WorldWideScience

Sample records for diesel engine technology

  1. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  2. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  3. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  4. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  5. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  6. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y.J.; Ju, U.S.; Park, Y.C. [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  9. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  10. Diesel Technology: Engines. Second Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    This diesel technology series offers secondary and postsecondary students an opportunity for learning required skills in the diesel industry. It aligns with the medium/heavy duty truck task list developed by the National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation and used by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence in…

  11. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  12. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  13. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP.

  14. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of diesel engines is intimately related to the history of .... history of technology. Industry applauded by taking to the manu- facture of diesel engines in various sizes. Many of them continue to do so to this day, more than a century later. ... now called computers, could be used to simulate the air-cycle in the cylinder ...

  15. Effects of FAME biodiesel and HVORD on emissions from an older-technology diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarski, A D; Hummer, J A; Vanderslice, S E

    2017-12-01

    The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs). The emissions were characterized for four selected steady-state conditions. When fueled with FAME biodiesel and HVORD, the engine emitted less aerosols by total particulate mass, total carbon mass, elemental carbon mass and total number than when it was fueled with ULSDs. Compared with ULSDs, FAME biodiesel and HVORD produced aerosols that were characterized by single modal distributions, smaller count median diameters, and lower total and peak concentrations. For the majority of test cases, FAME biodiesel and HVORD favorably affected nitric oxide (NO) and adversely affected nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) generation. Therefore, the use of these alternative fuels appears to be a viable tool for the underground mining industry to address the issues related to emissions from diesel engines, and to transition toward more universal solutions provided by advanced engines with integrated exhaust after treatment technologies.

  16. The Adlard Coles book of diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In clear, jargon-free English The Adlard Coles Book of Diesel Engines explains how a diesel engine works,and how to look after it, and takes into account developments inengine technology. Includes helpful tables and troubleshooting checklists.

  17. Diesel Engine Waste Heat Recovery Utilizing Electric Turbocompound Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Frank G.

    2001-01-01

    This cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar, Inc. is aimed at demonstrating electric turbocompound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. This is a lab demonstration program, with no provision for on-truck testing of the system. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with the electric turbocompound system. Also, electric turbocompounding adds an additional level of control to the air supply which could be a component in an emissions control strategy

  18. Demonstration of Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    mi grams per mile GC gas chromatography GC /MS gas chromatography/mass spectrometry HAP hazardous air pollutant HC hydrocarbon HPLC/UV high...matter ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million PuriNOx Proprietary Water / Diesel Emulsified Fuel RPF robust particulate filter THC total...chemiluminescence NO, NO2 1 second 10 ppm Various/filter* PM, mass and chemistry 0.25 - 2 hours Various Tedlar bag/gas chromatography ( GC )-FID

  19. Engine Family Groups for Verification of Clean Diesel Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents show engine family boxes that represent groupings of engine families with similar characterists (i.e., the emissions standards that the engines were built to) for current and past model years.

  20. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  1. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  2. Simulation and control of a HD diesel engine equipped with new EGR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic model of a Heavy Duty (HD) turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was developed. The engine was equipped with high pressure diesel injection, a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) and an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. This engine was targeted at meeting EURO4 emission

  3. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  5. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  6. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  7. Application of bioethanol/RME/diesel blend in a Euro5 automotive diesel engine: Potentiality of closed loop combustion control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, Chiara; Beatrice, Carlo; Napolitano, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of a bioethanol/biodiesel/diesel blend on Euro5 diesel engine. ► Potentiality of combustion control technology with alternative fuels. ► Strong smoke and NOx emissions reduction. ► No power penalties burning bioethanol blend by means of combustion control activation. -- Abstract: The latest European regulations require the use of biofuels by at least 10% as energy source in transport by 2020. This goal could be reached by means of the use of different renewable fuels; bioethanol (BE) is one of the most interesting for its low production cost and availability. BE usually replaces gasoline in petrol engines but it can be also blended in low concentrations to feed diesel engines. In this paper the results of an experimental activity aimed to study the impact of a BE/biodiesel/mineral diesel blend on performance and emissions in a last generation automotive diesel engine are presented. The tests were performed in steady-state in eight partial load engine conditions and at 2500 rpm in full load. Two fuel blends have been compared: the Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)/diesel with 10% of biodiesel by volume (B10), and the BE/RME/diesel with 20% of BE and 10% of biodiesel by volume (E20B10). The experimental campaign was carried out on a 2.0 L diesel engine compliant with Euro5 regulation. The engine features the closed loop combustion control (CLCC), which enables individual and real-time control of injection phasing and cylinder inner torque by means of in-cylinder pressure sensors connected with the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As expected, the results showed a strong smoke emissions reduction for E20B10 in all tested conditions, mainly due to the high oxygen content of BE. Also a reduction of NOx emissions were observed with BE addiction. The results confirm that the CLCC adoption enables a significant improvement in the robustness of the engine performance and emissions when blends with low heat content and very low cetane number (as BE

  8. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Technology (CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Postsecondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the diesel equipment technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies,…

  9. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  10. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...... emission requirements as well as attempting to minimise fuel expenses, the engine speed has been lowered together with an increase in the engine mean pressure which in terms lead to larger bearing loads. With worsened operating conditions from two sides, the encountered problems are understandable...

  11. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  12. Temperature field measurement research in high-speed diesel engine using laser induced fluorescence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zhang, You-tong; Gou, Chenhua; Tian, Hongsen

    2008-12-01

    Temperature laser- induced- fluorescence (LIF) 2-D imaging measurements using a new multi-spectral detection strategy are reported for high pressure flames in high-speed diesel engine. Schematic of the experimental set-up is outlined and the experimental data on the diesel engine is summarized. Experiment injection system is a third generation Bosch high-pressure common rail featuring a maximum pressure of 160 MPa. The injector is equipped with a six-hole nozzle, where each hole has a diameter of 0.124 mm. and slightly offset (by 1.0 mm) to the center of the cylinder axis to allow a better cooling of the narrow bridge between the exhaust valves. The measurement system includes a blower, which supplied the intake flow rate, and a prototype single-valve direct injection diesel engine head modified to lay down the swirled-type injector. 14-bit digital CCD cameras are employed to achieve a greater level of accuracy in comparison to the results of previous measurements. The temperature field spatial distributions in the cylinder for different crank angle degrees are carried out in a single direct-injection diesel engine.

  13. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  14. Detroit Diesel Engine Technology for Light Duty Truck Applications - DELTA Engine Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, Charlie

    2000-08-20

    The early generation of the DELTA engine has been thoroughly tested and characterized in the virtual lab, during engine dynamometer testing, and on light duty trucks for personal transportation. This paper provides an up-to-date account of program findings. Further, the next generation engine design and future program plans will be briefly presented.

  15. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  16. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  17. Modeling Diesel Engine Injector Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heister, S

    2001-01-01

    Models have been developed to assess flow fields inside diesel injector orifice passages in order to increase our understanding of the spray formation process which governs performance and emissions in these engines...

  18. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  19. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  20. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  1. Rudolf Diesel – The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By the time he was 14, Diesel decided he wanted to be an engineer so in his last year of schooling, ... developing refrigeration and gas separation technologies. Diesel worked in Linde's lab and by ... recovered from the illness that year, Diesel spent six months working in the factory of the Sulzer. Brothers Ltd. in Winterthur, ...

  2. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  3. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  4. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of diesel engines is intimately related to the history of steam engines. The Greeks and the Romans knew that steam could somehow be harnessed to do useful work. The device aeolipile (Figure 1) known to Hero of Alexandria was a primitive reaction turbine apparently used to open temple doors! However.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  6. Insulated Piston Heads for Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoire, A.; Kjellman, B.; Wigren, J.; Vanvolsem, M.; Aixala, L.

    2009-06-01

    Widely studied in the 1980s, the insulation of pistons in engines aimed at reducing the heat losses and thus increasing the indicated efficiency. However, those studies stopped in the beginning of the 1990s because of NO x emission legislation and also because of lower oil prices. Currently, with the improvement of exhaust after treatment systems (diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction, and diesel oxidation catalyst) and engine technologies (exhaust gas recirculation), there are more trade-offs for NO x reduction. In addition, the fast rise of the oil prices tends to lead back to insulation technologies in order to save fuel. A 1 mm thick plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a graded transition between the topcoat and the bondcoat was deposited on top of a serial piston for heavy-duty truck engines. The effects of the insulated pistons on the engine performance are also discussed, and the coating microstructure is analyzed after engine test.

  7. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  8. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  9. The Evolution of Diesel Engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. The Evolution of Diesel Engines. U Shrinivasa. General Article Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 365-377. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/04/0365-0377. Keywords.

  10. Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    marine engine emissions in “nonattainment” area counties with active ports is much higher. Concentrations of marine engine emissions in 2001/2002...can range to greater than 42% of NOx and 53% of PM2.5 from domestic mobile sources. Projected 2030 concentrations of Houston counties’ marine...Installed on a Legacy Marine Diesel Engine 6 2. Criteria gaseous and PM emissions on a gravimetric basis in accordance with ISO 8178

  11. The new 'Earth Dreams Technology i-DTEC' 1.6 l diesel engine from Honda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, J.; Ikoma, K.; Matsui, R.; Ikegami, N.; Mori, S.; Yano, T. [Honda R and D Co., Ltd., Tochigi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Honda has developed a 3rd-generation diesel engine, seeking to balance further CO{sub 2} reductions with dynamic performance. This development focused on downsizing the engine and succeeded in developing a compact, lightweight and high-efficiency 1.6 L in-line 4-cylinder turbocharged i-DTEC diesel engine. Optimization of engine rigidity in the newly developed 1.6 L diesel engine has made it possible to use an aluminum cylinder block with an open-deck structure. Furthermore, weight could be reduced by means of an efficient structure and engine layout. In addition, mechanical friction has been minimized via reducing weight of the reciprocating components and downsizing auxiliary equipment. These innovations made it possible for the engine to achieve the same level of friction as a Honda petrol engine of the same displacement. Thermal management has also been optimized by enhancement of the engine cooling system. In addition, low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP-EGR) was applied to achieve increased thermal efficiency. These measures have helped the engine to realize a high level of boost and high EGR, increasing fuel efficiency and reducing emissions across a wide range of operating conditions. Like the 2.2 L model, the Civic fitted with this 1.6 L diesel engine uses idle-stop and deceleration energy regeneration control. With all these measures, the Civic achieved CO{sub 2} emissions of 94 g/km (3.6 L/100km) in NEDC, a reduction of 14.5% in CO{sub 2} emissions against the 110 g/km recorded by the 2.2 L model. (orig.)

  12. Reduction of harmful emissions from a diesel engine fueled by kapok methyl ester using combined coating and SNCR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Yang, W.M.; Saravanan, C.G.; Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.E.; Lee, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal barrier coating was accomplished by coating the engine components with PSZ. • Under-utilized kapok oil biodiesel was used as renewable fuel in a coated engine. • The BTE of the engine was improved by 9% with reduced BSFC. • CO, HC and smoke were reduced by 40%, 35.3% and 21.4%, respectively. • After implementing SCR assembly, the NO X emission was decreased by 13.4%. - Abstract: This research work has been formulated to reduce the stinging effect of NO X emission on atmospheric environment from a coated diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. As such, in the current study, we attempted to harness the renewable source of energy from in-edible kapok oil, which is normally under-utilized despite being a viable feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. Notably, steam treatment process followed by crushing of the kapok seeds in a mechanical expeller was done to extract large quantities of kapok oil for the application of diesel engine, which is quite distinct of a method adopted herein. The conventional trans-esterification process was availed to synthesize KME (kapok methyl ester) and the physical and thermal properties of it were estimated by ASTM standard methods. Subsequently, two blends of KME with diesel such as B25 (KME – 25% and diesel – 75%) and B50 (KME – 50% and diesel – 50%) were prepared and tested in a single cylinder diesel engine with thermal barrier coating. To help realize the coating process, PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia), a pertinent coating material in respect of its poor thermal conductivity and better durability, has been chosen as the coating material to be applied on engine components by plasma spray coating technique. As an outcome of the coating study, B50 was found to show improved BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than that in an uncoated engine, with notable decrease in major emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke. However, due to reduction in heat losses and increase in in

  13. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  14. Modification of Diesel Engine to Producer Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Nay Zar

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes considerations and procedure of conversion from diesel engine to producer gas engine. In this paper, the performance of producer gas engine is compared to the original diesel engine and the factors affecting on performance of the producer gas engine are mentioned. After converting the 26.5 kW diesel engines to producer gas engine, the power output of producer gas engine is 40% less than that of original diesel engine. However producer gas engines are used for saving fuel ...

  15. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  16. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  17. Proceedings of the 1997 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was held July 28--31, 1997 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on diesel engine emissions issues. Diesel engine manufacturers have significantly reduced emission of nitrogen oxides and particulates over the last 12 years. Currently there is concern about the 4% contribution of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels to the atmosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect. The 56 papers in this report are arranged under the following topical headings: Agency diesel engine emissions and concerns; Human health effects -- Diesel exhaust; Aftertreatment -- Non-thermal plasma; Aftertreatment and in-cylinder emissions reduction; Combustion, fuel, and air management; Fuels and associated technology; and Advanced technology. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  19. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  1. Effect of hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel usage on performance, emissions and diesel combustion in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Karagöz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are inevitable parts of our daily life and will be in the future. Expensive after-treatment technologies to fulfil normative legislations about the harmful tail-pipe emissions and fuel price increase in recent years created expectations from researchers for alternative fuel applications on diesel engines. This study investigates hydrogen as additive fuel in diesel engines. Hydrogen was introduced into intake manifold using gas injectors as additive fuel in gaseous form and also diesel fuel was injected into cylinder by diesel injector and used as igniter. Energy content of introduced hydrogen was set to 0%, 25% and 50% of total fuel energy, where the 0% references neat diesel operation without hydrogen injection. Test conditions were set to full load at 750, 900, 1100, 1400, 1750 and finally 2100 r/min engine speed. Variation in engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics with hydrogen addition was investigated. Hydrogen introduction into the engine by 25% and 50% of total charge energy reveals significant decrease in smoke emissions while dramatic increase in nitrogen oxides. With increasing hydrogen content, a slight rise is observed in total unburned hydrocarbons although CO2 and CO gaseous emissions reduced considerably. Maximum in-cylinder gas pressure and rate of heat release peak values raised with hydrogen fraction.

  2. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  3. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  4. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  5. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  6. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  7. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  8. Multimodel Control of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstoiu, Silviu; Popescu, Dumitru; Dimon, Catalin; Olteanu, Severus

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is proposed and designed a modern control configuration of the type multicontroler-multimodel (MM) that pilots the nonlinear combustion process of the Diesel engine, needed to adjust the pressure in the intake manifold and the airflow circulating through the compressor. The MM simulator developed by the authors allows the implementation of control systems represented by pairs (Mi, Ci) with the Mi candidate closest to the current operating point of the process and the paired controller Ri, for controlling the key parameters of the combustion process. The proposed configuration is built with robust controllers and thus it is able to ensure superior performance, tolerance to nonlinearities and parametric and structural perturbations in the system.

  9. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  10. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  11. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  12. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  14. The Influence of Light Weight Materials on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Paul C.

    2000-08-20

    Technologies being developed that will allow for the substitution of aluminum for cast iron in engine heads and blocks, while maintaining performance and durability. Development of lightweight diesel engine technology: funded by NAVY, DOE and TACOM

  15. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO 2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  16. Oxidation Catalyst Studies on a Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Shifei

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the experimental test facilities consisted of a well instrumented live Ford 2.0 litre turbocharged diesel engine connected to a specially made exhaust can, which contained a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Experiments were performed on DOCs, which were specially prepared by Johnson Matthey, and had thermocouples mounted in their walls to measure axial temperature profiles. These DOCs consisted of a Pt catalyst dispersed in an alumina washcoat on a cordierite monolith supports...

  17. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  18. Review of technology potentials for future diesel engines; Darstellung des Technologiepotentials von zukuenftigen Dieselmotoren - Erfuellung zukuenftiger Emissionsvorschriften bei niedrigem CO{sub 2}-Ausstoss - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, P.; Boulouchos, K. [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Energietechnik (IET), Laboratorium fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme (LAV), Zuerich (Switzerland); Mohr, M.; Schreiber, D. [EMPA, Verbrennungsmotoren, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-03-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of a review of technology potentials for future diesel engines that was carried out at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. The task to get the time-resolved local distribution of soot during the combustion cycle of a internal combustion engine and to develop new combustion concepts for engines with near-zero soot emissions is the main task of this project. A zero-dimensional model to simulate soot formation was adapted to its equivalent 3-D model and tested using the institute's research engine. The results of the two simulation tools used were compared. According to the authors, this comparison showed that their phenomenological approach provides good results even in 3-D. A fast sampling valve with the ability to extract samples of the cylinder content during the combustion cycle was developed but could not be tested as the planned test engine was not available. The test arrangement is described and the results obtained are presented in graphical form.

  19. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  20. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  1. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  2. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-06-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  3. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  4. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  5. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  6. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation...

  7. Effect of EGR on a sationary VCR diesel engine using cottonseed biodiesel (B20 fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. Sakhare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view on comparative study of use of diesel fuel with B20 biodieselblend (Diesel (80 %, by vol. and Cotton seed oil (20 %, by vol. derived from Cotton seeds. As higher NOx emission and higher brake specific fuel consumption are main challenges for effective utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine, there is alarming need to find out the long term solution to reduce NOx emission for better utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the useful technologies to reduce the NOx emission of a diesel engine. In the present research work test is conducted on 3 KW single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR computerized diesel engine using diesel and B20 cotton seed biodiesel blend to study the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine in terms of fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and emissions such as hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and carbon dioxide (CO2 of a diesel engine. The constant engine speed of 1500 rpm was maintained through-out the experiment test. The exhaust gas recirculation was varied as 4 % and 6 % at different loading conditions with diesel and B20 biodiesel. The results show that the significant reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx with 4 % and 6 % EGR for B20 whereas marginal increment in CO and HC emissions.

  8. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  9. Restoring diesel engine camshafts by laser treatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkevich, B. M.; Zinov'ev, G. S.; Voronin, I. N.

    1996-12-01

    The reliability of parts of the gas-distributing mechanism and drives of fuel pumps determines to a great degree the operating conditions of cylinder-piston parts and the economic characteristics of diesel engines. Intense wear of the camshaft pair disturbs the distribution phases and the lead angle of fuel supply to the diesel cylinders and increases the rigidity of the operation of the connecting rod-piston group. This causes incomplete combustion of fuel and fuming, a rise in the temperature of exhaust gases, sticking of the rings in the piston grooves and their premature failure, wear cracks, and chips and failure of the parts of the cylinder-piston unit, decreasing the efficiency of the diesel. Laser surface treatment is used to restore cams. It makes it possible to increase substantially the wear resistance of cams and restore their worn surfaces. This paper concerns the characteristics of the cams after such a treatment.

  10. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

  11. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  12. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  13. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  14. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  15. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  16. Modelling and Operation of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas

    importance due to their effect on urban air quality, and because of new legislation. In modern heavy-duty applications, the exhaust gases are typically treated with four different catalysts: a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) which oxidises HC and CO into H2O and CO2, and NO into NO2, a Diesel Particulate......Diesel engine exhaust gases contain several harmful substances. The main pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), and nitrous gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (together NOx). Reducing the emission of these pollutants is of great...... Filter (DPF) which filters PM, a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst which removes NO and NO2 through reaction with NH3, and an Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) which removes excess ammonia (NH3) before the gases are released to the atmosphere. SCR is a widely used technology to reduce NOx to N2...

  17. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  18. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  19. METHODS FOR ORGANIZATION OF WORKING PROCESS FOR GAS-DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Vershina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades reduction in pollutant emissions has become one of the main directions for further deve- lopment of engine technology. Solution of such problems has led to implementation of catalytic post-treatment systems, new technologies of fuel injection, technology for regulated phases of gas distribution, regulated turbocharger system and, lately, even system for variable compression ratio of engine. Usage of gaseous fuel, in particular gas-diesel process, may be one of the means to reduce air pollution caused by toxic substances and meet growing environmental standards and regulations. In this regard, an analysis of methods for organization of working process for a gas-diesel engine has been conducted in the paper. The paper describes parameters that influence on the nature of gas diesel process, it contains graphics of specific total heat consumption according to ignition portion of diesel fuel and dependence of gas-diesel indices on advance angle for igni-tion portion injection of the diesel fuel. A modern fuel system of gas-diesel engine ГД-243 has been demonstrated in the pa- per. The gas-diesel engine has better environmental characteristics than engines running on diesel fuel or gasoline. According to the European Natural & bio Gas Vehicle Association a significant reduction in emissions is reached at a 50%-substitution level of diesel fuel by gas fuel (methane and in such a case there is a tendency towards even significant emission decrease. In order to ensure widespread application of gaseous fuel as fuel for gas-diesel process it is necessary to develop a new wor- king process, to improve fuel equipment, to enhance injection strategy and fuel supply control. A method for organization of working process for multi-fuel engine has been proposed on the basis of the performed analysis. An application has been submitted for a patent.

  20. Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Rolling Element Bearing Vibration’Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis’. DSTO-RR-0013, Defence Science and Technology Organisation 2. Halme, J. and... behaviour of piston ring/cylinder liner interaction in diesel engines using acoustic emission. Tribology International 39 (12) 12 / 01 / 1634-1642...18] considered the statistical properties of the local rms of the AE signals and found these signals to be sensitive to combustion behaviour . Frances

  1. Experimental investigation on cyclic variability, engine performance and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine using alcohol-diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgen Samet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of using n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends on engine performance, exhaust emission, and cycle-by-cycle variation in a Diesel engine. The engine was operated at two different engine speed and full load condition with pure diesel fuel, 5% and 10% (by vol. ethanol and n-butanol fuel blends. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was used to evaluate the cyclic variability of n-butanol-diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel fuel blends. The results obtained in this study showed that effective efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption generally increased with the use of the n-butanol-diesel fuel or ethanol-diesel fuel blends with respect to that of the neat diesel fuel. The addition of ethanol or n-butanol to diesel fuel caused a decrement in CO and NOx emissions. Also, the results indicated that cycle-by-cycle variation has an increasing trend with the increase of alcohol-diesel blending ratio for all engine speed. An increase in cyclic variability of alcohol-diesel fuel blends at low engine speed is higher than that of high engine speed.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  4. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  5. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  8. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  9. Impact of low temperature combustion attaining strategies on diesel engine emissions for diesel and biodiesels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtenan, S.; Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Sajjad, H.; Arbab, M.I.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various low-temperature combustion strategies have been discussed briefly. • Effect on emissions has been discussed under low temperature combustion strategies. • Low-temperature combustion reduces NO x and PM simultaneously. • Higher CO, HC emissions with lower performance are the demerits of these strategies. • Biodiesels are also potential to attain low temperature combustion conditions. - Abstract: Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from diesel exhaust is the key to current research activities. Although various technologies have been introduced to reduce emissions from diesel engines, the in-cylinder reduction techniques of PM and NO x like low temperature combustion (LTC) will continue to be an important field in research and development of modern diesel engines. Furthermore, increasing prices and question over the availability of diesel fuel derived from crude oil have introduced a growing interest. Hence it is most likely that future diesel engines will be operated on pure biodiesel and/or blends of biodiesel and crude oil-based diesel. Being a significant technology to reduce emissions, LTC deserves a critical analysis of emission characteristics for both diesel and biodiesel. This paper critically investigates both petroleum diesel and biodiesel emissions from the view point of LTC attaining strategies. Due to a number of differences of physical and chemical properties, petroleum diesel and biodiesel emission characteristics differ a bit under LTC strategies. LTC strategies decrease NO x and PM simultaneously but increase HC and CO emissions. Recent attempts to attain LTC by biodiesel have created a hope for reduced HC and CO emissions. Decreased performance issue during LTC is also being taken care of by latest ideas. However, this paper highlights the emissions separately and analyzes the effects of significant factors thoroughly under LTC regime

  10. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  11. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  12. Development of a robust and compact kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Mohan, Balaji; An, Hui; Zhou, Dezhi; Yu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach is used to develop a robust kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism. • Ignition delay of the kerosene sub-mechanism is well validated with experiments. • The kerosene sub-mechanism reproduces the flame lift-off lengths of Jet-A reasonably well. • The kerosene sub-mechanism performs reasonably well under engine conditions. - Abstract: The use of kerosene fuels in internal combustion engines is getting more widespread. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization military is pushing for the use of a single fuel on the battlefield in order to reduce logistical issues. Moreover, in some countries, fuel adulteration is a serious matter where kerosene is blended with diesel and used in diesel engines. So far, most investigations done regarding the use of kerosene fuels in diesel engines are experimental and there is negligible simulation work done in this area possibly because of the lack of a robust and compact kerosene reaction mechanism. This work focuses on the development of a small but reliable kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism, suitable to be used for diesel engine simulations. The new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism consists only of 48 species and 152 reactions. Furthermore, the kerosene sub-mechanism in this new mechanism is well validated for its ignition delay times and has proven to replicate kerosene combustion well in a constant volume combustion chamber and an optical engine. Overall, this new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism is proven to be robust and practical for diesel engine simulations.

  13. Engine Research Center: Advanced Diesel Engine Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corradini, M

    1999-01-01

    .... Fundamental projects addressing continued development of advanced multidimensional modeling, advanced diagnostic development, experimental investigation of fluid mechanic mixing phenomena and engine...

  14. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  15. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation..., contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, phone: +43 2622... information, we estimate that this AD will affect about 32 model E4 diesel piston engines, installed on...

  16. 75 FR 68179 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel piston.... Contact Austro Engine GmbH, Rudolf-Diesel- Strasse 11, A-2700 Weiner Neustadt, Austria, telephone: +43...

  17. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  18. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  19. Fueling diesel engines with methyl-ester soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Hires, W.G.; Borgelt, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two 5.9 liter Cummins engines were fueled for a combined total of more than 80,467 km (50,000 miles). One truck, a 1991 Dodge, has been driven approximately 48,280 km (30,000 miles). The other, a 1992 Dodge, has been driven approximately 32,187 km (20,000 miles). Fueling these engines with soydiesel increase engine power by 3 percent (1991 engine) and reduced power by 6 percent (1992 engine). The pickups averaged more than 7.1 km/L (16.7 mpg). Analysis of used engine oil samples indicated that the engines were wearing at normal rate. The black exhaust smoke normally observed when a diesel engine accelerates was reduced as much as 86 percent when the diesel engine was fueled with 100% soydiesel. Increased EPA exhaust emissions requirements for diesel engines have created much interest in the use of soydiesel as fuel for diesel engines

  20. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardini P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  1. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  2. Performance evaluation of diesel engine using rice bran biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chhabra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fuels in the world is increasing rapidly and it affects the global economy of all the countries so this factor forced all the countries to find the alternative fuel to reduce and even replace the usage of petroleum. Thus use of biodiesel from non-edible oil sources serves as an alternative to this problem. The present study focuses on impact assessment of rice bran and crude rice bran biodiesel and its blends with diesel on diesel engine performance. The experimental investigation provides in depth detail of the biodiesel production process, evaluation of fuel properties and impact on engine performance. The study also investigates the optimization of the Compression ratio (CR of a compression ignition engine fueled with blends of biodiesel. In order to find out the optimum CR of the engine, experiments were conducted at different CRs ranging from 12 to 18. Then the experiments were conducted using B10, B20 and B40 blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel and diesel at CR of 12 and 14 and these results were compared with the results obtained when the same engine was tested on conventional diesel fuel. Similarly the experimental results of B10, B20 and B40 blends of rice bran bio-diesel at CR 14 were investigated and analyzed. Based on the experimental investigation the blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel can be used as fuel in diesel engine without making any modification to the diesel engine.

  3. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  4. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  5. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel... 2011-0039, dated March 8, 2011, adding a terminating action on Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...

  6. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  7. Embarked diagnosis applied to a mechanical system "diesel engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of OBD (on-board diagnostic) systems for diesel engines has become an unavoidable necessity. From the models described in the literature, the latest generation diesel engine models as well as defects affecting it were established. A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern ...

  8. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates the combustion knock characteristics of diesel engines running on natural gas using pilot injection as means of initiating combustion. The diesel engines knock under normal operating conditions but the knock referred to in this paper is an objectionable one. In the dual-fuel combustion process we ...

  9. Laser-based diagnostics on NO in a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Theodorus Maria

    1999-01-01

    Of all internal combustion engines diesel engines tend to be the most efficient. However, this high efficiency is coupled with specific emissions of nitric oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) and soot. Such emissions are best fought against at their very source: the diesel combustion process itself. The

  10. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  11. Application of instantaneous angular acceleration to diesel engine fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yunpeng; Hu, Tianyou; Liu, Xin

    2005-12-01

    Diesel engine is a kind of important power generating machine, of which the running state monitoring and fault diagnosis attracts increasing attention. The theory and the method of diesel engine fault diagnosis based on angular acceleration measurement were studied, since angular acceleration contains a lot of information for diesel engine fault diagnosing and its power balance evaluating. USB data acquisition system was designed for the angular acceleration measurement, and it was composed with AVRAT09S8515 micro-processor and PDIUSBD12 USB interface IC. At the same time, the high speed micro-processor AVRAT09S8515 with unique function of automatically capturing the rising or falling edge of square wave was studied, and it was utilized in the diesel engine's crankshaft angular acceleration measuring system. The software and hardware of the whole system was designed, which supplied a whole solution to diesel engine fault diagnosis and power balance evaluation between each cylinder.

  12. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  13. Review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NOx from diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly stringent emission legislations, such as US 2010 and Euro VI, for NO x in mobile applications will require the use of intensification of NO x reduction aftertreatment technologies, such as the selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Due to the required higher deNO x efficiency, a lot of efforts have recently been concentrated on the optimization of the SCR systems for broadening the active deNO x temperature window as widely as possible, especially at low temperatures, enhancing the catalysts durability, and reducing the cost of the deNO x system. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art SCR technologies, including the alternative ammonia generation from the solid reductants, Vanadium-based, Cu-zeolite (CuZ) and Fe-zeolite (FeZ) based, and the novel chabazite zeolite with small pore size SCR catalysts. Furthermore, the progresses of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, involving combined CuZ and FeZ SCR, passive SCR, integration of DOC + (DPF, SCR), as well as SCR catalyst coated on DPF (referred as SCRF hereinafter) systems are well discussed. Even though SCR technology is considered as the leading NO x aftertreatment technology, attentions have been paid to the adverse by-products, such as NH 3 and N 2 O. Relevant regulations have been established to address the issues. - Highlights: •The review of state of the art technologies of selective catalytic reduction of NO x . •The mainstream V-based, Cu- and Fe-zeolite, and chabazite catalysts are illustrated. •The development of highly optimized hybrid integration SCR systems are analyzed. •The by-products of SCR systems and the corresponding regulations are discussed. •The future perspectives of the advanced SCR technologies are described

  14. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines, the...

  15. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  18. Modal extraction on a diesel engine in operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nis; Herlufsen, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a diesel engine is presented. The only loading on the engine is the unknown loading from the engine itself. Two test cases were considered: engine run-up, and engine Run-Down. The response data were analyzed using two different...

  19. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  20. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  1. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  2. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  3. Rudolf Diesel – The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    had been in French. By the time he was 14, Diesel decided he wanted to be an engineer so in his last year of schooling, he specialised as a “Mechaniker”. After this, he went to an industrial school (Industrieschule) for his vocational training and finished in 1875 at the top of his class. Later that year Diesel joined the technical ...

  4. 40 CFR 86.341-79 - Diesel engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine dynamometer test run. 86... Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.341-79 Diesel engine dynamometer test run. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline...

  5. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  6. Technological potential for the future development of diesel engines that fulfil future emissions regulations at low carbon dioxide emission rates.; Darstellung des Technologiepotentials von zukuenftigen Dieselmotoren zur Erfuellung zukuenftiger Emissionsvorschriften bei niedrigem CO{sub 2} Ausstoss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, P.; Bertola, A.; Boulouchos, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mohr, M.; Etissa, D.; Schreiber, D. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 presents a review of work being done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on the technological potential for the future development of diesel engines that fulfil future emissions regulations at low carbon dioxide emission rates. Work done included the construction of an internal gas extraction probe (IGE probe). The development and simulation of the probe and the choice of materials used are discussed. Co-operation with the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research in the area of measurement technology and exhaust-gas analysis is discussed. The development of a 3-D simulation model for a commercial diesel engine is commented on and the problems involved discussed. Future work on this new four-cylinder engine with respect to its fulfilling of the TIER 3 and TIER 4 emissions norms is reviewed.

  7. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaban, Farid

    1998-01-01

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  8. Improvement of ecological characteristics of the hydrogen diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriashvili, T.; Kavtaradze, R.; Glonti, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the article are considered the questions of influence of a swirl intensity of the shot and injector design on the ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel, little-investigated till now. The necessity of solution of these problems arises at conversion of the serial diesel engine into the hydrogen diesel. The mathematical model consists of the three-dimensional non-stationary equations of transfer and also models of turbulence and combustion. The numerical experiments have been carried out with the use of program code FIRE. The optimal values of parameters of the working process, ensuring improvement of the effective and ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel are determined.

  9. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  10. Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Oduro, E.K.; Hammond-Donkoh, E. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%; 80%120%; and 50%150% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend was observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the atmosphere. The test showed that jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%12.6% fuel blend yielded the highest cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that jatropha oil can be used as an ignition- accelerator additive for diesel fuel. (author)

  11. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheman, H.; Phadatare, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO x to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  12. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  13. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  14. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  15. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  16. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  17. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, ...

  18. Particulate Emissions Associated with Diesel Engine Oil Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Tornehed, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Particulate emissions from diesel engines have been a key issue for diesel engine developers in recent decades. Their work has succeeded in reducing the exhaust particles from the combustion of fuel, which has led to increasing interest in the contribution of particulates from lubrication oil. When discussing oil-related particulate emissions, hydrocarbon particles are customarily referred to. This thesis uses a broader definition, in which oil-related particulate emissions are modelled not o...

  19. Methods for Organization of Working Process for Gas-Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Вершина, Г. А.; Быстренков, О. С.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades reduction in pollutant emissions has become one of the main directions for further deve- lopment of engine technology. Solution of such problems has led to implementation of catalytic post-treatment systems, new technologies of fuel injection, technology for regulated phases of gas distribution, regulated turbocharger system and, lately, even system for variable compression ratio of engine. Usage of gaseous fuel, in particular gas-diesel process, may be one of the me...

  20. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  1. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Staudt, J.J.

    1982-07-31

    If diesel fuel becomes unavailable for any reason, can diesel powered farm equipment function on alternate fuels from energy crops that are available on the farm. This project sought to gain some insight into this question through the use of once-refined cottonseed oil as fuel in a typical unmodified agricultural diesel engine. The engine used for test was an International Harvester Model DT-436B 6 cylinder, inline, direct injection, turbocharged engine of approximately 175 brake horsepower at 2500 rpm. The engine was run on a stationary stand using blends of reference diesel fuel (DF-2), once-refined cottonseed oil (CSO), and transesterified cottonseed oil (ESCO). The latter is cottonseed oil which has been processed to give a methyl ester instead of a glyceride. The volume percent blends of fuels used in the tests ranged from 100% DF-2, to 20/80 DF-2/CSO, 50/50 DF-2/ESCO, 50/50 CSO/ESCO, and 100% ESCO. The test procedures and results are presented in this volume. The results suggest that ESCO would probably be a satisfactory substitute for diesel fuel, but more testing is required. None of the fuels tested is a cost effective alternative to diesel fuels. ESCO presently costs four to five times as much as commercial diesel fuel.

  2. ANALYSIS OF BJ493 DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    F Liu*

    2018-01-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmas...

  3. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  4. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  5. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  6. Effect of Bio Ethanol and Diesel Blend on Small Diesel Engine Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Hashemi Fard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Bio-ethanol as an alternative diesel engine fuel is rapidly increasing. Bio-ethanol is mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios and used in CI and SI engines. Since vibrations have direct effects on users and engine components, for this reason analysis of vibration resulting from combustion in CI engines is very important. In this study, evaluation of vibration was performed for both diesel and ethanol blends. Commercial diesel fuel (D100, E2 (2% ethanol and 98% diesel fuel, E5, E10, E15 and E20 were used in a two-wheel MITSUBISHI tractor. The engine was tested in 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 rpm for all fuel blends, and also the effect of load was investigated for D100 and E10. Results showed that vibration is significantly affected by fuel blend. It was observed that E10 had the lowest vibration while E20 had the highest value. It was also observed that vibration increased as engine speed increased for all fuel blends. It was found that both axial and lateral vibrations affected significantly by load. The lateral vibrations decreased continuously with load rise , but the axial vibrations increased initially but started to follow a reverse trend.

  7. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Detection Using Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Elamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated, using experimental method, the suitability of acoustic emission (AE technique for the condition monitoring of diesel engine valve faults. The clearance fault was adjusted experimentally in an exhaust valve and successfully detected and diagnosed in a Ford FSD 425 four-cylinder, four-stroke, in-line OHV, direct injection diesel engine. The effect of faulty exhaust valve clearance on engine performance was monitored and the difference between the healthy and faulty engine was observed from the recorded AE signals. The measured results from this technique show that using only time domain and frequency domain analysis of acoustic emission signals can give a superior measure of engine condition. This concludes that acoustic emission is a powerful and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of the faults in diesel engines and this is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring of valve performance.

  8. Proposal for future trend of engine mechatronics in marine diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, Ichiro; Higashi, Tadanori (Ashiya Univ., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    A future condition of engine mechatronics in the marine diesel engines was proposed. As a result of investigation, it was understood that the diesel engine, as mechatronicalized for the land plant use with an already high technology, is done for the marine use as an amplification of applying that for the land plant use. The marine diesel engine, if only maintaining the good performance in all the operating conditions, is low in mechatronicalized effect as compared with that for the land plant use. Particularly, there is no expectation of effect on the large ship. While as a reply to an inquiry to 100 enterprises, expectation, in the all automation electronic control, was of, in the order of expectation, reliability, automation, energy and labor saving, and anomaly diagnosis, which showed the most desired expectation to be of reliability. In other words, the reliability is presently one of the weakest points to apply the electronic control, which inversely requires the solution for the reliability. However there can be no expectation of decrease in fuel coat due to the mechatronicalization. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Dimethyl Ether as a Fuel for Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1999-01-01

    DME has recently been shown to be an attractive high cetane fuel for diesel engines, offering the advantages of soot free operation, with low engine noise, the potential for low NOx emissions, and low reactivity emissions of hydrocarbons and unburned fuel. DME has physical characteristics similar...... of engine fuels systems in regard to lubricity and suitable sealing materials....

  10. Performance and Emission Assessment of Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine using Surfactant Enhanced Water in Diesel Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohammed Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A four stroke, four cylinder, In-direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel with 5% water by volume on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 4500 rpm at full load conditions. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance with slight increase in emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value for 5% water and at all rpm, the torque, the power and the BMEP are found to have maximum values under these conditions when compared conve ntional disel. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed whereas increase in CO and NOX were minimum. In this work water in diesel emulsion was prepared by a mechanical homogenizer and their physical and chemical properties were examined.

  11. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  13. An experimental investigation on engine performance and emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine using hydrogen as inducted fuel and diesel as injected fuel with exhaust gas recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Probir Kumar; Maji, Dines [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Heat Power Laboratory, Kolkata 32, West Bengal (India)

    2009-06-15

    Fast depletion of fossil fuels is demanding an urgent need to carry out research work to find out the viable alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. The technology for producing hydrogen from a variety of resources, including renewable, is evolving and that will make hydrogen energy system as cost-effective. Hydrogen safety concerns are not the cause for fear but they simply are different than those we are accustomed to with gasoline, diesel and other fossil fuels. For the time being full substitution of diesel with hydrogen is not convenient but use of hydrogen in a diesel engine in dual fuel mode is possible. So Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The experiment is conducted using diesel-hydrogen blend. A timed manifold induction system which is electronically controlled has been developed to deliver hydrogen on to the intake manifold. The solenoid valve is activated by the new technique of taking signal from the rocker arm of the engine instead of cam actuation mechanism. In the present investigation hydrogen-enriched air has been used in a diesel engine with hydrogen flow rate at 0.15 kg/h. As diesel is substituted and hydrogen is inducted, the NO{sub x} emission is increased. In order to reduce NO{sub x} emission an EGR system has been developed. In the EGR system a lightweight EGR cooler has been used instead of bulky heat exchanger. In this experiment performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, BSEC are determined and emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, smoke and exhaust gas temperature are measured. Dual fuel operation with hydrogen induction coupled with exhaust gas recirculation results in lowered emission level and improved performance level compared to

  14. Documentation of the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangerpen, Jon

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program and explains how it can be used to predict the performance of diesel engines. The program was obtained from the Garrett Turbine Engine Company but has been extensively modified since. The program is a thermodynamic simulation of the diesel engine cycle which uses a single zone combustion model. It can be used to predict the effect of changes in engine design and operating parameters such as valve timing, speed and boost pressure. The most significan change made to this program is the addition of a more detailed heat transfer model to predict metal part temperatures. This report contains a description of the sub-models used in the Benson program, a description of the input parameters and sample program runs.

  15. Experimental investigations of LPG use at the automotive diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquefied petroleum gas has a great potential to improve energetically and pollution performance of compression ignition engines due to its good combustion properties. This paper presents results of the researches carried on a car compression ignition engine with a 1.5 dm3 displacement, fuelled with diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gas by diesel-gas method at the operating regimens of 70% and 55% engine load, engine speed of 2000 rpm and for substitute ratios between (6–19%. A specific objective of this paper is to establish a correlation between the optimum adjustments and the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with liquefied petroleum gas for the investigated regimens to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning and having regard to decrease the fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions.

  16. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  17. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  18. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  19. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  20. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  1. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  2. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  3. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  4. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  5. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  6. Supply and demand of diesel engine for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This document takes stock on the diesel engine situation in France, in order to define the future policy for 2010. The first part is a state of the art concerning the description and characteristics of the diesel, the diesel production in refineries, the biofuels, the supply and demand. The second part details the evolutions, the investments and the fiscality impacts. The last part concludes on the necessity of a fiscal neutrality and on the fact that no new refinery is justified in France. It proposes different scenario of the imports evolution. (A.L.B.)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  8. Diesel-Minimal Combustion Control of a Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the combustion phasing control of natural gas-diesel engines. In this study, the combustion phasing is influenced by manipulating the start and the duration of the diesel injection. Instead of using both degrees of freedom to control the center of combustion only, we propose a method that simultaneously controls the combustion phasing and minimizes the amount of diesel used. Minimizing the amount of diesel while keeping the center of combustion at a constant value is formulated as an optimization problem with an equality constraint. A combination of feedback control and extremum seeking is used to solve this optimization problem online. The necessity to separate the different time scales is discussed and a structure is proposed that facilitates this separation for this specific example. The proposed method is validated by experiments on a test bench.

  9. Research of oxyhydrogen gas mixture influence upon diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Evgeni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results from testing a Volkswagen 1.9 D diesel engine on a test bench to work on gas-diesel cycle with oxyhydrogen gas mixture. Experimental research is done to show the impact of oxyhydrogen gas mixture on engine consumption and environmental indexes such as: fuel and specific fuel consumption; carbon monoxide; carbon dioxide; oxides of nitrogen; smoke emissions. The oxyhydrogen gas mixture delivered to the engine intake manifold with constant flow rate. The results are obtained under research contract № 6524-4/2016.

  10. Utilization of Variable Consumption Biofuel in Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The depletion of oil fields and the deteriorating environmental situation leads to the need for the search of new alternative sources of energy. Actuality of the article due to the need for greater use of the alternative fuels in internal combustion engines is necessary. The advantages of vegetables origin fuels using as engine fuels are shown. Diesel engine operation on mixtures of petroleum diesel and rapeseed oil is researched. A fuel delivery system of mixture biofuel with a control system of the fuel compound is considered. The results of the system experimental researches of fuel delivery of mixture biofuel are led.

  11. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  12. An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. The combustion and emission performances of diesel-dimethylfuran blends were investigated under various loads ranging from 0.13 to 1.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure, and a constant speed of 1800 rpm. Results indicate that diesel-dimethylfuran blends have different combustion performance and produce longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration compared with pure diesel. Moreover, a slight increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency occurs when a Diesel engine operates with blended fuels, rather than diesel fuel. Diesel-dimethylfuran blends could lead to higher NOx emissions at medium and high engine loads. However, there is a significant reduction in soot emission when engines are fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. Soot emissions under each operating conditions are similar and close to zero except for D40 at 0.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The total number and mean geometric diameter of emitted particles from diesel-dimethylfuran blends are lower than pure diesel. The tested fuels exhibit no significant difference in either CO or HC emissions at medium and high engine loads. Nevertheless, diesel fuel produces the lowest CO emission and higher HC emission at low loads of 0.13 to 0.38 MPa brake mean effective pressure.

  13. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  14. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajendra Prasad; Balaji, Rajoo

    2018-02-01

    Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

  15. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  16. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  17. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    into the cylinder. A mixture of gas and air is compressed during the compression stroke and before the end of the stroke, a pilot quantity of diesel fuel (depending on the operating conditions) is injected to initiate combustion. The combustion processes of dual-fuel engines lie between that of the CI and SI engines. The longer ...

  18. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  19. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  20. Experimental evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and Diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Bawady, A.H.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate Diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative Diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, Diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO x and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend

  1. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  2. 77 FR 54384 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (HHDDE) in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of... production engines). EPA proposed NCPs for medium heavy duty diesel engines. However, EPA is not taking final...

  3. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ADDITION WITH CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID ON ENGINE COMBUSTION AND EXHAUST EMISSION IN A DI DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    A.VELMURUGAN; M.LOGANATHAN

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biofuel, diesel and ethanol blends (BDEB) were tested in a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to investigate the engine combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine under five engine loads at the speed of 1500 rpm. Here the ethanol is used as an additive to enhance the engine combustion. The mixture of Commercial diesel fuel, biofuel from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and ethanol mixture called BDEB is used to run the direct injection diesel e...

  4. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  5. Engine Performance Test of the 1975 Chrysler - Nissan Model CN633 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An engine test of the Chrysler-Nissan Model CN633 diesel engine was performed to determine its steady-state fuel consumption and emissions (HC, CO, NOx) maps. The data acquired are summarized in this report.

  6. Combustion Property Analysis and Control System for the Dynamics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding to global environment problems in recent year, the technology for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission of engine was needed. Simulation of transient engine response is needed to predict engine performance that frequently experience rapid changes of speed. The aim of this research is to develop a non-linear dynamic control model for direct injection single cylinder diesel engine which can simulate engine performance under transient conditions. In this paper, the combustion model with multistage injection and conducted experiments in the transient conditions to clarify the combustion characteristics was proposed. In order to perform the analysis of acceleration operation characteristics, it was built a Model Predictive Control (MPC to reproduce the characteristic values of the exhaust gas and fuel consumption from the control parameters in particular. Finally, MPC is an effective method to perform the analysis of characteristic in diesel engine under transient conditions.

  7. Tailpipe emissions and engine performance of a light-duty diesel engine operating on petro- and bio-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the experimental apparatus developed in the Transportation Air Quality Laboratory (TAQ Lab) at the University of Vermont to compare light-duty diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions when operating on petroleum diesel (...

  8. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  9. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  10. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  13. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  14. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel engine that is not continuously manned, you must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine that is continuously...

  15. Multi-response optimization of diesel engine operating parameters running with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellaiyan Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel is a promising alternative diesel fuel, which has the potential to promote better performance and emission characteristics in an existing Diesel engine without engine modification and added cost. The key factor that has to be focused with the introduction of such fuel in existing Diesel engine is desired engine-operating conditions. The present study attempts to address the previous issue with two-phases of experiments. In the first phase, stable water-in-diesel emulsion fuels (5, 10, 15, and 20 water-in-diesel are prepared and their stability period and physico-chemical properties are measured. In the second phase, experiments are conducted in a single cylinder, 4-stroke Diesel engine with pre-pared water-in-diesel emulsion fuel blends based on L16 orthogonal array suggested in Taguchi’s quality control concept to record the output responses (perormance and emission levels. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and grey relational analysis, optimal level of operating factors are determined to obtain better response and verified through confirmation experiments. A statistical analysis of variance is applied to measure the significance of individual operating parameters on overall engine performance. Results indicate that the emulsion fuel prepared by Sorbitan monolaurate surfactant at high stirrer speed endows with better emulsion stability and acceptable variation in physicochemical properties. Results of this study also reveal that the optimal parametric setting effectively improves the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of Diesel engine.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  20. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  1. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Radivoje B Pešić; Saša T Milojević; Stevan P Veinović

    2010-01-01

    The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minim...

  2. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R. [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  5. Effect of Ferrofluid on the Performance and Emission Patterns of a Four-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Shafii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to investigate the effects of adding water-based ferrofluid to diesel fuel in a diesel engine. These effects included the combustion performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine. To this end, emulsified diesel fuels of 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ferrofluid/diesel ratios by volume were used in a four-stroke diesel engine, operating at 2200 rpm. The results indicate that adding ferrofluid to diesel fuel has a perceptible effect on engine performance, increasing the brake thermal efficiency relatively up to 12% and decreasing the brake-specific fuel consumption relatively up to 11% as compared to diesel fuel. Furthermore, from the analysis of gaseous species of engine exhaust, it was found that NOx emissions were lower than that of diesel fuel while the CO emissions increased. In addition, it was found that nanoparticles can be collected at the exhaust flow using a magnetic bar.

  6. High-performance plain bearings for diesel engines. Hochleistungs-Gleitlager fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.M.; Mathias, M.; Herrmann, B. (MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    The crankshaft bearings are among the most highly stressed engine components. Conventional plain bearings no longer fulfill the requirements of modern high-performance diesel engines. Introduction of the 'Sputter' technology, as a method of anti friction layer application, opened new perspectives in the field of plain bearing manufacture. In this presentation it is intended to compare various types of plain bearings and to demonstrate operation-oriented bearing testing. (orig.).

  7. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  8. Bio-fuels for diesel engines: Experience in Italy and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchietta, C.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of meeting stringent European Communities air pollution regulations, reducing the necessity of petroleum imports and creating new markets for agricultural products, Italy's Ferruzzi-Montedison Group is developing diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils. The innovative feature of these fuels, from the environmental protection stand-point, is that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain. This paper provides brief notes of the key chemical-physical properties of these diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, and assesses the relative production technologies and commercialization prospects. Reference is made to the results of recent performance tests conducted on buses and taxis

  9. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... implementation of the provisions of the seven consent decrees signed by the United States and diesel engine..., or anticipates receiving, requests from the diesel engine manufacturers for termination of their respective decrees. This meeting notice is also available on EPA's Diesel Engine Settlement Web site at http...

  10. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim... manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and 2013 for emissions of oxides of...-duty trucks (6,000-8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight) to the largest diesel truck and urban bus engines...

  11. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.313-79 Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines. (a) The air flow measurement...

  12. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of... manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and later for emissions of oxides of nitrogen... Entities This proposed action would affect you if you produce or import new heavy-duty diesel engines which...

  13. 77 FR 72846 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Standards; In- Use Portable Diesel Engines 50 Horsepower and Greater; Notice of Decision AGENCY... portable diesel-fueled compression-ignition engines 50 horsepower and greater. DATES: Petitions for review... equipment and engines, switching to alternative diesel fuels or alternative fuels, or electrifying some or...

  14. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  15. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  16. CAFE compliance by light trucks: economic impacts of clean diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teotia, A.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Stodolsky, F.

    1999-01-01

    With the popularity of light trucks increasing in the United States, their share of the US light vehicle market had doubled between 1980 and 1996, climbing from 20 to 40%. By 1996, annual energy consumption for light trucks had risen to 5.97 x 10 15 Btu [5.97 quadrillion Btu, or ''quad'', or 6.30 x 10 18 joule (J)], compared to 7.94 quad (8.38 x 10 18 J) for cars. In recent years (since 1995), the fuel economy of US-manufactured light trucks (almost 99% of which use gasoline engines) has been below the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. This paper analyzes a strategy to reduce the CAFE shortfalls by adopting the new, highly energy-efficient clean diesel engine. Research on such engines has been funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, under its Light Truck Clean Diesel Engine Program. A clean diesel engine market penetration trajectory is developed, representing an industry response to meet the CAFE standards. Whether the engine will be produced inside the country or imported remains uncertain, so two cases are defined. Values of exports/imports of clean diesel engines/trucks under these cases are estimated. The macroeconomic benefits are estimated by using a model of the US economy developed by Standard and Poor's Data Resources, Inc. On the basis of gains in the gross domestic product projected under the alternative cases, domestic production of the clean diesel engine is favored over importing it. (author)

  17. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  18. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IX, ENGINE COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, FUNCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE CRANKSHAFTS, CAMSHAFTS, AND ASSOCIATED BEARINGS. TOPICS ARE SHAFTS AND BEARINGS, CAMSHAFTS, BEARINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, AND DETECTING FAILURE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED…

  20. Rudolf Diesel-The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Rudolf Diesel - The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine. Tilottama Shrinivasa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 319-320. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Heat Transfer in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent

    and up to 9.5 MW/m2 with the actual value probably being in the lower part of this interval. This is about the same magnitude as that previously reported for automotive size diesel engines. The obtained interval is relatively large, but a more accurate prediction is difficult to achieve with the applied...

  2. TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF PISTON RING IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian

    From a tribology point of view, it is the two dead centers that are the main area of interest for experimental study of piston rings in large marine diesel engines. Therefore, in this work the performance of piston rings is studied to mark the importance of the two dead centers. A test rig based...

  3. Swirling flow in a two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are performed for the turbulent swirling flow in a scale model of a low-speed two-stroke diesel engine with a moving piston. The purpose of the work is to investigate the accuracy of different turbulence models including two-equation Reynolds- Averaged Navier...

  4. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  5. Optimization of diesel engine performance by the Bees Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfanizam Ahmad, Siti; Sunthiram, Devaraj

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel recently has been receiving a great attention in the world market due to the depletion of the existing fossil fuels. Biodiesel also becomes an alternative for diesel No. 2 fuel which possesses characteristics such as biodegradable and oxygenated. However, there are facts suggested that biodiesel does not have the equivalent features as diesel No. 2 fuel as it has been claimed that the usage of biodiesel giving increment in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The objective of this study is to find the maximum brake power and brake torque as well as the minimum BSFC to optimize the condition of diesel engine when using the biodiesel fuel. This optimization was conducted using the Bees Algorithm (BA) under specific biodiesel percentage in fuel mixture, engine speed and engine load. The result showed that 58.33kW of brake power, 310.33 N.m of brake torque and 200.29/(kW.h) of BSFC were the optimum value. Comparing to the ones obtained by other algorithm, the BA produced a fine brake power and a better brake torque and BSFC. This finding proved that the BA can be used to optimize the performance of diesel engine based on the optimum value of the brake power, brake torque and BSFC.

  6. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  7. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Chiatti et al (2014) asserted that increasing attention has been devoted to the use of biodiesel fuel in internal combustion diesel engine due to its positive attributes as compared to the other types of fuel: e.g., being a renewable source, non- petroleum-based, with lower carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter ...

  8. Finite element analysis of a crankshaft of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikiv, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    This research was a part of the project aimed at the increase in power of the direct injection turbocharged twelve- cylinder V-type diesel engine. Crankshaft of a high power high speed diesel engine is subjected to complex loading conditions and undergoes high cyclic loads of the order of 107 to 108 cycles. Therefore, durability of this component is of critical importance. Strength analysis was based on the assessment of factor of safety (FOS) of the engine augmented by brake mean effective pressure (bmep) and/or engine speed. In the first part of the study, mechanical loads due to gas pressure and inertia forces were obtained from engine cycle simulation. Relationships for displacement, velocity and acceleration of an articulated connecting rod piston as a function of engine geometry and crank angle were derived. In the second part, the range of bmep and engine speed was determined over which engine performance is satisfactory on the basis of fatigue. It was shown that with limitations imposed (unchanged design and material of the crankshaft) the crankshaft of the given engine can withstand increase in power up to 15%. It was recommended, that required increase in engine power should be realized by the increase in bmep, since the increase in engine speed would deteriorate combustion efficiency. Finite Element Analysis was used to verify stresses calculations. New features of procedure used and relationships obtained in this research apply to strength analysis of other types of internal combustion engines. (author)

  9. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  10. Fuel Injection Pressure Effect on Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli A. Bakar; Semin; Abdul R.  Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Fuel injection pressures in diesel engine plays an important role for engine performance obtaining treatment of combustion. The present diesel engines such as fuel direct injection, the pressures can be increased about 100 200 Mpa bar in fuel pump injection system. The experimental investigated effects of fuel injection pressure on engine performance. Experiments have been performed on a diesel engine with four-cylinder, two-stroke, direct injection. Engine performance values such as indicat...

  11. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  12. Filtres à activité catalytique pour moteur Diesel Catalytic Activity Filters for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de l'examen des normes actuelles et envisagées dans le futur pour limiter les émissions de particules Diesel, et en considérant les propriétés physico-chimiques de ces particules, cet article expose les problèmes posés par la filtration des suies Diesel et leur élimination par combustion sur les différents types de filtres actuellement retenus. La régénération des filtres par combustion catalytique du dépôt est plus particulièrement discutée. From an examination of present regulations and ones being considered for the future to limit particle emissions by diesel engines, and considering the physicochemical properties of such particles, this article describes the problems raised by filtering soot from diesel engines and eliminating it by various types of filters now used. Filter regeneration by catalytic combustion of the deposit is considered in particular.

  13. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  14. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  15. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  16. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engines in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic system for diesel engines makes a diagnosis of secular change and abnormal indications of diesel engines (DG) by combination of characteristic analysis of engine, lubricating oil, fuel oil, and cooling water. The principles of diagnostic system for DG, results of confirmation of the efficiency and the maintenance plan for DG in the Japan Atomic Power Company are described. DG in the company is classified to a safety device in order to supply the power source to the Emergency Core Cooling System etc., when the power source in the plant is lost, for example, at lightning struck. Characteristics of DG, outline of the diagnostic system for DG, diagnostic technologies such as engine signature analysis, chemical analysis of samples, temperature measurement, degradation mode of DG, and training in the company are stated. (S.Y.)

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  18. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  19. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  20. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  1. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  2. Analysis of BJ493 diesel engine lubrication system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmaster flow simulation software. The properties of the diesel engine lubrication system, such as the oil flow rate and pressure at different rotational speeds were analyzed for the schemes involving large- and small-scale oil filters. The calculated values of the main oil channel pressure are in good agreement with the experimental results, which verifies the proposed model feasibility. The calculation results show that the main oil channel pressure and maximum oil flow rate values for the large-scale oil filter scheme satisfy the design requirements, while the small-scale scheme yields too low main oil channel’s pressure and too high. Therefore, application of small-scale oil filters is hazardous, and the large-scale scheme is recommended.

  3. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  4. A simulated study on the performance of diesel engine with ethanol-diesel blend fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the simulated study on atomization, wall-film formation, combustion and emission forming process of ethanol-diesel blend fuels in a high speed light duty diesel engine. The result shows that increased ethanol volume percentage of the blend fuels could improve atomization and reduce wall-film formation. However, in the meanwhile, with the increased ethanol volume percentage, low heat values of blend fuels decrease, while both total heat releases and cylinder pressures drop. By adding codes into the FIRE software, the NOx and soot formation region mass fractions are outputted. The simulated results display a good correlation with the NOx and soot formation. Besides, the NOx, soot and CO emissions decrease with the increased ethanol volume percentage. The power output of engine penalize, while energy utilization of blend fuels improve and combustion noise reduce, owing to the increased ethanol volume percentage.

  5. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  6. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  7. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  8. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...... is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop...... system adequately in engine loading transients so alternative methods are needed. This paper presents the design, convergence proofs and experimental validation of an adaptive feedforward controller that significantly improves the performance in loading transients. First the control concept...

  10. Effective test of lacquer in marine diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Hong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experiment on lacquer formation with simple test device. The anti-lacquer is one of important issues to increase durability, and to improve performance in the engines because the lacquer formation cause sticking of fuel injection pump, scuffing of cylinder liners, and increase of lubricant oil consumption in the marine diesel engines. We suggest this simple test in order to save enormous experimental cost in marine diesel engines, and in order to have ease in performing the various tests. The influences of the Base Number (BN of lubricant oils and the sulfur content of fuel oils in the formation of lacquer are investigated. In order to investigate physical and chemical properties of lacquer, we perform a variety of tests such as, visual inspection, EDS. In addition, we investigate adhesion of lacquer by pull-off test quantitatively, and perform dissolution test with dilute sulfuric acid.

  11. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions, with special emphasis on the influence of low temperature on fueling. Furthermore, for each tested fuel the optimal injection pump timing is determined. The obtained optimal injection pump timings for individual fuels are then used to determine and discuss the most important injection and combustion characteristics, engine performance, as well as the emission, economy, and tribology characteristics of the engine at all modes of emission test cycles test. The results show that for each tested fuel it is possible to find the optimized injection pump timing, which enables acceptable engine characteristics at all modes of the emission test cycles test.

  12. Combustion Analysis and Knock Detection in Single Cylinder DI-Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y.V.V.SatyanarayanaMurthy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to detect the “knock” in Diesel engines which deteriorate the engine performance adversely. The methodology introduced in the present work suggests a newly developed approach towards analyzing the vibration analysis of diesel engines. The method is based on fundamental relationship between the engine vibration pattern and the relative characteristics of the combustion process in each or different cylinders. Knock in diesel engine is detected by measuring the vibra...

  13. Effect of Engine Modifications on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Alternative Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, B.S.R

    2010-01-01

    Performance and emission characteristics unmodified diesel engines operating on different alternative fuels with smaller blend proportions are comparable with pure diesel operation. But with increased blend proportions due to the associated problems of vegetable oils like high viscosity and low volatility pollution levels increase which however is accompanied by operating and durability problems with the long term usage of engine. This paper discusses the necessary modifications required to o...

  14. From diesel engines in buses to fuel cells; Vom Diesel- zum Brennstoffzellenbus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, H. [EvoBus GmbH, Mercedes-Benz Omnibusse, Mannheim (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The EvoBus company is very active in the field of public short-distance transport and corresponding transport systems. Its business purpose is to develop buses for fast, comfortable, environment-friendly and safe transport of passengers. With road transport being more than ever in the focus of public discussion (doubling of the number of vehicles world-wide by the year 2030), new solutions are called for. These should not only enhance the environmental compatibility of road transport, especially in inner-urban areas, but, moreover, safeguard mobility in view of the finiteness of fossil fuel resources. The author considers that the environmental issue is only to be solved in consecutive steps. After the diesel engine complying with the emission limits of the European emission abatement acts `Euro` 1, 2, and 3, and the gas engine, the future will lie in the fuel cell technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die EvoBus beschaeftigt sich sehr intensiv mit dem OePNV und OePNV-Systemen. In diesem Taetigkeitsfeld sehen wir es als unsere Aufgabe an, Omnibusse zu entwickeln, mit denen Personen schnell, komfortabel, umweltfreundlich und sicher transportiert werden koennen. Da der Strassenverkehr mehr denn je im Brennpunkt der oeffentlichen Verkehrsdiskussion steht (Verdoppelung der weltweiten Fahrzeugzahl bis zum Jahr 2030), brauchen wir neue Loesungen, die zum einen die Umweltvertraeglichkeit des Strassenverkehrs, insbesondere in den Innenstaedten, steigern, und zum anderen auch die Mobilitaet im Hinblick auf die endliche Verfuegbarkeit der fossilen Brennstoffe garantiert. Der Autor meint, dass die Loesung der Umweltproblematik nur in mehreren Schritten erfolgen kann, was bedeutet, dass ueber die Dieselmotoren mit Euro 1, 2 und 3 sowie dem Gasmotor die Zukunft in der Brennstoffzellen-Technologie zu suchen ist. (orig.)

  15. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  16. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  17. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  18. Cottonseed oil as a diesel-engine fuel. Part 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staph, H.E.; Staudt, J.J.

    1982-07-31

    This appendix, Volume 2 of a 2 volume report, contains the original data and the methods used to reduce the data obtained in performance tests on diesel engines fueled by diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, and mixtures of these fuels. (LCL)

  19. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  20. Tomorrow`s diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a review of the main principles governing combustion in diesel engines and the influence of ambient air conditions on pollutant emissions (and more especially NOx), emission level limits concerning NOx, CO, HC and ashes are presented and discussed according to their applications in the various types of diesel engines. The influence of fuel type is also examined and several ways to reduce NOx emissions in liquid fuel diesel engines are reported: mechanical modifications (compression ratio), water injection, exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust gas processing, fume and ash filtration. Cost issues are also discussed, through comparisons with gas turbines

  1. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel about combustion, performance and emission parameters of engines. One of the parameters that have been less discussed is energy balance. In providing alternative fuels, biodiesel from waste cooking oil due to its low cost compared with biodiesel from plant oils, is the promising option. The properties of biodiesel and diesel fuels, in general, show many similarities, and therefore, biodiesel is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. The conversion of waste cooking oil into methyl esters through the transesterification process approximately reduces the molecular weight to one-third, reduces the viscosity by about one-seventh, reduces the flash point slightly and increases the volatility marginally, and reduces pour point considerably (Demirbas, 2009. In this study, effect of different percentages of biodiesel from waste cooking oil were investigated. Energy distribution study identify the energy losses ways in order to find the reduction solutions of them. Materials and Methods Renewable fuel used in this study consists of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process (Table 1. Five diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with values of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 percent of biodiesel that are signs for B0, B12, B22, B32 and B42, respectively. The test engine was a diesel engine, single-cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition and air¬cooled, series 3LD510 in the laboratory of renewable energies of agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modarres

  2. Lab-scale Lidar Sensing of Diesel Engines Exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, A.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion technology and its environmental concerns are being considered with increasing attention, not only for global-scale effects, but also for toxicological implications, particularly in the lift conditions of traffic-congested areas and industrial sites. Majority combustion by-products (CO, NO(sub x)) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), are already subject to increasingly severe regulations; however other, non-regulated minority species, mainly soot and heavy aromatic molecules, involve higher health risks, as they are suspected to be agents of serious pathologies and even mutagenic effects. This is but one of the reasons why much research work is being carried out worldwide on the physical properties of these substances. Correspondingly, the need arises to detect their presence in urban environments, with as high a sensitivity as is required by their low concentrations, proper time- and space-resolutions, and 'real-time' capabilities. Lidar techniques are excellent candidates to this purpose, although severe constraints limit their applicability, eye-safety problems and aerosol Mie scattering uncertainties above all. At CNR's Istituto Motori in Napels, a Lidar-like diagnostic system is being developed, aimed primarily at monitoring the dynamic behavior of internal combustion engines, particularly diesel exhausts, and at exploring the feasibility of a so-called 'Downtown Lidar'.

  3. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    fixation of man country life, the excellent and varied climatic conditions and several types of terrain become the country, with extensive workable areas, stand out in the world scenery if considering its great potentiality on generation of alternative fuels. The environmental preservation, important subject nowadays, makes that the human being work in searches for the development of alternative energies, mainly those originating from renewable and biodegradable sources of sustantable character. Taking in consideration those searches, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of a diesel engine working in different moments with mineral diesel and mixtures of mineral diesel and biodiesel in the equivalent proportions B2 (98% mineral diesel and 2%biodiesel, B5 (95% mineral diesel and 5%biodiesel, B20 (80% mineral diesel and 20%biodiesel, and, finally, B100 (100% biodiesel. The rehearsal was accomplished in the dependences of the Engineering Department at UFLA - Federal University of Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, in July, 2005. For the accomplishment of the rehearsals it, was used an engine cycle diesel of a tractor VALMET 85 id, of 58,2kW (78 cv, following it methodology established by the norm NBR 5484 of ABNT (1985, that refers to the rehearsal dynamometric of engines cycle Otto and Diesel being proceeded. One noticed ended that the potency of the motor when using biodiesel was lower than one when using mineral diesel. One observed that, in some rotations, the mixtures B5 and B20 presented the same potency or even higher, in some situations, than the one when if using mineral diesel. The best thermal efficiency of the motor was verified in the rotation of 540 rpm of equivalent TDP to 1720 rpm of the motor.

  4. Evaluation of engine performance, emissions, of a twin cylinder diesel engine fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends with a fraction of methanol

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tarun; C. Thamotharan; K. Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the methanol and waste plastic oil as an alternative fuel has been carried out. This report deals with the exhaust emission of waste plastic fuel on twin cylinder diesel engine. The objectives of this report are to analyse the fuel consumption and the emission characteristic of a twin cylinder diesel engine that are using waste plastic oil compared to usage of ordinary diesel that are available in the market. This report describes the setups and the procedures for the...

  5. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  6. Bluetec. The concept for diesel engines with lowest emissions; Bluetec. Das Konzept fuer Dieselmotoren mit niedrigsten Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommers, Joachim; Reichel, Stephan [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Zygan, Andreas; Binz, Ralf; Eckert, Dietmar; Paule, Markus; Kempka, Karl-Heinz [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    In October 2006 when Mercedes-Benz introduced the model E 320 Bluetec, it brought the first production diesel passenger car to the market that met US Tier 2 Bin8 emission standards. Mercedes-Benz will continue its Bluetec offensive in 2008, offering the V6 diesel engine in the M, GL and R Classes in the USA, using the SCR/AdBlue technology which meets the US Tier 2 Bin5 emission standards and thereby all currently valid emission standards for diesel passenger cars worldwide. (orig.)

  7. Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or Diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a model of fuel sprays development in the cylinders of Diesel engines that is two-dimensional, multi-zone, with the issuing jet (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection as well as across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber before and after wall impingement. After the jet break up time, a group of droplets is generated in each zone, with the model following their motion during heating, evaporation and mixing with the in-cylinder air. The model is applied for the interesting case of using vegetable oils or their derived bio-diesels as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives to petroleum distillates since they are derived from biological sources. Although there are numerous experimental studies that show curtailment of the emitted smoke with possible increase of the emitted NO x against the use of Diesel fuel, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these biologically derived fuels. Thus, in the present work, a theoretical detailed model of spray formation is developed that is limited to the related investigation of the physical processes by decoupling it from the chemical effects after combustion initiation. The analysis results show how the widely differing physical properties of these fuels, against the normal Diesel fuel, affect greatly the spray formation and consequently the combustion mechanism and the related emissions

  8. An Optical Method for Measuring Injection Timing in Diesel Engines, Using a Single Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    5 and NATO F-76, the current fleet standards. However, the use of seawater compensated shipboard storage tanks, legacy engine technology , high flash...76 is 46 [4, 5]. SPK, produced using the Fischer-Tropsch process, was originally derived in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s in response to fuel...noise. Sugiyama et al. [18] tested a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in a direct injection, turbocharged, automotive diesel and found both decreased

  9. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  10. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đặng Van Uy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixed fuel supplying to diesel engines inline. In order to ensure a quality of the mixed fuel created by continuous mixer, a homogeneous testing was introduced with believable results. Then, the continuous mixer has been installed into fuel supply system of diesel engine 6LU32 at a lab of Vietnam Maritime University in terms of checking a real operation of the fuel continuous mixer with diesel engine.

  11. Unsupervised Condition Change Detection In Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can be investig...... be investigated further. The method is successfully applied to unsupervised condition change detection in large diesel engines from acoustical emission sensor signal and compared to more classical techniques based on principal component analysis and Gaussian mixture models....

  12. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Pallas, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  13. Inspection of diesel engine injectors by several electromagnetic nondestructive methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Balassa, P.; Gasparics, A.; Tomáš, Ivan; Mészáros, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2017), s. 449-459 ISSN 1383-5416 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetic nondestructive testing * diesel engine injector * eddy current testing * magnetic hysteresis measurements * magnetic adaptive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.769, year: 2016

  14. Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Lee, C.F.; Jia, C.C.; Wang, P.P.; Wu, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The main properties of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel were measure and analyzed. • The cylinder pressure of the rapeseed oil–diesel blends was measured and compared. • The heat release rate of the test fuels was calculated and the combustion process was analyzed. • The fuel consumption and emissions characteristics were measured and compared. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using rapeseed oil–diesel blends. The main fuel properties of rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the viscosity and density of the blends were decreased and approached to that of diesel fuel when RSO volume fraction was less than 20%. At low engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was almost similar to that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were higher. At high engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was slightly earlier than that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were identical. For the blends, there was slightly higher brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC) at low engine loads. Smoke emission was higher at low engine loads, but lower at high engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was observed slightly lower at low engine loads and almost identical at high engine loads. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission were higher under all range of engine loads for the blends

  15. Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

  16. Effect of oxygenate additive on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions operating with biodiesel-diesel blend at idling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, F. Y.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Yusri, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine but idling is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. Vehicles running with idling condition cause higher fuel supply and higher emission level due to being having fuel residues in the exhaust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additive on fuel consumption and emissions parameters under idling conditions when a multicylinder diesel engine operates with the diesel-biodiesel blend. The study found that using 5% butanol as an additive with B5 (5% Palm biodiesel + 95% diesel) blends fuel lowers brake specific fuel consumption and CO emissions by 38% and 20% respectively. But the addition of butanol increases NOx and CO2 emissions. Based on the result it can be said that 5% butanol can be used in a diesel engine with B5 without any engine modifications to tackle the idling problem.

  17. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  19. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegl, Breda

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of D2. The obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. The injection characteristics are determined numerically under the operating regimes, corresponding to the 13 mode ESC test. The fuel spray is obtained experimentally under peak torque condition. Engine characteristics are determined experimentally under 13 mode ESC test conditions. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NO(x), CO, smoke and HC) can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly.

  20. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  1. A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torregrosa, A.; Olmeda, P.; Degraeuwe, B. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Reyes, M. [Centro de Mecanica de Fluidos y Aplicaciones, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2006-08-15

    A concise resistor model for wall temperature prediction in diesel engines with piston cooling is presented here. The model uses the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and some usually measured operational parameters to predict the temperature of the structural elements of the engine. The resistor model was adjusted by means of temperature measurements in the cylinder head, the liner and the piston. For each model parameter, an expression as a function of the engine geometry, operational parameters and material properties was derived to make the model applicable to other similar engines. The model predicts well the cylinder head, liner and piston temperature and is sensitive to variations of operational parameters such as the start of injection, coolant and oil temperature and engine speed and load. (author)

  2. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  3. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  4. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  5. Preliminary Biofuel Treatment in Injector Bodies of Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyus, Oleh

    2012-03-01

    The paper discusses possibilities of increasing the performance parameters of a diesel engine and decreasing the emission of toxic compounds contained in exhaust gases by using preliminary catalytic treatment of biofuel, executed directly in the injector body. In order to enhance the impact of the catalyst on the flowing fuel the author proposes to utilize the phenomenon of turbulization in injector passages. The results of tests on a 359 type engine have shown an improvement of operational parameters and a decrease of toxic emission in exhaust gases.

  6. Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Haley; Reis, Cesar; Sharip, Akbar; Reis, Wenes; Zhao, Yong; Sinclair, Ryan; Beeson, Lawrence

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental studies on natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled with corn seed oil methyl ester as a bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna Reddy, E.; Dhana Raju, V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluates the possibilities of using corn seed oil methyl ester as a fuel for compression ignition engines. The biodiesels are contained high oxygen content, and high Cetane number, due to this properties efficiency of biodiesel is higher than diesel fuel. The experiments were conducted with different biodiesel blends of (B10, B15, B20 and B25) corn seed oil on single cylinder four stroke natural aspirated diesel engines. Performance parameters and exhaust emissions are investigated in this experimental with the blends of the corn seed oil methyl ester and diesel fuel. The test results showed that the bio-diesel blends gives improved results for brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when compared with the diesel fuel. The emissions of corn seed methyl esters follow the same trend of diesel but the smoke opacity was reduces for all blends. From the investigation, corn seed methyl ester is also having the properties similar to diesel fuel; it is biodegradable and renewable fuel, so it will be used as an alternative for diesel fuel.

  8. Diesel aftertreatment control technologies in underground mines : the NO{sub 2} issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauda, E.G.; Bugarski, A.D.; Patts, L. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Office of Mine Safety and Health Research

    2010-07-01

    Diesel engines are the main source of exposure for underground miners to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The exposure of underground miners to both these pollutants is regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. Improvements have been made in mine ventilation in an attempt to meet more stringent emission limits. In coal mines in the United States, the exposure limits of underground miners to pollutant concentrations determine the ventilation rate specific for certified diesel engines. The ventilation rates are based on the amount of fresh air needed to dilute CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2} in the undiluted exhaust gas to the threshold limit values (TLV). This presentation described the other options available to mine operators to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions. More advanced engine technologies, aftertreatment control strategies and the use of biodiesel fuels can reduce the mass concentrations of diesel particulate matter (DPM). However, these strategies can also alter tailpipe emissions of NO{sub 2} and an increase in ventilation rate may be required if the concentration of NO{sub 2} exceeds the regulatory enforced limit. The effects of different exhaust aftertreatment technologies were reviewed in this presentation along with ventilation control strategies for underground mining. 43 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Diesel reformulation using bio-derived propanol to control toxic emissions from a light-duty agricultural diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillainayagam, Muthukkumar; Venkatesan, Krishnamoorthy; Dipak, Rana; Subramani, Saravanan; Sethuramasamyraja, Balaji; Babu, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification. This study evaluates the use of n-propanol addition in fossil diesel by up to 30% by vol. and concurrently reports the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions of an agricultural DI diesel engine. Three blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 were prepared by mixing 10, 20, and 30% by vol. of n-propanol with fossil diesel. Results when compared to baseline diesel case indicated that smoke density reduced with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced smoke density by 13.33, 33.33, and 60%, respectively. NOx emissions increased with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. Later, three EGR rates (10, 20, and 30%) were employed. At any particular EGR rate, smoke density remained lower with increasing n-propanol content in the blends under increasing EGR rates. NOx reduced gradually with EGR. At 30% EGR, the blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced NOx emissions by 43.04, 37.98, and 34.86%, respectively when compared to baseline diesel. CO emissions remained low but hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were high for n-propanol/diesel blends under EGR. Study confirmed that n-propanol could be used by up to 30% by vol. with diesel and the blends delivered lower soot density, NOx, and CO emissions under EGR.

  10. [Martin high pressure common rail diesel engine injection system]. Technical progress report, August--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    We have a contract with Diesel Recerche of Trieste, Italy, and the Fincantier Group in Italy. They are naval ship builders. Our contract is to work with Diesel Recerche to design the `Martin` fuel injection system for their first test engine for a naval ship. Tiby Martin has been working in the design and detailed layout of the application drawings for Diesel Recerche.

  11. Acoustical monitoring of diesel engines in reverberant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, M.

    1995-10-01

    The feed-back knowledge of emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants shows that some malfunctions, mainly affecting fuel-injection or distribution system of the engine can be heard and detected by experienced maintenance agents. This study consists in the feasibility,v of acoustical monitoring of those diesel engines, taking into account the reverberant environment of the machine. The operating cycle of the diesel is composed of transient events (injection, combustion, valve closure...) which generate highly non stationary acoustical signals. The detection of a malfunction appearing on such transients requires the use of adapted signal processing techniques. Visual analysis of the phenomena is first proceeded using time-frequency and time-scale representations. The second step will be parametric modeling of acoustical signatures for the extraction of characteristic parameters, in order to characterize the fault and to use an automatic classification system. The lest part of the study will concern the evaluation of the robustness of the detection methods in regard to acoustical reverberation. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs

  12. Effects of oxygen enriched combustion on pollution and performance characteristics of a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen enriched combustion is one of the attractive combustion technologies to control pollution and improve combustion in diesel engines. An experimental test was conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine to study the impact of oxygen enrichment on pollution and performance parameters by increasing the oxygen concentration of intake air from 21 to 27% by volume. The tests results show that the combustion process was improved as there is an increase in thermal efficiency of 4 to 8 percent and decrease in brake specific fuel consumption of 5 to 12 percent. There is also a substantial decrease in unburned hydro carbon, carbon mono-oxide and smoke density levels to the maximum of 40, 55 and 60 percent respectively. However, there is a considerable increase in nitrogen oxide emissions due to increased combustion temperature and extra oxygen available which needs to be addressed.

  13. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  14. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  16. Combustion Noise Analysis for Combustion and Fuels Diagnosis of a CI Diesel Engine Operating with Biodiesels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Dong; Shi, Zhanqun; Song, Zhongyue; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the combustion noise of a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine operating with biodiesels has been investigated experimentally. It aims to explore an effective method for combustion process monitoring and fuel quality evaluation through analysing the characteristics of the engine combustion noise. The experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with biodiesels (B50 and B100) and normal pure diesel, and op...

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  18. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  19. Urea-SCR Temperature Investigation for NOx Control of Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SCR (selective catalytic reduction system is continuously being analyzed by many researchers worldwide on various concerns due to the stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions legislation for heavy-duty diesel engines. Urea-SCR includes AdBlue as urea source, which subsequently decomposes to NH3 (ammonia being the reducing agent. Reaction temperature is a key factor for the performance of urea-SCR system, as urea decomposition rate is sensitive to a specific temperature range. This particular study was directed to investigate the temperature of the SCR system in diesel engine with the objective to confirm that whether the appropriate temperature is attained for occurrence of urea based catalytic reduction or otherwise and how the system performs on the prescribed temperature range. Diesel engine fitted with urea-SCR exhaust system has been operated on European standard cycle for emission testing to monitor the temperature and corresponding nitrogen oxides (NOx values on specified points. Moreover, mathematical expressions for approximation of reaction temperature are also proposed which are derived by applying energy conservation principal and gas laws. Results of the investigation have shown that during the whole testing cycle system temperature has remained in the range where urea-SCR can take place with best optimum rate and the system performance on account of NOx reduction was exemplary as excellent NOx conversion rate is achieved. It has also been confirmed that selective catalytic reduction (SCR is the best suitable technology for automotive engine-out NOx control.

  20. Advanced Metasearch Engine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    Among the search tools currently on the Web, search engines are the most well known thanks to the popularity of major search engines such as Google and Yahoo!. While extremely successful, these major search engines do have serious limitations. This book introduces large-scale metasearch engine technology, which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the major search engines. Essentially, a metasearch engine is a search system that supports unified access to multiple existing search engines by passing the queries it receives to its component search engines and aggregating the returned

  1. Mitigation of PAH and nitro-PAH emissions from nonroad diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana

    2015-03-17

    More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of PAH and nitro-PAH compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-PAH compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on PAH-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.

  2. Effect of partial replacement of diesel or biodiesel with gas from biomass gasification in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, J.J.; Lapuerta, M.; Barba, J.

    2015-01-01

    The injected diesel fuel used in a diesel engine was partially replaced with biomass-derived gas through the intake port, and the effect on performance and pollutant emissions was studied. The experimental work was carried out in a supercharged, common-rail injection, single-cylinder diesel engine by replacing diesel fuel up to 20% (by energy), keeping constant the engine power. Three engine loads (60, 90, 105 Nm), three different EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) ratios (0, 7.5, 15%) and two intake temperatures (45, 60 °C) were tested. Finally, some of the tested conditions were selected to replace diesel injection fuel with biodiesel injection. Although the brake thermal efficiency was decreased and hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions increased with increasing fuel replacement, particulate emissions decreased significantly and NO x emissions decreased slightly at all loads and EGR ratios. Thermodynamic diagnostic results showed higher premixed ratio and lower combustion duration for increasing diesel fuel replacement. High EGR ratios improved both engine performance and emissions, especially when intake temperature was increased, which suggest removing EGR cooling when diesel fuel is replaced. Finally, when biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, the gas replacement improved the efficiency and reduced the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. - Highlights: • Replacing injected fuel with gas permits an efficient valorization of waste biomass. • Inlet gas was inefficiently burned after the end of liquid fuel injection. • Engine parameters were combined to simultaneously reduce particle and NO x emissions. • Hot EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and biodiesel injection are proposed to improve efficiency and emissions

  3. Analysis of pre-heated fuel combustion and heat-emission dynamics in a diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, S. A.; Kartashevich, A. N.; Buzikov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article explores the feasibility of diesel fuel pre-heating. The research goal was to obtain and analyze the performance diagrams of a diesel engine fed with pre-heated fuel. The engine was tested in two modes: at rated RPMs and at maximum torque. To process the diagrams the authors used technique developed by the Central Diesel Research Institute (CDRI). The diesel engine’s heat emission curves were obtained. The authors concluded that fuel pre-heating shortened the initial phase of the combustion process and moderated the loads, thus making it possible to boost a diesel engine’s mean effective pressure.

  4. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Motorisation Aeronautiques (SMA) Engines, Inc. SR305-230E-C1 which is a four-stroke, air cooled, diesel cycle... approved under Type Certificate No. 3A13, is an aluminum, four place, single engine airplane with a... obtained by multiplying the mean torque by a factor of four for diesel cycle engines. (1) If a factor of...

  5. Performance Analysis of the Vehicle Diesel Engine-ORC Combined System Based on a Screw Expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve energy saving and emission reduction for vehicle diesel engines, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC was employed to recover waste heat from vehicle diesel engines, R245fa was used as ORC working fluid, and the resulting vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was presented. The variation law of engine exhaust energy rate under various operating conditions was obtained, and the running performances of the screw expander were introduced. Based on thermodynamic models and theoretical calculations, the running performance of the vehicle diesel engine-ORC combined system was analyzed under various engine operating condition scenarios. Four evaluation indexes were defined: engine thermal efficiency increasing ratio (ETEIR, waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC of the combined system, and improvement ratio of BSFC (IRBSFC. Results showed that when the diesel engine speed is 2200 r/min and diesel engine torque is 1200 N·m, the power output of the combined system reaches its maximum of approximately 308.6 kW, which is 28.6 kW higher than that of the diesel engine. ETEIR, WHRE, and IRBSFC all reach their maxima at 10.25%, 9.90%, and 9.30%, respectively. Compared with that of the diesel engine, the BSFC of the combined system is obviously improved under various engine operating conditions.

  6. Experimental investigation of performance and emissions of a VCR diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol diesel blends under varying engine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Ashish; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Mathur, Alok

    2017-09-01

    The continuous rise in the cost of fossil fuels as well as in environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines. In the present work, n-butanol is treated as a bio-fuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable n-butanol-diesel blend. In the current research, an experimental investigation was carried out on a variable compression ratio CI engine with n-butanol-diesel blends (10-25% by volume) to determine the optimum blending ratio and optimum operating parameters of the engine for reduced emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed for 20% n-butanol-diesel blend (B20) at a higher compression ratio as compared to diesel while keeping the other parameters unchanged. The observed deterioration in engine performance was within tolerable limits. The reductions in smoke, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed up to 56.52, 17.19, and 30.43%, respectively, for B20 in comparison to diesel at rated power. However, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrocarbons (HC) were found to be higher by 17.58 and 15.78%, respectively, for B20. It is concluded that n-butanol-diesel blend would be a potential fuel to control emissions from diesel engines. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Validation of some engine combustion and emission parameters of a bioethanol fuelled DI diesel engine using theoretical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam, Murugan; Mahapatra, Subranshu Sekhar; Hansdah, Dulari; Horák, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that ethanol/bioethanol can replace conventional diesel fuel by 15%, when it is emulsified with diesel and used as an alternative fuel in a compression ignition (CI) engine. In this study, initially BMDE15, a bioethanol emulsion containing 15% bioethanol, 84% diesel and 1% surfactant was characterised for its fuel properties and compared with those of diesel fuel properties. The numerical value indicates the percentage of bioethanol in the BMDE15 emulsion. For the inv...

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  9. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  10. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  11. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  12. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zihan [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Srinivasan, Kalyan K. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Krishnan, Sundar R. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Som, Sibendu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends.

  13. Investigation of the effects of steam injection on performance and NO emissions of a diesel engine running with ethanol–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combustion simulation is conducted by using two-zone combustion model. • Effect of steam injection into engine fueled ethanol–diesel blend are investigated. • It is shown that this method improves performance and diminish NO emissions. - Abstract: The use of ethanol–diesel blends in diesel engines without any modifications negatively affects the engine performance and NOx emissions. However, steam injection method decreases NOx emissions and improves the engine performance. In this study, steam injection method is applied into a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend in order improve the performance and NOx emissions by using two-zone combustion model for 15% ethanol addition and 20% steam ratios at full load condition. The results obtained are compared with conventional diesel engine (D), steam injected diesel engine (D + S20), diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend (E15) and steam injected diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend (E15 + S20) in terms of performance and NO emissions. The results showed that as NO emissions considerably decrease the performance significantly increases with steam injection method

  14. Study of Effect of Diesel Fuel Energy Rate in Duel Fuel on Performance of Compression Ignition Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Maan Janan Basheer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of diesel fuel percentage on the combustion processes in compression ignition engine using dual fuel (diesel and LPG). The brake thermal efficiency increased with the increase of diesel fuel rate at low loads, and decreased when load increased. To get sufficient operation in engine fueled with dual fuel, it required sufficient flow rate of diesel fuel, if the engine fueled with insufficient diesel fuel erratic operation with miss fire cycles presen...

  15. Highlights in the development of the high-speed diesel engine for rail transport. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, S.

    In the 1920s, Maybach Motorenbau GmbH (MM) developed a lightweight high-speed diesel engine which helped make diesel power for railcars popular - not only in Germany. In the early Thirties, a 12-cylinder engine in V-configuration was derived from the lightweight 6-cylinder in-line engine; later the 12-cylinder became the first high-speed diesel engine to be uprated by exhaust-gas turbocharging. MM began developing its own engine accessories as well as engines since badly designed accessories had been causing engine damage in these early days of rail traction. Towards the end of the Forties, a new series of engines with higher cubic capacity was developed for repowering locomotives with diesel engines. Their unconventional design features gave these engines an extraordinary development potential. At the same time, the prewar railcar engines were refined and adapted to the hard conditions of shunting locomotives in particular. (orig./BWI).

  16. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmino, I.; Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 70 0 C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease. [it

  17. Attempts to minimize nitrogen oxide emission from diesel engine by using antioxidant-treated diesel-biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashedul, Hasan Khondakar; Kalam, Md Abdul; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Teoh, Yew Heng; How, Heoy Geok; Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Imdadul, Hassan Kazi

    2017-04-01

    The study represents a comprehensive analysis of engine exhaust emission variation from a compression ignition (CI) diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends. Biodiesel used in this investigation was produced through transesterification procedure from Moringa oleifera oil. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, naturally aspirated diesel engine was used for this purpose. The pollutants from the exhaust of the engine that are monitored in this study are nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity. Engine combustion and performance parameters are also measured together with exhaust emission data. Some researchers have reported that the reason for higher NO emission of biodiesel is higher prompt NO formation. The use of antioxidant-treated biodiesel in a diesel engine is a promising approach because antioxidants reduce the formation of free radicals, which are responsible for the formation of prompt NO during combustion. Two different antioxidant additives namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 2,2'-methylenebis(4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol) (MBEBP) were individually dissolved at a concentration of 1% by volume in MB30 (30% moringa biodiesel with 70% diesel) fuel blend to investigate and compare NO as well as other emissions. The result shows that both antioxidants reduced NO emission significantly; however, HC, CO, and smoke were found slightly higher compared to pure biodiesel blends, but not more than the baseline fuel diesel. The result also shows that both antioxidants were quite effective in reducing peak heat release rate (HRR) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) as well as improving brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and oxidation stability. Based on this study, antioxidant-treated M. oleifera biodiesel blend (MB30) can be used as a very promising alternative source of fuel in diesel engine without any modifications.

  18. Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Thorsten; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Czech, Hendryk; Harndorf, Horst; Jakobi, Gert; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Karg, Erwin; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Michalke, Bernhard; Müller, Laarnie; Orasche, Jürgen; Passig, Johannes; Radischat, Christian; Rabe, Rom; Reda, Ahmed; Rüger, Christopher; Schwemer, Theo; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Torvela, Tiina; Weggler, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.

  19. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Alirio; Benjumea, Pedro; Pashova, Veselina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO 2 emissions practically remain constants

  20. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  1. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  2. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  3. Diesel Technology: Introduction. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerschke, John D.; Eichhorn, Lane

    This complete teacher edition of a diesel technology course consists of introductory pages, teacher pages, and the student edition. The introductory pages provide these tools: training and competency profile; National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation Crosswalk; instructional/task analysis; basic skills icons and classifications; basic…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  5. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  6. Emissions treatment of diesel engines by plasma outside of balance; Tratamiento de emisiones de motores diesel por plasma fuera de equilibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco P, M.; Pacheco S, J.; Valdivia B, R.; Garcia R, M.; Estrada M, N. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Santana D, A. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Lefort, B.; Le Moyne, L.; Zamilpa, C., E-mail: marquidia.pacheco@inin.gob.mx [Institut Superieur d l' Automobile et des Transports, 49 rue Madeimoiselle Bourgeois BP31, 58027 Nevers cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays, diesel engines are greatly developed in automobiles allowing the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (CO{sub 2}); however high emissions of particulate matter (Mp) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) still remain. A technology based on non-thermal plasma to diminish toxic emissions is exposed in this work. From previous experimental and simulation results, a chemical mechanism is proposed showing a rapidly diminution of Mp and NO{sub x}, in presence of plasma. (Author)

  7. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  8. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A; Northrop, William F; Bohac, Stanislav V; Assanis, Dennis N

    2012-11-15

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NO x brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM 2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM 2.5 . The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for

  9. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  10. Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Pena, Diego Leon; Mejia, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

  11. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The experimental results show that both the blends can be used as fuels for diesel engine without any major modification in the engines. It is also seen that the carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions are reduced at all loads for both the blends compared to diesel fuel while NOx emissions are observed to be slightly higher.

  12. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.  The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.Key words: Jatropha curcas oil, outer velocity characteristic, diesel engine, ignition delay.

  13. Diesel and gas engines: evolution facing new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daverat, Ph. [Bergetat Monnoyeur (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the influence of new pollution regulations on the new design of diesel and gas engines with the example of Caterpillar`s experience, one of the leaders of diesel and gas engines manufacturers worldwide. The technical problems to solve are introduced first (reduction of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, unburned compounds and dusts), and then the evolution of engines and of exhaust gas treatment systems are described (fuel injection systems, combustion and ignition control, sensors, catalytic conversion and filtering systems). (J.S.)

  14. THE EFFECT OF SKULDUGGERY IN FUEL OF DIESEL ENGINES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF I. C. ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed R. Jasem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed to study the effect of fraud in the diesel fuel on environmental pollution,  the study included two samples of diesel fuel., first sample is used currently in all diesel engines vehicles, and it produced in colander of oil  of Baiji, the second sample is producer manually from mixing of the Lubricating oils and kerosene with ratio(1/40, were prepared and tested in research laboratories and quality control of the North Refineries Company /BAIJI by using standard engine (CFR. comparison between two models of fuel in terms of the properties of the mixing fuel and the properties of diesel fuel standard. The results proved that the process of mixing these ,  leading to the minimization of Cetane number and flash point. While the viscosity increase in  mixing fuel, comparison with fuel producer in the refinery, and which identical to the minimum standard specifications of diesel fuel.The tests had been carried out using the engine of (TQ four stroke type (TD115 with a single-cylinder and compression ratio (21:1 a complement to the hydraulic type Dynamo meter (TD115.

  15. An example of a diesel generator model with fluctuating engine torque for transient analysis using XTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orie Sakamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In remote site power systems with small diesel generators, weak distribution feeders with diesel generators may suffer from voltage and power fluctuations due to misfiring of the engine cylinder. An electromagnetic transient (EMT program named XTAP is considered to be useful to analyze these phenomena. In this study, a new diesel generator model with example fluctuating engine torque has been developed using XTAP for analyses of small power systems with those diesel engines. The configuration and verification results of the developed model are presented in the paper.

  16. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

  17. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  18. Prediction and Validation of Heat Release Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Multi-Zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anang Nugroho, Bagus; Sugiarto, Bambang; Prawoto; Shalahuddin, Lukman

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop simulation model which capable to predict heat release of diesel combustion accurately in efficient computation time. A multi-zone packet model has been applied to solve the combustion phenomena inside diesel cylinder. The model formulations are presented first and then the numerical results are validated on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine at various engine speed and timing injections. The model were found to be promising to fulfill the objective above.

  19. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  20. Compressed Biogas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine Optimization Study for Ultralow Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Koten

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the optimum operating conditions in a diesel engine fueled with compressed biogas (CBG and pilot diesel dual-fuel. One-dimensional (1D and three-dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD code and multiobjective optimization code were employed to investigate the influence of CBG-diesel dual-fuel combustion performance and exhaust emissions on a diesel engine. In this paper, 1D engine code and multiobjective optimization code were coupled and evaluated about 15000 cases to define the proper boundary conditions. In addition, selected single diesel fuel (dodecane and dual-fuel (CBG-diesel combustion modes were modeled to compare the engine performances and exhaust emission characteristics by using CFD code under various operating conditions. In optimization study, start of pilot diesel fuel injection, CBG-diesel flow rate, and engine speed were optimized and selected cases were compared using CFD code. CBG and diesel fuels were defined as leading reactants using user defined code. The results showed that significantly lower NOx emissions were emitted under dual-fuel operation for all cases compared to single-fuel mode at all engine load conditions.

  1. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  2. Preparation of diesel emulsion using auxiliary emulsifier mono ethylene glycol and utilization in a turbocharged diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Emre; Solmaz, Hamit; Polat, Seyfi; Uyumaz, Ahmet; Şahin, Fatih; Salman, M. Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mono-ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier. • Using mono ethylene glycol prolonged precipitation duration of emulsions. • With using E5 and E10 fuels engine torque averagely increased by 0.35% and 1.73% respectively. • It was found that specific fuel consumption of emulsions is lower than diesel. • Using E10 fuel reduced CO, NO x and soot emissions 44%, 47% and 5% respectively. - Abstract: Diesel engines are used widely as they have lower fuel consumption and higher thermal efficiency in transportation sector. However, the emitted high NO x , CO and soot emissions have led researchers to search different alternative fuels. At this point, diesel fuels emulsions help to reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effects of diesel fuel emulsions containing 5% (E5) and 10% (E10) water on engine performance an exhaust emissions has been investigated. Mono ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier in the preparation of the emulsion. Use of the mono ethylene glycol reduced the subsidence rate of the E5 and E10 about 34.5% and 47.1% respectively. The experiments were conducted at full load condition and at 2500, 3250 and 4000 rpm engine speeds. Engine torque and power increased according to diesel fuel between 2400 and 3600 engine speed range when emulsified fuels were used. But significant reductions were observed after that engine speed range. It was observed that the nitrogenoxide (NO x ) emission reduced 5.42% and 11.01% with using E5 and E10 fuel respectively according to diesel fuel at 2500 rpm. Also the soot emissions reduced 12.39% and 22.97% with using E5 and E10

  3. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  4. Nitric oxide in a diesel engine : laser-based detection and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, G.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most polluting components in the exhaust gases of a diesel engines. Therefore, knowledge of the time and place where it is produced during the combustion process is of interest to find a way to reduce diesel engine emissions. Non-intrusive optical diagnostics, based

  5. Experimental Investigation of Sulfuric Acid Condensation and Corrosion Rate in Motored Bukh DV24 Diesel Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjemtrup, Lars; Cordtz, Rasmus Faurskov; Meyer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The work conducted in this paper presents a novel experimental setup to study sulfuric acid cold corrosion of cylinder liners in large two-stroke marine diesel engines. The process is simulated in a motored light duty BUKH DV24 diesel engine where the charge air contain known amounts of H2SO4 and...

  6. Diesel engine exhaust initiates a sequence of pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Boere, A.J.F.; Leseman, D.L.A.C.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spronk, H.M.H.; Frederix, K.; Ten Cate, H.; Knaapen, A.M.; Vreman, H.J.; Cassee, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the sequence of events leading to cardiopulmonary effects following acute inhalation of diesel engine exhaust in rats. Rats were exposed for 2h to diesel engine exhaust (1.9mg/m3), and biological parameters related to antioxidant defense, inflammation,

  7. Advancement in Engineering Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Rehman, M. Atiqur; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    but to harvest those ideas, technology is a must. With the huge requirement of engineering equipment's, the industry needs specialists who can manage and operate these technologies. Detailed information about the merits and demerits of technology is also mentioned in this paper. Findings: Technology has affected...... the environment on a great scale; in some cases, technology is even replacing human being or use of manpower. So proper counter measures have been mentioned, which can be used to control and limit harmful effect....

  8. Experimental investigation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Yang, W.M.; Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.E.; Lee, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Kapok (C. pentandra) oil, an indigenous source, has been used to synthesis biodiesel. • A different method has been availed to extract oil from the kapok seeds. • Kapok methyl ester (KME) is tested for the first time in a diesel engine. • Brake thermal efficiency for B25 blend of KME is noticed to be 4% higher than diesel. • Combustion and emission results for B25 blend of KME are almost comparable to diesel. - Abstract: This manuscript explores the possibility of using kapok oil as a source for biodiesel production and experimentally investigate it, KME (kapok oil methyl ester), as a diesel engine fuel. Distinctly, this manuscript is novel on the basis of adopting a different approach in extracting oil from kapok seeds and testing of the produced KME in a diesel engine, perhaps for the first time. Accordingly, kapok oil, an indigenous source, has been extracted from kapok seeds through steam treatment process followed by crushing in an expeller, which has not been considered so far by researchers. Significantly, this method is chosen with the intent to extract oil for its use in diesel engine. Typically, KME is synthesized by trans-esterification process, and the properties of it, evaluated by ASTM standard methods, are in concordance with biodiesel standards. Having ensured the feasibility of its use in diesel engine, KME is tested in a single cylinder diesel engine to appraise the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. The experimental investigation reveals that the thermal efficiency of the engine for B25 is superior to conventional diesel by 4%. In the same token, the emission and combustion results of lower blend of KME (B25), showed comparable results with diesel, making KME as one of the pertinent fuel for diesel engine

  9. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX EMISSIONS USING ETHANOL AS A REDUCTANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R (2) Panov, A

    2003-08-24

    NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.

  10. Experimental Study on the Plasma Purification for Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zu, Kan; Wang, Mei

    2018-02-01

    It is known that the use of ternary catalysis is capable of significantly reducing the emission of pollutants from petrol vehicles. However, the disadvantages such as the temperature and other limitations make it unsuitable for diesel engines. The plasma-assisted catalyst technology has been applied in dealing with the diesel exhaust in the experiment in order to do further research on the effects of plasma in exhaust processing. The paper not only includes the experimental observation on the change of particle concentration after the operation of purification device, but also builds the kinetic model of chemical reactions to simulate the reactions of nitrogen oxides in plasma through using the software of Matlab, then compares the calculation results with experimental samples and finally gets some useful conclusions in practice.

  11. Utilisation of diesel engine waste heat by Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kölsch, Benedikt; Radulovic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different organic liquids were investigated as potential working fluids in an Organic Rankine Cycle. Performance of Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm SES36 was modelled in an ORC powered by a diesel engine waste heat. The ORC model consists of a preheater, evaporator, superheater, turbine, pump and two condensers. With variable maximum cycle temperatures and high cycle pressures, the thermal efficiency, net power output and overall heat transfer area have been evaluated. Methanol was found to have the best thermal performance, but also required the largest heat transfer area. While Toluene achieved lower thermal efficiency, it showed great work potential at high pressures and relatively low temperatures. Our model identified the risks associated with employing these fluids in an ORC: methanol condensing during the expansion and toluene not sufficiently superheated at the turbine inlet, which can compromise the cycle operation. The best compromise between the size of heat exchanger and thermodynamic performance was found for Methanol ORC at intermediate temperatures and high pressures. Flammability and toxicity, however, remain the obstacles for safe implementation of both fluids in ORC systems. - Highlights: • ORC powered by diesel-engine waste heat was developed. • Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm were considered as working fluids. • Methanol was selected due to the best overall thermal performance. • Optimal cycle operating parameters and heat exchanger area were evaluated

  12. COMPARSION OF BIODIESEL AND ETHANOL AS AN ALTERNATIVE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım USTA

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel and ethanol are alternative renewable diesel engine fuels and their mixtures with diesel fuel No. 2 at different proportions can be used in diesel engines. Although ethanol is unique chemical molecule and has certain specifications, specifications of biodiesel may vary depending on type of the oil used in the production and esterification technique. In this study, the specifications of ethanol and two different biodiesels were compared with those of diesel fuel No. 2. Effects of ethanol and the biodiesels on performance and emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine were investigated. The alternative fuels used in the experiments caused increase in NOx emission, while they reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions. Although ethanol addition caused some power reduction, the biodiesel addition resulted in slightly higher power with respect to the diesel fuel.

  13. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  14. Potentials and limitations of alternative fuels for diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Radinko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in the world has increased continuously. The most important primary energy source is oil. The supply of automotive fuels today is based almost entirely on oil, and the demand for liquid transportation fuels worldwide will rise significantly in the next fifty years. Growing energy consumption and decreasing fossil resources are reasons for increasing prices of fossil fuel. Besides limited availability, contribution to greenhouse effect and pollutant emission represent another problem of fossil fuel. Both of these problems can be overcome by increased application of renewable biofuels. Therefore, great effort is made to supplement the primary energy sources by including renewable energies. There are alternative fuels 1st and 2nd generation. Some of them show high potential for reduction of engine out emission. But there are economical and technical barriers when such fuels are applied. This paper shows both advantage and disadvantage of alternative fuels, especially when used for diesel engines.

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIV, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT REMOVAL--TRANSMISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) DEFINITION OF TERMS RELATED TO THE DIESEL AIR SYSTEM, (2) PRNCIPLES OF DIESEL AIR COMPRESSORS, (3) PRINCIPLES OF AIR STARTING MOTORS, (4)…

  16. Simulation of a two-stroke diesel engine for propulsion in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Koosup Yum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Propulsion in waves is a complex physical process that involves interactions between a hull, a propeller, a shaft and a prime mover which is often a diesel engine. Among the relevant components, the diesel engine plays an important role in the overall system dynamics. Therefore, using a proper model for the diesel engine is essential to achieve the reasonable accuracy of the transient simulation of the entire system. In this paper, a simulation model of a propulsion system in waves is presented with emphasis on modeling a two-stroke marine diesel engine: the framework for building such a model and its mathematical descriptions. The models are validated against available measurement data, and a sensitivity analysis for the transient performance of the diesel engine is carried out. Finally, the results of the system simulations under various wave conditions are analyzed to understand the physical processes and compare the efficiency for different cases.

  17. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  18. Optimization of diesel engine performances for a hybrid wind-diesel system with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Basbous, T.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity supply in remote areas around the world is mostly guaranteed by diesel generators. This relatively inefficient and expensive method is responsible for 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Canada annually. Some low- and high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) have been experimented in order to reduce the diesel consumption. We explore the re-engineering of current diesel power plants with the introduction of high-penetration wind systems together with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This is a viable alternative to major the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity. In this paper, we present the operative principle of this hybrid system, its economic benefits and advantages and we finally propose a numerical model of each of its components. Moreover, we are demonstrating the energy efficiency of the system, particularly in terms of the increase of the engine performance and the reduction of its fuel consumption illustrated and supported by a village in northern Quebec. -- Highlights: → The Wind-Diesel-Compressed Air Storage System (WDCAS) has a very important commercial potential for remote areas. → The WDCAS is conceived like the adaptation of the existing engines at the level of the intake system. → A wind turbine and an air compression and storage system are added on the diesel plant. → This study demonstrates the potential of WDCAS to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the diesel engine. → This study demonstrates that we can expect savings which can reach 50%.

  19. Adaptation of Advanced Diesel Engines for Military Requirements Under Severe Environmental Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henein, Naeim A; Taraza, Dinu; Chalhoub, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    .... The second area is to examine the different control strategies used in advanced diesel engines to meet the emission goals and their effect on engine performance, fuel economy and exhaust emissions...

  20. Use of radioisotopes for monitoring the operating conditions of marine Diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backofen, R.; Strickert, H.

    1981-01-01

    For assessing wear in marine Diesel engines a two-sample activation technique has been developed. The procedure is described, taking the determination of wear of piston rings in the running engine as an example

  1. Study of In-Cylinder Reactions of High Power-Density Direct Injection Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansons, M

    2004-01-01

    Direct-injection (DI) Diesel or compression-ignition (CI) engine combustion process is investigated when new design and operational strategies are employed in order to achieve a high power-density (HPD) engine...

  2. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance with Intake and Exhaust System Throttling : Volume 2. Appendix 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    The appendix to the preceding volume presents the data for the subject diesel engine noise study, including an engine sound power level analysis and sound spectrums showing the effect of intake and exhaust restrictions.

  3. Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey); Bayindir, Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, performance and emissions of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine was experimentally investigated. For the study, cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was added to diesel fuel, numbered D2, by volume of 5%(B5), 20%(B20), 50%(B50) and 75%(B75) as well as pure CSOME (B100). Fuels were tested in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled diesel engine. The effects of CSOME-diesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions were examined at various engine speeds and full loaded engine. The effect of B5, B20, B50, B75, B100 and D2 on the engine power, engine torque, bsfc's and exhaust gasses temperature were clarified by the performance tests. The influences of blends on CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The experimental results showed that the use of the lower blends (B5) slightly increases the engine torque at medium and higher speeds in compression ignition engines. However, there were no significant differences in performance values of B5, B20 and diesel fuel. Also with the increase of the biodiesel in blends, the exhaust emissions were reduced. The experimental results showed that the lower contents of CSOME in the blends can partially be substituted for the diesel fuel without any modifications in diesel engines. (author)

  4. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : Report No. 7. Mercedes Benz Model OM617 Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of the Mercedes Benz Model OM617 diesel engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitroge, and smoke) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The o...

  5. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Đặng Van Uy; Tran The Nam

    2018-01-01

    The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixe...

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVII, I--MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL--DRIVE LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE DRIVE LINE USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) PROLONGING ENGINE LIFE, (2) FUNCTIONS OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM, (3) TRACING THE LUBRICANT FLOW, (4) DETERMINING…

  7. Study of the combined plant for the generator diesel engine; Hatsudenki diesel engine no combined plant no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan); Hanada, S.; Watase, M.; Nakajima, T.

    1997-10-01

    It is intended to recover more effectively thermal energy currently discharged from marine vessels into air. This paper describes a diesel engine combined power generation system in which medium-order waste heat energy from a diesel engine for power generation in a marine vessel is recovered and utilized to operate a Rankine cycle system (using the waste gas as the high temperature source and sea water as the low temperature source), thus the thermal energy is recovered as a motive force. Two kinds of fluorocarbons and steam were discussed as a working fluid. Due to fluorocarbons making the whole system ultra-high in pressure, and from a viewpoint of high-temperature thermal stability, the temperature was remained at levels from 100 to 200 degC, and a single-stage expansion cycle was used. With the use of steam, a two-stage reheating cycle was employed, by which the temperature is raised fully up to 300 degC and effective head of fluid was taken largely. Ceramic paint was used as a means to prevent sulfur oxide corrosion when the system is used down to the dew point, and its effectiveness was verified. Motive force recovered by combining the steam two-stage reheating cycle and the ceramic painted heat collector was calculated, whereas electric power output of about 45 kW was obtained from a main generator with 450 PS. The derived thermal efficiency was about 26%. 2 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Diesel and gas engines: evolution following new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur (France). Direction Industrie

    1997-12-31

    Engine emissions of CO, NMHC and ashes are easily lowered through a low-cost exhaust gas processing, while NOx processing in fumes is rather complex and environmentally hazardous; thus, engine manufacturers have emphasized their researches for NOx decrease on the engine design: lower combustion temperature in diesel engines through water cooling or air/air exchanger, lean mixture with excess air (open chamber or pre-chamber) in spark ignition gas engines. Examples of modifications in Caterpillar engines are given. Exhaust gas processing for CO, NMHC, NOx (3 way catalytic purifier, selective catalytic reduction) and ashes is also discussed

  9. Influence of distillation on performance, emission, and combustion of a DI diesel engine, using tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Sivalingam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of waste to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also could be used as an alternate fuel for internal combustion engines. Fuels like wood pyrolysis oil, rubber pyrolysis oil are also derived through waste to energy conversion method. Early investigations report that tyre pyrolysis oil derived from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to possess properties similar to diesel fuel. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolisis oil was desulphurised and distilled to improve the properties and studied the use of it. Experimental studies were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke air cooled engine fuelled with two different blends, 30% tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (TPO 30 and 30% distilled tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (DTPO 30. The results of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine indicated that NOx is reduced by about 8% compared to tire pyrolysis oil and by about 10% compared to diesel fuel. Hydrocarbon emission is reduced by about 2% compared to TPO 30 operation. Smoke increased for DTPO 30 compared to TPO 30 and diesel fuel.

  10. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Atabani, A.E.; Arbab, M.I.; Cheng, S.F.; Gouk, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of biodiesel production from crude Moringa oleifera oil. • Characterization of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blend with diesel fuel. • Evaluation of M. oleifera biodiesel blend in a diesel engine. - Abstract: Researchers have recently attempted to discover alternative energy sources that are accessible, technically viable, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and its 10% and 20% by-volume blends (B10 and B20) in comparison with diesel fuel (B0). The performance and emission of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine were determined at various speeds and full load conditions. The properties of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends complied with ASTM D6751 standards. Over the entire range of speeds, B10 and B20 fuels reduced brake power and increased brake specific fuel consumption compared with B0. In engine emissions, B10 and B20 fuels reduced carbon monoxide emission by 10.60% and 22.93% as well as hydrocarbon emission by 9.21% and 23.68%, but slightly increased nitric oxide emission by 8.46% and 18.56%, respectively, compared with B0. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and its blends B10 and B20 can be used as diesel fuel substitutes

  11. Caracterización de un motor diesel trabajando con mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel ; Characterization of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Errasti Cabrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el desempeño de un motor diesel en cuanto a sus prestaciones y al retardo de la ignición, al operar bajo diferentes regímenes de carga, empleando mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel. Para esto se determinó la característica exterior de velocidad al emplear las mezclas, y se compararon estos resultados con los obtenidos durante los ensayos con combustible diesel patrón; estableciendo el grado de afectación del motor al sustituir parte del combustible diesel por aceite de Jatropha. Se observó una disminución del torque y la potencia efectiva, y un aumento del consumo específico de combustible al emplear un mayor porciento de aceite de Jatropha en las mezclas. Por otra parte, en comparación con el combustible diesel, el retardo de la ignición no mostró una variación significativa al emplear las mezclas de aceite de Jatropha y combustible diesel.The present study aims to characterize the benefits of a diesel engine in terms of performance and ignition delay, operating under different loading regimes, using Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends. We determined the speed exterior feature when using mixtures, and compared these results with those obtained during tests with standard diesel fuel, establishing the degree of involvement of the engine to replace some diesel fuel for Jatropha oil. There was a decrease in the torque and effective power, and increased specific fuel consumption by using a higher percentage of Jatropha oil in blends. Moreover, compared to diesel fuel, the ignition delay showed no significant variation by employing Jatropha oil and diesel fuel blends.

  12. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  13. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Biodiesel-Diesel Blends Containing 5% Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Sayin Kul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, energy and exergy analysis were performed for a single cylinder, water-cooled diesel engine using biodiesel, diesel and bioethanol blends. Each experiment was performed at twelve different engine speeds between 1000 and 3000 rev/min at intervals of 200 rev/min for four different fuel blends. The fuel blends, prepared by mixing biodiesel and diesel in different proportions fuel with 5% bioethanol, are identified as D92B3E5 (92% diesel, 3% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol, D85B10E5 (85% diesel, 10% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol, D80B15E5(80% diesel, 15% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol and D75B20E5 (75% diesel, 20% biodiesel and 5% bioethanol. The effect of blends on energy and exergy analysis was investigated for the different engine speeds and all the results were compared with effect of D100 reference fuel. The maximum thermal efficiencies obtained were 31.42% at 1500 rev/min for D100 and 31.42%, 28.68%, 28.1%, 28% and 27.18% at 1400 rev/min, respectively, for D92B3E5, D85B10E5, D80B15E5, D75B20E5. Maximum exergetic efficiencies were also obtained as 29.38%, 26.8%, 26.33%, 26.15% and 25.38%, respectively, for the abovementioned fuels. As a result of our analyses, it was determined that D100 fuel has a slightly higher thermal and exergetic efficiency than other fuel blends and all the results are quite close to each other.

  14. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  15. Effects of biobutanol and biobutanol–diesel blends on combustion and emission characteristics in a passenger car diesel engine with pilot injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyuntae; Choi, Kibong; Lee, Chang Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of biobutanol blends on NOx and soot emission characteristics in a diesel engine. • Comparison of combustion characteristics between biobutanol and diesel fuels. • Effect of pilot injection on combustion and emissions reduction in a diesel engine. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of biobutanol and biobutanol–diesel blends on the combustion and emission characteristics in a four-cylinder compression ignition engine using pilot injection strategies. The test fuels were a mixture of 10% biobutanol and 90% conventional diesel (Bu10), 20% biobutanol and 80% diesel (Bu20), and 100% diesel fuel (Bu0) based on mass. To study the combustion and emission characteristics of the biobutanol blended fuels, we carried out experimental investigations under various pilot injection timings from BTDC 20° to BTDC 60° with constant main injection timing. As the butanol content in the blended fuel increased, the experimental results indicated that the ignition delay was longer than that of diesel fuel for all pilot injection timings. Also, the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) of the blended fuels was higher than that of diesel at all test conditions. However, the exhaust temperature was lower than that of diesel at all injection timings. Nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and soot from Bu20 were lower than those from diesel fuel at all test conditions and hydrocarbons (HC) were higher than that from diesel.

  16. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  17. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  18. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  19. The performance and emissions of diesel engines with biodiesel of sunan pecan seed and diesel oil blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, F.; Sitorus, T. B.; Ginting, E.

    2017-12-01

    An observation was performed to evaluate the performance of direct injection stationary diesel engine which used a blends of biodiesel of Sunan pecan seed. The experiments were done with diesel oil, B5, B10, B15 and B20 in the engine speed variety. Results showed that the values of torque, power and thermal efficiency tend to decrease when the engine is using B5, B10, B15 and B20, compared to diesel oil. It also shown that the specific fuel consumption is increased when using B5, B10, B15 and B20. From the results of experiments and calculations, the maximum power of 3.08 kW, minimum specific fuel consumption of 189.93 g/kWh and maximum thermal efficiency of 45.53% when engine using diesel oil. However, exhaust gases were measured include opacity, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon when the engine using biodiesel B5, B10, B15 and B20 decreased.

  20. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  1. Successful testing of an emergency diesel generator engine at very low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, A.; Loeper, St.

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the nuclear power industry has been concerned about the ability of emergency diesel generator sets (EDGs) to operate for extended periods of time at low loads (typically less than 33% of design rating) and still be capable of meeting their design safety requirement. Most diesel engine manufacturers today still caution owners and operators to avoid running their diesel engines for extended periods of time at low loads. At one nuclear power plant, the emergency electrical bus arrangement only required approximately 25% of the EDG's design rating, which necessitated that the plant operators monitor EDG operating hours and periodically increase electrical load. In order to eliminate the plant operations burden of periodically loading the EDGs, the nuclear power plant decided to conduct a low-load test of a ''spare'' diesel engine. A SACM Model UD45V16S5D diesel engine was returned to the factory in Mulhouse, France where the week long testing at rated speed and 3% of design rating was completed. The test demonstrated that the engine was capable of operating for seven days (168 hours) at very low loads, with no loss of performance and no unusual internal wear or degradation. The planning and inspections associated with preparing the diesel engine for the test, the engine monitoring performed during the test, the final test results, and the results and material condition of the engine following the test are described. The successful diesel engine low-load test resulted in the elimination of unnecessary nuclear power plant operation restrictions that were based on old concerns about long-term, low-load operation of diesel engines. The paper describes the significance of this diesel engine test to the nuclear power plant and the entire nuclear power industry. (author)

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  3. Ceramic Technology For Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD) advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. The objective of the project is to develop the industrial technology base required for reliable ceramics for application in advanced automotive heat engines. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. This advanced materials technology is being developed in parallel and close coordination with the ongoing DOE and industry proof of concept engine development programs. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to U.S. industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. Abstracts prepared for appropriate papers.

  4. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in biodiesel. The smoke emission test revealed that B40 (biodiesel blend with 40% biodiesel and 60% diesel had the least black smoke compared to the conventional diesel. Diesel engine performance test indicated that the specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blend was increased sufficiently when the blending ratio was optimized. Thus, the reduction in exhaust emissions and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of caster seed oil (B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution.

  5. Establishment of Combustion Model for Isooctane HCCI Marine Diesel Engine and Research on the Combustion Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Biao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion mode applied in marine diesel engine is expected to be one of alternative technologies to decrease nitrogen oxide (NOX emission and improve energy utilization rate. Applying the chemical-looping combustion (CLC mechanism inside the cylinder, a numerical study on the HCCI combustion process is performed taking a marine diesel engine as application object. The characteristic feature of combustion process is displayed. On this basis, the formation and emission of NOX are analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that the HCCI combustion mode always exhibit two combustion releasing heats: low-temperature reaction and high-temperature reaction. The combustion phase is divided into low-temperature reaction zone, high-temperature reaction zone and negative temperature coefficient (NTC zone. The operating conditions of the high compression ratio, high intake air temperature, low inlet pressure and small excess air coefficient would cause the high in-cylinder pressure which often leads engine detonation. The low compression ratio, low intake air temperature and big excess air coefficient would cause the low combustor temperature which is conducive to reduce NOX emissions. These technological means and operating conditions are expected to meet the NOX emissions limits in MARPOL73/78 Convention-Annex VI Amendment.

  6. Evaluation of complementary technologies to reduce bio engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, J.H.

    2003-09-01

    This report summaries the results of a study examining the technical and economic feasibility of exhaust gas treatment technologies for reducing emissions from diesel engines burning pyrolysis oil to within internationally recognised limits. Details are given of the burning of pyrolysis oils in reciprocating engines, the reviewing of information on pyrolysis oils and engines, and the aim to produce detailed information for securing investment for a British funded diesel project. The burning of the pyrolysis oils in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to allow efficient combustion with acceptable exhaust emission limits is discussed along with the problems caused by the deterioration of the injection system.

  7. Effect of hydrogen-diesel combustion on the performance and combustion parameters of a dual fuelled diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, P.K.; Banerjee, Rahul; Deb, Madhujit [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura-799055 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Petroleum crude is expected to remain main source of transport fuels at least for the next 20 to 30 years. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. In this paper, experiments are performed in a fur stroke, single cylinder, compression ignition diesel engine with dual fuel mode. Diesel and hydrogen are used as pilot liquid and primary gaseous fuel, respectively. The objective of this study is to find out the effects on combustion and performance parameters observed at diesel hydrogen fuel mixture for all the different loadings (2kg,4kg,6kg,8kg,10kg and 12kg) in the engine.

  8. Green fuel utilization for diesel engine, combustion and emission analysis fuelled with CNSO diesel blends with Diethyl ether as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Rajan, K.; Senthil Kumar, K. R.; Maiyappan, K.; Rasheed, Usama Tariq

    2017-05-01

    The experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects by using Diethyl ether (DEE) as an additive. The Cashew Nut Shell Oil diesel blends (CDB) are tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder DI unmodified diesel engine, rated power is 4.4 kW at a speed of 1500 rpm. The effect of combustion analysis of test fuels on net heat release rate, cylinder pressure, engine power, BSFC, BTE, EGT were observed by the performance tests. The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with an additive of high cetane number is utilized with CDB and thus investigated. The influence of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity is investigated by emission tests. Initially, the experiment was conducted with different blends of CDB diesel blends like 10%, 20%, & 30% by volume basis in a diesel engine. Among this blends B20 shows reasonable result and heat dissipation rate at full load conditions. The BTE of B20 is 27.52% whereas base diesel fuel is 29.73%. Addition of the DEE by 5%, 10% and 15% by volume basis with B20 which is a base fuel has resulted with improved estimates. The result shows that at full load conditions BTE of B20D10 is 28.96% which is close to the base fuel i.e. B20. The emissions like CO2 shows reducing trends while HC emission rises with increase in CNSO blends. The HC in diesel corresponds to 30ppm and in B20 it is 34ppm, but addition of DEE shows a decreasing trend as in B20D5 has 29ppm and B20D15 has 23ppm respectively. NOx also shows increasing trends with CNSO blend, after addition of DEE it shows declining trend. The NOx for diesel, B20, B30, B20D5, B20D10 and B20D15 emits 1195, 1450, 1511, 1327, 1373 and 1200ppm respectively. The smoke emission is 3.96, 3.38, 3.15 FSN of B20, B20D15 and diesel respectively.

  9. Experimental studies on fumigation of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhupendra Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Pal, Shyam Sunder; Du Jun, Yong

    2011-01-01

    To diversify the mix of domestic energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is widely investigated for applying in combination with Diesel fuel to reduce pollutants, including smoke and NO x . Present work aims at developing a fumigation system for introduction of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine and to determine its effects on emission. Fumigation was achieved by using a constant volume carburetor. Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were then introduced in the Diesel engine, under various load conditions. Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel and lead to smooth and efficient combustion. Atomization of ethanol also results in lower combustion temperature. During the present study, gaseous emission has been found to be decreasing with ethanol fumigation. Results from the experiment suggest that ethanol fumigation can be effectively employed in existing compression ignition engine to achieve substantial saving of the limited Diesel oil. Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibit better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO 2 and exhaust temperature. Ethanol fumigation has resulted in increase of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission in the entire load range. Considering the parameters, the optimum percentage was found as 15% for ethanol fumigation. -- Research highlights: → To diversify energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is used in Diesel engine to reduce pollutants. → Developing a fumigation system to inject ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine, to determine its effects on emissions. → Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were introduced in Diesel engine, under various load conditions by using a constant volume carburetor. → Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibits better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO 2 and exhaust temperature. → Results show increase of unburned hydrocarbon emission in entire load range. Optimum percentage found as 15% for

  10. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  11. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  12. Survey of Alternative Fuels for Corps of Engineers Diesel Engine Powered Dredges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    38 6 Hydrotreating of Canadian Tar Sands Coker Distillate ................... 41 7 Recommended Preliminary Specifications for Vegetable Oil...for severe hydrotreating of intermediate coal liquids) results in coal processing technology comparing most unfavorably with petroleum refining...fuels (cost of hydrotreating notwithstanding). The tradeoff between hydrotreating severity (process economics) and tar sands distillate quality for diesel

  13. Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gottekere, Kumar Narayanappa

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (Bu20), and 30% (Bu30), respectively, compared to neat diesel (Bu0). Maximum BTE for Bu0 is 38.4%, which is obtained at 12° BTDC; however, for Bu10, Bu20 and Bu30 are 40.19, 40.9, and 41.7%, which are obtained at 15° BTDC, respectively. Higher flame speed of n-butanol-diesel blends burn a large amount of fuel in the premixed phase, which improves the combustion as well as emission characteristics. CFD and experimental results are compared and validated for all fuel blends for in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and found to be in good agreement. Both experimental and simulation results witnessed in reduction of smoke opacity, NO x , and carbon monoxide emissions with the increasing n-butanol percentage in diesel fuel.

  14. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  15. Performance of compression ignition engine with indigenous castor oil bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Castor oil available indigenously in Pakistan was converted successfully to bio diesel and blended to 10% quantity (by volume) with high speed mineral diesel (HSD) fuel. This fuel was tested in a compression-ignition engine in order to assess its environmental emissions as well as engine performance parameters. The blended fuel was found to give lower environmental emissions in most accounts except for higher CO/sub 2/ and higher NOx. In addition, three engine performance parameters were assessed; which were engine brake power, engine torque and exhaust temperature. In the first two cases, blended bio diesel fuel gave lower figures than pure mineral diesel due to lower calorific value. However, its higher flash point resulted in higher engine exhaust temperatures than pure mineral diesel. Overall, in terms of engine performance, castor oil bio diesel (from non edible oil of castor bean -growing on marginal lands of Pakistan) fared better in comparison to canola oil bio diesel (from expensive edible oil) and can be recommended for further tests at higher blend ratios. (author)

  16. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Fault Diagnosis Based on Features Extraction Techniques and FastICA-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ya-Bing; Liu, Chang-Wen; Bi, Feng-Rong; Bi, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xia; Shao, Kang

    2017-07-01

    Numerous vibration-based techniques are rarely used in diesel engines fault diagnosis in a direct way, due to the surface vibration signals of diesel engines with the complex non-stationary and nonlinear time-varying features. To investigate the fault diagnosis of diesel engines, fractal correlation dimension, wavelet energy and entropy as features reflecting the diesel engine fault fractal and energy characteristics are extracted from the decomposed signals through analyzing vibration acceleration signals derived from the cylinder head in seven different states of valve train. An intelligent fault detector FastICA-SVM is applied for diesel engine fault diagnosis and classification. The results demonstrate that FastICA-SVM achieves higher classification accuracy and makes better generalization performance in small samples recognition. Besides, the fractal correlation dimension and wavelet energy and entropy as the special features of diesel engine vibration signal are considered as input vectors of classifier FastICA-SVM and could produce the excellent classification results. The proposed methodology improves the accuracy of feature extraction and the fault diagnosis of diesel engines.

  17. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  18. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Repair & Service (Program CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for diesel engine mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program…

  19. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  20. Development of generalized dynamic model of oscillations of cylinder case of diesel engine of locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina YUTKINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An engineering method of design, worked out by the authors, is considered in the paper. It allows to carry out design of amplitude-frequency specter and vibration loading of cylinder cases of the diesel engine of locomotive with account of cavitation-erosion damage. Offered method of design of parameters of cavitation-erosion damage may be used in design of new structures of diesel engines of locomotives and systems of cooling.

  1. Contribution to the study of combustion noise of automotive Diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    MONELLETTA, LUCA

    2011-01-01

    Despite their important advantages in terms of fuel consumption in comparison with gasoline engines, for a long time the characteristic impulsive combustion noise has been one of the main causes why customers are reluctant to buy cars equipped with Diesel engines. This is the main reason for the efforts devoted by car manufacturers to mitigate Diesel engine noise while improving performance and driveability. In spite of all technical improvements, vehicles equipped with High Speed Direct Inje...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF INCREASE THE COMPRESSION RATIO ON PERFORMANCE OF A DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan PARLAK

    2003-01-01

    An optimisation of the Diesel cycle has been performed for power output and thermal efficiency with respect to compression ratio for various extreme temperature ratio. The relation between compression ratio and extreme temperature ratio, which gives optimum performance is derived. As the compression ratio of the diesel engine is increased in comparison to the optimum value of the engine, it is shown that the performance of the engine is decreased. The experimental study agrees with these ...

  3. Experimental investigations on CRDI diesel engine fuelled with acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Successful and failing challengers: Diesel and steam as alternatives to the gasoline automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haard, M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (Norway). Centre for Technology and Society; Jamison, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Research Policy Inst.

    1996-07-01

    This paper aims at explaining why it is that some technologies become so entrenched in our society that it becomes virtually impossible to alter them, and why some challengers nevertheless succeed. It attempts to show that it is seldom enough to explain success and failure by reference to technical factors. By means of an historically comparative analysis of two challengers to the automobile gasoline engine - steam and diesel, the paper tries to show that history can help us understand and perhaps amend the problems that contemporary politicians and other social actors experience in trying to find niches for unconventional technologies. The central thesis is that established technologies remain because they have gained symbolic power, are carried by deeply embedded organizational structures, and have helped to create strong behavioral patterns. An alternative technology seldom succeeds if it poses an alternative at all three levels; indeed, the contention is that a too ambitious alternative is less likely to succeed than a conservative one. In this particular case, the diesel slowly but surely rid itself of the symbolism that had for a long time put it at a disadvantage compared to the gasoline engine; it was taken up by the same actors and organizations that supported the gasoline engine; its engineers managed to provide users with functions that were so familiar that they did not have to change their set patterns of behavior. The steamer, by contrast, did not succeed in any of these respects; its meaning came to be associated (negatively) with high fuel consumption; its organizational affiliations were weak; and users were never given the opportunity to test their willingness to modify their behavior. 50 refs

  5. Survey of modern power plants driven by diesel and gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, S. [Turku Polytechnic, Turku (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This report surveys the latest technology of power plants driven by reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, from information collected from publications made mainly during the 1990`s. Diesel and gas engines are considered competitive prime movers in power production due mainly to their high full- and part-load brake thermal efficiency, ability to burn different fuels, short construction time and fast start-ups. The market for engine power plants has grown rapidly, with estimated total orders for reciprocating engines of 1 MW output and more reaching the 5000 unit level, (10 GW), between June 1995 and May 1996. Industrialized countries much prefer combined heat and power (CHP) production. Intense interest has been shown in recent years in alternative gas fuels; natural gas appears to be the most promising, but liquid petroleum gas, gas from sewage disposal plants, landfill gas and other biogases, as well as wood gas have also been recognized as other alternatives. Liquid alternatives such as fuels and pyrolysis oil have also been mentioned, in addition to information on coal burning engines. The percentage of gas engines used has increased and different ones are being developed, based on either the traditional spark ignition (SI), dual-fuel technology or the more recent high pressure gas injection system. In cold climates, energy production is largely based on CHP plants. Waste heat is utilized for local, regional or district heating or for industrial uses like drying, heating, cooling etc. Even radiative and convective heat from gen-set surfaces are employed, and boilers are used with exhaust outlet temperatures of below dew point. Combined cycle schemes, including turbo compound systems and steam turbines, are also incorporated into engine power plants in order to increase output and efficiency. Two-stroke, low-speed diesel engine plants show the highest electric efficiencies, with combined cycle plants reaching up to 54 %, while gas engine plants achieved

  6. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  7. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  8. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions.

  9. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions

  10. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  11. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  12. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  13. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro

  14. Lubrication and wear in diesel engine injection equipment fuelled by dimethyl ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. DME fueled engines emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. DME has thereby the potential of reducing the diesel engine emissions without filters or other devices...... oil. Fueling diesel engines with DME presents two significant problems: The injection equipment can break down due to extensive wear and DME attacks nearly all known elastomers. The latter problem renders dynamic sealing diƣult whereas the first one involves the poor lubrication qualities of DME which...... that jeopardise the high efficiency of the engine and increase the manufacturing costs. DME has a low toxicity and can be made from anything containing carbon including biomass. If DME is produced from cheap natural gas from remote locations, the price of this new fuel could even become lower than that of diesel...

  15. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced.

  16. Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Pritinika; Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilisation of Used transformer oil (UTO) as a fuel in a diesel engine. • UTO with acetylene in a diesel engine, on a dual fuel mode technique. • Analysis of combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. • Analysis of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. - Abstract: Used transformer oil (UTO) is a waste oil obtained from power transformers and welding transformers. It possesses considerable heating value and properties similar to diesel fuel. A preliminary investigation on the utilization of the UTO in a single cylinder, four stroke small powered direct injection (DI) diesel engine revealed that at an optimum injection timing of 20°CA the engine exhibited lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher smoke emissions, compared to that of diesel operation. In order to improve the performance and reduce the smoke emission, a dual fuel operation was attempted in the present investigation. Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at four different flow rates viz 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air, to study the combustion, performance and emission behavior of a four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine, while the UTO was injected as pilot fuel with the optimized injection timing. The experimental results were compared with diesel-acetylene dual fuel operation in the same engine. Acetylene aspiration reduced the ignition delay and maximum cylinder pressure by about 3°CA, and 25% respectively at full load in comparison with the sole UTO operation. Higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas were also observed at full load. Smoke was reduced by about 13.7%, in comparison with the UTO operation at full load

  17. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  19. An investigation of using biodiesel/marine diesel blends on the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalligeros, S.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E.; Anastopoulos, G.; Teas, Ch.; Sakellaropoulos, F.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high-energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. With the exception of rape seed oil which is the principal raw material for biodiesel fatty acid methyl esters, sunflower oil, corn oil and olive oil, which are abundant in Southern Europe, along with some wastes, such as used frying oils, appear to be attractive candidates for biodiesel production. In this paper, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions measurements from a single cylinder, stationary diesel engine are described. The engine was fueled with pure marine diesel fuel and blends containing two types of biodiesel, at proportions up to 50%. The two types of biodiesel appeared to have equal performance, and irrespective of the raw material used for their production, their addition to the marine diesel fuel improved the particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. (Author)

  20. Diesel Engine Air Emissions Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Hour GC /MS Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy GC /FID Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector g/mile Gram per Mile HAP Hazardous Air...Particulate Matter ppm Parts Per Million RPF Robust Particulate Filter TEG Temperature of Exhaust Gas THC Total Hydrocarbon UCR...Chromatography ( GC ) where the samples were collected on DNPH cartridges. Portable versions of these instruments were available and employed for

  1. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih, Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel's speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel's speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  2. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-01-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate

  3. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  4. Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shrivastava

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuel resources forces the extensive research on the alternative fuels. Vegetable oils edible or non edible can be a better substitute for the petroleum diesel. Karanja, a non edible oil can be a potential source to replace the diesel fuel. To investigate the feasibility of Karanja oil as an alternative diesel fuel, its biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. The Biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to assess its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for the 20, 50 and 100 percent blended biodiesel were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel fuel. Result showed that the Biodiesel and its blend showed lower thermal efficiency. Emission of Carbon monoxide, unburned Hydrocarbon and smoke was found to be reduced where as oxides of nitrogen was higher with biodiesel and its blends. Keywords: alternate Diesel fuel; Biodiesel; Karanja oil methyl ester; performance and emission

  5. Improving exergetic and sustainability parameters of a DI diesel engine using polymer waste dissolved in biodiesel as a novel diesel additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mohammadi, Pouya; Pourvosoughi, Navid; Nikbakht, Ali M.; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of diesel engine fuelled with various SBE biodiesel–diesel blends containing EPS. • Profound effect of engine speed and load on exergetic performance parameters of diesel engine. • Selection of B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel as the best mixture. • Potential application of the applied framework for optimizing sustainability index of IC engines. - Abstract: Exergy analysis of a DI diesel engine running on several biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) containing various quantities of expanded polystyrene (EPS) was carried out. Neat diesel and B5 were also investigated during the engine tests. The biodiesel used was produced using waste oil extracted from spend bleaching earth (SBE). The experiments were conducted to assess the effects of fuel type, engine speed, and load on thermal efficiency, exergetic parameters, and sustainability index of the diesel engine. The obtained results revealed that the exergetic parameters strongly depended on the engine speed and load. Generally, increasing engine speed remarkably decreased the exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine. However, increasing engine load initially enhanced the exergy efficiency and sustainability index, while its further augmentation did not profoundly affect these parameters. The maximum exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine (i.e. 40.21% and 1.67, respectively) were achieved using B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel. Generally, the approach presented herein could be a promising strategy for energy recovery from polymer waste, emissions reduction, and performance improvement. The findings of the present study also confirmed that exergy analysis could be employed to minimize the irreversibility and losses occurring in modern engines and to enhance the sustainability index of combustion processes.

  6. Simulation of biodiesel combustion in a light-duty diesel engine using integrated compact biodiesel–diesel reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Jo-Han

    2013-01-01

    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is performed to investigate the combustion characteristics and emissions formation processes of biodiesel fuels in a light-duty diesel engine. A compact reaction mechanism with 80 species and 303 reactions is used to account for the effects of chemical...... kinetics. Here, the mechanism is capable of emulating biodiesel–diesel mixture of different blending levels and biodiesel produced from different feedstock. The integrated CFD-kinetic model was validated against a test matrix which covers the entire saturated–unsaturated methyl ester range typical...... of biodiesel fuels, as well as the biodiesel–diesel blending levels. The simulated cases were then validated for in-cylinder pressure profiles and peak pressure values/timings. Errors in the peak pressure values did not exceed 1%, while the variations in peak pressure timings were kept within 1.5 crank angle...

  7. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  8. Performance Testing of Diesel Engine using Cardanol-Kerosene oil blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of environmental pollution and fossil fuel depletion has necessitated the use of biofuels in engines which have a relatively cleaner emissions. Cardanol is a biofuel, abundantly available in India, which is a by-product of cashew processing industries. In this study performance of raw Cardanol blended with kerosene has been tested in diesel engine. Volumetric blend BK30 (30% kerosene and 70% Cardanol has been used for the test. The properties like flash point, viscosity and calorific value of the blend have been determined. The test was carried out in four stroke diesel engine connected with an eddy current dynamometer. Performance of the engine has been analysed by finding the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and brake thermal efficiency (BTE. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the blend is 29.87%, with less CO and smoke emission compared to diesel. The results were also compared with the performance of Cardanol diesel blend and Cardanol camphor oil blend, which were already tested in diesel engines by other researchers. Earlier research work reveals that the blend of 30% camphor oil and 70% Cardanol performs very closer to diesel fuel with a thermal efficiency of 29.1%. Similarly, higher brake thermal efficiency was obtained for 20% Cardanol and 80% diesel blend.

  9. STUDY ON THE NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS GENERATED BY THE DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES RUNNING WITH BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Cosofret

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research results on the use of mixtures of biofuels with fossil fuels to power diesel engines are controversial in terms of reducing emissions of NO in the exhaust gases of diesel engines. This diversity on the results is due to possibly different type of biodiesel used, the type of engine on which the tests were carried out and the methods and conditions for obtaining these results. Therefore research on biodiesel mixed with diesel is still a matter of study. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine naturally aspirated, using different mixtures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% of diesel with biodiesel made from rapeseed oil. The study results revealed that the NO emissions of the mixtures used are lower than the same emissions produced when the engine is powered with diesel. Also, the emissions of NO do not have a significant drop in the case of mixtures compared with the diesel fuel.

  10. Toxicological characterization of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and a closed soot filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooter, Ingeborg M.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.; Jedynska, Aleksandra D.; Tromp, Peter C.; Houtzager, Marc M. G.; Verbeek, Ruud P.; Kadijk, Gerrit; Mulderij, Mariska; Krul, Cyrille A. M.

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the toxicity (oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity) in extracts of combustion aerosols. A typical Euro III heavy truck engine was tested over the European Transient Cycle with three different fuels: conventional diesel EN590, biodiesel EN14214 as B100 and blends with conventional diesel (B5, B10, and B20) and pure plant oil DIN51605 (PPO). In addition application of a (wall flow) diesel particulate filter (DPF) with conventional diesel EN590 was tested. The use of B100 or PPO as a fuel or the DPF reduced particulate matter (PM) mass and numbers over 80%. Similarly, significant reduction in the emission of chemical constituents (EC 90%, (oxy)-PAH 70%) were achieved. No significant changes in nitro-PAH were observed. The use of B100 or PPO led to a NOx increase of about 30%, and no increase for DPF application. The effects of B100, PPO and the DPF on the biological test results vary strongly from positive to negative depending on the biological end point. The oxidative potential, measured via the DTT assay, of the B100 and PPO or DPF emissions is reduced by 95%. The cytotoxicity is increased for B100 by 200%. The measured mutagenicity, using the Ames assay test with TA98 and YG1024 strains of Salmonella typhimurium indicate a dose response for the nitroarene sensitive YG1024 strain for B100 and PPO (fold induction: 1.6). In summary B100 and PPO have good potential for the use as a second generation biofuel resulting in lower PM mass, similar to application of a DPF, but caution should be made due to potential increased toxicity. Besides regulation via mass, the biological reactivity of exhaust emissions of new (bio)fuels and application of new technologies, needs attention. The different responses of different biological tests as well as differences in results between test laboratories underline the need for harmonization of test methods and international cooperation.

  11. Experimental investigation on a Common Rail Diesel engine partially fuelled by syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldini, Carlo Alberto; Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Mattarelli, Enrico; Savioli, Tommaso; Morselli, Nicolò; Puglia, Marco; Tartarini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A current automotive Diesel engine is tested running on both Diesel fuel and syngas. • The syngas HHV is about 5 MJ/Nm 3 , allowing a 60% of Diesel substitution. • The engine brake efficiency is slightly increased running on syngas at high load. • In-cylinder pressure do not change very much even if Diesel fuel is strongly reduced. - Abstract: The high efficiency, reliability and flexibility of modern passenger car Diesel engines makes these power units quite attractive for steady power plants totally or partially running on fuels derived from biomass, in particular on syngas. The engine cost, which is obviously higher than that of current industrial engines, may not be a big obstacle, provided that the re-engineering work is limited and that performance and efficiency are enhanced. The goal of this work is to explore the potential of a current automotive turbocharged Diesel engine running on both Diesel fuel and syngas, by means of a comprehensive experimental investigation focused on the combustion process. The engine is operated at the most typical speed employed in steady power plants (3000 rpm), considering three different loads (50–100–300 Nm/16–31–94 kW). For each operating condition, the syngas rate is progressively increased until it provides a maximum heating power of 85 kW, while contemporarily reducing the amount of injected Diesel oil. Maximum care is applied to guarantee a constant quality of the syngas flow throughout the tests, as well as to maintain the same engine control parameters, in particular the boost pressure. It is found that in-cylinder pressure traces do not change very much, even when drastically reducing the amount of Diesel fuel: this is a very encouraging result, because it demonstrates that there is no need to radically modify the standard stock engine design. Another promising outcome is the slight but consistent enhancement of the engine brake efficiency: the use of syngas not only reduces the

  12. Conventional engine technology. Volume 3: Comparisons and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    The status of five conventional automobile engine technologies was assessed and the future potential for increasing fuel economy and reducing exhaust emission was discussed, using the 1980 EPA California emisions standards as a comparative basis. By 1986, the fuel economy of a uniform charge Otto engine with a three-way catalyst is expected to increase 10%, while vehicles with lean burn (fast burn) engines should show a 20% fuel economy increase. Although vehicles with stratified-charge engines and rotary engines are expected to improve, their fuel economy will remain inferior to the other engine types. When adequate NO emissions control methods are implemented to meet the EPA requirements, vehicles with prechamber diesel engines are expected to yield a fuel economy advantage of about 15%. While successful introduction of direct injection diesel engine technology will provide a fuel savings of 30 to 35%, the planned regulation of exhaust particulates could seriously hinder this technology, because it is expected that only the smallest diesel engine vehicles could meet the proposed particulate requirements.

  13. Experimental investigation of particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with diglyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    2010-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the base fuel and diglyme as the oxygenate component to investigate the particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at two engine speeds of 1800 rev min -1 and 2400 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 5%, 10.1%, 15.2%, 20.4%, 25.7% and 53% by volume of diglyme, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 20% by mass of oxygen, are studied. The study shows that with the increase of oxygen in the fuel blends, smoke opacity, particulate mass concentration, NO x concentration and brake specific particulate emission are reduced at the two engine speeds. However, the proportion of soluble organic fraction is increased. For each blended fuel, the total particle number concentration is higher while the geometric mean diameter is smaller, compared with that of ultralow-sulfur diesel, though the particle number decreases with the oxygen content of the blended fuel. Furthermore, the blended fuels also increase the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 nm.

  14. Research on H2 speed governor for diesel engine of marine power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Man-Lei

    2007-09-01

    The frequency stability of a marine power system is determined by the dynamic characteristic of the diesel engine speed regulation system in a marine power station. In order to reduce the effect of load disturbances and improve the dynamic precision of a diesel engine speed governor, a controller was designed for a diesel engine speed regulation system using H2 control theory. This transforms the specifications of the system into a standard H2 control problem. Firstly, the mathematical model of a diesel engine speed regulation system using an H2 speed governor is presented. To counter external disturbances and model uncertainty, the design of an H2 speed governor rests on the problem of mixed sensitivity. Computer simulation verified that the H2 speed governor improves the dynamic precision of a system and the ability to adapt to load disturbances, thus enhancing the frequency stability of marine power systems.

  15. Experimental investigation of regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with Euro V diesel fuel and fumigation methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Cheung, C. S.; Chan, T. L.; Yao, C. D.

    2010-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with part of the engine load taken up by fumigation methanol injected into the air intake of each cylinder to investigate the regulated and unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emission of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1920 rev min -1. The fumigation methanol was injected to top up 10%, 20% and 30% of the engine load under different engine operating conditions. The experimental results show that at low engine loads, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high engine loads, the BTE is not significantly affected by fumigation methanol. The fumigation methanol results in significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) emissions, but decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO x). For the unregulated gaseous emissions, unburned methanol, formaldehyde and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) emissions increase but ethyne, ethene and 1,3-butadiene emissions decrease. Particulate mass and number concentrations also decrease with increase in fumigation methanol. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is found to reduce significantly most of the pollutants, including the air toxics, when the exhaust gas temperature is sufficiently high.

  16. Esters of ricebran oil with short chain alcohols as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Zaher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of ricebran oil as a feedstock for the production of a fuel for diesel engines alternative to regular diesel fuel has been assessed. Esterification rate of crude ricebran oil with methyl alcohol was studied using different volumetric ratios of alcohol to oil, different catalyst loads and catalyst types. Catalysts used were sulfuric acid at a concentration of 2% of the oil/alcohol mixture in addition to hydrochloric acid and Amberlite IR-120 cation exchange resin at the same molar concentration of H+ as in case of sulfuric acid. The reaction was fastest using sulfuric acid which has been then used to prepare esters of ricebran oil with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. The four products have been evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines according to their fuel properties compared to regular diesel fuel. These properties include the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, cetane number, sulfur content and ASTM distillation characteristics. The results have shown that the methyl as well as the ethyl esters have the closest properties to those of regular diesel fuel. Diesel engine performance using blends of regular diesel fuel with methyl and ethyl esters of ricebran oil have been tested and compared to that using regular diesel fuel. The results have shown that the engine performance using a blend of 50% regular diesel fuel and 50% methyl esters of ricebran oil is better than that using regular diesel fuel. The brake thermal efficiency at full load was 30.2% using the fuel blend compared to 27.5% in case of regular fuel.

  17. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  18. Spray-combustion process characterization in a common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends by conventional methods and optical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Silvia Merola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The target of a sustainable mobility has led to investigate advanced combustion modes and fuels technologies. On the other side, the increasing global energy demand and the decreasing fossil-energy resources are enhancing the interest in the use of renewable alternative fuels for compression ignition engines with the target of near-zero emission levels. Although performance and emissions of alternative-fuel within light-duty diesel engines have been extensively investigated, results of fuel chemical composition impact on combustion by integrated optical methodologies are lacking. In order to meet this challenge, one of the main objectives of the research efforts is to characterize the combustion and species evolution. In this investigation, conventional tests and optical diagnostics were employed to enhance the comprehension of the combustion process and chemical markers in a common rail compression ignition engine powered by butanol-diesel blends. The investigation was focused on the effect of the injection strategy and blend composition on in-cylinder spray combustion and soot formation, through UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible single cylinder high swirl compression ignition engine, equipped with a common rail multi-jets injection system. UV-visible emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the combustion process chemical markers. Spectral features of OH were identified and followed during the spray combustion process examining different pilot-main dwell timings. Soot spectral evidence in the visible wavelength range was correlated to soot engine out emissions. In this work, conventional and optical data related to diesel fuel blended with 40 % of n-butanol will be presented.

  19. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  20. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  1. Experimental investigation and performance evaluation of DI diesel engine fueled by waste oil-diesel mixture in emulsion with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of the natural reserves of petroleum products has put a tremendous onus on the automotive industry. Increasing pollution levels and the depletion of the petroleum reserves have lead to the search for alternate fuel sources for internal combustion engines. Usage of vegetable oils poses some challenges like poor spray penetration, valve sticking and clogging of injector nozzles. Most of these problems may be solved by partial substitution of diesel with vegetable oil. In this work, the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled by waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion with different water contents are evaluated. The use of waste cooking oil-diesel emulsion lowers the peak temperature, which reduces the formation of NOx. Moreover the phenomenon of micro explosion that results during the combustion of an emulsified fuel finely atomizes the fuel droplets and thus enhances combustion. Experiments show that CO concentration is reduced as the water content is increased and it is seen that 20% water content gives optimum results. Also, there is a significant reduction in NOx emissions.

  2. Ceramic technology for Advanced Heat Engines Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1991-07-01

    Significant accomplishments in fabricating ceramic components for advanced heat engine programs have provided evidence that the operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engine environments is feasible. However, these programs have also demonstrated that additional research is needed in materials and processing development, design methodology, and database and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base from which to produce reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. An assessment of needs was completed, and a five year project plan was developed with extensive input from private industry. The project approach includes determining the mechanisms controlling reliability, improving processes for fabricating existing ceramics, developing new materials with increased reliability, and testing these materials in simulated engine environments to confirm reliability. Although this is a generic materials project, the focus is on the structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines. To facilitate the rapid transfer of this technology to US industry, the major portion of the work is being done in the ceramic industry, with technological support from government laboratories, other industrial laboratories, and universities. This project is managed by ORNL for the Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Transportation Materials, and is closely coordinated with complementary ceramics tasks funded by other DOE offices, NASA, DOD, and industry.

  3. A CONTROL-ORIENTED REAL-TIME SEMI-EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF NOX EMISSIONS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Lezhong

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays motor vehicle population increases rapidly, and it and this leads to serious energy and environmental problems. Hence, the environment and energy issues are becoming more and more important around the world. Many potential technologies have been presented and researched in universities, institutes and companies. Diesel engines are employed in Europe widely due to high thermal efficiency. The PCCI combustion concept has the potential of simultaneously reducing both NOx and particulate...

  4. Lubricant additive effects on cam and tappet wear in medium speed diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshouri, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    For over thirty years zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP) has been used successfully as an oxidation inhibitor and anti-scuff/ anti-wear additive in automotive lubricants primarily to protect cams and tappets in gasoline engines. However a number of researchers have recently reported accelerated wear of cams and tappets in automotive diesels, attributed to diesel soot disabling the ZDP in some manner. This raises questions as to the need for ZDP in large bore medium speed diesel engines. To answer this question an entensive review of the literature was conducted.

  5. Metal particle emissions in the exhaust stream of diesel engines: an electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liati, Anthi; Schreiber, Daniel; Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Panayotis; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2013-12-17

    Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to investigate the morphology, mode of occurrence and chemical composition of metal particles (diesel ash) in the exhaust stream of a small truck outfitted with a typical after-treatment system (a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a downstream diesel particulate filter (DPF)). Ash consists of Ca-Zn-P-Mg-S-Na-Al-K-phases (lube-oil related), Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Pb, Sn (engine wear), and Pd (DOC coating). Soot agglomerates of variable sizes (1-5 μm, exceptionally 13 μm), rarely engine wear and escape into the atmosphere.

  6. Combustion Characteristics of CI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Blends of Jatropha Oil Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Yunus Sheikh, Mohd.; Singh, Dharmendra; Nageswara rao, P.

    2018-03-01

    Jatropha Curcas oil is a non-edible oil which is used for Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) production. Jatropha biodiesel is produced using transesterification technique and it is used as an alternative fuel in CI diesel engine without any hardware modification. Jatropha biodiesel is used in CI diesel engine with various volumetric concentrations (blends) such as JBD5, JBD15, JBD25, JBD35 and JBD45. The combustion parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, net heat release, cumulative heat release, mass fraction burned are analyzed and compared for all blends combustion data with mineral diesel fuel (D100).

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of diesel engine coupled with ORC and absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, Farhad; Moghaddam, Alireza Naghavi; Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling ORC and Ammonia absorption cycles with diesel engine to recover energy. • By using designed bottoming system, recovered diesel engine energy is about 10%. • By using designed bottoming system, engine efficiency will grow about 4.65%. - Abstract: In this paper, Rankine cycle and Ammonia absorption cycle are coupled with Diesel engine to recover the energy of exhaust gases. The novelty of this paper is the use of ammonia absorption refrigeration cycle bottoming Rankine cycle which coupled with diesel engine to produce more power. Bottoming system converts engine exhaust thermal energy to cooling and mechanical energy. Energy transfer process has been done by two shell and tube heat exchangers. Simulation processes have been done by programming mathematic models of cycles in EES Program. Based on results, recovered energy varies with diesel engine load. For the particular load case of current research, the use of two heat exchangers causes 0.5% decrement of engine mechanical power. However, the recovered energy is about 10% of engine mechanical power.

  8. Experimental study of DI diesel engine performance using biodiesel blends with kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, A.K.; Ameer Uddin, S.M.; Alam, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2013-07-01

    The experimental investigation offers a comprehensive study of DI diesel engine performance using bio-diesel from mustard oil blends with kerosene. The vegetable oil without trans-esterification reaction have been blended with kerosene oil by volume in some percentage like 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% which have been named as M20 (20% mustard, 80% kerosene), M30 (30% mustard, 70% kerosene), M40 (40% mustard, 60% kerosene) and M50 (50% mustard, 50% kerosene). The properties of the bio-fuel blended with kerosene have been tested in the laboratories with maintaining different ASTM standards. Then a four stroke, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine has been mounted on the dynamometer bed for testing the performance of the engine using the bio-diesel blends. Several engine parameters like bsfc, bhp, break mean effective pressure, exhaust gas temperature, lube oil temperature, sound level etc. have been determined. A comparison has been made for engine performance of different bio-diesel blends with kerosene with the engine performance of diesel fuel.

  9. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

  10. Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2000-06-19

    Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

  11. An experimental study on the effect of using gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel on diesel engine performance and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bassiony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas to Liquid (GTL fuel is considered one of the most propitious clean alternative fuels for the diesel engines. The aim of this study was to experimentally compare the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by GTL fuel, diesel, and a blend of GTL and diesel fuels with a mixing ratio of 1:1 by volume (G50 at various engine load and speed conditions. Although using the GTL and G50 fuels decreased slightly the engine maximum power compared to the diesel fuel, both the engine brake thermal efficiency and engine brake specific fuel consumption were improved. In addition, using the GTL and G50 fuels as alternatives to the diesel resulted in a significant decrease in engine CO, NOx, and SO2 emissions.

  12. Combustion of jojoba methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Radwan, M.S.; Elfeky, S.M.S. [Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine for the first time the performance and combustion noise of an indirect injection diesel engine running with new fuel derived from pure jojoba oil, jojoba methyl ester, and its blends with gas oil. A Ricardo E6 compression swirl diesel engine was fully instrumented for the measurement of combustion pressure and its rise rate and other operating parameters. Test parameters included the percentage of jojoba methyl ester in the blend, engine speed, load, injection timing and engine compression ratio. Results showed that the new fuel derived from jojoba is generally comparable and a good replacement to gas oil in diesel engine at most engine operating conditions, in terms of performance parameters and combustion noise produced. (author)

  13. Liquid sprays and flow studies in the direct-injection diesel engine under motored conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Carpenter, Mark H.; Ramos, Juan I.; Schock, Harold J.; Stegeman, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A two dimensional, implicit finite difference method of the control volume variety, a two equation model of turbulence, and a discrete droplet model were used to study the flow field, turbulence levels, fuel penetration, vaporization, and mixing in diesel engine environments. The model was also used to study the effects of engine speed, injection angle, spray cone angle, droplet distribution, and intake swirl angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in motored two-stroke diesel engines. It is shown that there are optimum conditions for injection, which depend on droplet distribution, swirl, spray cone angle, and injection angle. The optimum conditions result in good spray penetration and vaporization and in good fuel mixing. The calculation presented clearly indicates that internal combustion engine models can be used to assess, at least qualitatively, the effects of injection characteristics and engine operating conditions on the flow field and on the spray penetration and vaporization in diesel engines.

  14. Field Tests of In-Service Modifications to Improve Performance of An Icebreaker Main Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Field tests of in-service modifications to improve engine efficiency and lower the emissions were performed on the no. 3 main diesel engine of the USCGC Mackinaw (WAGB-83). This engine is a model 38D8-1/8 manufactured by Colt Industries, Fairbanks Mo...

  15. First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusoglu, Aysegul; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine cogeneration system is performed. All necessary data are obtained from the actual diesel engine cogeneration plant located at Gaziantep, Turkey. The exergy analysis is aimed to evaluate the exergy destruction in each component as well as the exergetic efficiencies. The thermodynamic performance of a 25.32 MW electricity and 8.1 tons/h steam capacity diesel engine cogeneration system at full load conditions is analyzed. The thermal efficiency of the overall plant is found to be 44.2% and the exergetic efficiency is 40.7%. The exergy balance equations developed in this paper may also be utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis to estimate the production costs depending on various input costs in a diesel cogeneration system

  16. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  17. Computational Study of Stratified Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-28

    Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics provide valuable information, the high fidelity simulations with matched parametric conditions improve fundamental understanding of relevant physical and chemical processes by accessing additional observables such as the local mixture distribution, intermediate species concentrations, and detailed chemical reaction rates. Commercial software, CONVERGE™, was used as the main simulation tool, with the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model and the multi-zone (SAGE) combustion model to compute the chemical reaction terms. SOI is varied from late compression ignition (CI) to early partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The simulation results revealed a stronger correlation between fuel injection timing and combustion phasing for late SOI conditions, whereas the combustion phasing starts to decouple from SOI for early SOI cases. The predictions are consistent with the experimental observations, in terms of the overall trends in combustion and emission characteristics, while the high fidelity simulations provided further insights into the effects of mixture stratifications resulting from different SOI conditions.

  18. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silitonga, A.S.; Chong, W.T.; Yusaf, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is a recognized replacement for diesel fuel in compressed ignition engines due to its significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the engine performance and emissions produced from Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in compressed ignition engine. The biodiesel production process and properties are discussed and a comparison of the three biodiesels as well as diesel fuel is undertaken. After that, engine performance and emissions testing was conducted using biodiesel blends 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% in a diesel engine at full throttle load. The engine performance shows that those biodiesel blends are suitable for use in diesel engines. A 10% biodiesel blend shows the best engine performance in terms of engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency among the all blending ratios for the three biodiesel blends. Biodiesel blends have also shown a significant reduction in CO 2 , CO and smoke opacity with a slight increase in NO x emissions. - Highlights: • The properties of JCME, CPME and CIME fulfill ASTM standard. • Engine performance and emission was conducted for JCME, CPME and CIME. • The B10 is the best engine performance and reduce in exhaust emission

  19. Fault Detection of Inline Reciprocating Diesel Engine: A Mass and Gas-Torque Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early fault detection and diagnosis for medium-speed diesel engines are important to ensure reliable operation throughout the course of their service. This work presents an investigation of the diesel engine combustion-related fault detection capability of crankshaft torsional vibrations. Proposed methodology state the way of early fault detection in the operating six-cylinder diesel engine. The model of six cylinders DI Diesel engine is developed appropriately. As per the earlier work by the same author the torsional vibration amplitudes are used to superimpose the mass and gas torque. Further mass and gas torque analysis is used to detect fault in the operating engine. The DFT of the measured crankshaft’s speed, under steady-state operating conditions at constant load shows significant variation of the amplitude of the lowest major harmonic order. This is valid both for uniform operating and faulty conditions and the lowest harmonic orders may be used to correlate its amplitude to the gas pressure torque and mass torque for a given engine. The amplitudes of the lowest harmonic orders (0.5, 1, and 1.5 of the gas pressure torque and mass torque are used to map the fault. A method capable to detect faulty cylinder of operating Kirloskar diesel engine of SL90 Engine-SL8800TA type is developed, based on the phases of the lowest three harmonic orders.

  20. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  1. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  2. Experimental Investigation Of Biogas-Biodiesel Dual Fuel Combustion In A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesha D. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings. Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20 algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displays lower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads. Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodiesel mode of operation for all engine loads.

  3. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  4. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto da Silva, Fernando; Salgado Prata, Antonio; Rocha Teixeira, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NO X ) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NO X and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  5. Key fuel properties and engine performances of diesel-ethanol blends, using tetrahydrofuran as surfactant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molea, A.; Visuian, P.; Barabás, I.; Suciu, R. C.; Burnete, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper there were presented researches related to preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties of diesel-ethanol blends stabilized with tetrahydrofuran as surfactant, in order to be used as fuels in compression ignition engines. The main spray characteristics and engine performances of these blends were evaluated by using AVL Fire software. In the first stage of the studies, commercial diesel was mixed with ethanol, in different concentrations (between 2% and 15% v/v), followed by the addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) until the blends were miscible, i.e. the blends were stabilized. The experiments were done at room temperature (22 °C). The obtained blends were characterized in order to determine the chemical composition and physicochemical properties, i.e. density, kinematic viscosity, surface tension. UV-Vis spectroscopy was utilized in order to determine a semi-quantitative evaluation regarding the chemical composition of the prepared blends and chemical interaction between diesel, ethanol and THF. Based on the determined properties, the fuel spray characteristics, engine performances and emission characteristics were evaluated by simulation using the AVL Fire software. The obtained results regarding physicochemical properties of blends were compared with diesel. Some improvements were observed when operating with the prepared blends compared to diesel with respect to engine performances and emission characteristics. Based on physicochemical evaluation and computer simulation, it was demonstrated that diesel-ethanol-tetrahydrofuran blends can be used as alternative fuel in compression ignition engines.

  6. Study of emissions for a compression ignition engine fueled with a mix of DME and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurchiş, Bogdan; Nicolae, Burnete; Călin, Iclodean; Nicolae Vlad, Burnete

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand for diesel engines, primarily due to the relatively low fuel consumption compared to spark-ignition engines. However, these engines have a great disadvantage in terms of pollution because they produce solid particles that ultimately form particulate matter (PM), which has harmful effects on human health and also on the environment. The toxic emissions from the diesel engine exhaust, like particulate matter (PM) and NOx, generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, lead to the necessity to develop green fuels which on one hand should be obtained from regenerative resources and on the other hand less polluting. In this paper, the authors focused on the amount of emissions produced by a diesel engine when running with a fuel mixture consisting of diesel and DME. Dimethyl ether (DME) is developed mainly by converting natural gas or biomass to synthesis gas (syngas). It is an extremely attractive resource for the future used in the transport industry, given that it can be obtained at low costs from renewable resources. Using DME mixed with diesel for the combustion process, besides the fact that it produces less smoke, the emission levels of particulate matter is reduced compared to diesel and in some situations, NOx emissions may decrease. DME has a high enough cetane number to perform well as a compression-ignition fuel but due to the poor lubrication and viscosity, it is difficult to be used as the main fuel for combustion

  7. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumus, M. [Automotive Division, Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, Ziverbey, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  8. Evaluation of hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin as alternative fuel in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumus, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, hazelnut kernel oil of Turkish origin was evaluated as alternative fuel in a diesel engine. Potential hazelnut production throughout the world and the status of Turkey were examined. Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was transesterified with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester (HOME) and a comprehensive experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running with HOME and its blends with diesel fuel. Experimental parameters included the percentage of HOME in the blend, engine load, injection timing, compression ratio, and injector. The cost analysis of HOME production comparing to the price of conventional diesel fuel was performed for last decade was performed. Results showed that HOME and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel and small modifications such as increasing injection timing, compression ratio and injector opening pressure provide significant improvement in performance and emissions. It is also expected that the price of HOME will be lower than the price of conventional diesel fuel in the near future. (author)

  9. Jatropha oil methyl ester and its blends used as an alternative fuel in diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrapathruni Rao Hanumantha Venkata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived vegetable oils are quite promising alternative fuels for agricultural diesel engines. Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In this present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl ester of jatropha oil as the fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. The fuel properties of biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, carbon residue, and specific gravity were found. Results indicate that B25 has closer performance to diesel and B100 has lower brake thermal efficiency mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference of efficiency between the biodiesel and its blended fuels. For jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with the increase of power and amount of biodiesel. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiency, lower smoke, and CO2 and CO emissions.

  10. FTIR Analysis of Surface Functionalities on Particulate Matter Produced by Off-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Diesel and Biofuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovicheva, O.B.; Kireeva, E.D.; Shonija, N.K.; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 4534-4544 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-01438S Grant - others:RFBR-NSC(RU) 12-05-00395; RFBR-NSC(RU) 12-05-92002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : diesel/biofuel emissions * off-road engine * combustion nanoparticles Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2015

  11. Experimental study on the performance and emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with butanol diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Duraid F.; Prabhakaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of butanol with diesel to a direct injection diesel engine was carried out. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with butanol to replace conventional diesel as the fuel for diesel engine; the fuel consumption, brake efficiency, exhaust temperature, and volumetric efficiency of the engine fuelled by the blends were comparable with that fuelled by diesel. The characteristics of the emissions were also studied. CO, CO 2 , HC and NO X are measured and compared with the base fuel case when the conventional diesel is used alone. The results were different for different speeds, loads and blends. (author)

  12. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  13. Heat Transfer in Two-Stroke Diesel Engines for Large Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Caspar Ask

    Demands on reducing the fuel consumption and harmful emissions from the compression ignition engines (diesel engines) have been continuously increasing in recent years. To comply with this, better modeling tools for the diesel combustion process are desired from the engine developers. A very...... important aspect is determining the temperature distributions in and around the combustion chamber since they are important for determining the boundary conditions of the detailed computer models of the chemical and physical processes in the engine cylinder. Furthermore, the temperature information is very...

  14. Multi-zone modeling of combustion and emissions formation in DI diesel engine operating on ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine is applied for the interesting case of its operation with ethanol-diesel fuel blends, the ethanol (bio-fuel) being considered recently as a promising extender to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using bio-fuels. This is a two dimensional, multi-zone model with the issuing fuel jets divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along and across the direction of the fuel injection. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber. Droplet evaporation and jet mixing models are used to determine the amount of fuel and entrained air in each zone available for combustion. The mass, energy and state equations are applied in each zone to provide local temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. The concentrations of the various constituents are calculated by adopting a chemical equilibrium scheme for the C-H-O-N system of eleven species considered, together with chemical rate equations for calculation of nitric oxide (NO) and a model for net soot formation. The results from the computer program, implementing the analysis, for the in cylinder pressure, exhaust NO concentration and soot density compare well with the corresponding measurements from an experimental investigation conducted on a fully automated test bed, standard 'Hydra', DI diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory, which is operated with ethanol-diesel fuel blends containing 5%, 10% and 15% (by vol.) ethanol. Iso-contour plots of equivalence ratio, temperature, NO and soot inside the cylinder at various instants of time, when using these ethanol-diesel fuel blends against the diesel fuel (baseline fuel), shed light on the mechanisms

  15. Experimental Investigation of Performance and emission characteristics of Various Nano Particles with Bio-Diesel blend on Di Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, N.; Goldwin Xavier, X.; Rajasekar, R.; Ganesh Bairavan, P.; Dhanseelan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Present study provides the effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles additives on the Performance and emission uniqueness of Jatropha. Jatropha blended fuel is prepared by the emulsification technique with assist of mechanical agitator. Nano particles (Zinc Oxide (ZnO)) and Cerium Oxide (CeO2)) mixed with Jatropha blended fuel in mass fraction (100 ppm) with assist of an ultrasonicator. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Performance results revealed that Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) is 3% and 11% higher than Jatropha blended zinc oxide (B20ZO) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) and 4% lower than diesel fuel (D100) at full load conditions. Emission result shows that HC and CO emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide (B20CE) are (6%, 22%, 11% and 6%, 15%, 12%) less compared with Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide (B20ZO), diesel (D100) and Jatropha blended fuel (B20) at full load conditions. NOx emissions of Jatropha blended Cerium Oxide is 1 % higher than diesel fuel (D100) and 2% and 5% lower than Jatropha blended Zinc Oxide, and jatropha blended fuel.

  16. Performance and emission characteristics of biogas used in diesel engine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle; Pukalskas, Saugirdas; Rimkus, Alfredas; Vegneris, Ricardas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas is an environmentally friendly biofuel for diesel engines. • Results of diesel engine tests when fuelling with biogas are presented. • Engine and environmental characteristics depends on carbon dioxide content in biogas. • Using biogas in a diesel engine requires certain operational modifications. - Abstract: The objective of this study it to evaluate the impact of the carbon dioxide concentration in biogas on the operating characteristics and exhaust gas emissions of a diesel engine running on a mixture of biogas and mineral diesel fuel. The tests were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the impact of different biogas compositions and the exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) on the engine parameters was determined. Lower pollutant levels were measured in the studies without the EGR system, except for the nitrogen oxides NO x levels. The NO x concentration decrease was directly proportional to the concentration of methane in the common fuel mixture. In the second stage, the gas with the highest methane content was used to determine the impact of the start of injection timing on the engine operating parameters. As the methane content in the common fuel mixture increased, the start of injection timing had to be progressively advanced to increase the thermal efficiency and to lower the fuel consumption, the CO and HC concentrations and the smokiness of the exhaust; however, advancing the start of injection timing increased NO x pollution

  17. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  18. Analysis of the dynamic response improvement of a turbocharged diesel engine driven alternating current generating set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz; Medica, Vladimir; Trenc, Ferdinand

    2005-01-01

    Reliability of electric supply systems is among the most required necessities of modern society. Turbocharged diesel engine driven alternating current generating sets are often used to prevent electric black outs and/or as prime electric energy suppliers. It is well known that turbocharged diesel engines suffer from an inadequate response to a sudden load increase, this being a consequence of the nature of the energy exchange between the engine and the turbocharger. The dynamic response of turbocharged diesel engines could be improved by electric assisting systems, either by direct energy supply with an integrated starter-generator-booster (ISG) mounted on the engine flywheel, or by an indirect energy supply with an electrically assisted turbocharger. An experimentally verified zero dimensional computer simulation method was used for the analysis of both types of electrical assistance. The paper offers an analysis of the interaction between a turbocharged diesel engine and different electric assisting systems, as well as the requirements for the supporting electric motors that could improve the dynamic response of a diesel engine while driving an AC generating set. When performance class compliance is a concern, it is evident that an integrated starter-generator-booster outperforms an electrically assisted turbocharger for the investigated generating set. However, the electric energy consumption and frequency recovery times are smaller when an electrically assisted turbocharger is applied

  19. Parametric Optimization of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle System for Diesel Engine Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently recover the waste heat from a diesel engine exhaust, a regenerative organic Rankine cycle (RORC system was employed, and butane, R124, R416A, and R134a were used as the working fluids. The resulting diesel engine-RORC combined system was defined and the relevant evaluation indexes were proposed. First, the variation tendency of the exhaust energy rate under various diesel engine operating conditions was analyzed using experimental data. The thermodynamic model of the RORC system was established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the net power output and exergy destruction rate of the RORC system were selected as the objective functions. A particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm was used to optimize the operating parameters of the RORC system, including evaporating pressure, intermediate pressure, and degree of superheat. The operating performances of the RORC system and diesel engine-RORC combined system were studied for the four selected working fluids under various operating conditions of the diesel engine. The results show that the operating performances of the RORC system and the combined system using butane are optimal on the basis of optimizing the operating parameters; when the engine speed is 2200 r/min and engine torque is 1215 N·m, the net power output of the RORC system using butane is 36.57 kW, and the power output increasing ratio (POIR of the combined system using butane is 11.56%.

  20. Combustion performance, flame, and soot characteristics of gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel in an optical compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Joonho; Lee, Jong Tae; Kwon, Sang Il; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel was investigated in an optical direct-injection diesel engine. • KIVA3V-CHEMKIN code modeled blended fuel spray and combustion with discrete multi-component model. • Flame and soot characteristics in the combustion chamber were shown by optical kits. • Combustion performance and soot emissions for gasoline–diesel blended fuel were discussed. - Abstract: Among the new combustion technologies available for internal combustion engines to enhance performance and reduce exhausted emissions, the homogeneous charge compression ignition method is one of the most effective strategies for the compression-ignition engine. There are some challenges to realize the homogeneous charge compression ignition method in the compression-ignition engine. The use of gasoline–diesel blended fuel has been suggested as an alternative strategy to take advantages of homogeneous charge compression ignition while overcoming its challenges. Gasoline and diesel fuels are reference fuels for the spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines, respectively, both of which are widely used. The application of both these fuels together in the compression-ignition engine has been investigated using a hybrid injection system combining port fuel injection (gasoline) and direct injection (diesel); this strategy is termed reactivity controlled compression ignition. However, the pre-blending of gasoline and diesel fuels for direct injection systems has been rarely studied. For the case of direct injection of pre-blended fuel into the cylinder, various aspects of blended fuels should be investigated, including their spray breakup, fuel/air mixing, combustion development, and emissions. In the present study, the use of gasoline–diesel pre-blended fuel in an optical single-cylinder compression-ignition engine was investigated under various conditions of injection timing and pressure. Furthermore, KIVA-3V release 2 code was employed to model the