow and variable fluid properties. The simulation was carried out for engine operation under loads from 0 kW to 40 kW. The model was compared with results obtained using the multidimensional Ansys CFX software, which was applied to solve the governor equations of turbulent fluid flow. The results for the temperature profiles in the exhaust pipe show a good proximity between the mathematical model developed and the multidimensional software.

  2. The effect of rapeseed oil methyl ester on direct injection Diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, naturally aspirated Diesel engine when operating on neat RME and its 5%, 10%, 20% and 35% blends with Diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of RME inclusion in Diesel fuel on the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a high speed Diesel engine, its brake thermal efficiency, emission composition changes and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (273.5 g/kW h) and rated power (281 g/kW h) for RME is higher by 18.7% and 23.2% relative to Diesel fuel. It is difficult to determine the RME concentration in Diesel fuel that could be recognised as equally good for all loads and speeds. The maximum brake thermal efficiency varies from 0.356 to 0.398 for RME and from 0.373 to 0.383 for Diesel fuel. The highest fuel energy content based economy (9.36-9.61 MJ/kW h) is achieved during operation on blend B10, whereas the lowest ones belong to B35 and neat RME. The maximum NO x emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel and engine speed, reaching the highest values at the speed of 2000 min -1 , the highest being 2132 ppm value for the B35 blend and 2107 ppm for RME. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions and visible smoke emerging from the biodiesel over all load and speed ranges are lower by up to 51.6% and 13.5% to 60.3%, respectively. The carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions along with the fuel consumption and gas temperature, are slightly higher for the B20 and B35 blends and neat RME. The emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, HC, for all biofuels are low, ranging at 5-21 ppm levels

  3. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  4. Diesel engine exhaust accelerates plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Maja; Albrecht, Catrin; van Berlo, Damiën; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Wahle, Tina; Boots, Agnes W; Krutmann, Jean; Cassee, Flemming R; Bayer, Thomas A; Schins, Roel P F

    2017-08-30

    Increasing evidence from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicates that the central nervous system is an important target for ambient air pollutants. We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate air pollution in urban environments, can aggravate Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like effects in female 5X Familial AD (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type female littermates. Following 3 and 13 weeks exposures to diluted DEE (0.95 mg/m 3 , 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or clean air (controls) behaviour tests were performed and amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation, pulmonary histopathology and systemic inflammation were evaluated. In a string suspension task, assessing for grip strength and motor coordination, 13 weeks exposed 5XFAD mice performed significantly less than the 5XFAD controls. Spatial working memory deficits, assessed by Y-maze and X-maze tasks, were not observed in association with the DEE exposures. Brains of the 3 weeks DEE-exposed 5XFAD mice showed significantly higher cortical Aβ plaque load and higher whole brain homogenate Aβ42 levels than the clean air-exposed 5XFAD littermate controls. After the 13 weeks exposures, with increasing age and progression of the AD-phenotype of the 5XFAD mice, DEE-related differences in amyloid pathology were no longer present. Immunohistochemical evaluation of lungs of the mice revealed no obvious genetic background-related differences in tissue structure, and the DEE exposure did not cause histopathological changes in the mice of both backgrounds. Luminex analysis of plasma cytokines demonstrated absence of sustained systemic inflammation upon DEE exposure. Inhalation exposure to DEE causes accelerated plaque formation and motor function impairment in 5XFAD transgenic mice. Our study provides further support that the brain is a relevant target for the effects of inhaled DEE and suggests that long-term exposure to this ubiquitous air

  5. Airborne concentrations of benzene due to diesel locomotive exhaust in a roundhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2002-12-13

    Concentrations of airborne benzene due to diesel exhaust from a locomotive were measured during a worst-case exposure scenario in a roundhouse. To understand the upper bound human health risk due to benzene, an electromotive diesel and a General Electric four-cycle turbo locomotive were allowed to run for four 30-min intervals during an 8-h workshift in a roundhouse. Full-shift and 1-h airborne concentrations of benzene were measured in the breathing zone of surrogate locomotive repairmen over the 8-h workshift on 2 consecutive days. In addition, carbon monoxide was measured continuously; elemental carbon (surrogate for diesel exhaust) was sampled with full-shift area samples; and nitrogen dioxide/nitric oxide was sampled using full-shift and 15-min (nitrogen dioxide only) area samples. Peak concentrations of carbon monoxide ranged from 22.5 to 93 ppm. The average concentration of elemental carbon for each day of the roundhouse study was 0.0543 and 0.0552 microg/m(3 )for an 8-h workshift. These were considered "worst-case" conditions since the work environment was intolerably irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Short-term nitrogen dioxide concentrations ranged from 0.81 to 2.63 ppm during the diesel emission events with the doors closed. One-hour airborne benzene concentrations ranged from 0.001 to 0.015 ppm with 45% of the measurements below the detection limit of 0.002-0.004 ppm. Results indicated that the 8-h time-weighted average for benzene in the roundhouse was approximately 100-fold less than the current threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.5 ppm. These data are consistent with other studies, which have indicated that benzene concentrations due to diesel emissions, even in a confined environment, are quite low.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  7. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.

    2009-11-01

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  8. Investigation of PCDD/F emissions from mobile source diesel engines: impact of copper zeolite SCR catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Barge, Patrick; Dettmann, Melissa E; Ottinger, Nathan A

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the impact of copper zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and exhaust aftertreatment configurations on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from mobile source diesel engines. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, reported as the weighted sum of 17 congeners called the toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), were measured using a modified EPA Method 0023A in the absence and presence of exhaust aftertreatment. Engine-out emissions were measured as a reference, while aftertreatment configurations included various combinations of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), Cu-zeolite SCR, Fe-zeolite SCR, ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOX), and aqueous urea dosing. In addition, different chlorine concentrations were evaluated. Results showed that all aftertreatment configurations reduced PCDD/F emissions in comparison to the engine-out reference, consistent with reduction mechanisms such as thermal decomposition or combined trapping and hydrogenolysis reported in the literature. Similarly low PCDD/F emissions from the DOC-DPF and the DOC-DPF-SCR configurations indicated that PCDD/F reduction primarily occurred in the DOC-DPF with no noticeable contribution from either the Cu- or Fe-zeolite SCR systems. Furthermore, experiments performed with high chlorine concentration provided no evidence that chlorine content has an impact on the catalytic synthesis of PCDD/Fs for the chlorine levels investigated in this study.

  9. Control-oriented modeling of two-stroke diesel engines with exhaust gas recirculation for marine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas, Xavier; Eriksson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Large marine two-stroke diesel engines are widely used as propulsion systems for shipping worldwide and are facing stricter NOx emission limits. Exhaust gas recirculation is introduced to these engines to reduce the produced combustion NOx to the allowed levels. Since the current number of engines built with exhaust gas recirculation is low and engine testing is very expensive, a powerful alternative for developing exhaust gas recirculation controllers for such engines is to use control-orien...

  10. Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin-Tin Win-Shwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control, DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER-a, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus

  11. Effects of diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols on novel object recognition ability and maternal behavior in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-10-30

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively.

  12. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Murari Mohon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), acrolein (H 2 C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH 3 CH 2 CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH 3 ) 2 CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  13. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ni; Kido, Takashi; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; Breemen, Cornelis van; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-01-01

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 μg/m 3 of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-κB (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by ∼ 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-κB activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-κB activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R 2 = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-κB-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: → Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. → Examine iNOS expression and activity in the blood vessels and heart. → DE exposure

  14. Effects of diesel exhaust on the microbiota within a tuffaceous tunnel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldeman, D.L.; Lagadinos, T.; Amy, P.S.; Hersman, L.; Meike, A.

    1996-08-01

    The abundance and distribution of microbiota that may be impacted by diesel and diesel exhaust were investigated from three depths into the walls and invert (floor) of U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, a potential geological analog of Yucca Mountain. Enumerations included total cell counts, and numbers of aerobic heterotrophic, sulfate-reducing, nitrate-reducing, and diesel-degrading bacteria. Additionally, the disappearance of total petroleum hydrocarbons was determined in microcosms containing subsurface materials that were amended with diesel fuel. Results revealed that microbes capable of utilizing diesel and diesel combustion products were present in the subsurface in both the walls and the invert of the tunnel. The abundance of specific bacterial types in the tunnel invert, a perturbed environment, was greater than that observed in the tunnel wall. Few trends of microbial distribution either into the tunnel wall or the invert were noted with the exception of aerobic heterotrophic abundance which increased with depth into the wall and decreased with depth into the invert. No correlation between microbiota and a specific introduced chemical species have yet been determined. The potential for microbial contamination of the tunnel wall during sampling was determined to be negligible by the use of fluorescently labeled latex spheres (1μm in dia.) as tracers. Results indicate that additional investigations might be needed to examine the microbiota and their possible impacts on the geology and geochemistry of the subsurface, both indigenous microbiota and those microorganisms that will likely be introduced by anthropogenic activity associated with the construction of a high-level waste repository

  15. Study on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Raman Lakshmipathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas re-circulation is a method used in compression ignition engines to control and reduce NOx emission. These emissions are controlled by reducing the oxygen concentration inside the cylinder and thereby reducing the flame temperature of the charge mixture inside the combustion chamber. In the present investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on performance and emission characteristics in a four stroke single cylinder, water cooled and constant speed diesel engine. The experiments were performed to study the performance and emissions for different exhaust gas re-circulation ratios of the engine. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, total fuel consumption and emission parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke opacity were measured. Reductions in NOx and CO2 were observed but other emissions like HC, CO, and smoke opacity were found to have increased with the usage of exhaust gas re-circulation. The 15% exhaust gas re-circulation was found optimum for the engine in the aspects of performance and emission.

  16. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  17. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates of diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Vonk, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In real-world conditions, modern Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles produce an average of ten times less nitrogen oxide (NOx)emissions than previous generations of Euro IV and Euro V heavy-duty vehicles. However, Euro 6 passenger cars and light commercial vehicles present an entirely different picture since, despite a continual tightening of European emissions limits, the real-world NOx emissions of new diesel passenger cars and light commercial vehicles have remained virtually unchanged over the la...

  18. 4th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 4. internationales FORUM Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Lectures of the conference addressed the following topics: European and US American pollution regulations, particulate measuring systems, emission factors for vehicles, particulate emission abatement through simulation and optimization, selective catalytic reduction in heavy duty diesel trucks, filters, combustion properties, performance assessment, contribution of biofuels. (uke)

  19. Diesel particulate emission in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, WCA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available measurements was confirmed by comparison of duplicate samples with analyses conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in the UK. Furthermore, good agreement in readings was obtained between the Horiba instrument and the R&P direct-reading analyser... ......................................................................................................3 2.2 Characteristics and biological significance of particulates.................................................... 3 2.3 Animal studies...

  20. Dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques Depolluting Exhaust Gases from Diesel Engines by Catalytic Mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article les résultats d'une première série de recherches sur la dépollution des gaz d'échappement des moteurs diesel au moyen de pots catalytiques. L'efficacité des catalyseurs à base de platine pour l'oxydation du monoxyde de carbone et des hydrocarbures imbrûlés a pu être établie par des essais sur banc moteur et sur véhicule. L'emploi de certaines phases actives à base de métaux non nobles permet d'autre part d'abaisser la température de début d'oxydation des particules de suie de 380 à 250 °C environ, avec, entre 250 et 350 °C, élimination de 15 à 20 % des produits piégés. L'essai de divers media filtrants a mis en évidence l'importance des phénomènes d'adsorption des revêtements en alumine et a orienté la recherche vers de nouveaux supports pour filtres catalytiques. This article describes the results of a first series of research on the depollution of exhaust gases from diesel engines by catalytic mufflers. The effectiveness of platinum-base catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons was determined by test on an engine test bed and on vehicles on the road. The use of some active non-noble metal phases reduced on the other hand the starting oxidation temperature of soot particulates from 380°C to about 250°C, eliminating 15 to 20% of the trapped products between 250 and 350° C. Tests of different filtering media revealed the importance of adsorption phenomena on alumina coatings and directed research toward new supports for catalytic filters.

  1. NYC's experience with low-sulfur diesel and particulate traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsley, B. [New York City Transit Department of Buses, New York, NY (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The operation of the New York City Transit's (NYCT) Bus Department was reviewed with particular focus on program objectives and partners, results of field demonstrations, results of emissions testing, and future plans. NYCT operates a 4,489 bus fleet of diesel transit (3,516), diesel coach (380), diesel articulated (361), CNG transit (221) and hybrid transit (11) buses. This power point presentation presented the results of an evaluation of the particulate emissions reductions using Johnson Matthey's continuous regenerating technology (CRT) in conjunction with reduced sulfur diesel fuel. The applicability of the technology for both new 4-stroke and older 2-stroke diesel engines was also evaluated along with fuel parameters that can enhance future commercial success. New technology focuses on oxidation catalyst and wall-flow ceramic filters, as well as the reduction of sulfur diesel fuel. CRT success factors were presented. JM's project partners in this new technology are Corning, Equilon, and Environment Canada (which performs the emissions testing), New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, RAD Energy, and MTA New York City Transit bus operations. A total of 50 buses have been equipped with the CRT system in Manhattan for over one year now. CRT was found to produce the following emissions reductions: 88-98 per cent reduction in CO, HC, PM, but no effect on NOx. CRT produced 70-99 per cent reduction in toxic emissions of PAH, NPAH, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds. CRT also produced 99 per cent reduction in particulate matter counts across all size ranges, including the smallest particles. Based on the success of the pilot program, NYCT has committed to implementing clean diesel technology fleet-wide and plans to retire all 2 stroke engines. 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  2. DNA damage in lung after oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles in Big Blue (R) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Farombi, E.O.; Møller, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several chemical mutagens and carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs, are adsorbed to the surface of diesel exhaust particles (DEP). DEP can induce formation of reactive oxygen species and cause oxidative DNA damage as well as bulky carcinogen DNA adducts....... Lung tissue is a target organ for DEP induced cancer following inhalation. Recent studies have provided evidence that the lung is also a target organ for DNA damage and cancer after oral exposure to other complex mixtures of PAHs. The genotoxic effect of oral administration of DEP was investigated...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  4. Non-conventional plasma assisted catalysts for diesel exhaust treatment. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajanikanth, B.S.; Srinivas Kumar, P.K.; Ravi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The author reports the application of pulse discharges along with catalysts in treating the exhaust gas at higher temperatures. In the present work, a plasma reactor, filled with catalysts, called as plasma catalytic reactor, is studied for removal of oxides of nitrogen, total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experiments are conducted on an actual diesel engine exhaust at no-load and at different temperatures starting from room temperature to 300 degree C. The removal efficiencies of these pollutants are studied. The experiments are carried out with both conventional and non-conventional catalysts. The idea is to explore the pollutant removal efficiency characteristics by non-conventional catalysts. The efficiency results are compared with that of conventional catalysts. The experiments are carried out at a constant pulse repetition rate of 120 pps. Both pellet and honeycomb type catalysts are used in the study

  5. Diesel emissions and ventilation exhaust sampling in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    A series of ventilation experiments have been performed to assess the potential retention of diesel exhaust constituents in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project's Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Measurements were taken to help evaluate the potential impact of retained diesel exhaust constituents on future in-situ experiments and long-term waste isolation. Assessment of the diesel exhaust retention in the ESF North Ramp required the measurement of air velocities, meteorological measurements, quantification of exhaust constituents within the ventilation air stream, multiple gas sample collections, and on-line diesel exhaust measurements. In order to assess variability within specific measurements, the experiment was divided into three separate sampling events. Although somewhat variable from event to event, collected data appear to support pre-test assumptions of high retention rates for exhaust constituents within the tunnel. The results also show that complete air exchange in the ESF does not occur within the estimated 16 to 20 minutes derived from the ventilation flowrate measurements. Because the scope of work for these activities covered only measurement and acquisition of data, no judgment is offered by the author as to the implications of this work. Final analyses and decisions based upon the entire compendium of data associated with this investigation is being undertaken by the Repository and ESF Ventilation Design Groups of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  6. Waste heat recovery from the exhaust of a diesel generator using Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Shekh Nisar; Bari, Saiful

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Diesel engine exhaust contains 40% energy which can be used to produce extra power. • Extra 11% power gained with optimized heat exchangers using water as working fluid. • As a result brake specific fuel consumption improved by 12%. • Parallel arrangement of heat exchangers showed better performance than series. • Optimum working fluid pressure varies with the engine power. - Abstract: Exhaust heat from diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power using a separate Rankine Cycle (RC). In this research, experiments were conducted to measure the available exhaust heat from a 40 kW diesel generator using two ‘off-the-shelf’ heat exchangers. The effectiveness of the heat exchangers using water as the working fluid was found to be 0.44 which seems to be lower than a standard one. This lower performance of the existing heat exchangers indicates the necessity of optimization of the design of the heat exchangers for this particular application. With the available experimental data, computer simulations were carried out to optimize the design of the heat exchangers. Two heat exchangers were used to generate super-heated steam to expand in the turbine using two orientations: series and parallel. The optimized heat exchangers were then used to estimate additional power considering actual turbine isentropic efficiency. The proposed heat exchanger was able to produce 11% additional power using water as the working fluid at a pressure of 15 bar at rated engine load. This additional power resulted into 12% improvement in brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc). The effects of the working fluid pressure were also investigated to maximize the additional power production. The pressure was limited to 15 bar which was constrained by the exhaust gas temperature. However, higher pressure is possible for higher exhaust gas temperatures from higher capacity engines. This would yield more additional power with further improvements in

  7. The Variable Effects of Ozone and/or Diesel Particulate Inhalation Exposure on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particle matter (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates asthma. Likewise, similar effects have been reported with exposure to the oxidizing air pollutant ozone (O3). Since levels of both pollutants in ambient air are e...

  8. Temperature effects on particulate emissions from DPF-equipped diesel trucks operating on conventional and biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two diesel trucks equipped with a particulate filter (DPF) were tested at two ambient temperatures (70oF and 20oF), fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel (B20)) and operating loads (a heavy and light weight). The test procedure included three driving cycles, a cold ...

  9. Impact on vehicle fuel economy of the soot loading on diesel particulate filters made of different substrate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millo, Federico; Andreata, Maurizio; Rafigh, Mahsa; Mercuri, Davide; Pozzi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Wall flow DPFs (Diesel Particulate Filters) are nowadays universally adopted for all European passenger cars. Since the properties of the filter substrate material play a fundamental role in determining the optimal soot loading level to be reached before DPF regeneration, three different filter material substrates (Silicon Carbide, Aluminum Titanate and Cordierite) were investigated in this work, considering different driving conditions, after treatment layouts and regeneration strategies. In the first step of the research, an experimental investigation on the three different substrates over the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) was performed. The data obtained from experiments were then used for the calibration and the validation of a one dimensional fluid-dynamic engine and after treatment simulation model. Afterward, the model was used to predict the vehicle fuel consumption increments as a function of the exhaust back pressure due to the soot loading for different driving cycles. The results showed that appreciable fuel consumption increments could be noticed only in particular driving conditions, and, as a consequence, in most of the cases the optimal filter regeneration strategy corresponds to reach the highest soot loading that still ensures the component safety even in case of uncontrolled regeneration events. - Highlights: • Three different substrate materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter were investigated. • Fuel consumption increases due to DPF soot loading were generally not appreciable. • Optimal soot loading before regeneration was the highest safeguarding DPF integrity. • SiC substrate showed highest soot load limit and lowest fuel consumption penalties. • AT and Cd substrate properties lead to lower soot load limits than SiC

  10. Physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate matter emitted from a non-road diesel engine: comparative evaluation of biodiesel-diesel and butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-15

    Combustion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) with biodiesel or n-butanol on physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from a non-road diesel engine. The results indicated that compared to ULSD, both the blended fuels could effectively reduce the particulate mass and elemental carbon emissions, with butanol being more effective than biodiesel. The proportion of organic carbon and volatile organic compounds in particles increased for both blended fuels. However, biodiesel blended fuels showed lower total particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions. The total number emissions of particles ≤560nm in diameter decreased gradually for the butanol blended fuels, but increased significantly for the biodiesel blended fuels. Both the blended fuels indicated lower soot ignition temperature and activation energy. All the particle extracts showed a decline in cell viability with the increased dose. However, the change in cell viability among test fuels is not statistically significant different with the exception of DB-4 (biodiesel-diesel blend containing 4% oxygen) used at 75% engine load. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exhaust emissions and electric energy generation in a stationary engine using blends of diesel and soybean biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Roberto G.; Oliveira, Jorge L.; Oliveira, Paulo Cesar P.; Oliveira, Cesar D.; Fellows, Carlos E.; Piamba, Oscar E.

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes an experimental investigation concerning the electric energy generation using blends of diesel and soybean biodiesel. The soybean biodiesel was produced by a transesterification process of the soybean oil using methanol in the presence of a catalyst (KOH). The properties (density, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane index, copper strip corrosion, conradson carbon residue and ash content) of the diesel and soybean biodiesel were determined. The exhaust emissions of gases (CO, CO 2 ,C x H y ,O 2 , NO, NO x and SO 2 ) were also measured. The results show that for all the mixtures tested, the electric energy generation was assured without problems. It has also been observed that the emissions of CO, C x H y and SO 2 decrease in the case of diesel-soybean biodiesel blends. The temperatures of the exhaust gases and the emissions of NO and NO x are similar to or less than those of diesel. (author)

  12. EVALUATION OF EMISSION OF CO, NO AND NOX IN EXHAUST OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH FUEL ADDITIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Rodrigo de Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has emerged as major global problems. In the last decade, the development of new engines, the use of different forms of treatment of exhaust gases and the increase in fuel quality were used to reduce pollutants (regulated or not. Among the various developments to reduce emissions, the use of oxygenated additives to diesel and paraffin is a quick and effective measure to reduce pollutants. In this work we studied the influence of oxygenated compounds (diethyl ether (DEE, 1-dodecanol (DOD, 2-methoxy-acetate (MEA and terc-butanol (TERC and paraffin (heptane (HEPT and n- hexadecane (CET added to diesel in order to improve the quality of CO, NO and NOx in the exhaust of diesel engine, single cylinder. The fuels used in the studies are formulations of diesel reference, here named S10, which contains low sulfur (

  13. NO_x reduction and N_2O emissions in a diesel engine exhaust using Fe-zeolite and vanadium based SCR catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chong Pyo; Pyo, Young Dug; Jang, Jin Young; Kim, Gang Chul; Shin, Young Jin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NO_x reduction and N_2O emission of urea-SCR catalysts with the oxidation precatalysts were investigated. • Fe-zeolite and V-based catalysts were noticeably affected by the NO_2/NOx ratio. • Remarkable N_2O formation was observed only for the Fe-zeolite catalyst. - Abstract: Among various approaches used to comply with strict diesel engine exhaust regulations, there is increasing interest in urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) as a NO_x reduction technology, due to its high reduction and excellent fuel efficiencies. NO_x reduction by SCR catalysts is affected by variations in the NO_2/NO_x ratio, caused by oxidation catalysts such as the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) installed in diesel engines. Recently, it has been reported that the greenhouse gas (GHG) variant N_2O, which is a by-product of the NO_x conversion process in the after-treatment system, will be subject to regulation. Using a real diesel engine installed with DOC and DPF, the NO_x reduction and N_2O emission performances of commonly used Fe-zeolite and V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalysts were investigated under various operating conditions. The exhaust of the diesel engine used in this study had a NO_2/NO_x ratio of over 50% for temperatures below 400 °C due to the oxidation catalysts, while the NO_2/NO_x ratio was significantly lower for temperatures above 400 °C. Under such conditions, it was found that the Fe-zeolite and V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalysts were noticeably affected by the NO_2/NOx ratio and exhaust temperature. Although both catalysts showed satisfactory NO conversions, the V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalyst showed decreasing NO_2 conversion rates between 250 °C and 320 °C. The V_2O_5-WO_3/TiO_2 catalyst exhibited NH_3 slip relatively frequently because of its low NH_3 storage capacity. For the Fe-zeolite catalyst, a significant increase in the amount of generated N_2O was observed for high NO_x conversion conditions due to side

  14. The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A; Torres, J; Herrera, J; Sarmiento, J

    2000-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out on the effect that modifying some properties of Colombian diesel fuel, such as final boiling point (FBP), density and sulfur content, has on the emissions of particulate matter (PM). Four diesel engines with different technologies and work capacity were used for the evaluation. Different alternatives to modify the properties of commercial diesel fuel, from the fuel treatment viewpoint, as well as that of the incorporation or segregation of some of the streams from the pool at the Barrancabermeja refinery were studied. The particulate matter was measured using a partial flow (AVL-SPC472) Constant volume sampler (CVS) with following the 13-step steady state European cycle and the ECE-R49 European guideline. The tests were performed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo. (ICP) test cell in the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. General tendencies show reductions of up to 25% in PM emissions when final boiling point and sulfur content are reduced. But levels of reduction vary from one engine to another depending on technology and working time. As a baseline, the emission levels of the commercial diesel fuel for each engine are used, and as a reference the results obtained are compared with the EURO I and II European standards defined for the emission levels of heavy duty engines

  15. Effect of lubricant oil additive on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of diesel particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuesen; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Wang, Xiangxiang; Sun, Xiuxiu; Liu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pour point depressant (PPD) has great impact on particulate matters. • The number of nanoparticles increases sharply after PPD is added. • Ambiguous boundaries can be found when the PPD additive was added. • PPD changes the size distribution into bimodal logarithmic. • Three nanostructure parameters are changed greatly by PPD. - Abstract: Effects of lubricant oil additive on the characterization of particles from a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine were investigated. Neat diesel and blended fuel containing oil pour point depressant (PPD) additive were chosen as the test fuels. Effects of different fuels on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of the diesel particles were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were employed to study the morphology and nanostructure parameters. Particle size distribution was measured by fast particulate spectrometer (DMS 500). According to the experimental results, distribution of the primary particles size of the two fuels conforms to Gaussian distribution, whereas the mean diameter of blended fuel is larger than that of neat diesel at 1200 rpm, which is contrarily smaller at 2400 rpm. Besides, fractal dimension (D f ) of aggregates increases close to 2 (D f = 1.991), indicating that the structure became compacter with adding PPD. As to the nanostructure parameters of the blended fuel particles, the layer fringe length decreases from 1.191 nm to 1.064 nm, while both the separation distance and tortuosity increase. The changes in the nanostructure parameters indicate that the particles are more ordered and compressed with burning pure diesel. Results of blended fuel from DMS show that more particles, particularly nucleation mode particles, were discharged. In addition, its size distribution become bimodal logarithmic at 2400 rpm. All these results can provide new information of the effects of oil PPD additive on the formation and characterization of

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Their Genotoxicity in Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel Engine during Extended Low-Load Operation on Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtisek-Lom, M.; Pechout, M.; Dittrich, L.; Beránek, V.; Kotek, M.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Milcová, Alena; Rössnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Topinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, MAY 2015 (2015), s. 9-18 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-01438S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : biodiesel * diesel particulate matter * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2015

  17. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  18. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  19. Qualification of diesel generator exhaust carbon steel piping to intermitted elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The diesel generator exhaust piping, usually made up of carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is subjected to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,000 F (538 C). A typical design of this piping, without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage, is at least incomplete, if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo alloy piping. The existing ASME standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28

  20. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of 4-nitrophenol in diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunmei; Taneda, Shinji; Suzuki, Akira K.; Furuta, Chie; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A 4-nitrophenol (PNP) isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been identified as a vasodilator. PNP is also a known degradation product of the insecticide parathion. We used uterotrophic and Hershberger assays to study the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of PNP in-vivo. In ovariectomized immature female rats injected subcutaneously with 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg PNP daily for 7 days, significant (P < 0.05) increases in uterine weight were seen in only those receiving 10 or 100 mg/kg PNP. Furthermore, in castrated immature male rats implanted with a silastic tube (length, 5 mm) containing crystalline testosterone and injected subcutaneously with 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg/kg PNP daily for 5 days, those receiving the doses of 0.1 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05) weight decreases in seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles, and glans penis. Plasma FSH and LH levels did not change in female rats but were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in male rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg PNP. These results clearly demonstrated that PNP has estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in-vivo. Our results therefore suggest that diesel exhaust emissions and the degradation of parathion can lead to accumulation of PNP in air, water, and soil and thus could have serious deleterious effects on wildlife and human health

  1. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bice, D.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gillett, N.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance

  2. Lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene associated with diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Kanapilly, G.M.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultrafine, insoluble, carrier particles on the lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled PAHs was investigated with a radiolabeled model PAH, [ 3 H]benzo(a)pyrene ( 3 H-BaP). Fischer-344 rats were exposed (30 min) by nose-only inhalation to 3 H-BaP adsorbed (approximately 0.1% by mass) onto diesel engine exhaust particles. The total mass concentration of these aerosols was 4-6 micrograms/liter of air with a mass median diameter of 0.14 micron. Lung clearance of the inhaled particle-associated 3 H radioactivity occurred in two phases. The initially rapid clearance of this inhaled radiolabel had a half-time of less than 1 hr. The second, long-term component of lung clearance had a half-time of 18 +/- 2 days and represented 50 +/- 2% of the 3 H radioactivity that had initially deposited in lungs. In contrast, previous inhalation studies with a pure 3 H-BaP aerosol showed that greater than 99% of the 3 H radioactivity deposited in lungs was cleared within 2 hr after exposure. By HPLC analysis, the majority of diesel soot-associated 3 H radioactivity retained in lungs was BaP (65-76%) with smaller amounts of BaP-phenol (13-17%) and BaP-quinone (5-18%) metabolites also being detected. No other metabolites of BaP were detected in lungs of exposed rats. Tissue distribution and excretion patterns of 3 H radioactivity were qualitatively similar to previous inhalation studies with 3 H-BaP coated Ga2O3 aerosols. These findings suggest that inhaled PAHs may be retained in lungs for a greater period of time when these compounds are associated with diesel engine exhaust particles. These results may have significant implications for the health risks that may be involved with human exposure to particle-associated organic pollutants

  3. Dusts, a pollutant from the past and future. Advancements in diesel particulate removal, and remaining issues; Les poussieres un polluant du passe et d`avenir. L`epuration des particules diesel le progres realise et les problemes a resoudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, M. [Renault S.A. (France)

    1996-12-31

    Major advancements have been realized for the reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines, with better-designed engines, enhancement of injection and combustion, etc., but due to new European pollution regulations, developments of catalytic post-treatments such as the DeNOx catalysis (followed by an oxidation catalysis for the destruction of hydrocarbons necessitated by DeNOx catalysis), particulate filters with additive-assisted combustion, or even electrically assisted particulate combustion, are required. Optimized diesel fuels, such as the Swedish city fuel, could be an other solution

  4. Analysis of tractor particulate emissions in a modified NRSC test after implementing a particulate filter in the exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrofitting, which means retrofitting old generation engine systems with modern exhaust after treatment systems, is becoming increasingly popular, which allow vehicles to adhere to the newer and more stringent emission norms. This can save the operators of such vehicles money using older engineered designs without the need to design a new unit or buy an expensive new machine or vehicle. At present, there is a growing interest in emissions from off-road vehicles and the introduction of minimum limits for older vehicles that must be met in order to be able to allow for their operation. For the purposes of this article, the Stage IIIA farm tractor has been fitted with a particulate filter in the exhaust system. The study investigated the impact of the use of exhaust after treatment systems on particle emissions in terms of mass, size distribution and number using PEMS analyzers in the modified NRSC stationary test by engine loading, using a mobile engine dynamometer and comparison of test results.

  5. BLOCKADE OF TRKA OR P75 NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTORS ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway resistance. Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates allergic airways responses. We tested t...

  6. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabovsky, J.; Judy, D.J.; Rodak, D.J.; Petersen, M.

    1986-06-01

    We have investigated a relationship between two detoxication systems, metabolic detoxication through the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) pathway and resistance to infection through interferon (IFN), in mice infected with influenza virus following exposure to coal dust (CD) and diesel exhaust (DE) particulates. Mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (FA; control), CD, or DE for 1 month and then inoculated intranasally (IN) with influenza virus. During infection, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (7ECdeEt'ase) and ethylmorphine demethylase (EMdeMe'ase) (monooxygenases), and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH c red'ase) were measured in liver microsomes. Temporal patterns of enzyme activities were observed with control animals. EMdeMe'ase and NADPH c red'ase exhibited peak values at Day 4 postinfection (27.6 and 482 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively), compared to initial activities (9.1 and 307 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively). 7ECdeEt'ase activity decreased between Days 1-3 postvirus infection and thereafter returned to the original value (1.7 nmole/min/mg protein). When the mice were first exposed to CD or DE particulates for 1 month prior to influenza infection, changes in enzyme temporal patterns were observed. The increased EMdeMe'ase activity at Day 4 was not observed in mice exposed to CD and was reduced in mice exposed to DE. Preexposure to either particulate resulted in the abolition of the increased Day 4 activity of NADPH c red'ase. The 7ECdeEt'ase postinfection temporal pattern was not affected by a preexposure to either particulate. Estimates of the enzyme activities after the 1-month exposure to FA, CD, or DE but before virus infection indicated no changes due to particulate exposure alone. Under conditions of particulate exposure and virus infection, serum IFN levels peaked at Days 4-5 and were unaffected by the 1-month preexposure to CD or DE.

  7. Influenza virus-induced alterations of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activities following exposure of mice to coal and diesel particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, J; Judy, D J; Rodak, D J; Petersen, M

    1986-06-01

    We have investigated a relationship between two detoxication systems, metabolic detoxication through the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) pathway and resistance to infection through interferon (IFN), in mice infected with influenza virus following exposure to coal dust (CD) and diesel exhaust (DE) particulates. Mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered air (FA; control), CD, or DE for 1 month and then inoculated intranasally (IN) with influenza virus. During infection, 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (7ECdeEt'ase) and ethylmorphine demethylase (EMdeMe'ase) (monooxygenases), and NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH c red'ase) were measured in liver microsomes. Temporal patterns of enzyme activities were observed with control animals. EMdeMe'ase and NADPH c red'ase exhibited peak values at Day 4 postinfection (27.6 and 482 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively), compared to initial activities (9.1 and 307 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively). 7ECdeEt'ase activity decreased between Days 1-3 postvirus infection and thereafter returned to the original value (1.7 nmole/min/mg protein). When the mice were first exposed to CD or DE particulates for 1 month prior to influenza infection, changes in enzyme temporal patterns were observed. The increased EMdeMe'ase activity at Day 4 was not observed in mice exposed to CD and was reduced in mice exposed to DE. Preexposure to either particulate resulted in the abolition of the increased Day 4 activity of NADPH c red'ase. The 7ECdeEt'ase postinfection temporal pattern was not affected by a preexposure to either particulate. Estimates of the enzyme activities after the 1-month exposure to FA, CD, or DE but before virus infection indicated no changes due to particulate exposure alone. Under these conditions of particulate exposure and virus infection, serum IFN levels in the mice used in this study peaked at Days 4-5 and were unaffected by the 1-month preexposure to CD or DE (Hahon et al., (1985). The data suggest the relationship that exists

  8. Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels.

  9. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  10. Effect of prolonged exposure to diesel engine exhaust on proinflammatory markers in different regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kate

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Studies have shown a link between exposure to particulate matter (PM, present in air pollution, and enhancement of central nervous system proinflammatory markers. In the present study, the association between exposure to air pollution (AP, derived from a specific source (diesel engine, and neuroinflammation was investigated. To elucidate whether specific regions of the brain are more susceptible to exposure to diesel-derived AP, various loci of the brain were separately analyzed. Rats were exposed for 6 hrs a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks to diesel engine exhaust (DEE using a nose-only exposure chamber. The day after the final exposure, the brain was dissected into the following regions: cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb and tubercles, and the striatum. Results Baseline levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α were dependent on the region analyzed and increased in the striatum after exposure to DEE. In addition, baseline level of activation of the transcription factors (NF-κB and (AP-1 was also region dependent but the levels were not significantly altered after exposure to DEE. A similar, though not significant, trend was seen with the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and TNF Receptor-subtype I (TNF-RI. Conclusions Our results indicate that different brain regions may be uniquely responsive to changes induced by exposure to DEE. This study once more underscores the role of neuroinflammation in response to ambient air pollution

  11. Experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with Ceiba pentandra biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silitonga, A.S.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Chong, W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceiba pentandra biodiesel was prepared by two-step transesterification. • The main FAC of C. pentandra is 18.54% of malvalic acid. • Engine performance and emission are conducted for CPME and its blends. • The CPB10 gives the best engine performance at 1900 rpm. • The CO, HC and smoke opacity were lower for all biodiesel blends. - Abstract: Nowadays, production of biodiesel from non-edible feedstock is gaining more attention than edible oil to replace diesel fuel. Thus, Ceiba pentandra is chosen as a potential biodiesel feedstock for the present investigations based on the availability in Indonesia and Malaysia. C. pentandra methyl ester was prepared by two-step acid esterification (H 2 SO 4 ) and base transesterification (NaOH) process. The purpose of this study is to examine the engine performance and emission characteristic of C. pentandra biodiesel diesel blends in internal combustion. Besides, the detailed properties of C. pentandra biodiesel, biodiesel diesel blends and diesel were measured and evaluated. After that, the biodiesel diesel blends (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) were used to conduct engine performance and exhaust emission characteristic at different engine speeds. The experimental results showed that CPB10 blend give the best results on engine performance such as engine torque and power at 1900 rpm with full throttle condition. Besides, the brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (161 g/kW h) for CPB10 is higher about 22.98% relative to diesel fuel (198 g/kW h). This is shown that the lower biodiesel diesel blends ratio will increase the performance and reduce the fuel consumption. Moreover, the exhaust emissions showed that CO, HC and smoke opacity were reduced for all biodiesel diesel blends. However, NO x and CO 2 were increased compared to petrol diesel. Overall, the results proved that C. pentandra biodiesel is a suitable alternative and substitute fuel to diesel

  12. Kinetic study of diesel soot oxidation: application to simulation of diesel particulate filter regeneration; Etude cinetique de la combustion des suies diesel: application a la modelisation de la regeneration du filtre a particule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huguet, Ch.

    2005-11-15

    Because of their toxicity, soot are considered as the most important pollutant from Diesel engines. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is widely deployed in Europe to address the significant reductions in particulate emissions required by increasingly stringent emission standards, both for heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars. Such a DPF filtrates above 99% of soot emissions and must be regularly regenerated. The use of additive allows to decrease the soot oxidation temperature to values which can be reached by appropriate engine tuning. The soot addition is a dominant parameter for the development of regeneration strategies. Its influence must be correctly represented by models. This Ph-D was performed at IFP in collaboration with ADEME and was supported by the LCSR at Orleans. The aim of the present research is to develop a kinetic mechanism characteristic of Diesel soot oxidation, which can be integrated into a DPF regeneration model and used for engine control. The oxidation study was based on soot characterisation and reaction kinetics investigations. The samples of Diesel soot were collected, without and with Cerium/Iron additive, by using two engines points representative of two normalized European cycles (ECE and EUDC). Thermal and composition analyses with techniques such as XPS, XRD or TEM were used to determine their physical and chemical properties. Their oxidation kinetics was experimentally studied on a synthetic gas bench (SGB) with a fixed bed reactor. Different tests were performed: temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), Isothermal oxidation (IO), and sequential oxidation. The results allowed to correlate Diesel soot physical and chemical properties with their oxidation rate. A kinetic model was developed, which is based on global carbon consummation law and distinguishes the oxidation of different soot components. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results of Diesel soot oxidation. (author)

  13. Marine diesel engines exhaust noise. Pt. VII: Calculation of the acoustical performance of diesel engine exhaust systems / Uitlaatgeluid van scheepsdieselmotoren. Dl. VII: Berekening van de akoestische eigenschappen van uitlaatsystemen van dieselmotoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiten, J.; Gerretsen, E.; Vellekoop, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given lor the calculation of the transfer damping of diesel engine exhaust systems. Also the complete computer program in FORTRAN IV, based on this calculation method is given. The method includes such system elements as chamber resonators, 1,5-pipes, absorbing siìencers and shunts to

  14. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: I. Overview of the Exposure Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Vermeulen, Roel; Schleiff, Patricia; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the exposure assessment process for an epidemiologic study that investigated mortality, with a special focus on lung cancer, associated with diesel exhaust (DE) exposure among miners. Details of several components are provided in four other reports. A major challenge for this study was the development of quantitative estimates of historical exposures to DE. There is no single standard method for assessing the totality of DE, so respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of DE, was selected as the primary surrogate in this study. Air monitoring surveys at seven of the eight study mining facilities were conducted between 1998 and 2001 and provided reference personal REC exposure levels and measurements for other agents and DE components in the mining environment. (The eighth facility had closed permanently prior to the surveys.) Exposure estimates were developed for mining facility/department/job/year combinations. A hierarchical grouping strategy was developed for assigning exposure levels to underground jobs [based on job titles, on the amount of time spent in various areas of the underground mine, and on similar carbon monoxide (CO, another DE component) concentrations] and to surface jobs (based on the use of, or proximity to, diesel-powered equipment). Time trends in air concentrations for underground jobs were estimated from mining facility-specific prediction models using diesel equipment horsepower, total air flow rates exhausted from the underground mines, and, because there were no historical REC measurements, historical measurements of CO. Exposures to potentially confounding agents, i.e. respirable dust, silica, radon, asbestos, and non-diesel sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also were assessed. Accuracy and reliability of the estimated REC exposures levels were evaluated by comparison with several smaller datasets and by development of alternative time trend models. During 1998–2001, the average

  15. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iFi) and population intake fraction (iFp) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iFi of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iFp of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iFi and iFp of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  17. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Bian, Y.ZH.; Ma, ZH.Y.; Zhang, CH.H.; Liu, SH.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  18. Estimation of quantitative levels of diesel exhaust exposure and the health impact in the contemporary Australian mining industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; de Klerk, Nicholas; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; Musk, Aw Bill; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate quantitative levels of exposure to diesel exhaust expressed by elemental carbon (EC) in the contemporary mining industry and to describe the excess risk of lung cancer that may result from those levels. METHODS: EC exposure has been monitored in Western Australian miners

  19. Analyses of extracted biodiesel and petroleum diesel exhaust particle and the effects on endothelial cell toxicity and antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) is a renewable energy source and is readily substituted in diesel engines. Combustion of biodiesel is cleaner due to the efficiency of the fuel to completely combust. Biodiesel combustion emissions contain less CO, PAHs, aldehydes, and particulate matter (PM) mas...

  20. Study of the combined effects of smoking and inhalation of uranium ore dust, radon daughters and diesel oil exhaust fumes in hamsters and dogs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, F.T.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Busch, R.H.; Stuart, B.O.

    1978-09-01

    Exposure to particulates from uranium ore dust and diesel exhaust soot provoked inflammatory and proliferative responses in lungs. Also exposure to radon and radon daughters yielded increased occurrences of bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and metaplastic changes of alveolar epithelium. The data suggest that this cellular change is also a precursor of premalignant change in hamsters. The authors suggest an animal model other than the hamster based on two observations: (1) the Syrian golden hamster has been shown to be highly refractory to carcinoma induction; and (2) that when exposed to realistic levels of agents in life-span exposure regimens, the hamster does not develop lesions. Dog studies with cigarette smoke exposure showed mitigating effects on radon daughter induced respiratory tract cancer. Two reasons are suggested although no empirical evidence was gathered. A strict comparison of human and animal exposures and interpolative models are not possible at this time. (PCS)

  1. Exhaust Recirculation Control for Reduction of NOx from Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder

    Increased awareness of the detrimental effects on climate, ecosystems and human health have led to numerous restrictions of the emissions from internal combustion engines. Recently the International Maritime Organization has introduced the Tier III standard, which includes a significantly stricter...... the automotive industry, but have only recently been introduced commercially to large two-stroke diesel engines. Recirculation of exhaust gas to the cylinders lowers the oxygen availability and increases the heat capacity during combustion, which in turn leads to less formation of NOx. Experience shows...... of the Tier III standard, while still maintaining maneuverability performance without smoke formation. The design methods acknowledge that engine specific parameter tuning is a scarce resource in the industry and controller complexity is kept to a minimum. An existing dynamic model of the engine and EGR...

  2. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxarango, L.

    2004-09-15

    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The

  3. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iF_i) and population intake fraction (iF_p) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iF_i of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iF_p of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iF_i and iF_p of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. - Highlights: • Methods to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in bus stop microenvironments were established. • Source apportionment was performed to estimate the DPM due to diesel bus emissions in bus stop microenvironments. • The DPM emission in bus stop microenvironments rather than in the entire urban area was considered. • The movement of people and their exposure duration were introduced in the estimation of population intake fraction. - This work established a method to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in transportation microenvironments on the basis of PM source apportionment.

  4. Interactive effects of cerium oxide and diesel exhaust nanoparticles on inducing pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jane Y.C., E-mail: jym1@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Young, Shih-Houng; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Ma, Joseph K. [School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Castranova, Vincent [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Cerium compounds have been used as a fuel-borne catalyst to lower the generation of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), but are emitted as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}) along with DEP in the diesel exhaust. The present study investigates the effects of the combined exposure to DEP and CeO{sub 2} on the pulmonary system in a rat model. Specific pathogen-free male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} and/or DEP via a single intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed at various time points post-exposure. This investigation demonstrated that CeO{sub 2} induces a sustained inflammatory response, whereas DEP elicits a switch of the pulmonary immune response from Th1 to Th2. Both CeO{sub 2} and DEP activated AM and lymphocyte secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ, respectively. However, only DEP enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in response to ex vivo LPS or Concanavalin A challenge that was not affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2}, suggesting that DEP suppresses host defense capability by inducing the Th2 immunity. The micrographs of lymph nodes show that the particle clumps in DEP + CeO{sub 2} were significantly larger than CeO{sub 2} or DEP, exhibiting dense clumps continuous throughout the lymph nodes. Morphometric analysis demonstrates that the localization of collagen in the lung tissue after DEP + CeO{sub 2} reflects the combination of DEP-exposure plus CeO{sub 2}-exposure. At 4 weeks post-exposure, the histological features demonstrated that CeO{sub 2} induced lung phospholipidosis and fibrosis. DEP induced lung granulomas that were not significantly affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2} in the combined exposure. Using CeO{sub 2} as diesel fuel catalyst may cause health concerns. - Highlights: • DEP induced acute lung inflammation and switched immune response from Th1 to Th2. • DEP induced lung granulomas were not affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2}. • CeO{sub 2} induced sustained lung

  5. Exhaust temperature analysis of four stroke diesel engine by using MWCNT/Water nanofluids as coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, M.; Mukesh Kumar, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a continuous improvement in designing of cooling system and in quality of internal combustion engine coolants. The liquid engine coolant used in early days faced many difficulties such as low boiling, freezing points and inherently poor thermal conductivity. Moreover, the conventional coolants have reached their limitations of heat dissipating capacity. New heat transfer fluids have been developed and named as nanofluids to try to replace traditional coolants. Moreover, many works are going on the application of nanofluids to avail the benefits of them. In this experimental investigation, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% volume concentrations of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/water nanofluids have been prepared by two step method with surfactant and is used as a coolant in four stroke single cylinder diesel engine to assess the exhaust temperature of the engine. The nanofluid prepared is characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM) to confirm uniform dispersion and stability of nanotube with zeta potential analyzer. Experimental tests are performed by various mass flow rate such as 270 300 330 LPH (litre per hour) of coolant nanofluids and by changing the load in the range of 0 to 2000 W and by keeping the engine speed constant. It is found that the exhaust temperature decreases by 10-20% when compared to water as coolant at the same condition.

  6. Reduction of NOx in synthetic diesel exhaust via two-step plasma-catalysis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Barlow, S.E.; Hoard, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Significant reduction of NO x in synthetic light duty diesel exhaust has been achieved over a broad temperature window by combining atmospheric plasma with appropriate catalysts. The technique relies on the addition of hydrocarbon reductant prior to passing the simulated exhaust through a non-thermal plasma and a catalyst bed. The observed chemistry in the plasma includes conversion of NO to NO 2 as well as the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon. The overall NO x reduction has a maximum of less than 80%, with this maximum obtained only at high-energy input into the plasma, high concentration of hydrocarbon reductant and low space velocity. We present data in this paper illustrating that a multiple-step treatment strategy, whereby two or more plasma-catalyst reactors are utilized in series, can increase the maximum NO x conversion obtainable. Alternatively, this technique can reduce the energy and/or hydrocarbon requirements for a fixed conversion efficiency. When propene is used as the reductant, the limiting reagent for the overall process is most likely acetaldehyde. The data suggest that acetaldehyde is formed in concert with NO oxidation to NO 2 in the plasma stage. The limited NO x reduction efficiency attained in a single step, even with excess energy, oxygen content and/or hydrocarbon-to-NO x ratio is well explained by this hypothesis, as is the effectiveness of the multiple-step treatment strategy. We present the data here illustrating the advantage of this approach under a wide variety of conditions

  7. IDI diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using biodiesel with an artificial neural network (ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasada Rao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is receiving increasing attention each passing day because of its fuel properties and compatibility. This study investigates the performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder four stroke indirect diesel injection (IDI engine fueled with Rice Bran Methyl Ester (RBME with Isopropanol additive. The investigation is done through a combination of experimental data analysis and artificial neural network (ANN modeling. The study used IDI engine experimental data to evaluate nine engine performance and emission parameters including Exhaust Gas Temperature (E.G.T, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, Brake Thermal Efficiency (B.The and various emissions like Hydrocarbons (HC, Carbon monoxide (CO, Carbon dioxide (CO2, Oxygen (O2, Nitrogen oxides (NOX and smoke. For the ANN modeling standard back propagation algorithm was found to be the optimum choice for training the model. A multi-layer perception (MLP network was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. It was found that ANN was able to predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions with a correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.980, 0.999, 0.985, 0.999, 0.999, 0.980, 0.999, and 0.999 for E.G.T, BSFC, B.The, HC, O2, CO2, CO, NOX, smoke respectively.

  8. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Amanda C [Malibu, CA; Kirby, Kevin K [Calabasas Hills, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  9. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed,deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khamphe Phoungthong; Surajit Tekasakul; Perapong Tekasakul; Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Naret Jindapetch; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO),the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil,has become of great interest as a renewable energy source.It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits.In the present work,the degummed,deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage.The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler.The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10,2.5 and 1 μm,while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm.Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography.The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings),especially pyrene.The mass median diameter,PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content,but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased.In addition,Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges.As the palm oil was increased,the BaPeq decreased gradually.Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  10. Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal every 2(nd day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures, and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP and TNF α concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF α in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF α, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNFα release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP.

  11. Numerical investigation on soot particles emission in compression ignition diesel engine by using particulate mimic soot model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fadzli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research via computational method, specifically by detailed-kinetic soot model offers much more advantages than the simple model as more detailed formation/oxidation process is taken into consideration, thus providing better soot mass concentration, soot size, soot number density as well as information regarding other related species. In the present computational study, investigation of in-cylinder soot concentration as well as other emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine has been conducted, using a commercial multidimensional CFD software, CONVERGE CFD. The simulation was carried out for a close-cycle combustion environment from inlet valve closing (IVC to exhaust valve opening (EVO. In this case, detailed-kinetic Particulate Mimic (PM soot model was implemented as to take benefit of the method of moment, instead of commonly implemented simple soot model. Analyses of the results are successfully plotted to demonstrate that the soot size and soot mass concentration are strongly dependent on the detailed soot formation and oxidation process rates. The calculated of soot mass concentration and average soot size at EVO provide the end value of 29.2 mg/m3 and 2.04 × 10−8 m, respectively. Besides, post-processing using EnSight shows the qualitative results of soot concentration along simulation period in the combustion chamber.

  12. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation – Zero dimensional modelling and characterization for transient diesel combustion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Usman; Tjong, Jimi; Zheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zero-dimensional EGR model for transient diesel combustion control. • Detailed analysis of EGR effects on intake, cylinder charge and exhaust properties. • Intake oxygen validated as an operating condition-independent measure of EGR. • Quantified EGR effectiveness in terms of NOx emission reduction. • Twin lambda sensor technique for estimation of EGR/in-cylinder parameters. - Abstract: The application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) during transient engine operation is a challenging task since small fluctuations in EGR may cause larger than acceptable spikes in NOx/soot emissions or deterioration in the combustion efficiency. Moreover, the intake charge dilution at any EGR ratio is a function of engine load and intake pressure, and typically changes during transient events. Therefore, the management of EGR during transient engine operation or advanced combustion cycles (that are inherently less stable) requires a fundamental understanding of the transient EGR behaviour and its impact on the intake charge development. In this work, a zero-dimensional EGR model is described to estimate the transient (cycle-by-cycle) progression of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required for its stabilization. The model response is tuned to a multi-cylinder engine by using an overall engine system time-constant and shown to effectively track the transient EGR changes. The impact of EGR on the actual air–fuel ratio of the cylinder charge is quantified by defining an in-cylinder excess-air ratio that accounts for the oxygen in the recycled exhaust gas. Furthermore, a twin lambda sensor (TLS) technique is implemented for tracking the intake dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio in real-time. The modelling and analysis results are validated against a wide range of engine operations, including transient and steady-state low temperature combustion tests

  14. An approach towards risk assessment for the use of a synergistic metallic diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. L.; Richards, P. J.

    The motivations for legislation to set diesel emissions limits requiring the use of diesel particulate filters (DPF) are summarised. If the DPF is to be used, demonstration of regeneration (combustion of collected carbonaceous material) without additional emission problems is important. Potential metal emissions resulting from use of a synergistic Fe/Sr fuel-borne DPF regeneration catalyst are evaluated. Measurements over legislated drive cycle estimate the metals to comprise 1-2% of the solid material emitted, and the DPF to collect >99% of such material. Diesel particulate matter is used as a marker, and from existing air quality and emission inventory measurements, maximum conceivable increases of diet. In the context of reductions of other metals, particulate matter and pollutant emissions, the overall assessment is that the use of these metals to enable use of a DPF allows significant net environmental benefit to be obtained.

  15. Diesel fumes do kill: a case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning directly attributed to diesel fuel exhaust with a 10-year retrospective case and literature review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sean M; Ward, Michael K; Terrell, Andrea R; Stewart, Donna

    2008-09-01

    While it is known that diesel fuel combustion engines produce much lower concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) than gasoline engines, these emissions could certainly generate lethal ambient concentrations given a sufficient amount of time in an enclosed space and under suitable environmental conditions. The authors report a case of CO poisoning which was initially referred for autopsy as a presumed natural death of a truck driver found in the secure cab of a running diesel tractor trailer truck. Completion of the preliminary investigation ascribed death to complications of ischemic heart disease (IHD), pending toxicological analysis that included quantification of CO. When the toxicology results showed lethal blood COHbg, the cause of death was re-certified as CO intoxication secondary to inhalation of (diesel) vehicular exhaust fumes. Because of the unique source of fatal CO intoxication in this case, the contributory IHD and the possible contaminants in the putrefied blood, a 10-year retrospective review was conducted on all nonfire related CO deaths autopsied (n = 94) at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in Louisville, KY from 1994 to 2003. For validation of the COHbg detection method used by the Kentucky Office of Forensic Toxicology (KYOFT), blood samples from these cases along with controls were submitted to three laboratories using various analytical methods yielding no statistically significant differences. Lastly, an extensive literature review produced no scientifically reported cases of fatal CO poisoning attributed to diesel fuel exhaust.

  16. Reduction of exhaust gas emission for marine diesel engine. Hakuyo engine no taisaku (hakuyo engine no mondaiten to tenbo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Y. (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-05

    Since bunker fuel became extremely expensive through the first and second oil crisis, the share of steam turbines having lower thermal efficiency than diesel engines became less, and at present, almost all ships and vessels are equipped with Diesel engines. Also fuel consumption of a diesel engine has successfully been reduced by 24% in about 10 years, but the discharge of air pollutant in the exhaust gas has shown a trend of increase. Air pollutant in exhaust gas of marine engines which has not drawn attention so far has also begun attracting notice, and as marine traffic increases, some control of it will be made sooner or later. Hence economical and effective counter measures against exhaust gas are necessary. In this article, as measures for reducing NO {sub x}, discussions are made on water-emulsion fuel, humidification of air supply, multi-nozzle atomization, injection time delaying and SCR (selective catalitic reduction). Also measures for reducing SO {sub x} is commented upon and the continuation of superiority of Diesel engines in the future is predicted. 5 figs.

  17. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  18. Experimental study on filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system for heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Dongxiao; Shuai, Shijin; Zhao, Yanguang

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the filtration and continuous regeneration of a particulate filter system on an engine test bench, consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF). Both the DOC and the CDPF led to a high conversion of NO to NO2 for continuous regeneration. The filtration efficiency on solid particle number (SPN) was close to 100%. The post-CDPF particles were mainly in accumulation mode. The downstream SPN was sensitively influenced by the variation of the soot loading. This phenomenon provides a method for determining the balance point temperature by measuring the trend of SPN concentration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Multidisciplinary design optimization of the diesel particulate filter in the composite regeneration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; E, Jiaqiang; Gong, Jinke; Yuan, Wenhua; Zuo, Wei; Li, Yu; Fu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) for the DPF is presented. • MDO model and multi-objective functions of the DPF are established. • The optimal design parameters are obtained and DPF’s performances are improved. • The optimized results are verified by experiments. • The composite regeneration process of the optimized DPF allows a higher energy saving. - Abstract: In our previous works, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) using a new composite regeneration mode by coupling microwave and ceria-manganese base catalysts is verified as an effective way to reduce the particulate matter emission of the diesel engine. In order to improve the overall performance of this DPF, its multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) model is established based on objective functions such as pressure drop, regeneration performance, microwave energy consumption, and thermal shock resistance. Then, the DPF is optimized by using MDO method based on adaptive mutative scale chaos optimization algorithm. The optimization results show that with the help of MDO, DPF’s pressure drop is decreased by 14.5%, regeneration efficiency is increased by 17.3%, microwave energy consumption is decreased by 17.6%, and thermal deformation is decreased by 25.3%. The optimization results are also verified by experiments, and the experimental results indicate that the optimized DPF has larger filtration efficiency, better emission performance and regeneration performance, smaller pressure drop, lower wall temperature and temperature gradient, and lower microwave energy consumption.

  20. Emissions During and Real-world Frequency of Heavy-duty Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, Chris; Smith, Jeremy D; Ma, Yilin; Shields, Jennifer Erin; Burnitzki, Mark; Sobieralski, Wayne; Ianni, Robert; Chernich, Donald J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Collins, John Francis; Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David; Hu, Shaohua; Dwyer, Harry

    2018-05-15

    Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products. We also collected activity data from 85 HDDVs to determine how often regeneration occurs during real-world operation. PM emitted during regeneration ranged from 0.2 to 16.3 g, and the average time and distance between real-world active regenerations was 28.0 h and 599 miles. These results indicate that regeneration of real-world DPFs does not substantially offset the reduction of PM by DPFs during normal operation. The broad ranges of regeneration frequency per truck (3-100 h and 23-4078 miles) underscore the challenges in designing engines and associated aftertreatments that reduce emissions for all real-world duty cycles.

  1. Performance of diesel particulate filter catalysts in the presence of biodiesel ash species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Anker Degn; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of bio-fuels, such as biodiesel, is expected to contribute significantly towards the planned 10% of renewable energy within the EU transport sector by 2020. Increased biodiesel blend percentages may change engine exit flue gas ash composition and affect the long-term performance...... of cleaning technologies, such as oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. In this work the performance of a commercial catalyst has been studied for conversion of diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) at 10% O2, in the presence of salts simulating ash species derived from engine oil and biodiesel...... the temperature at which the oxidation rate peaked from 662 ± 1 °C to 526 ± 19 °C. The introduction of biodiesel ash species such as Na2CO3, K2CO3 or K3PO4 decreased the peak conversion temperature further (422 ± 12; 404 ± 4 and 423 ± 7 °C), with a limited dependence on ash concentration. A deterioration...

  2. Suitability of some promising soot combustion catalysts for application in diesel exhaust treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badini, Claudio; Saracco, Guido; Serra, Valentina; Specchia, Vito [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24-10129 Torino (Italy)

    1998-09-21

    In this work, the effect of thermal treatment at 380C and 600C, under gaseous atmospheres containing some typical components of diesel emissions (SO{sub 2} and water), was studied on some promising catalysts for diesel particulate combustion. In particular, the ageing behaviour of two novel catalysts (based on CsVO{sub 3}+KCl and KVO{sub 3}+KCl, respectively) and of a more widely studied Cu-K-V-Cl catalyst was investigated. The catalytic activities of these novel catalysts were lower than that of the Cu-K-V-Cl one, but, contrary to this last counterpart, they almost completely maintained their activity during ageing treatments in dry or humid air at 380C and 600C, respectively. Moreover, after prolonged thermal exposure in wet air, the activity of the Cu-K-V-Cl catalyst became comparable with that of the CsVO{sub 3}+KCl one, while remaining still slightly higher than that of the KVO{sub 3}+KCl catalyst. The thermal treatments of all the catalysts under investigation in an atmosphere containing SO{sub 2} did not cause an activity decrease. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the formation of new phases (sulphates and vanadates with a K/V ratio different from that of metavanadates) which could also improve the catalytic activity, counterbalancing the loss of active components due to evaporation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the catalyst activity was evaluated after employing repeatedly these catalysts in carbon combustion. The catalytic activities were generally slightly lowered by the repeated use, even though, from this viewpoint, that of Cu-K-V-Cl was more affected than those of the other catalysts. On the basis of the obtained results the CsVO{sub 3}+KCl catalyst was found to allow the best compromise between satisfactory catalyst activity and stability

  3. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  4. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  5. Experimental and thermodynamical analyses of the diesel exhaust vortex generator heat exchanger for optimizing its operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, a vortex generator heat exchanger is used to recover exergy from the exhaust of an OM314 diesel engine. Twenty vortex generators with 30° angle of attack are used to increase the heat recovery as well as the low back pressure in the exhaust. The experiments are prepared for five engine loads (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of full load), two exhaust gases amount (50 and 100%) and four water mass flow rates (50, 40, 30 and 20 g/s). After a thermodynamical analysis on the obtained data, an optimization study based on Central Composite Design (CCD) is performed due to complex effect of engine loads and water mass flow rates on exergy recovery and irreversibility to reach the best operating condition. - Highlights: • A vortex generator heat exchanger is used for diesel exhaust heat recovery. • A thermodynamic analysis is performed for experimental data. • Exergy recovery, irreversibility are calculated in different exhaust gases amount. • Optimization study is performed using response surface method

  6. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  7. An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Doubutamine Challenges in Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Short-term exposure to vehicular emissions is associated with adverse cardiac events. Diesel exhaust (DE) is an ubiquitous air pollutant believed to provoke cardiac events partly through imbalance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervo...

  8. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation in diesel engines featuring late PCCI type combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Ambrosio, S.; Ferrari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects that a high EGR rate can have on PCCI type combustion strategies have been analyzed. • The dependence of engine emissions and combustion noise on EGR has been addressed. • The time histories of the main in-cylinder variables have been plotted for different EGR rates. - Abstract: The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been analyzed considering experimental results obtained from a Euro 5 diesel engine calibrated with an optimized pilot-main double injection strategy. The engine features a late premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) type combustion mode. Different steady-state key-points that are representative of the engine application in a passenger car over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) have been studied. The engine was fully instrumented to obtain a complete overview of the most important variables. The pressure time history in the combustion chamber has been measured to perform calculations with single and three-zone combustion diagnostic models. These models allow the in-cylinder emissions and the temperature of the burned and unburned zones to be evaluated as functions of the crankshaft angle. The EGR mass fraction was experimentally varied within the 0–50% range. The results of the investigation have shown the influence that high EGR rates can have on intake and exhaust temperatures, in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate time histories, engine-out emissions (CO, HC, NO_x, soot), brake specific fuel consumption and combustion noise for a PCCI type combustion strategy. The outputs of the diagnostic models have been used to conduct a detailed analysis of the cause-and-effect relationships between the EGR rate variations and the engine performance. Finally, the effect of the EGR on the cycle-to-cycle variability of the engine torque has been experimentally investigated.

  9. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO 2 emissions while causing slightly higher NO x emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  10. The Role of MAC1 in Diesel Exhaust Particle-induced Microglial Activation and Loss of Dopaminergic Neuron Function

    OpenAIRE

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E.; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson’s disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (

  11. Air pollution & the brain: Subchronic diesel exhaust exposure causes neuroinflammation and elevates early markers of neurodegenerative disease

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald Jacob; Surace Michael J; Levesque Shannon; Block Michelle L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood. Objective We explored the central nervous system consequences of subchronic exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and addressed the minimum levels necessary to elicit neuroinflammation and markers of early neuropathology. Methods Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to DE (992, 311, 100, 35 a...

  12. Determination of aldehydes and ketones with high atmospheric reactivity on diesel exhaust using a biofuel from animal fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, R.; Monedero, E.; Guillén-Flores, J.

    2011-05-01

    Biodiesel from animal fats appears as an alternative for conventional diesel in automotive consumption. Animal fats are classified into three categories, although only one of them can be used for biodiesel production, according to regulation. Due to its novelty, researchers testing animal-fat biodiesel on diesel engines focus only on regulated emissions. In this paper, the experiments carried out analyze carbonyl compounds emissions, due to its highly atmospheric reactivity, to complete the characterization of the total emissions in this kind of biofuel. Two fuels, a reference petro-diesel and a pure animal-fat biodiesel, were tested in a 4-cylinder, direct injection, diesel engine Nissan Euro 5 M1D-Bk. Samples were collected in 4 different operating modes and 3 points along the exhaust line. The analyses of samples were made in a high performance liquid chromatography, following the method recommended by the CARB to analyze air quality. Results show, on the one hand, a significant rise in carbonyl emissions, almost three times at the mode with highest hydrocarbon emissions, when biodiesel is used. On the other hand, on average, a reduction of 90% of carbonyl emissions when exhaust gases go through the different post-treatment systems installed. Despite this reduction, specific reactivity does not decrease substantially.

  13. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadian, B.; Rahimi, H.; Nikbakht, A.M.; Najafi, G. [Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran); Yusaf, T.F. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 QLD (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This study deals with artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of a diesel engine using waste cooking biodiesel fuel to predict the brake power, torque, specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of the engine. To acquire data for training and testing the proposed ANN, a two cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with waste vegetable cooking biodiesel and diesel fuel blends and operated at different engine speeds. The properties of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oil was measured based on ASTM standards. The experimental results revealed that blends of waste vegetable oil methyl ester with diesel fuel provide better engine performance and improved emission characteristics. Using some of the experimental data for training, an ANN model was developed based on standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine. Multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for non-linear mapping between the input and output parameters. Different activation functions and several rules were used to assess the percentage error between the desired and the predicted values. It was observed that the ANN model can predict the engine performance and exhaust emissions quite well with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9487, 0.999, 0.929 and 0.999 for the engine torque, SFC, CO and HC emissions, respectively. The prediction MSE (Mean Square Error) error was between the desired outputs as measured values and the simulated values were obtained as 0.0004 by the model. (author)

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of the optimized finned-tube heat exchanger for OM314 diesel exhaust exergy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.; Gorji-Bandpy, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimized finned-tube heat exchanger is modeled. • Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm are applied. • Exergy recovery from exhaust of a diesel engine is studied. - Abstract: In this research, a multi objective optimization based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) are applied on the obtained results from numerical outcomes for a finned-tube heat exchanger (HEX) in diesel exhaust heat recovery. Thirty heat exchangers with different fin length, thickness and fin numbers are modeled and those results in three engine loads are optimized with weight functions for pressure drop, recovered heat and HEX weight. Finally, two cases of HEXs (an optimized and a non-optimized) are produced experimentally and mounted on the exhaust of an OM314 diesel engine to compare their results in heat and exergy recovery. All experiments are done for five engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of full load) and four water mass flow rates (50, 40, 30 and 20 g/s). Results show that maximum exergy recovers occurs in high engine loads and optimized HEX with 10 fins have averagely 8% second law efficiency in exergy recovery

  15. Effects of ultrafine diesel exhaust particles on oxidative stress generation and dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Lantz-McPeak, Susan M; Ali, Syed F; Kleinman, Michael T; Choi, Young-Sook; Kim, Heon

    2014-05-01

    A major constituent of urban air pollution is diesel exhaust, a complex mixture of gases, chemicals, and particles. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of a fatal stroke, cause cerebrovascular damage, and induce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that may trigger neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. The specific aim of this study was to determine whether ultrafine diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), the particle component of exhaust from diesel engines, can induce oxidative stress and effect dopamine metabolism in PC-12 cells. After 24 h exposure to DEPs of 200 nm or smaller, cell viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO(2)) generation, and levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)), were evaluated. Results indicated cell viability was not significantly changed by DEP exposure. However, ROS showed dramatic dose-dependent changes after DEP exposure (2.4 fold increase compared to control at 200 μg/mL). NO(2) levels were also dose-dependently increased after DEP exposure. Although not in a dose-dependent manner, upon DEP exposure, intracellular DA levels were increased while DOPAC and HVA levels decreased when compared to control. Results suggest that ultrafine DEPs lead to dopamine accumulation in the cytoplasm of PC-12 cells, possibly contributing to ROS formation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate this mechanism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inflammation-Related Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles: Studies on Lung Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, P. E.; Totlandsdal, A. I.; Låg, M.; Refsnes, M.; Holme, J. A.; Øvrevik, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust and its particles (DEP) have been under scrutiny for health effects in humans. In the development of these effects inflammation is regarded as a key process. Overall, in vitro studies report similar DEP-induced changes in markers of inflammation, including cytokines and chemokines, as studies in vivo. In vitro studies suggest that soluble extracts of DEP have the greatest impact on the expression and release of proinflammatory markers. Main DEP mediators of effects have still not been identified and are difficult to find, as fuel and engine technology developments lead to continuously altered characteristics of emissions. Involved mechanisms remain somewhat unclear. DEP extracts appear to comprise components that are able to activate various membrane and cytosolic receptors. Through interactions with receptors, ion channels, and phosphorylation enzymes, molecules in the particle extract will trigger various cell signaling pathways that may lead to the release of inflammatory markers directly or indirectly by causing cell death. In vitro studies represent a fast and convenient system which may have implications for technology development. Furthermore, knowledge regarding how particles elicit their effects may contribute to understanding of DEP-induced health effects in vivo, with possible implications for identifying susceptible groups of people and effect biomarkers. PMID:23509760

  17. Investigation of diesel engine for low exhaust emissions with different combustion chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodke Pundlik R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upcoming stringent Euro-6 emission regulations for passenger vehicle better fuel economy, low cost are the key challenges for engine development. In this paper, 2.2L, multi cylinder diesel engine have been tested for four different piston bowls designed for compression ratio of CR 15.5 to improve in cylinder performance and reduce emissions. These combustion chambers were verified in CFD at two full load points. 14 mode points have been derived using vehicle model run in AVL CRUISE software as per NEDC cycle based on time weightage factor. Base engine with compression ratio CR16.5 for full load performance and 14-mode points on Engine test bench was taken as reference for comparison. The bowl with flat face on bottom corner has shown reduction 25% and 12 % NOx emissions at 1500 and 3750 rpm full load points at same level of Soot emissions. Three piston bowls were tested for full load performance and 14 mode points on engine test bench and combustion chamber ‘C’ has shown improvement in thermal efficiency by 0.8%. Combinations of cooled EGR and combustion chamber ‘C’ with geometrical changes in engine have reduced exhaust NOx, soot and CO emissions by 22%, 9 % and 64 % as compared to base engine at 14 mode points on engine test bench.

  18. A novel pulsed corona discharge reactor based on surface streamers for diesel exhaust remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, M.A.; Schoenbach, K.H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

    2010-07-01

    Modelling of surface streamers along insulating surfaces to determine the dielectric strength of insulators in high voltage systems has shown that surface streamers consist of a positive streamer head followed by quasi-neutral plasma in the channel behind and surrounded by a layer of positive charges. This paper described a novel pulsed corona discharge reactor which utilized such surface streamers along insulating surfaces. The electrodes were comprised of a stainless steel wire anode of 150 mm in diameter stretched along the surface of a glass sheet and two parallel aluminum strips as cathodes. An eight-stage Marx bank, was used to produce the surface streamers in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure. The paper described the experimental study with particular reference to the schematics of a surface streamer plasma reactor and the dimensions of discharge spaces of three reactors. The purpose of the study was to find the optimum conditions for energy yield and effective destruction of nitrogen oxides from diesel engine exhaust. It was concluded that surface streamers generate a more diffuse plasma. Energy costs for production of ozone or nitrogen dioxide that require reactions with bulk gas molecules were nearly the same in surface streamer discharges as in volume streamer discharges. 12 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  19. DNA damage in rats after a single oral exposure to diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Risom, Lotte; Wallin, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    gavage of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in terms of DNA damage, oxidative stress and DNA repair in colon epithelial cells, liver, and lung of rats. Eight rats per group were exposed to Standard Reference Material 2975 at 0.064 or 0.64 mg/kg bodyweight for 6 and 24 h. Increased levels of 8-oxo-7...... of DEP, but not in the colon and liver. A general response of the antioxidant defence system is further indicated by elevated levels of heme oxygenase 1 mRNA in the liver and lung 24 h after administration. The level of bulky DNA adducts was increased in liver and lung at both doses after 6 and 24h (DNA...... adducts in colon epithelium were not investigated). In summary, DEP administered via the gastrointestinal tract at low doses relative to ambient exposure generates DNA damage and increase the expression of defence mechanisms in organs such as the lung and liver. The oral exposure route should be taken...

  20. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  1. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  2. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  3. Performance and regeneration of a pellet-packed-bed diesel-particulate trap; Ryutai jutenso diesel biryushi trap no seino oyobi saisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, M; Nakai, S; Ikegami, M [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hori, Y [Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper demonstrates with the feasibility of a pellet-packed bed for trapping diesel particulates. After making pellets loose from the packed condition, regeneration is established by a circulation of pellets in the trap and collected particulates are efficiently dropped out through the wire mesh on the bottom of the trap. An experimental trap with the pellet-circulation system using a spiral feeder is tested on a single-cylinder test engine to show the trap and regeneration efficiencies. In addition, the condition of pellet circulation is observed using the transparent cylinder, based on which the design of pellet and trap sizes are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Mass spectral chemical fingerprints reveal the molecular dependence of exhaust particulate matters on engine speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Zongshan; Tian, Yong; Liu, Kun; Jie, Feifan; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matters (PMs) emitted by automobile exhaust contribute to a significant fraction of the global PMs. Extractive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (EAPCI-MS) was developed to explore the molecular dependence of PMs collected from exhaust gases produced at different vehicle engine speeds. The mass spectral fingerprints of the organic compounds embedded in differentially sized PMs (e.g., 0.22-0.45, 0.45-1.00, 1.00-2.00, 2.00-3.00, 3.00-5.00, and 5.00-10.00μm) generated at different engine speeds (e.g., 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000r/min) were chemically profiled in the mass range of mass to charge ratio (m/z) 50-800. Organic compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, and esters, were detected in all the PMs tested, with varied concentration levels for each individual PM sample. At relatively low engine speeds (≤1500r/min), the total amount of organic species embedded in PMs of 0.22-1.00μm was greater than in PMs of other sizes, while more organic species were found in PMs of 5.00-10.00μm at high engine speeds (≥3000r/min), indicating that the organic compounds distributed in different sizes of PMs strongly correlated with the engine speed. The experimental data showed that the EAPCI-MS technique enables molecular characterization of PMs in exhaust, revealing the chemical dependence of PMs on the engine speeds (i.e., the combustion conditions) of automobiles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Particulate matter emission modelling based on soot and SOF from direct injection diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.Q.; Hu, Z.Y.; Deng, K.Y.; Lu, J.X.; Lou, D.M.; Wan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emission is one of the major pollutants from diesel engines, and it is harmful for human health and influences the atmospheric visibility. In investigations for reducing PM emission, a simulation model for PM emission is a useful tool. In this paper, a phenomenological, composition based PM model of direct injection (DI) diesel engines has been proposed and formulated to simulate PM emission. The PM emission model is based on a quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model using the formation mechanisms of the two main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). First, the quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is given. Then, two models for soot and SOF emissions are established, respectively, and after that, the two models are integrated into a single PM emission model. The soot emission model is given by the difference between a primary formation model and an oxidation model of soot. The soot primary formation model is the Hiroyasu soot formation model, and the Nagle and Strickland-Constable model is adopted for soot oxidation. The SOF emission model is based on an unburned hydrocarbons (HC) emission model, and the HC emission model is given by the difference between a HC primary formation model and a HC oxidation model. The HC primary formation model considers fuel injected and mixed beyond the lean combustion limit during ignition delay and fuel effusing from the nozzle sac volume at low pressure and low velocity. In order to validate the PM emission model, experiments were performed on a six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, which indicates the validity of the PM emission model. The calculation results show that the distinctions between PM and soot formation rates are mainly in the early combustion stage. The SOF formation has an important influence on the PM formation at lower loads, and soot formation dominates the

  6. Experimental–theoretical methodology for determination of inertial pressure drop distribution and pore structure properties in wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Serrano, J.R.; Piqueras, P.

    2011-01-01

    Wall-flow particulate filters have been placed as a standard technology for Diesel engines because of the increasing restrictions to soot emissions. The inclusion of this system within the exhaust line requires the development of computational tools to properly simulate its flow dynamics and acoustics behaviour. These aspects become the key to understand the influence on engine performance and driveability as a function of the filter placement. Since the pressure drop and the filtration process are strongly depending on the pore structure properties – permeability, porosity and pore size – a reliable definition of these characteristics is essential for model development. In this work a methodology is proposed to determine such properties based on the combination of the pressure drop rement in a steady flow test rig and two theoretical approaches. The later are a lumped model and a one-dimensional (1D) unsteady compressible flow model. The purpose is to simplify the integration of particulate filters into the global engine modelling and development processes avoiding the need to resort to specific and expensive characterisation tests. The proposed methodology was validated against measurements of the response of an uncoated diesel particulate filter (DPF) under different flow conditions as cold steady flow, impulsive flow and hot pulsating flow. -- Highlights: ► Experimental and modelling tools to characterise wall-flow DPFs pressure drop. ► Decomposition of inertial pressure drop contributions in canned DPFs. ► Methodology to define pore structure properties in clean wall-flow DPFs. ► Evaluation of specific permeability, porosity and mean pore diameter. ► Significant influence of slip-flow effect on uncoated wall-flow DPFs.

  7. Potential ozone impacts of excess NO2 emissions from diesel particulate filters for on- and off-road diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-llan, Amnon; Johnson, Jeremiah R; Denbleyker, Allison; Chan, Lit-Mian; Yarwood, Gregory; Hitchcock, David; Pinto, Joseph P

    2010-08-01

    This study considers potential impacts of increased use of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) and catalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPFs) on ozone formation in the Dallas/ Fort Worth (DFW) area. There is concern that excess nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from vehicles equipped with these devices could increase ambient ozone levels. The approach involved developing two scenarios for use of these devices, quantifying excess NO2 emissions in each scenario, and using a photochemical model to estimate the resulting ozone changes. In the "maximum penetration" scenario, DOC/DPF devices in a 2009 fleet of heavy-duty on-road trucks, school buses, and construction equipment were significantly increased by accelerating turnover of these vehicles and equipment to models that would require DOCs/DPFs. In the "realistic" scenario, current fractional usage of these devices was assessed for 2009. For both scenarios, excess NO2 emissions from DOCs/DPFs were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOBILE6 and NONROAD emissions inventory modeling tools. The emissions analyses were used to adjust the DFW photochemical modeling emissions inventories and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions air quality model was rerun for the DFW area to determine the impact of these two scenarios on ozone formation. The maximum penetration scenario, which showed an overall reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) because of the accelerated turnover of equipment to cleaner models, resulted in a net decrease in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of 4-5 parts per billion (ppb) despite the increase in NO2 emissions. The realistic scenario resulted in a small increase in daily maximum 8-hr ozone of less than 1 ppb for the DFW area. It was concluded that the excess NO2 emissions from DOC/DPF devices result in very small ozone impacts, particularly for the realistic scenario, in the DFW area. There are noticeable decreases in ozone for the maximum penetration scenario because NO

  8. Part 1. Assessment of carcinogenicity and biologic responses in rats after lifetime inhalation of new-technology diesel exhaust in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Seagrave, JeanClare; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara; Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K; Miller, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to 2007-compliant new-technology diesel exhaust (NTDE*). The a priori hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions "... will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used ... although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis was tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay. Indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats were measured after 1, 3, 12, 24, and 28-30 months of exposure. Similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity were measured in mice, as an interspecies comparison of the effects of subchronic exposure, after 1 and 3 months of exposure. A previous HEI report (Mauderly and McDonald 2012) described the operation of the engine and exposure systems and the characteristics of the exposure atmospheres during system commissioning. Another HEI report described the biologic responses in mice and rats after subchronic exposure to NTDE (McDonald et al. 2012). The primary motivation for the present chronic study was to evaluate the effects of NTDE in rats in the context of previous studies that had shown neoplastic lung lesions in rats exposed chronically to traditional technology diesel exhaust (TDE) (i.e., exhaust from diesel engines built before the 2007 U.S. requirements went into effect). The hypothesis was largely based on the marked reduction of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in NTDE compared with emissions from older diesel engine and fuel technologies, although other emissions were also reduced. The DPM

  9. Effect of isothermal dilution on emission factors of organic carbon and n-alkanes in the particle and gas phases of diesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Shuich; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Furuyama, Akiko; Hirano, Seishiro; Takami, Akinori

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effect of isothermal dilution (30 °C) on emission factors (EFs) of semivolatile and nonvolatile compounds of heavy-duty diesel exhaust, we measured EFs for particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle phase, and EFs for n-alkanes in both the particle phase and the gas phase of exhaust produced under high-idle engine operating conditions at dilution ratios (DRs) ranging from 8 to 1027. The EC EFs did not vary with DR, whereas the OC EFs in the particle phase determined at DR = 1027 were 13% of the EFs determined at DR = 8, owing to evaporation of organic compounds. Using partitioning theory and n-alkane EFs measured at DR = 14 and 238, we calculated the distributions of compounds between the particle and gas phases at DR = 1760, which corresponds to the DR for tailpipe emissions as they move from the tailpipe to the roadside atmosphere. The gas-phase EF of a compound with a vapor pressure of 10-7 Pa was 0.01 μg kg-1-fuel at DR = 14, and this value is 1/330 the value derived at DR = 1760. Our results suggest that the EFs of high-volatility compounds in the particle phase will be overestimated and that the EFs of low-volatility compounds in the gas phase will be underestimated if the estimates are derived from data obtained at the low DRs and they are applied to the real world. Therefore, extrapolation from EFs derived at low DR values to EFs at atmospherically relevant DRs will be a source of error in predictions of the concentrations of particulate matter and gas-phase precursors to secondary organic aerosols in air quality models.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann simulations for wall-flow dynamics in porous ceramic diesel particulate filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Gi Wook; Yoon, Kyu; Chun, Byoungjin; Jung, Hyun Wook

    2018-01-01

    Flows through porous filter walls of wall-flow diesel particulate filter are investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The microscopic model of the realistic filter wall is represented by randomly overlapped arrays of solid spheres. The LB simulation results are first validated by comparison to those from previous hydrodynamic theories and constitutive models for flows in porous media with simple regular and random solid-wall configurations. We demonstrate that the newly designed randomly overlapped array structures of porous walls allow reliable and accurate simulations for the porous wall-flow dynamics in a wide range of solid volume fractions from 0.01 to about 0.8, which is beyond the maximum random packing limit of 0.625. The permeable performance of porous media is scrutinized by changing the solid volume fraction and particle Reynolds number using Darcy's law and Forchheimer's extension in the laminar flow region.

  11. Developing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Models to Evaluate Available Energy in Exhaust Systems of Diesel Light-Duty Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández-Yáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Around a third of the energy input in an automotive engine is wasted through the exhaust system. Since numerous technologies to harvest energy from exhaust gases are accessible, it is of great interest to find time- and cost-efficient methods to evaluate available thermal energy under different engine conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is becoming a very valuable tool for numerical predictions of exhaust flows. In this work, a methodology to build a simple three-dimensional (3D model of the exhaust system of automotive internal combustion engines (ICE was developed. Experimental data of exhaust gas in the most used part of the engine map in passenger diesel vehicles were employed as input for calculations. Sensitivity analyses of different numeric schemes have been conducted in order to attain accurate results. The model built allows for obtaining details on temperature and pressure fields along the exhaust system, and for complementing the experimental results for a better understanding of the flow phenomena and heat transfer through the system for further energy recovery devices.

  12. Influence of biofuels on exhaust gas and noise emissions of small industrial diesel engines; Einfluss von Biokraftstoffen auf die Abgas- und Geraeuschemission kleiner Industriedieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessert, B.M. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen; Schleicher, A. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Umweltmesstechnik

    2007-03-15

    At small industrial diesel engines, as they were brought in oftentimes on building sites, in the farming and forest industry and on boats, biofuels are increasingly used. In a research project of the University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany, thus the changes of the exhaust gas pollutant and noise emissions of these diesel engines were investigated. Test fuels were diesel fuel, and also biofuels as biodiesel (RME), rape seed oil and sun flower oil. Depending on the operating point these biofuels increased or reduced the emissions of exhaust gas and noise of the investigated engines clearly. (orig.)

  13. Development of New Diesel Oxidation and NH3 Slip Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Klint

    Diesel engines used in the transport sector and for other heavy machinery form pollutants during the combustion process. Emission of these pollutants into the atmosphere has harmful consequences on human health and the environment. In order to mitigate these harmful effects, regulations have been...... imposed by environmental protection agencies on the most significant pollutants, including CO, hydrocarbons, NOx, and particulate matter. To reduce emissions to the levels specified by the recent Euro VI regulations, it is necessary to apply catalytic exhaust gas aftertreat-ment systems. A modern diesel...... exhaust aftertreatment system commonly consists of a Pt-based diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) to oxidize CO and unburnt hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O, and oxidize NO to NO2. This is followed by the diesel particulate filter (DPF), which entraps particulate matter from the exhaust gas. A solution of urea...

  14. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassee, Flemming R.; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A. John F.; McLean, Steven G.; Duffin, Rodger; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE −/− ) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m 3 , 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results: Addition of CeO 2 to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6–8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions: These results imply that addition of CeO 2 nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

  15. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassee, Flemming R., E-mail: flemming.cassee@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Campbell, Arezoo, E-mail: acampbell@westernu.edu [Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA (United States); Boere, A. John F., E-mail: john.boere@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); McLean, Steven G., E-mail: smclean1@staffmail.ed.ac.uk [BHF/University Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Duffin, Rodger, E-mail: Rodger.Duffin@ed.ac.uk [MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Krystek, Petra, E-mail: petra.krystek@philips.com [Philips Innovation Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gosens, Ilse, E-mail: Ilse.gosens@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Miller, Mark R., E-mail: Mark.Miller@ed.ac.uk [BHF/University Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Background: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m{sup 3}, 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results: Addition of CeO{sub 2} to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions: These results imply that addition of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

  16. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassee, Flemming R; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A John F; McLean, Steven G; Duffin, Rodger; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R

    2012-05-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m(3), 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Addition of CeO(2) to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. These results imply that addition of CeO(2) nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  18. Perinatal exposure to diesel exhaust affects gene expression in mouse cerebrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukue, Naomi [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Japan Automobile Research Institute, Health Effects Research Group, Energy and Environment Research Division, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Manabu; Kumamoto, Takayuki; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Pathophysiology Research Team, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Many environmental toxins alter reproductive function and affect the central nervous system (CNS). Gonadal steroid hormones cause differentiation of neurons and affect brain function and behavior during the perinatal period, and the CNS is thought to be particularly susceptible to toxic insult during this period. It was, therefore, hypothesized that inhalation of diesel exhaust (DE) during the fetal or suckling period would disrupt the sexual differentiation of brain function in mice, and the effects of exposure to DE during the perinatal period on sexual differentiation related gene expression of the brain were investigated. In the fetal period exposure group, pregnant ICR mice were exposed to DE from 1.5 days post-coitum (dpc) until 16 dpc. In the neonatal period exposure group, dams and their offspring were exposed to DE from the day of birth [postnatal day (PND)-0] until PND-16. Then, the cerebrums of males and females at PND-2, -5, and -16 from both groups were analyzed for expression level of mRNA encoding stress-related proteins [cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)] and steroid hormone receptors [estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), estrogen receptor beta (ER beta), androgen receptor (AR)]. Expression levels of ER alpha and ER beta mRNA were increased in the cerebrum of newborns in the DE exposure groups as well as mRNA for CYP1A1 and HO-1. Results indicate that perinatal exposure to DE during the critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain may affect endocrine function. (orig.)

  19. Global increases in allergic respiratory disease: the possible role of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B; Saxon, A

    1996-10-01

    Reading this article will enable the readers to recognize and evaluate i e potential relationship between allergic respiratory disease and polyaromatic hydrocarbons as air pollutants from industrial and automotive fuel sources. In this article we review the long-term trends in the prevalence of allergic airway diseases (rhinitis and asthma). We then examine the epidemiologic and other research data relating to the role that hydrocarbon fuel emissions may have had on allergic respiratory disease. Published literature on the relationship between specific air pollutants and trends in allergic respiratory disease were reviewed. Reports of research on pollutant effects on allergic antibody (IgE) were also studied. In both cases, the Melvyl-Medline database since 1975 was used for literature searches. Older references were identified from the bibliographies of relevant articles and books and with the help of the rare books collection at UCLA's Louis M. Darling Biomedical library. Examination of the historical record indicates that allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma have significantly increased in prevalence over the past two centuries. Although the reasons for this increase are not fully elucidated, epidemiologic data suggest that certain pollutants such as those produced from the burning of fossil fuels may have played an important role in the prevalence changes. Also important are studies showing that diesel exhaust, a prototypical fossil fuel, is able to enhance in vitro and in vivo IgE production. Increased levels of the compounds resulting from fossil fuel combustion may be partly responsible for the increased prevalence of allergic respiratory disease. If the nature of these compounds and the mechanisms by which they exacerbate allergic disease can be identified, steps can be taken to reduce the production or the impact of these allergy producing compounds.

  20. Thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization of an organic Rankine cycle for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Song, Songsong; Bei, Chen; Wang, Hongjin; Wang, Enhua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) technology is adopted to recover the exhaust waste heat of diesel engine. The thermodynamic, economic and optimization models of the ORC system are established, respectively. Firstly, the effects of four key parameters, including evaporation pressure, superheat degree, condensation temperature and exhaust temperature at the outlet of the evaporator on the thermodynamic performances and economic indicators of the ORC system are investigated. Subsequently, based on the established optimization model, GA (genetic algorithm) is employed to solve the Pareto solution of the thermodynamic performances and economic indicators for maximizing net power output and minimizing total investment cost under diesel engine various operating conditions using R600, R600a, R601a, R245fa, R1234yf and R1234ze as working fluids. The most suitable working fluid used in the ORC system for diesel engine waste heat recovery is screened out, and then the corresponding optimal parameter regions are analyzed. The results show that thermodynamic performance of the ORC system is improved at the expense of economic performance. Among these working fluids, R245fa is considered as the most suitable working fluid for the ORC waste heat application of the diesel engine with comprehensive consideration of thermoeconomic performances, environmental impacts and safety levels. Under the various operating conditions of the diesel engine, the optimal evaporation pressure is in the range of 1.1 MPa–2.1 MPa. In addition, the optimal superheat degree and the exhaust temperature at the outlet of the evaporator are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the diesel engine. The optimal condensation temperature keeps a nearly constant value of 298.15 K. - Highlights: • Thermoeconomic multi-objective optimization of an ORC (Organic Rankine cycle) system is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis of the decision variables is performed. • Genetic algorithm

  1. A study of diesel-hydrogen fuel exhaust emissions in a compression ignition engine/generator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, V.; Hafez, H.A.; Kirkegaard, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A compression engine and duel-fuel supply system was studied in order to determine the influence of hydrogen gas on a diesel engine's exhaust system. Commercially available solenoid valves and pulse actuators were used in a customized mechatronic control unit (MICU) to inject the hydrogen gas into the cylinders during the experiments. The MICU was designed as a generic external attachment. Diesel fuel was used to ignite the hydrogen gas-air mixture after compression. Various different electrical loads were then applied using an alternator in order to stimulate the engine governor and control diesel flow. Results of the study showed that measured carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) loads of exhaust emissions increased, while emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) decreased. Results also showed that higher temperatures and levels of NO x occurred when hydrogen was mixed with the induced air. It was concluded that higher levels of hydrogen may be needed to reduce emissions. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Effect of fumigation methanol and ethanol on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Tsang, K. S.; Cheung, C. S.; Chan, T. L.; Yao, C. D.

    2011-02-01

    Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with methanol or ethanol injected into the air intake of each cylinder, to compare their effect on the engine performance, gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque speed of 1800 rev/min. The methanol or ethanol was injected to top up 10% and 20% of the engine loads under different engine operating conditions. The experimental results show that both fumigation methanol and fumigation ethanol decrease the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at low engine load but improves it at high engine load; however the fumigation methanol has higher influence on the BTE. Compared with Euro V diesel fuel, fumigation methanol or ethanol could lead to reduction of both NOx and particulate mass and number emissions of the diesel engine, with fumigation methanol being more effective than fumigation ethanol in particulate reduction. The NOx and particulate reduction is more effective with increasing level of fumigation. However, in general, fumigation fuels increase the HC, CO and NO 2 emissions, with fumigation methanol leading to higher increase of these pollutants. Compared with ethanol, the fumigation methanol has stronger influence on the in-cylinder gas temperature, the air/fuel ratio, the combustion processes and hence the emissions of the engine.

  3. Pollution odorante par les moteurs Diesel. Mesure des odeurs d'échappement Odorous Pollution by Diesel Engines. Measuring Exhaust Odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degobert P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études de mesure d'odeur Diesel ont commencé en 1956 aux États-Unis, en particulier pour réduire le niveau odorant des autobus. Cet article expose d'abord les mécanismes de formation des odorants puis les études américaines, qui ont abouti en 1973 à l'odorimètre Arthur D. Little, basé sur l'analyse par chromatographie liquide de l'échappement, et ses corrélations avec les données sensorielles recueillies dans des conditions particulières. Les économies d'énergie dans les villes européennes entraînent un accroissement du nombre de véhicules Diesel, ce qui peut amener un niveau odorant incompatible avec le bien-être. C'est pourquoi l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP étudie actuellement les odeurs Diesel, pour mettre au point des méthodes de mesure fiables, partant de la chromatographie liquide type Arthur D. Little (ADL et de l'évaluation sensorielle. Les résultats actuels montrent qu'à moins de progrès importants en analyse chimique, l'évaluation sensorielle reste la méthode la plus fiable. Les perspectives futures basées sur l'olfactomètre différentiel Mac Leod sont présentées. Research was beg un in the United States in 1956 on the medsurementof diesel engine odors, and especially on reducing the odor from diesel city buses. This article begins by describing the mechanisms of odor formation and then goes on ta, review US research which resulted in the Arthur D. Little odormeter in 1973, based on a liquid chromatography analysis of exhaust and its corrélations with sensory data gathered under specific conditions. Energy conservation in European cities is tending ta, increase the number of diesel vehicles and possibly ta, create an odor level that is incompatible with humal well-being. This is why Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is now investigating diesel eng ine odors for the purpose of developing reliable measuring methods based on liquid chromatography of the Arthur D. Little (ADl type and on

  4. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  6. Effects of ethanol added fuel on exhaust emissions and combustion in a premixed charge compression ignition diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yungjin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of diesel engines for vehicle has been increasing recently due to its higher thermal efficiency and lower CO2 emission level. However, in the case of diesel engine, NOx increases in a high temperature combustion region and particulate matter is generated in a fuel rich region. Therefore, the technique of PCCI (premixed charge compression ignition is often studied to get the peak combustion temperature down and to make a better air-fuel mixing. However it also has got a limited operating range and lower engine power produced by the wall wetting and the difficulty of the ignition timing control. In this research, the effect of injection strategies on the injected fuel behavior, combustion and emission characteristics in a PCCI engine were investigated to find out the optimal conditions for fuel injection, and then ethanol blended diesel fuel was used to control the ignition timing. As a result, the combustion pressures and ROHR (rate of heat release of the blended fuel became lower, however, IMEP showed fewer differences. Especially in the case of triple injection, smoke could be reduced a little and NOx emission decreased a lot by using the ethanol blended fuel simultaneously without much decreasing of IMEP compared to the result of 100% diesel fuel.

  7. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  8. INHIBITION OF PAN NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR P75 ATTENUATES DIESEL PARTICULATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES IN C57/BL6J MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance in allergic mice. Diesel exhaust particle...

  9. Local and Systemic Inflammation May Mediate Diesel Engine Exhaust-Induced Lung Function Impairment in a Chinese Occupational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Duan, Huawei; Meng, Tao; Yang, Mo; Cui, Lianhua; Bin, Ping; Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Liping; Zheng, Yuxin; Leng, Shuguang

    2018-04-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) as the major source of vehicle-emitted particle matter in ambient air impairs lung function. The objectives were to assess the contribution of local (eg, the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO] and serum Club cell secretory protein [CC16]) and systemic (eg, serum C-reaction protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) inflammation to DE-induced lung function impairment using a unique cohort of diesel engine testers (DETs, n = 137) and non-DETs (n = 127), made up of current and noncurrent smokers. Urinary metabolites, FeNO, serum markers, and spirometry were assessed. A 19% reduction in CC16 and a 94% increase in CRP were identified in DETs compared with non-DETs (all p values regulatory risk assessment. Local and systemic inflammation may be key processes that contribute to the subsequent development of obstructive lung disease in DE-exposed populations.

  10. Evaluation of traffic exhaust contributions to ambient carbonaceous submicron particulate matter in an urban roadside environment in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Berto Paul; Kwok Keung Louie, Peter; Luk, Connie; Keung Chan, Chak

    2017-12-01

    Road traffic has significant impacts on air quality particularly in densely urbanized and populated areas where vehicle emissions are a major local source of ambient particulate matter. Engine type (i.e., fuel use) significantly impacts the chemical characteristics of tailpipe emission, and thus the distribution of engine types in traffic impacts measured ambient concentrations. This study provides an estimation of the contribution of vehicles powered by different fuels (gasoline, diesel, LPG) to carbonaceous submicron aerosol mass (PM1) based on ambient aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and elemental carbon (EC) measurements and vehicle count data in an urban inner city environment in Hong Kong with the aim to gauge the importance of different engine types to particulate matter burdens in a typical urban street canyon. On an average per-vehicle basis, gasoline vehicles emitted 75 and 93 % more organics than diesel and LPG vehicles, respectively, while EC emissions from diesel vehicles were 45 % higher than those from gasoline vehicles. LPG vehicles showed no appreciable contributions to EC and thus overall represented a small contributor to traffic-related primary ambient PM1 despite their high abundance (˜ 30 %) in the traffic mix. Total carbonaceous particle mass contributions to ambient PM1 from diesel engines were only marginally higher (˜ 4 %) than those from gasoline engines, which is likely an effect of recently introduced control strategies targeted at commercial vehicles and buses. Overall, gasoline vehicles contributed 1.2 µg m-3 of EC and 1.1 µ m-3 of organics, LPG vehicles 0.6 µg m-3 of organics and diesel vehicles 2.0 µg m-3 of EC and 0.7 µg m-3 of organics to ambient carbonaceous PM1.

  11. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Performance Characteristics of a Direct Injection Multi Cylinders Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ibrahim Abaas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing  to  the  energy  crisis  and  pollution  problems  of  today  investigations  have  concentrated  on decreasing  fuel  consumption  and  on  lowering  the  concentration  of  toxic  components  in  combustion products by using exhaust gas after treatments methods like PM filters and EGR for NOx reduction. In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel fuel were compared with that pr oduced from adding EGR at several percentages to air manifold. The tests were performed in a four-cylinder direct injection (DI diesel engine at constant engine speed (1500 rpm and variable loads (from no load to 86 kN/m2, the tests were repeated with constant load (77 kN/m2 and variable engine speeds (from 1250 to 3000 rpm.The experimental results showed that adding EGR to diesel engine provided significant reductions in brake power (bp, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperatures, while high increments in brake specific  fuel  consumption  (bsfc.  High  EGR  percentage  (as  30%  in  this  article  caused  an  11.7% reduction  in  brake  thermal  efficiency,  26.38%  reduction  in  exhaust  gas  temperatures  and  12.28%  in volumetric efficiency at full load conditions.

  12. Study of Exhaust Emissions Reduction of a Diesel Fuel Operated Heater During Transient Mode of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklánek Ľubomír

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel operated heaters (FOHs are generally used as an independent heat source for any system in which a diesel fuel and battery power is available. Based on the fact that future engines will become even more efficient and thus less waste heat will be available to heat the passenger compartment, independent heat sources will be even more necessary.

  13. Numerical investigation of exhaust gas emissions for a dual fuel engine configuration using diesel and pongamia oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ibrahim, N H; Udayakumar, M

    2016-12-01

    The investigation presented in this paper focuses on determination of gaseous exhaust emissions by computational simulation during combustion in compression ignition engine with pongamia oil substitution. Combustion is modeled using Equilibrium Constants Method (ECM) with MATLAB program to calculate the mole fraction of 10 combustion products when pongamia oil is burnt along with diesel at variable equivalence ratio and blend ratio. It had been observed that pongamia oil substitution causes decrease in the CO emission and increase in the NO x emission as the blend ratio as well as equivalence ratio increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of particle emission in automobil exhaust - application of continuous radiometric aerosol measurement to the emission of diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasenbrink, A.; Georgi, B.

    1989-01-01

    The well-known method of measuring continuously dust by β-absorption is transferred to the problem of particle emission in automobile exhaust. With two similar dust-monitors FH62 having different sampling air flow rates and two low-pressure impactors the reliability of radiometric mass determination was verified. First static experiments with diesel soot showed the necessity of a dilution system, a new mass calibration with regard to the changed β-absorptivity and a quicker calculation of concentration for realtime measurements. (orig.) [de

  15. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin, E-mail: tin.tin.win.shwe@nies.go.jp [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan); Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro [Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16‐2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305‐8506 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m{sup 3}), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m{sup 3}), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to

  16. Novel object recognition ability in female mice following exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) for 3 months impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning ability and up-regulated the expressions of memory function-related genes in the hippocampus of female mice. However, whether NRDE affects the hippocampus-dependent non-spatial learning ability and the mechanism of NRDE-induced neurotoxicity was unknown. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE, 47 μg/m 3 ), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE, 129 μg/m 3 ), or filtered H-NRDE (F-DE) for 3 months. We then investigated the effect of NRDE exposure on non-spatial learning ability and the expression of genes related to glutamate neurotransmission using a novel object recognition test and a real-time RT-PCR analysis, respectively. We also examined microglia marker Iba1 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analyses. Mice exposed to H-NRDE or F-DE could not discriminate between familiar and novel objects. The control and M-NRDE-exposed groups showed a significantly increased discrimination index, compared to the H-NRDE-exposed group. Although no significant changes in the expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits were observed, the expression of glutamate transporter EAAT4 was decreased and that of glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 was increased in the hippocampus of H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the expression levels in control mice. We also found that microglia activation was prominent in the hippocampal area of the H-NRDE-exposed mice, compared with the other groups. These results indicated that exposure to NRDE for 3 months impaired the novel object recognition ability. The present study suggests that genes related to glutamate metabolism may be involved in the NRDE-induced neurotoxicity observed in the present mouse model. -- Highlights: ► The effects of nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. ► We investigated the effect of exposure to

  17. Co-optimization of diesel fuel biodegradation and N2 fixation through the addition of particulate organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehler, M.; Swistak, J.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment is widespread and current bioremedial techniques are often not cost effective for small spills. The formulation of simple and inexpensive bioremedial methods could help reduce the impacts of frequent low volume spills in areas like marinas and ports. Particulate organic carbon (POC) was added to diesel fuel amended samples from inshore marine waters in the form of corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems), with and without inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). Biodegradation of diesel fuel ( 14 C hexadecane mineralization) and N 2 fixation were measured in response to the additions, The addition of POC was necessary for N 2 fixation and diesel fuel biodegradation to co-occur. The effects of diesel fuel and inorganic nutrient additions on N 2 fixation rates were not consistent, with both inhibitory and stimulatory responses to each addition observed. The highest observed diesel fuel biodegradation levels were in response to treatments that included inorganic nutrients. The addition of POC alone increased diesel fuel degradation levels above that observed in the control. In an attempt to determine the effect of the POC on the microbial community, the corn particles were observed microscopically using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with tetrazolium salt additions. The corn particles were found to have abundant attached bacterial communities and microscale oxygen concentration gradients occurring on individual particles. The formation of oxygen replete microzones may be essential for the co-occurrence of aerobic diesel fuel biodegradation and oxygen inhibited N2 fixation. Mesocosm experiments are currently underway to further examine the structure and function of this primarily heterotrophic system and to explore the potential contribution of N 2 fixation to the N requirements of diesel fuel biodegradation

  18. Genotoxic potential of diesel exhaust particles from the combustion of first- and second-generation biodiesel fuels-the FuelHealth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Magdalena; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Brzoska, Kamil; Wojewodzka, Maria; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Mruk, Remigiusz; Øvrevik, Johan; Kruszewski, Marcin; Lankoff, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from traffic emissions is associated with higher risk of morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, accelerated progression of atherosclerotic plaques, and possible lung cancer. While the impact of DEPs from combustion of fossil diesel fuel on human health has been extensively studied, current knowledge of DEPs from combustion of biofuels provides limited and inconsistent information about its mutagenicity and genotoxicity, as well as possible adverse health risks. The objective of the present work was to compare the genotoxicity of DEPs from combustion of two first-generation fuels, 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (B7) and 20% FAME (B20), and a second-generation 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (SHB: synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel) fuel. Our results revealed that particulate engine emissions from each type of biodiesel fuel induced genotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as the increased levels of single-strand breaks, the increased frequencies of micronuclei, or the deregulated expression of genes involved in DNA damage signaling pathways. We also found that none of the tested DEPs showed the induction of oxidative DNA damage and the gamma-H2AX-detectable double-strand breaks. The most pronounced differences concerning the tested particles were observed for the induction of single-strand breaks, with the greatest genotoxicity being associated with the B7-derived DEPs. The differences in other effects between DEPs from the different biodiesel blend percentage and biodiesel feedstock were also observed, but the magnitude of these variations was limited.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  20. Evaluation of a first mine real time diesel particulate matter (DPM) monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Gillies; Hsin Wei Wu [Gillies Wu Mining Technology (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the study was to develop, test and prove up under mine conditions a Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) real time atmospheric monitoring unit. The design for the new instrument, termed the D-PDM, is based on the recently developed real time respirable dust PDM. The project's main activities were to undertake through internationally recognised laboratory testing an evaluation of the new design and to undertake a comprehensive underground series of tests to establish the robustness and reliability of the new approach. The phases of design, the international laboratory testing and the underground mine evaluation in five operating mines proved that the monitor is capable in normal mine atmospheres of accurately measuring DPM levels in real time. The monitor has successfully reported data when used as a static or stationary instrument, when placed within the cab of a moving vehicle and when worn on a person's belt. The outcomes of the project provide the industry access to an enhanced tool for understanding the presence of DPM in the mine atmosphere.

  1. Field evaluation of diesel particulate matter using portable elemental carbon monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisko, S.; Noll, J.D. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The permissible exposure limits of underground mine workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) was lowered in 2008 by the United States Mine Safety and Health Administration. In order to comply with the new regulation, most mines must use one or several combined control strategies to lower DPM concentrations. Since DPMs are complex and unpredictable, there is a need for new tools to help mines develop an effective strategy to reduce their concentrations. This paper reported on newly developed portable elemental carbon (EC) monitoring device for use in underground mines. This compact instrument was developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to monitor EC concentrations in real time. The device has proven to be useful in planning new DPM curtailment strategies and in measuring the effectiveness of existing DPM controls. The information is provided in charts of concentration changes over time. The data offers a new way of understanding the factors that influence DPM exposure and drive concentration transients in an underground environment. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Oxidation behaviours of particulate matter emitted by a diesel engine equipped with a NTP device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jianbing; Ma, Chaochen; Xing, Shikai; Sun, Liwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Final oxidation temperatures increased for PM aggregation compared with raw PM. • Devolatilized PM aggregation exhibited similar oxidation rate constants. • DSC-based method is more accurate than TGA-based method. - Abstract: To resolve the regeneration problem of non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, the oxidation behaviours of diesel particulate matter (PM) were investigated. Oxidation kinetic parameters were calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Friedman-Reich-Levi (FRL) methods based on thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. The DSC-based method avoided the disadvantages of TGA-based method, and the oxidation kinetic parameters calculated using the two methods were compared. The results showed that the effect of plasma on the oxidation behaviours differed greatly for PM sampled at engine loads. The TGA profiles of PM aggregation (collected on the collection plate of NTP reactor) sampled at 60% and 100% engine loads were similar although they differed significantly for raw PM. Devolatilization of raw PM led the TGA profiles to shift slightly to lower temperature, however, the TGA curves shifted to higher temperature for PM aggregation and PM treated with plasma (PM escaping from NTP reactor). The oxidation rate constants of devolatilized PM aggregation sampled at different engine loads were almost the same. DSC-based method revealed the oxidation behaviours and kinetic parameters with more accuracy than TGA-based method.

  3. Effect of fin attachment on thermal stress reduction of exhaust manifold of an off road diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Akbar; Partoaa; Morteza; Abdolzadeh; Masoud; Rezaeizadeh

    2017-01-01

    The effect of fin attachment on the thermal stress reduction of exhaust manifold of an off road diesel engine(Komatsu HD325-6) was investigated.For doing this,coupled thermo-fluid-solid analysis of exhaust manifold of the off road diesel engine was carried out.The thermal analysis,including thermal flow,thermal stress,and the thermal deformation of the manifold was investigated.The flow inside the manifold was simulated and then its properties including velocity,pressure,and temperature were obtained.The flow properties were transferred to the solid model and then the thermal stresses and the thermal deformations of the manifold under different operating conditions were calculated.Finally,based on the predicted thermal stresses and thermal deformations of the manifold body shell,two fin types as well as body shell thickness increase were applied in the critical induced thermal stress area of the manifold to reduce the thermal stress and thermal deformation.The results of the above modifications show that the combined modifications,i.e.the thickness increase and the fin attachment,decrease the thermal stresses by up to 28% and the contribution of the fin attachment in this reduction is much higher compared to the shell thickness increase.

  4. Effects of premixed diethyl ether (DEE) on combustion and exhaust emissions in a HCCI-DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, Can; Can, Ozer; Sahin, Fatih; Yucesu, H. Serdar

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of premixed ratio of diethyl ether (DEE) on the combustion and exhaust emissions of a single-cylinder, HCCI-DI engine were investigated. The experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2200 rpm and 19 N m operating conditions. The amount of the premixed DEE was controlled by a programmable electronic control unit (ECU) and the DEE injection was conducted into the intake air charge using low pressure injector. The premixed fuel ratio (PFR) of DEE was changed from 0% to 40% and results were compared to neat diesel operation. The percentages of premixed fuel were calculated from the energy ratio of premixed DEE fuel to total energy rate of the fuels. The experimental results show that single stage ignition was found with the addition of premixed DEE fuel. Increasing and phasing in-cylinder pressure and heat release were observed in the premixed stage of the combustion. Lower diffusion combustion was also occurred. Cycle-to cycle variations were very small with diesel fuel and 10% DEE premixed fuel ratio. Audible knocking occurred with 40% DEE premixed fuel ratio. NO x -soot trade-off characteristics were changed and improvements were found simultaneously. NO x and soot emissions decreased up to 19.4% and 76.1%, respectively, while exhaust gas temperature decreased by 23.8%. On the other hand, CO and HC emissions increased.

  5. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  6. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  7. Comparative evaluation of three alternative power cycles for waste heat recovery from the exhaust of adiabatic diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    Three alternative power cycles were compared in application as an exhaust-gas heat-recovery system for use with advanced adiabatic diesel engines. The power cycle alternatives considered were steam Rankine, organic Rankine with RC-1 as the working fluid, and variations of an air Brayton cycle. The comparison was made in terms of fuel economy and economic payback potential for heavy-duty trucks operating in line-haul service. The results indicate that, in terms of engine rated specific fuel consumption, a diesel/alternative-power-cycle engine offers a significant improvement over the turbocompound diesel used as the baseline for comparison. The maximum imporvement resulted from the use of a Rankine cycle heat-recovery system in series with turbocompounding. The air Brayton cycle alternatives studied, which included both simple-cycle and compression-intercooled configurations, were less effective and provided about half the fuel consumption improvement of the Rankine cycle alternatives under the same conditions. Capital and maintenance cost estimates were also developed for each of the heat-recovery power cycle systems. These costs were integrated with the fuel savings to identify the time required for net annual savings to pay back the initial capital investment. The sensitivity of capital payback time to arbitrary increases in fuel price, not accompanied by corresponding hardware cost inflation, was also examined. The results indicate that a fuel price increase is required for the alternative power cycles to pay back capital within an acceptable time period.

  8. Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS, which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres. The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO. The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2 allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

  9. Estimation of quantitative levels of diesel exhaust exposure and the health impact in the contemporary Australian mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; de Klerk, Nicholas; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; Musk, Aw Bill; Vermeulen, Roel

    2017-03-01

    To estimate quantitative levels of exposure to diesel exhaust expressed by elemental carbon (EC) in the contemporary mining industry and to describe the excess risk of lung cancer that may result from those levels. EC exposure has been monitored in Western Australian miners since 2003. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate EC levels for five surface and five underground occupation groups (as a fixed effect) and specific jobs within each group (as a random effect). Further fixed effects included sampling year and duration, and mineral mined. On the basis of published risk functions, we estimated excess lifetime risk of lung cancer mortality for several employment scenarios. Personal EC measurements (n=8614) were available for 146 different jobs at 124 mine sites. The mean estimated EC exposure level for surface occupations in 2011 was 14 µg/m 3 for 12 hour shifts. Levels for underground occupation groups ranged from 18 to 44 µg/m 3 . Underground diesel loader operators had the highest exposed specific job: 59 µg/m 3 . A lifetime career (45 years) as a surface worker or underground miner, experiencing exposure levels as estimated for 2011 (14 and 44 µg/m 3 EC), was associated with 5.5 and 38 extra lung cancer deaths per 1000 males, respectively. EC exposure levels in the contemporary Australian mining industry are still substantial, particularly for underground workers. The estimated excess numbers of lung cancer deaths associated with these exposures support the need for implementation of stringent occupational exposure limits for diesel exhaust. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    İleri, Erol; Koçar, Günnur

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NO x emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  12. Prolonged Pulmonary Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Exacerbates Renal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and DNA Damage in Mice with Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Epidemiological evidence indicates that patients with chronic kidney diseases have increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes related to long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Methods: Presently, we assessed the effect of prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP on chronic renal failure induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 4 weeks, which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. DEP (0.5m/kg was intratracheally (i.t. instilled every 4th day for 4 weeks (7 i.t. instillation. Four days following the last exposure to either DEP or saline (control, various renal endpoints were measured. Results: While body weight was decreased, kidney weight increased in DEP+adenine versus saline+adenine or DEP. Water intake, urine volume, relative kidney weight were significantly increased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Plasma creatinine and urea increased and creatinine clearance decreased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Tumor necrosis factor α, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species were significantly increased in adenine+DEP compared with either DEP or adenine+saline. The antioxidant calase was significantly decreased in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Notably, renal DNA damage was significantly potentiated in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Similarly, systolic blood pressure was increased in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP, and in DEP versus saline. Histological evaluation revealed more collagen deposition, higher number of necrotic cell counts and dilated tubules, cast formation and collapsing glomeruli in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP. Conclusion: Prolonged pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles worsen renal oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in mice with adenine-induced chronic

  13. Prolonged Pulmonary Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Exacerbates Renal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and DNA Damage in Mice with Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Karaca, Turan; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Yasin, Javed; Hamadi, Naserddine Kamel; Ali, Badreldin H

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that patients with chronic kidney diseases have increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes related to long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Presently, we assessed the effect of prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on chronic renal failure induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 4 weeks), which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. DEP (0.5m/kg) was intratracheally (i.t.) instilled every 4th day for 4 weeks (7 i.t. instillation). Four days following the last exposure to either DEP or saline (control), various renal endpoints were measured. While body weight was decreased, kidney weight increased in DEP+adenine versus saline+adenine or DEP. Water intake, urine volume, relative kidney weight were significantly increased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Plasma creatinine and urea increased and creatinine clearance decreased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Tumor necrosis factor α, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species were significantly increased in adenine+DEP compared with either DEP or adenine+saline. The antioxidant calase was significantly decreased in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Notably, renal DNA damage was significantly potentiated in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Similarly, systolic blood pressure was increased in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP, and in DEP versus saline. Histological evaluation revealed more collagen deposition, higher number of necrotic cell counts and dilated tubules, cast formation and collapsing glomeruli in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP. Prolonged pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles worsen renal oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in mice with adenine-induced chronic renal failure. Our data provide biological plausibility that air

  14. Parametric study of a thermoelectric generator system for exhaust gas energy recovery in diesel road freight transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, S.; Heber, L.; Coelho, P.J.; Silva, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 1-D numerical TEG model in diesel freight vehicles exhaust pipe. • Over 800 W of electrical power for the heavy-duty vehicle. • Plain fins provide better performance than offset strip fins. • The height of the thermocouple legs plays a significant role. • 2% maximum efficiency needs further improvements. - Abstract: A parametric study and optimization approaches of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) for the recovery of energy from the exhaust gas in Diesel vehicles used in freight transport is reported. The TEG is installed in the tailpipe of a commercial vehicle (3.5 tonnes) and a heavy-duty vehicle (40 tonnes). The exhaust gas is used as the heat source and the cooling water as the heat sink. Two different heat exchanger configurations are considered: plain fins and offset strip fins. The influence of the height, length and spacing of the fins on the electrical and net power is analysed for the fixed width and length of the TEG. The influence of the length and width of the TEG and of the height of the thermocouple legs is also investigated. According to the criteria used in this study, plain fins are the best choice, yielding a maximum electrical power of 188 W for the commercial vehicle and 886 W for the heavy-duty vehicle. The best recovery efficiency is about 2%, with an average thermoelectric material efficiency of approximately 4.4%, for the light-duty vehicle. Accordingly, there is significant room for further improvement and optimisation based on the thermoelectric modules and the system design.

  15. Near-Road Modeling and Measurement of Particles Generated by Nanoparticle Diesel Fuel Additive Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (n-Ce) are used as a fuel-borne catalyst in diesel engines to reduce particulate emissions, yet the environmental and human health impacts of the ceria-doped diesel exhaust aerosols are not well understood. To bridge the gap between emission mea...

  16. Part 3. Assessment of genotoxicity and oxidative stress after exposure to diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant diesel engines: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L M; Ward, J B; Hernandez, C; Ameredes, B T; Wickliffe, J K

    2012-09-01

    Human health hazards due to diesel exhaust (DE*) exposure have been associated with both solvent and combustion components. In the past, diesel engine exhaust components have been linked to increased mutagenicity in cultures of Salmonella typhimurium and mammalian cells (Tokiwa and Ohnishi 1986). In addition, DE has been shown to increase both the incidence of tumors and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine adducts (8-OHdG) in ICR mice (Ichinose et al. 1997). Furthermore, DE is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulates. One such PAH, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), has been identified in DE and found in urban air. 3-NBA has been observed to induce micronucleus formation in DNA of human hepatoma cells (Lamy et al. 2004). The purpose of the current research, which is part of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), a multidisciplinary program being carried out by the Health Effects Institute and the Coordinating Research Council, is to determine whether improvements in the engineering of heavy-duty diesel engines reduce the oxidative stress and genotoxic risk associated with exposure to DE components. To this end, the genotoxicity and oxidative stress of DE from an improved diesel engine was evaluated in bioassays of tissues from Wistar Han rats and C57BL/6 mice exposed to DE. Genotoxicity was measured as strand breaks using an alkaline-modified comet assay. To correlate possible DNA damage found by the comet assay, measurement of DNA-adduct formation was evaluated by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the levels of free 8-OHdG found in the serum of the animals exposed to DE. 8-OHdG is a specific modified base indicating an oxidative type of DNA damage to DNA nucleotides. In addition, a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to assess oxidative stress and damage in the form of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus region of the brains of DE

  17. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  18. Pulsed Plasma Processing of Diesel Engine Exhaust Final Report CRADA No. TC-0336-92-1-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Bernard T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Broering, Louis [Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The goal was to develop an exhaust-gas treatment process for the reduction of NOx and hydrocarbon from diesel engines. The project began believing that direct chemical reduction on NOx was possible through the use of non-thermal plasmas. The original CRADA began in 1993 and was scheduled to finish in 1996. It had as its goals three metrics: 1) remove two grams/brake-horse-power-hour of NOx, 2) have no more than five percent energy penalty, and 3) cost no more than ten percent of the engine cost. These goals were all aimed at heavy-duty diesel trucks. This CRADA had its Defense Program funding eliminated by DOE prior to completion in 1995. Prior to loss of funding from DOE, LLNL discovered that due to the large oxygen content in diesel exhaust, direct chemical reduction was not possible. In understanding why, a breakthrough was achieved that combined the use of a non-thermal plasma and a catalyst. This process was named Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reduction (P ACR). Because of this breakthrough, the CRADA became a funds-in only CRADA, once DOE DP funding ended. As a result, the funding decreased from about 1M dollars per year to about $400k per year. Subsequently, progress slowed as well. The CRADA was amended several times to reflect the funds-in nature. At each amendment, the deliverables were modified; the goals remained the same but the focus changed from heavy-duty to lightduty to SUVs. The diesel-engine NOx problem is similar to the furnace and boiler NOx emission problem with the added constraint that ammonia-like additives are impractical for a mobile source. Lean-burning gasoline engines are an additional area of application because the standard three-way catalyst is rendered ineffective by the presence of oxygen. In the P ACR process an electrical discharge is used to create a non-thermal plasma that contains oxidative radicals O and OH. These oxidative radicals convert NO to NO2. Selective catalytic

  19. NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR BLOCKADE ATTENUATES DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICULATE MATTER (DEP) ENHANCEMENT OF ALLERGIC RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY:Recent investigations have linked neurotrophins including NGF, NT-3, and BDNF to allergic airways diseases. Antibody blockade of NGF attenuates airway resistance associated with allergic airway responses in mice. Mice administered an antibody against the low aff...

  20. The Regeneration of Ceramic Diesel Exhaust Filters by Means of Surface Plasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helfritch, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    .... Exhaust filtration technology has to be deployed for effective soot control. Most of today's filter-based technologies, however, experience high operational back-pressures causing unfavorable fuel consumption...

  1. Conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on diesel particulate matter upon exposure to ppm levels of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaeck, L.; Van Cauwenberghe, K.

    Diesel exhaust particlulate matter samples were collected from a dilution tunnel using a Hi-Vol cascade impactor. The fraction of the aerosol with aerodynamic diameter below 0.5 μm, retained on the glass fiber back-up filter, was exposed to a flow of ozonised particle free air for periods of 0.5-4 h (1.5 ppm of O 3, flow rate about 40 m 3 h -1). Both exposed and non-exposed reference niters were Soxhlet-extracted with benzene and methanol, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fraction (PAH) was isolated by a liquid-liquid partition procedure described in the literature, using cyclohexane and dimethylformamid-water as solvents, modified for quantitative recovery of PAH. The conversion yields of PAH upon exposure to O 3 were determined by single ion monitoring mass spectrometry using a fused silica capillary column for their separation. Significant conversion was observed for PAH from molecular weight 226 to 276. Approximate half lives are of the order of 0.5-1 h for most PAH measured. This high reactivity of PAH on a carbonaceous matrix is probably related to the large specific surface of soot particles as well as to their high adsorptive capacity for gaseous compounds. Lower molecular weight PAH up to chrysene also undergo important physical losses by volatilisation and the extent to which chemical transformations occurred could not be determined accurately. Different reactivities are observed for several isomeric pairs of PAH: benzo(a)pyrene is much faster converted than benzo(e)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene reacts faster than chrysene. The benzo-fluoranthenes are most resistant toward O 3 attack. The implications of these results with respect to atmospheric degradation of PAH, as well as to the occurrence of artefactual conversion upon Hi-Vol sampling are discussed.

  2. Comparing the NIOSH Method 5040 to a Diesel Particulate Matter Meter for Elemental Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, David Matthew

    Introduction: The sampling of elemental carbon has been associated with monitoring exposures in the trucking and mining industries. Recently, in the field of engineered nanomaterials, single wall and muti-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are being produced in ever increasing quantities. The only approved atmospheric sampling for multi-wall carbon nanotubes in NIOSH Method 5040. These results are accurate but can take up to 30 days for sample results to be received. Objectives: Compare the results of elemental carbon sampling from the NIOSH Method 5040 to a Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) Meter. Methods: MWCNTs were transferred and weighed between several trays placed on a scale. The NIOSH Method 5040 and DPM sampling train was hung 6 inches above the receiving tray. The transferring and weighing of the MWCNTs created an aerosol containing elemental carbon. Twenty-one total samples using both meters type were collected. Results: The assumptions for a Two-Way ANOVA were violated therefore, Mann-Whitney U Tests and a Kruskal-Wallis Test were performed. The hypotheses for both research questions were rejected. There was a significant difference in the EC concentrations obtained by the NIOSH Method 5040 and the DPM meter. There were also significant differences in elemental carbon level concentrations when sampled using a DPM meter versus a sampling pump based upon the three concentration levels (low, medium and high). Conclusions: The differences in the EC concentrations were statistically significant therefore, the two methods (NIOSH Method 5040 and DPM) are not the same. The NIOSH Method 5040 should continue to be the only authorized method of establishing an EC concentration for MWCNTs until a MWCNT specific method or an instantaneous meter is invented.

  3. Mobile Monitoring of Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure within Five Urban Microenvironments, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P. J.; Bennett, B. A.; George, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a hazardous air pollutant linked to mortality and morbidity outcomes including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and adverse respiratory effects. The EPA's Air Toxics Assessment indicated that more than 50% of Oregonians are exposed to 10 times the ambient benchmark concentration (ABC) of 0.1 μgm-3 for DPM. These model estimates have not been verified with measurements, potentially limiting policy action. We developed a mobile monitoring platform to ground-truth model predictions and characterize DPM spatial variation. Using black carbon (BC) as a marker, concentrations within five urban microenvironments (a construction site, an arterial, a bus mall, a city park, and an indoor workspace) were sampled within Portland, OR. The mobile monitoring platform consisted of a bicycle and trailer equipped with an aethalometer measuring BC mass, a Data Ram 4 measuring total PM2.5 mass, and a Q-Starz GPS recording location; each instrument was monitoring in 1 second intervals. Concentrations of BC were used as an indicator of DPM. The construction site had the highest DPM concentration (7 μg m-3). The indoor workspace and the park had the lowest DPM (0.3 μg m-3). Near the construction site, DPM constituted approximately 50% of the total PM2.5. However, at the park, DPM was attributed to only 6% of the total PM2.5, while the indoor space constituted 15%. Concentrations of BC near construction sites were observed to exceed 67 times the state ABC of 0.1 μg m-3 (Figure). These results signify the need to better characterize the urban exposure to DPM, as even the cleanest microenvironments may be 3 times above the ABC. Our mobile monitoring platform will help further elucidate how local-scale sources contribute to the broader distribution of DPM within Portland, while providing a tool for both residents and DEQ to effectively mitigate the health impacts from DPM exposure.

  4. A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2003-10-01

    An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles.

  5. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Naeimi Hessamedin; Domiry Ganji Davood; Gorji Mofid; Javadirad Ghasem; Keshavarz Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD) are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction loss...

  6. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  7. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    the behavior of the scavenge oxygen fraction well over the entire envelope of load and blower speed range that are relevant for EGR. The simplicity of the new model makes it suitable for observer and control design, which are essential steps to meet the emission requirements for marine diesel engines that take...

  8. Brain suppression of AP-1 by inhaled diesel exhaust and reversal by cerium oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lung, Shyang; Cassee, Flemming R; Gosens, Ilse; Campbell, Arezoo

    One of the uses of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria, CeO2) is as a diesel fuel additive to improve fuel efficiency. Gene/environment interactions are important determinants in the etiology of age-related disorders. Thus, it is possible that individuals on high-fat diet and genetic

  9. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in immune/inflammatory markers : a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Dai, Yufei; Vermeulen, Roel; Ren, Dianzhi; Hu, Wei; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Xu, Jun; Shiels, Meredith S; Kemp, Troy J; Pinto, Ligia A; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Zhou, Baosen; Yang, Jufang; Ye, Meng; Jia, Xiaowei; Meng, Tao; Wong, Jason Y Y; Li, Ping; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hildesheim, Allan; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Yuxin; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a known lung carcinogen, and immune/inflammatory markers that have been prospectively associated with lung cancer risk is not well understood. To provide insight into these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study

  10. Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and blowout limits of a high-pressure combustor segment is evaluated using a splash-groove air-atomizing fuel injector and a pressure-atomizing simplex fuel nozzle to burn both diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels. Exhaust emissions and blowout data are obtained and compared on the basis of the aromatic content and volatility of the two fuels. Exhaust smoke number and emission indices for oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons are determined for comparison. As compared to the pressure-atomizing nozzle, the air-atomizing nozzle is found to reduce nitrogen oxides by 20%, smoke number by 30%, carbon monoxide by 70%, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50% when used with diesel number 2 fuel. The higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility of diesel number 2 fuel as compared to Jet A fuel appears to have the most detrimental effect on exhaust emissions. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons are twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel.

  11. Structure–activity relationships of Pt/Al2O3 catalysts for CO and NO oxidation at diesel exhaust conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boubnov, Alexey; Dahl, Søren; Johnson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Structure–performance relationships for Pt/Al2O3 catalysts with mean Pt particle sizes of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10nm are investigated for the catalytic oxidation of CO and NO under lean-burning diesel exhaust conditions. The most active catalysts for CO oxidation exhibit Pt particles of 2–3nm, having...

  12. Experimental study on Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency intended for exhaust waste heat recovery of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper pressents an experimental study of Rankine cycle evaporator efficiency. Water was chosen as the working fluid in the system. The experimental test was conducted on a test bench equipped with a burner charged by compressed fresh air. Generated exhaust gases parameters were previously determined over the diesel engine operating range (28 engine operating points were studied. For each test point the working fluid parameters (flow rate and evaporating pressure were varied. Thus, the enthalpy flow through the heat exchanger was determined. Heat exchanger was designed as 23 helical tubes are inserted. On the basis of the results, it was found out that efficiency varies from 25 % to 51,9 %. The optimal working fluid pressure is 20 bar at most of the operating points while the optimum fluid mass flow rate varies from 2 g/s to 10 g/s.

  13. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Performance Characteristics of a Direct Injection Multi Cylinders Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Ibrahim Abaas

    2016-01-01

    Owing  to  the  energy  crisis  and  pollution  problems  of  today  investigations  have  concentrated  on decreasing  fuel  consumption  and  on  lowering  the  concentration  of  toxic  components  in  combustion products by using exhaust gas after treatments methods like PM filters and EGR for NOx reduction. In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel fuel were compared with that pr oduced from adding EGR at several percentages to air manifold. The tests were performed in a fo...

  14. Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Andreassen, Åshild; Farmer, Peter B.

    1996-01-01

    Diesel exhaust-exposed workers have been shown to have an increased risk of lung cancer. A battery of biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to assess differences in exposure to genotoxic compounds in bus garage workers and mechanics and controls. Lymphocyte DNA adducts were analyzed using...... correlated with HPU but not with DNA adducts. The levels of HPU in urine were 0.11 micromol/mol creatinine compared to 0.05 in controls. All three assays applied were sensitive enough to evaluate a low level of exposure to environmental pollutants, with postlabelling and GC-MS as the most sensitive assays....... The study indicated that skin absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might be an important factor to consider when studying PAH exposure from air pollution sources....

  15. Oxidative damage to DNA by diesel exhaust particle exposure in co-cultures of human lung epithelial cells and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Roursgaard, Martin; Madsen, Claus Desler

    2012-01-01

    Studies in mono-culture of cells have shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress-related damage to DNA. However, the level of particle-generated genotoxicity may depend on interplay between different cell types, e.g. lung...... treatment with standard reference DEPs, SRM2975 and SRM1650b. The exposure to DEPs did not affect the colony-forming ability of A549 cells in co-culture with THP-1a cells. The DEPs generated DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA, measured using the alkaline comet assay as formamidopyrimidine...... relationship between levels of respiration and ROS production. In conclusion, exposure of mono-cultured cells to DEPs generated oxidative stress to DNA, whereas co-cultures with macrophages had lower levels of oxidatively damaged DNA than A549 epithelial cells....

  16. An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Dan; Gao Dengshan; Yu Gang; Shen Xianglin; Gu Fan

    2005-01-01

    A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions

  17. Potential hazards of particulate noble metal emissions from car exhaust catalysts. Gefaehrdungspotential von partikulaeren Edelmetallemissionen aus Automobilabgas-Katalysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeber, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present bibliographical study is to investigate into the possibility of health impairment by emissions of eroded and particulate precious metals of catalytic converters for motor-car exhaust gas. Connected therewith is a survey of environmental pollution so far caused by platinum metals and of their biological impact. The risk estimation relates solely to the data on emission obtained during normal operation; research work is still needed with respect to the chemical composition, the size distribution and the particle forms of the precious metals emitted. Besides, only limited data are available as to the environmental behaviour of the precious metals.

  18. [Particle emission characteristics of diesel bus fueled with bio-diesel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Hu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), a study on the characteristics of particle emissions was carried out on a China-IV diesel bus fueled with blends of 5% , 10% , 20% , 50% bio-diesel transformed from restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure bio-diesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0). The results indicated that particulate number (PN) and mass (PM) emissions of bio-diesel blends increased with the increase in bus speed and acceleration; with increasing bio-diesel content, particulate emissions displayed a relevant declining trend. In different speed ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) was bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD showed a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation was switched from decelerating to accelerating status. Bio-diesel blends with higher mixture ratios showed significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and the particulate number emission peaks moved towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes; reduction also occurred in particle geometric diameter (Dg).

  19. Tracking the pathway of diesel exhaust particles from the nose to the brain by X-ray florescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yasuto [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: y.matsui@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakai, Nobumitsu [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: sakai@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tsuda, Akira [Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: atsuda@hsph.harvard.edu; Terada, Yasuko [JASRI, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)], E-mail: yterada@spring8.or.jp; Takaoka, Masaki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: takaoka@epsehost.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fujimaki, Hidekazu [Division of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail: fujimaki@nies.go.jp; Uchiyama, Iwao [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: uchiyama@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-08-15

    Studies have shown that exposure to nano-sized particles (< 50 nm) result in their translocation to the central nervous system through the olfactory nerve. Translocation commonly occurs via inhalation, ingestion and skin uptake. Little information is available on the specific pathway of cellular localization of nano-sized particles in the olfactory bulb. The nano-sized particles entrance into the postsynaptics cell is of particular interest because the mitral cell projects to the central nucleus of the amygdala and the piriform cortex. Therefore, our objective in this follow-up study has been to determine whether or not the mitral cells project nano-sized particles to the brain. Nano-sized particles in this study were generated using diesel exhaust. Lab mice were exposed for a period of 4 weeks. We employed synchrotron radiation (SPring-8, Japan) to determine the concentration levels of metal in the olfactory neuron pathway. Metal levels were assayed by mapping, using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The major metal components measured in the filter that collected the inhaled diesel exhaust particles were calcium, copper, iron, nickel and zinc. Our studies reveal an increase in the amount of nano-sized particles in the glomerular layer as well as in the neurons in the olfactory epithelium. Higher levels of nickel and iron were found in the olfactory epithelium's lamina propria mucosae in comparison to that in the control group. Higher levels of iron also were observed in the glomerular layer. Our studies do not clarify the specifics of metal adhesion and detachment. This remains to be one of the key issues requiring further clarification.

  20. Study of exhaust emissions of direct injection diesel engine operating on ethanol, petrol and rapeseed oil blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeckas, Gvidonas; Slavinskas, Stasys

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, diesel engine operating on pure rapeseed oil (RO) and its 2.5 vol%, 5 vol%, 7.5 vol% and 10 vol% blends with ethanol (ERO), petrol (PRO) and both improving agents applied in equal proportions as 50:50 vol% (EPRO). The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of ethanol and petrol addition into RO on diesel engine emission characteristics and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The biggest NO x emissions, 1954 and 2078 ppm, at 2000 min -1 speed generate blends PRO10 (9.72%) and EPRO5 (11.13%) against, 1731 and 1411 ppm, produced from ERO5 (12%) and ERO10 (13.2% oxygen) blends. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions emitted from a fully loaded engine fuelled with three agent blends EPRO5-7.5 at maximum torque and rated speed are higher by 39.5-18.8% and 27.5-16.1% and smoke opacity lower by 3.3-9.0% and 24.1-17.6% comparing with RO case. When operating at rated 2200 min -1 mode, the carbon dioxide, CO 2 , emissions are lower, 6.9-6.3 vol%, from blends EPRO5-7.5 relative to that from RO, 7.8 vol%, accompanied by a slightly higher emission of unburned hydrocarbons HC, 16 ppm, and residual oxygen contents O 2 , 10.4-12.0 vol%, in the exhausts

  1. FTIR Analysis of Surface Functionalities on Particulate Matter Produced by Off-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Diesel and Biofuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovicheva, O.B.; Kireeva, E.D.; Shonija, N.K.; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 4534-4544 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-01438S Grant - others:RFBR-NSC(RU) 12-05-00395; RFBR-NSC(RU) 12-05-92002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : diesel/biofuel emissions * off-road engine * combustion nanoparticles Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2015

  2. Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30 Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21 , 24 , 27 , 30 and 33 CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. The experimental test results showed that BSFC and emissions of NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} increased as BTE and emissions of CO and HC decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. When compared to the results of original injection timing (27 CA BTDC), NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased, and unburned HC and CO emissions decreased for the retarded injection timings (21 and 24 CA BTDC) at the all test conditions. On the other side, with the advanced injection timings (30 and 33 CA BTDC), decreasing HC and CO emissions diminished, and NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions boosted. In terms of BSFC and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing in the all fuel blends gave negative results for all engine speeds and loads. (author)

  3. Effects of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a dual-fuel diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cenk; Canakci, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, influence of injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated, single cylinder diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The engine load was selected as 15 and 30 Nm. The tests were conducted at five different injection timings (21 deg., 24 deg., 27 deg., 30 deg. and 33 deg. CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. The experimental test results showed that BSFC and emissions of NO x and CO 2 increased as BTE and emissions of CO and HC decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. When compared to the results of original injection timing (27 deg. CA BTDC), NO x and CO 2 emissions increased, and unburned HC and CO emissions decreased for the retarded injection timings (21 deg. and 24 deg. CA BTDC) at the all test conditions. On the other side, with the advanced injection timings (30 deg. and 33 deg. CA BTDC), decreasing HC and CO emissions diminished, and NO x and CO 2 emissions boosted. In terms of BSFC and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings compared to the original injection timing in the all fuel blends gave negative results for all engine speeds and loads

  4. Emission and performance analysis on the effect of exhaust gas recirculation in alcohol-biodiesel aspirated research diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Arulprakasajothi; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Radhakrishnan, Santhanakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effect of blending pentanol to biodiesel derived from mahua oil on emissions and performance pattern of a diesel engine under exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mode was examined and compared with diesel. The purpose of this study is to improve the feasibility of employing biofuels as a potential alternative in an unmodified diesel engine. Two pentanol-biodiesel blends denoted as MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20 which matches to 10 and 20 vol% of pentanol in biodiesel, respectively, were used as fuel in research engine at 10 and 20% EGR rates. Pentanol is chosen as a higher alcohol owing to its improved in-built properties than the other first-generation alcohols such as ethanol or methanol. Experimental results show that the pentanol and biodiesel blends (MOBD90P10 and MOBD80P20) have slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (0.2-0.4%) and lower brake-specific fuel consumption (0.6 to 1.1%) than that of neat biodiesel (MOBD100) at all engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission and smoke emission are reduced by 3.3-3.9 and 5.1-6.4% for pentanol and biodiesel blends compared to neat biodiesel. Introduction of pentanol to biodiesel reduces the unburned hydrocarbon (2.1-3.6%) and carbon monoxide emissions (3.1-4.2%) considerably. In addition, at 20% EGR rate, smoke, NO X emissions, and BTE drop by 7.8, 5.1, and 4.4% respectively. However, CO, HC emissions, and BSFC increased by 2.1, 2.8, and 3.8%, respectively, when compared to 0% EGR rate.

  5. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Özer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality biodiesel fuels can be produced by using different waste cooking oils. • Biodiesel fuel blends (in 5 and 10% vol) can be used without any negative effects. • Effects of biodiesel addition on the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48–0.36–0.24–0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NO x emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO 2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads

  6. Development of regeneration technique for diesel particulate filter made of porous metal; Kinzoku takotai DPF no saisei gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoro, K; Ban, S; Ooka, T; Saito, H; Oji, M; Nakajima, S; Okamoto, S [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed the diesel particulate filter (DPF) in which porous metal is used for a filter because of its high thermal conductivity and a radiation heater is used for a regeneration device because of its uniform thermal distribution. In the case high trapping efficiency is required, filter thickness should be thick. The thicker filter has a disadvantage of difficulty in regeneration because of the thermal distribution in the direction of thickness. In order to improve regeneration efficiency, we designed the best filter-heater construction which achieves uniform thermal distribution by using computer simulation and we confirmed good regeneration efficiency in the experiment. 4 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Experimental study on the particulate matter and nitrogenous compounds from diesel engine retrofitted with DOC+CDPF+SCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Lou, Diming; Tan, Piqiang; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations will mandate the retrofit of after-treatment devices for in-use diesel vehicles, in order to reduce their substantial particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions. In this paper, a combination of DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst), CDPF (catalytic diesel particulate filter) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction) retrofit for a heavy-duty diesel engine was employed to perform experiment on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the particulate matter emissions including particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), particle size distributions and nitrogenous compounds emissions including NOX, nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOX, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) slip. In addition, the urea injection was also of our concern. The results showed that the DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit almost had no adverse effect on the engine power and fuel consumption. Under the test loads, the upstream DOC and CDPF reduced the PN and PM by an average of 91.6% and 90.9%, respectively. While the downstream SCR brought about an average decrease of 85% NOX. Both PM and NOX emission factors based on this retrofit were lower than China-Ⅳ limits (ESC), and even lower than China-Ⅴ limits (ESC) at medium and high loads. The DOC and CDPF changed the particle size distributions, leading to the increase in the proportion of accumulation mode particles and the decrease in the percentage of nuclear mode particles. This indicates that the effect of DOC and CDPF on nuclear mode particles was better than that of accumulation mode ones. The upstream DOC could increase the NO2/NOX ratio to 40%, higher NO2/NOX ratio improved the efficiency of CDPF and SCR. Besides, the N2O emission increased by an average of 2.58 times after the retrofit and NH3 slip occurred with the average of 26.7 ppm. The rate of urea injection was roughly equal to 8% of the fuel consumption rate. The DOC+CDPF+SCR retrofit was proved a feasible and effective measurement in terms

  8. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  9. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Han Leem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEP contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid moisture condensation. A filter pair loading of 1 mg is typically proportional to a 0.1 g/bhp-hr..., the temperatures where condensation of water in the exhaust gases could occur. This may be achieved by... sampling zone in the primary dilution tunnel and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the...

  11. Combustion of n-butanol/diesel mixtures in prechamber diesel engines. Die Verbrennung von n-Butanol-Dieselkraftstoff-Gemischen im Vorkammer-Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, E

    1989-01-01

    Systematic tests showed that n-butane was the most promising diesel fuel substitute. Mixtures of n-butanol and diesel fuel were tested on an engine test bench, and the performance was compared with commercial diesel fuels. Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust (soot, particulates, and NO/sub x/) were lower than with unmixed diesel fuel, while the engine performance remained more or less constant. In the problematic operating ranges, partial thermal insulation of the combustion chamber improved the performance of the n-butanol/diesel fuel mixture. (orig.) With 60 figs.

  12. In Vivo Protective Effects of Nootkatone against Particles-Induced Lung Injury Caused by Diesel Exhaust Is Mediated via the NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were intratracheally (i.t. instilled with either DEP (30 µg/mouse or saline (control. Nootkatone was given to mice by gavage, 1 h before i.t. instillation, with either DEP or saline. Twenty-four hours following DEP exposure, several physiological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Nootkatone pretreatment significantly prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance in vivo, decreased neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and abated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lung interstitium, assessed by histolopathology. Moreover, DEP caused a significant increase in lung concentrations of 8-isoprostane and tumor necrosis factor α, and decreased the reduced glutathione concentration and total nitric oxide activity. These actions were all significantly alleviated by nootkatone pretreatment. Similarly, nootkatone prevented DEP-induced DNA damage and prevented the proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3. Moreover, nootkatone inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB induced by DEP. We conclude that nootkatone prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance, lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and the subsequent DNA damage and apoptosis through a mechanism involving inhibition of NF-κB activation. Nootkatone could possibly be considered a beneficial protective agent against air pollution-induced respiratory adverse effects.

  13. Thrombosis, systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles, and the effect of nootkatone thereon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Ali, Badreldin H

    2018-01-05

    Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before. We assessed the possible protective effect of nootkatone (90 mg/kg) administered by gavage 1h before intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of DEP (30 μg/mouse). Twenty-four h following the i.t. administration of DEP various thrombotic and cardiac parameters were assessed. Nootkatone inhibited the prothrombotic effect induced by DEP in pial arterioles and venules in vivo and platelet aggregation in whole blood in vitro. Also, nootkatone prevented the shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time induced by DEP. Nootkatone inhibited the increase of plasma concentration of fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 and lipid peroxidation induced by DEP. Immunohistochemically, hearts showed an analogous increase in glutathione and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) expression by cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells following DEP exposure, and these effects were enhanced in mice treated with nootkatone+DEP. Likewise, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased in mice treated with nootkatone+DEP compared with those treated with DEP or nootkatone+saline. The DNA damage caused by DEP was prevented by nootkatoone pretreatment. In conclusion, nootkatoone alleviates DEP-induced thrombogenicity and systemic and cardiac oxidative stress and DNA damage, at least partly, through Nrf2 and HO-1 activation.

  14. In Vivo Protective Effects of Nootkatone against Particles-Induced Lung Injury Caused by Diesel Exhaust Is Mediated via the NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Beegam, Sumaya; Yuvaraju, Priya; Hamadi, Naserddine; Ali, Badreldin H

    2018-02-26

    Numerous studies have shown that acute particulate air pollution exposure is linked with pulmonary adverse effects, including alterations of pulmonary function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of nootkatone on lung toxicity has not been reported so far. In this study we evaluated the possible protective effects of nootkatone on diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced lung toxicity, and the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were intratracheally (i.t.) instilled with either DEP (30 µg/mouse) or saline (control). Nootkatone was given to mice by gavage, 1 h before i.t. instillation, with either DEP or saline. Twenty-four hours following DEP exposure, several physiological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Nootkatone pretreatment significantly prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance in vivo, decreased neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and abated macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the lung interstitium, assessed by histolopathology. Moreover, DEP caused a significant increase in lung concentrations of 8-isoprostane and tumor necrosis factor α, and decreased the reduced glutathione concentration and total nitric oxide activity. These actions were all significantly alleviated by nootkatone pretreatment. Similarly, nootkatone prevented DEP-induced DNA damage and prevented the proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3. Moreover, nootkatone inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) induced by DEP. We conclude that nootkatone prevented the DEP-induced increase in airway resistance, lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and the subsequent DNA damage and apoptosis through a mechanism involving inhibition of NF-κB activation. Nootkatone could possibly be considered a beneficial protective agent against air pollution-induced respiratory adverse effects.

  15. Diesel exhaust particles increase IL-1β-induced human β-defensin expression via NF-κB-mediated pathway in human lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chun

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human β-defensin (hBD-2, antimicrobial peptide primarily induced in epithelial cells, is a key factor in the innate immune response of the respiratory tract. Several studies showed increased defensin levels in both inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and infectious diseases. Recently, epidemiologic studies have demonstrated acute and serious adverse effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory health, especially in people with pre-existing inflammatory lung disease. To elucidate the effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on pulmonary innate immune response, we investigated the hBD-2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression to DEP exposure in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells. Results IL-1β markedly up-regulated the hBD-2 promoter activity, and the subsequent DEP exposure increased dose-dependently the expression of hBD-2 and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 at the transcriptional level. In addition, DEP further induced the NF-κB activation in IL-1β-stimulated A549 cells more rapidly than in unstimulated control cells, which was showed by nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB and degradation of IκB-α. The experiment using two NF-κB inhibitors, PDTC and MG132, confirmed that this increase of hBD-2 expression following DEP exposure was regulated through NF-κB-mediated pathway. Conclusion These results demonstrated that DEP exposure increases the expression of antimicrobial peptide and inflammatory cytokine at the transcriptional level in IL-1β-primed A549 epithelial cells and suggested that the increase is mediated at least partially through NF-κB activation. Therefore, DEP exposure may contribute to enhance the airway-responsiveness especially on the patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease.

  16. The impact of carbon dioxide and exhaust gas recirculation on the oxidative reactivity of soot from ethylene flames and diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid O.

    Restrictive emissions standards to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines necessitate the development of advanced emission control technology. The engine manufacturers in the United States have implemented the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and diesel particulate filters (DPF) to meet the stringent emissions limits on NOx and PM, respectively. Although the EGR-DPF system is an effective means to control diesel engine emissions, there are some concerns associated with its implementation. The chief concern with this system is the DPF regenerability, which depends upon several factors, among which are the physicochemical properties of the soot. Despite the plethora of research that has been conducted on DPF regenerability, the impact of EGR on soot reactivity and DPF regenerability is yet to be examined. This work concerns the impact of EGR on the oxidative reactivity of diesel soot. It is part of ongoing research to bridge the gap in establishing a relationship between soot formation conditions, properties, and reactivity. This work is divided into three phases. In the first phase, carbon dioxide (CO2) was added to the intake charge of a single cylinder engine via cylinders of compressed CO2. This approach simulates the cold-particle-free EGR. The results showed that inclusion of CO2 changes the soot properties and yields synergistic effects on the oxidative reactivity of the resulting soot. The second phase of this research was motivated by the findings from the first phase. In this phase, post-flame ethylene soot was produced from a laboratory co-flow laminar diffusion flame to better understand the mechanism by which the CO2 affects soot reactivity. This phase was accomplished by successfully isolating the dilution, thermal, and chemical effects of the CO2. The results showed that all of these effects account for a measurable increase in soot reactivity. Nevertheless, the thermal effect was found to be the most

  17. Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M. Ashrafur; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Abedin, M.J.; Sanjid, A.; Sajjad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel produced from palm and Calophyllum oil using trans-esterification process. • Produced biodiesels properties were compared with ASTM D6751 standards. • Engine performance and exhaust emissions were evaluated at high idling conditions. • Idling CO and HC emission was reduced using biodiesel–diesel blends. • For low percentages of biodiesel–diesel blends NO X emission increased negligibly. - Abstract: Rapid depletion of fossil fuels, increasing fossil-fuel price, carbon price, and the quest of low carbon fuel for cleaner environment – these are the reason researchers are looking for alternatives of fossil fuels. Renewable, non-flammable, biodegradable, and non-toxic are some reasons that are making biodiesel as a suitable candidate to replace fossil-fuel in near future. In recent years, in many countries of the world production and use of biodiesel has gained popularity. In this research, biodiesel from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been produced using the trans-esterification process. Properties of the produced biodiesels were compared with the ASTM D6751 standard: biodiesel standard and testing methods. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value, these are the six main physicochemical properties that were investigated. Both palm biodiesel and Calophyllum biodiesel were within the standard limits, so they both can be used as the alternative of diesel fuel. Furthermore, engine performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel–diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel–diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions. Brake specific fuel consumption increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends compared to pure diesel fuel; however, at highest idling condition, this increase was almost negligible. Exhaust gas temperatures decreased as blend percentages increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends. For low blend percentages increase in NO

  18. Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Diesel-Powered Forklifts during Operations in Ammunition Storage Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    to CO over a work period can cause central nervous system depression , blackouts, coma, and eventual death at the concentrations that could be reached...Camel, Jr., Eds., National Cancer Institute Monograph No. 9, p. 225, 1962. 11.6 Sawicki, E., R. C. Corey, A. E. Dooley,J. B. Gisclard, J. L. Monkman, R...tum wmammmmm ~m mamas aB-mm7 B-27 1K PEDCO INVIRONMENTAL. INC ARMY DIESEL FORKLIFT STUDY Location THREE TOt Description TEST SI Date: DECEMIER 6. 1103

  19. A parametric design of compact exhaust manifold junction in heavy duty diesel engine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimi Hessamedin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics codes (CFD are prevalently used to simulate the gas dynamics in many fluid piping systems such as steam and gas turbines, inlet and exhaust in internal combustion engines. In this paper, a CFD software is used to obtain the total energy losses in adiabatic compressible flow at compact exhaust manifold junction. A steady state onedimensional adiabatic compressible flow with friction model has been applied to subtract the straight pipe friction losses from the total energy losses. The total pressure loss coefficient has been related to the extrapolated Mach number in the common branch and to the mass flow rate ratio between branches at different flow configurations, in both combining and dividing flows. The study indicate that the numerical results were generally in good agreement with those of experimental data from the literature and will be applied as a boundary condition in one-dimensional global simulation models of fluid systems in which these components are present.

  20. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) reduces NOx emissions by reducing O2 concentration for the combustion and is a preferred way to obtain emission regulations that will take effect from 2016. If not properly controlled, reduction of O2 has adverse side eects and proper control requires proper dynami...... principles followed by parameter identication and compares the results of these approaches. The paper performs a validation against experimental data from a test engine and presents a linearised model for EGR control design....

  1. Waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines by exhaust-driven Brayton cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of Bryton Bottoming Systems (BBS) as waste heat recovery devices for future adiabatic diesel engines in heavy duty trucks is presented. Parametric studies were performed to evaluate the influence of external and internal design parameters on BBS performance. Conceptual design and trade-off studies were undertaken to estimate the optimum configuration, size, and cost of major hardware components. The potential annual fuel savings of long-haul trucks equipped with BBS were estimated. The addition of a BBS to a turbocharged, nonaftercooled adiabatic engine would improve fuel economy by as much as 12%. In comparison with an aftercooled, turbocompound engine, the BBS-equipped turbocharged engine would offer a 4.4% fuel economy advantage. If installed in tandem with an aftercooled turbocompound engine, the BBS could effect a 7.2% fuel economy improvement. The cost of a mass-produced 38 Bhp BBS is estimated at about $6460 or 170/Bhp. Technical and economic barriers that hinder the commercial introduction of bottoming systems were identified. Related studies in the area of waste heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engines and NASA-CR-168255 (Steam Rankine) and CR-168256 (Organic Rankine).

  2. Effects of transient conditions on exhaust emissions from two non-road diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, M.; Hansson, P.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Growing interest in quantifying and reducing the amount of engine emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides loading the environment has led to increasingly tighter environmental regulations. However, current non-road emission standards are performed according to a steady-state test cycle, which does not include transient effects and thus underestimates the amount of emissions produced in real use of the engine. This study quantifies the effects of transients in engine speed and torque on the fuel consumption and emissions from two diesel engines intended for non-road mobile machinery. Fuel consumption and emissions from the engines were measured in an engine dynamometer during various transient load conditions. The results showed that during fast transients, the measured fuel consumption was up to twice as high as the corresponding steady-state load conditions. The effects of transients on emissions of nitrogen oxides were even greater, as were the effects of transient load increase with increasing transient conditions i. e. rate of change. The results showed that the effect of transients on fuel consumption and emissions were also dependent on the type of diesel injection pump and the engine equipment used. Furthermore, the results indicated that the air/fuel ratio was an important contributor to the emission formation process during transient loads. (Author)

  3. Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Rong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through experiment conducted on a six cylinder direct injection diesel engine with SCR catalyst, effects of coolant temperature on rail pressure, injection quantity, excess air coefficient and emissions characteristics during cold and warm start were investigated. The results showed that, the maximum injection quantity during a starting event was several times higher than idling operation mode, so was the maximal opacity in the cold and warm starting process. When coolant temperature rose up to above 20℃, NOX emissions in the starting process exhibited peculiar rise which was times higher than idling mode. Compared with engine warm start, rail pressure, cycle fuel quantity, opacity, CO and HC emissions during engine cold start were higher in the course from their transient maximal values towards stabilized idling status. NOX in the same transient course, however, were lower in cold start. As coolant temperature rose, the maximal and the idling value of rail pressure and cycle fuel injection quantity during diesel engine starting process decreased gradually, the excess air coefficient increased to a certain degree, and the maximal and idling values of NOX increased gradually.

  4. Kinetic Model Development for the Combustion of Particulate Matter from Conventional and Soy Methyl Ester Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelec, Andrea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to investigate how the oxidation characteristics of diesel particulate matter (PM) are affected by blending soy-based biodiesel fuel with conventional ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. PM produced in a light duty engine from different biodiesel-conventional fuel blends was subjected to a range of physical and chemical measurements in order to better understand the mechanisms by which fuel-related changes to oxidation reactivity are brought about. These observations were then incorporated into a kinetic model to predict PM oxidation. Nanostructure of the fixed carbon was investigated by HR-TEM and showed that particulates from biodiesel had a more open structure than particulates generated from conventional diesel fuel, which was confirmed by BET surface area measurements. Surface area evolution with extent of oxidation reaction was measured for PM from ULSD and biodiesel. Biodiesel particulate has a significantly larger surface area for the first 40% of conversion, at which point the samples become quite similar. Oxidation characteristics of nascent PM and the fixed carbon portion were measured by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and it was noted that increased biodiesel blending lowered the light-off temperature as well as the temperature where the peak rate of oxidation occurred. A shift in the oxidation profiles of all fuels was seen when the mobile carbon fraction was removed, leaving only the fixed carbon, however the trend in temperature advantage of the biofuel blending remained. The mobile carbon fraction was measured by temperature programmed desorption found to generally increase with increasing biodiesel blend level. The relative change in the light-off temperatures for the nascent and fixed carbon samples was found to be related to the fraction of mobile carbon. Effective Arrhenius parameters for fixed carbon oxidation were directly measured with isothermal, differential oxidation experiments

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil