Sample records for die studie erweitert

  1. Die Validierung von Rechtschreibkompetenzmodellen im Rahmen einer empirisch vergleichenden Analyse orthografischer Leistungstests

    Naujokat, Kerstin


    Diese Arbeit präsentiert die als „ZuRecht“ abgekürzte IGLU-Zusatzstudie zur Orthografie. Inhaltlich und methodisch knüpft sie an die Rechtschreibuntersuchung an, die im Rahmen der bundesweit repräsentativen IGLU-Studie für den Bereich der Grundschule vorgenommen wurde. ZuRecht erweitert die Ergebnisse zu den Schülerleistungen um die Validierung und den empirischen Vergleich der Rechtschreibtests „gutschrift-diagnose“ und „Sprachsystematischer Rechtschreibtest“ (SRT). Die Konzepte dieser b...

  2. Bestuursontwikkelingsbehoeftes in die Suid-Afrikaanse lugmag: 'n Vergelykende studie van die persepsies van die vier kultuurgroepe

    J. J. Theart


    Full Text Available Management Development Needs in the South African Air Force: A comparative study of the perceptions of four cultural groups. The object of the study was to determine whether the perceptions of managers and supervisors from different cultural groups in the South African Air Force differ concerning their managerial skills, and to determine to what extent the perceptions of the superiors differ from those of their subordinates. A questionnaire of perceived management development needs was used to determine whether specific training needs exist. It was found that there are indeed statistically significant differences between the various cultural groups'perceptions of their management development needs and that training needs exist within all four cultural groups. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om te bepaal of die persepsies van bestuurders en toesighouers mt verskillende kultuurgroepe in die Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag, rakende hul bestuursvaardighede, onderling van mekaar verskil en om te bepaal in watter opsig die persepsies van bogeskiktes van die van hul ondergeskiktes verskil. nVraelys van waargenome bestuursontwikkelingsbehoeftes is gebruik om te bepaal of daar spesifieke opieidingsbehoeftes bestaan. Daar is bevind dat daar wel statistics beduidende verskille tussen die kultuurgroepe se persepsies van hul bestuursontwikkelingsbehoeftes bestaan en dat daar opieidingsbehoeftes by al vier groepe bestaan.

  3. Die Konstruktion von Müttern, Vätern und Eltern

    Ellinor Forster


    Full Text Available Durch die Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung wurde der Blick der Wohlfahrtsstaatsanalysen auf die unbezahlte Arbeit von Ehefrauen und Müttern sowie die wohlfahrtsstaatlichen Reformen für diese Gruppen ausgedehnt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung knüpft an die zunächst auf Mutterschaftskonzepte zentrierte Wohlfahrtsstaatsforschung an, geht jedoch darüber hinaus, indem sie den Gegenstandsbereich um die Erforschung der Vater- und Elternschaft erweitert.

  4. Die sielkundige kontrak: Wedersydse verwagtings tydens die aanvangsfase van militêr-akademiese studies

    J. A. Beukes


    Full Text Available The psychological contract: Mutual expectations during the join-up phase of military-academical studies. In order to determine the expectations of both the potential students of the Military Academy and the Military Academy itself, Kotter's expectation questionnaire was completed on 66 first year students and staff members of the Military Academy. Significant differences were found between the expectations of the students and the expectations of the organisation (as represented by those as staff members. The results also indicated significant differences between students with high expectations and those with low expectations in respect of work satisfaction and career expectations. Opsomming Ten einde voornemende militêre studente en die Militêre Akademie se verwagtings te bepaal, is 'n verwagtingsvraelys van Kotter op 66 eerstejaarstudente en staflede, verbonde aan die Militêre Akademie, geadministreer. Dit blyk uit die ondersoek dat beduidende verskille tussen studente se verwagtings en die organisasie se verwagtings (soos beliggaam in die van staflede bestaan en dat daar beduidende verskille tussen studente met hoe verwagtings en studente met lae verwagtings ten opsigte van werkstevredenheid en loopbaanverwagtings bestaan.

  5. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study


    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  6. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels


    Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North

  7. Die topkwark

    R. Tegen


    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  8. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P


    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  9. Studie über die Erzeugungs- und Vermarktungsstruktur des Bienenzuchtsektors in Deutschland

    Efken, Josef; Bernhardt, Angelina


    Die Studie hat zum Ziel, einen Überblick über den deutschen Markt für Honig zu geben. Es werden die Imkereistruktur und die Beziehungen zwischen den Marktpartnern dargestellt. Daneben werden die Versorgungsbilanz sowie die Nachfrage betrachtet, bei der Deutschland als einer der größten Konsumenten auch weltweit eine entscheidende Rolle spielt. Zu unterscheiden sind hierbei Honige, die via Direktvermarktung vom Imker vertrieben werden, und Honige aus dem Einzelhandel. Diese Segmente existieren...

  10. Die Neurobiologie der Depression - im Fokus: Imaging Genetics

    Pezawas L


    Full Text Available "Imaging Genetics", eine innovative Forschungsstrategie, die Geneffekte mittels Neuroimaging-Methoden auf Hirnsystemebene darstellt, hat in den letzten Jahren wertvolle Beiträge zum Verständnis der komplexen Auswirkungen hereditärer Faktoren psychiatrischer Erkrankungen geliefert. Am Beispiel der Depression wird dies im Licht der neurowissenschaftlichen Entwicklungen der vergangenen Jahre im Detail verdeutlicht und dem Kliniker in einfacher und verständlicher Weise vorgestellt. Weiters wird in die Hintergrundliteratur eines rezenten Depressionsmodells eingeführt, welches sich vom Gen bis zum neuronalen Regelkreis spannt und neuere Hypothesen zur Ätiologie der Depression ("Neuroplastizitätshypothese" erweitert.

  11. Enhanced MOOCs (eMOOCs). Eine soziokulturelle Sichtweise auf die aktuelle MOOC-Landschaft

    Jadin, Tanja; Gaisch, Martina


    Neben xMOOCs und cMOOCs wird an dieser Stelle ein weiteres Format von MOOCS, die sogenannten enhanced MOOCs (kurz eMOOCs) vorgestellt. Unter Berücksichtigung interkultureller Unterschiede sowie der Erweiterung des Lernraums in Richtung trialogisches Lernen soll die MOOC-Landschaft erweitert werden. Im Zentrum der eMOOCs stehen Lernende mit ihren individuellen Bedürfnissen, dem jeweiligen soziokulturellen Hintergrund und differenzierten Sichtweisen auf den Lerninhalt. (DIPF/Orig.)

  12. Ein erweiterter Blickwinkel auf Gender Mainstreaming A Broader Perspective on Gender Mainstreaming

    Gesine Fuchs


    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Band füllt eine Lücke zwischen der wissenschaftlichen Fundamentalkritik an Gender Mainstreaming und optimistischen Anleitungen zur Umsetzung von Gender-Mainstreaming-Strategien, indem er Kontroversen, Ansätze theoriegeleiteter Begleitforschung und erste Ergebnisse versammelt. Die Autorinnen konzentrieren sich insbesondere auf die politischen, auch mikropolitischen, Bedingungen zur Umsetzung. Das Buch ist empfehlenswert für alle, die Gender Mainstreaming umsetzen wollen und dazu Politik treiben müssen.This volume fills an important gap in the current literature on Gender Mainstreaming, where fundamental critics and optimistic “How-to-manuals” prevail. It gathers conceptual controversies, theory-grounded approaches to research and first research results. The authors focus in particular on political conditions, including micro-politics, for successful implementation. The book is recommended for all who want to implement Gender Mainstreaming and therefore have to act politically.

  13. Blower door measurements - extended measuring methods; Blower Door-Messungen - erweiterte Messmethoden

    Geissler, A.; Bolender, T.; Hauser, G. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Bauphysik


    To determine the air tightness of the external envelope, blower door measurements are normally carried out. The thus determined integral figure for the complete structure is an insufficient basis for carrying out specific insulation procedures in existing buildings. Within the scope of the air tightness measurements with the blower door, additional measuring methods permit the determination of additional information on the leakage distribution and the leakage routes. The expanded measuring methods that are known from the bibliography `opening a door` and `adding a hole` as well as the new method of `adding a hole plus` are explained, compared by means of exemplary measurements, and are considered for their suitability during field trials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit der Gebaeudehuelle werden im allgemeinen Blower Door-Messungen durchgefuehrt. Der hierbei bestimmte integrale Wert fuer das gesamte Gebaeude stellt fuer das Ergreifen von gezielten Abdichtungsmassnahmen im Gebaeudebestand eine zu geringe Basis dar. Weiterfuehrende Messmethoden erlauben, im Rahmen von Luftdichtheitsmessungen mit der Blower Door zusaetzliche Informationen ueber die Leckageverteilung und ueber Leckagewege zu bestimmen. Die aus der Literatur bekannten erweiterten Messmethoden `Opening A Door` und `Adding A Hole` sowie die neue Methode `Adding A Hole Plus` werden erlaeutert, anhand von exemplarischen Messungen verglichen und im Feldeinsatz auf ihre Anwendbarkeit hin betrachtet. (orig.)

  14. Numerical Studies of Low Cycle Fatigue in Forward Extrusion Dies

    Pedersen, Thomas Ø


    Forward extrusion dies typically fail due to transverse fatigue cracks or wear. Fatigue cracks are initiated in regions where the material is subjected to repeated plastic deformations, e.g. the transition radius in a forward extrusion die, in the present work, a material model capable of describ...

  15. Temperature change and stress distribution analysis of die surface in Al-alloy die casting process and experimental study on die heat check

    Hu Xinping; Zhao Guoqun; Wu Bingyao


    The temperature change of the die surface in practical aluminum alloy die casting process was analyzed,and a 2D model was formulated on the basis of a deep concave round cavity without sliding core to analyze the stress distributions along the die surface in detail. Equipment was designed to test the thermal state of the die steel in different thermal loading conditions. The results of stress analysis showed that, the value of thermal stress (maximum 1.5 GPa) caused in the die filling and die spraying stages was larger than the mechanical stress (maximum 85 MPa)caused in the die locking stage. The results of the thermal check experiment showed that there were three stages of die dissolving, and that the stress distribution shown by the samples' cracking routine was close to the die surface stress analysis.

  16. Fuel lignocellulosic briquettes, die design and products study

    Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Moran, J. [Vigo Univ. (Spain). E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales y Minas; Lopez Gonzalez, L.M. [Universidad de La Rioja (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica


    Briquetting of biomass can be done through various techniques. The present work describes the process of designing a taper die and its optimisation for use in a hydraulic machine. The application of an experimental design technique, and the later statistical analysis of the results is presented, applied to a laboratory hydraulic press densification process of lignocellulosic biomass. The most appropriate experiment type is determined for a first set of experiments; calculating, among other things: minimum number of tests to carry out to obtain binding conclusions, most influential factors, and search paths to improve fuel quality. Another experiment type is determined for a second set of experiments, taking account of the most influential factors (pressure, temperature and moisture content), and also the number of tests to carry out considering the improvement of density and friability. Finally, an approximation study of the best product allows conclusions to be reached on product behaviour beyond the experimental design range factors. (Author)

  17. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels


    ...?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS...

  18. Sosiologiese en antropologiese insigte en die studie van die Hebreeuse Bybel: 'n Bestekopname1

    Paul A. Kruger


    Full Text Available Sociological and anthropological insights and the study of the Hebrew Bible: A review. This article reviews the main trends in the social-scientific study of the Hebrew Bible. It focuses on the following central issues: the theoretical principles underlying this approach, anthropologists and the Hebrew Bible, the Hebrew Bible and comparative anthropology, anthropological evidence from African cultures, and the Hebrew Bible in social-scientific research: perils and prospects.

  19. A comparative evaluation of linear dimensional accuracy of the dies obtained using three conceptually different die systems in the fabrication of implant prosthesis: An in vitro study

    Manawar Ahmad


    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the linear dimensional accuracy between the implant master die and three conceptually different die systems such as Pindex system, Accu-trac precision die system, and Conventional brass dowel pin system. Materials and Methods: Thirty impressions of implant master die were made with polyether impression material. Ten experimental implant casts were fabricated for each of the three different die systems tested: Accu-trac precision die tray system, Pindex system, and conventional brass dowel pin system. The solid experimental casts were sectioned and then removed from the die system 30 times. Linear distances between all six possible distances were measured from one centre of the transfer coping to the other, using a co-ordinate measuring machine in millimeters up to accuracy of 0.5 microns. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed by Binomial non parametric test using SPSS version 15. Results: Significant differences were found for distance A-B (P = 0.002, A-C ( P = 0.002, A-D (P value = 0.002, and B-D ( P = 0.021 in Conventional Dowel pin system however for Accu-trac precision die tray system, it was significant only for distance A-D (P = 0.002 but for Pindex system it was non-significant for all the distances measured. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of Pindex system is recommended when sectioned dies are needed for a multi implant retained prosthesis.

  20. Die verhouding tussen ouer en jonger geslagte in die Nuwe Testament: ’n Filologiese studie

    Hennie Goede


    Full Text Available Churches experience tension between the ministry needs of younger and older generations in the congregation. A focus on either one or the other brings polarisation in congregations between younger and older members. The profile of the Early Church as sketched in the New Testament, however, draws a picture in which both younger and older generations are ministered. This study investigates texts from the New Testament philologically which sketch this picture and attempts to draw conclusions therefrom which can provide possible solutions to the tension between the ministry needs of younger and older generations in congregations. From this philological study it appears among others that the congregation must consist in its nature of younger and older members and that ministry practices must do justice to both groups. They are indeed all part of the household of God and thus spiritual brothers and sisters of one another. A healthy relationship between younger and older generations in the church is built on reciprocal respect, love, humility, and willingness to serve. When congregations implement these aspects and others in their ministry practices, they move closer to the New Testament image of a church in which both young and old believers have a place to serve and to be served.Keywords: New Testament; younger and older generations; philological study

  1. Methodische und technische Weiterentwicklung der 3-He-MRT im Hinblick auf erweiterte lungendiagnostische Anwendungsmöglichkeiten

    Hiebel, Stefan


    Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Möglichkeiten und Limitierungen der MR-Lungenbildgebung mit hyperpolarisiertem 3-He bei gegenüber üblichen Magnetfeldstärken reduzierten magnetischen Führungsfeldern. Dabei werden insbesondere auch die funktionellen Bildgebungstechniken (dynamische Bildgebung, diffusionsgewichtete Bildgebung und Bestimmung des Sauerstoff-Partialdrucks) berücksichtigt. Experimentell geschieht dies durch in vivo Messungen an einem 0.1 T-Ganzkörpertomographen. Zur systema...

  2. Die subtiele aanleg en moontlikhede van die nominale styl: 'n Studie in Nuwe-Testamentiese Grieks

    P. B. Boshoff


    Full Text Available The subtle nature and possibilities of the nominal style: A study New Testament Greek Nominalization as a figure of speech in the New Testament Greek, or any other literature has not yet come to its full value. Nominatization occurs when events in the deep structure are presented in the aurface structuring in nominal form. The nominal form is chosen for the sake of certain fed. The method used to determine the specific contribution of the nominal form is to compare the nominal form with its verbal variant. Five functions of style have been determined for the nominal form: Acceptance ation, Spatialization, Degrading, Manifestation of courtesy and Profiling.

  3. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    GUO Zhi-peng


    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  4. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    O. C. Vorster


    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  5. Die Bedeutung der aktuellen Nierentumorklassifikation für Diagnostik und Therapie

    Moch H


    Full Text Available In den letzten Jahren erweiterte sich das Verständnis zur Histogenese von Nierentumoren durch neue molekulare Erkenntnisse erheblich. Damit wurde es möglich, eine Klassifikation der Nierentumoren auf der Basis von molekularen Veränderungen vorzunehmen. Daneben wurden neue Tumortypen identifiziert, deren Kenntnis erheblichen Einfluss auf die Auswahl der Behandlungsstrategien haben kann. Bei zystischen Nierentumoren gibt es zum Beispiel neben Tumoren mit sehr guter Prognose auch hochmaligne Tumoren. Die charakteristischen molekularen Veränderungen sind einerseits für die Klassifikation der verschiedenen Nierentumoren relevant, andererseits können sie auch innerhalb der klarzelligen Nierenzellkarzinome ein potenzielles Ansprechen auf neue Medikamente vorhersagen. Die Kenntnis der molekularen Zielstrukturen bei Nierenkarzinomen ist die Grundlage für neue Therapien, die gegen spezifische Strukturen gerichtet sind. HIF- α-responsive Gene, z. B. VEGF, PDGF, TGFα, EGFR und Ca IX spielen dabei eine zentrale Rolle beim klarzelligen Nierenkarzinom.

  6. Die meting van neurolinguistiese programmering se verteenwoordigende stelsels: 'n Eksploratiewe studie

    P. C. Bester


    Full Text Available The measurement of neurolinguistic programming's representative systems: an Exploratory study. An overview of Psychology literature indicates that various authors have agreed upon the existence of Neurolinguistic Programming's (NLP representative systems. Until recently, no study has been reported in the literature that offers a comprehensive measuring instrument for these constructs. The principal aim of this study was to determine the desirability of measuring NLPs representative systems with a comprehensive normative questionnaire. Three theoretical constructs were hypothesized and a "Questionnaire on Sensory Modalities" consisting of 84 items was developed. This questionnaire was administered to students (N=338 from three different tertiary institutions. A second factor analysis on the 18 subscores of a first factor analysis, yielded two factors that did not reflect the three representative systems. The implications of these findings are discussed.Opsomming 'n Oorsig van die Sielkunde-literatuur wys daarop dat verskeie outeurs saamstem oor die bestaan van Neurolinguistiese Programmering (NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels. Tot onlangs toe is geen studie oor die bestaan van n omvattende meetinstrument vir NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels in die literatuur gerapporteer nie. Die hoofdoel van die onderhawige studie was om vas te stel of dit wenslik is om NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels met 'n omvattende normatiewe vraelys te meet. Drie konstrukte is voorveronderstel en 'n "Vraelys oor Sensoriese Modaliteite", bestaande uit 84 items, is gekonstrueer. Hierdie vraelys is afgeneem op studente (N=338 van drie verskillende tersiere instellings. hTweede faktorontleding op die 18 subtellings van n eerste faktorontleding, het twee faktore opgelewer wat nie die drie verteenwoordigende stelsels suiwer weergee nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  7. Determinants of care outcomes for patients who die in hospital in Ireland: a retrospective study.

    McKeown, Kieran


    More people die in hospital than in any other setting which is why it is important to study the outcomes of hospital care at end of life. This study analyses what influenced outcomes in a sample of patients who died in hospital in Ireland in 2008\\/9. The study was undertaken as part of the Irish Hospice Foundation\\'s Hospice Friendly Hospitals Programme (2007-2012).

  8. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    G. J. Oosthuizen


    Full Text Available The motivation of the Black worker can not be studied in isolation since the White worker still holds many executive positions and therefore has an influence on the Black workers' motivation. The role of the White worker in motivating the Black worker in a specific organisation and the attitude and leadership approach of the White worker on the existence/nonexistence and relative satisfaction of the needs of Black workers are discussed.Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  9. Numerical simulations on the effect of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry and range of sight; Numerische Simulationen zur Wirkung des Aerosols auf die troposphaerische Chemie und die Sichtweite

    Riemer, N.


    In this study the mesoscale KAMM/DRAS model system was extended by an MADE aerosol module with a view to studying tropospheric aerosols in terms of composition and size distribution in the greatest possible detail. In particular, the MADE aerosol module was supplemented by a routine for soot. This routine involves the parameterisation of the ageing process of soot through coagulation of soot particles with soluble particles and condensation of sulphuric acid on the soot particles. This transforms the soot from an external into an internal mixture and changes its hygroscopic properties. Thus extended the model system was used to study two aspects of the effects of aerosols on the physical and chemical environment of the troposphere. The first of these two tasks was to quantify the influence of heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on tropospheric chemistry under summer smog conditions. The second was to study the optical properties of aerosols. The paper shows a way of deriving extinction coefficients from the calculated aerosol distributions. This is then used as a starting point for developing a method for determining range of sight. [German] Das mesoskalige Modellsystem KAMM/DRAIS wird im Rahmen dieser Arbeit um das Aerosolmodul MADE erweitert, um das troposphaerische Aerosol sowohl bezueglich seiner Zusammensetzung als auch bezueglich seiner Groessenverteilung moeglichst detailliert zu behandeln. Insbesondere wird das Aerosolmodul MADE um die Behandlung der Substanz Russ ergaenzt. Hierbei wird der Alterungsprozess von Russ durch Koagulation der Russteilchen mit loeslichen Partikeln und durch Kondensation von Schwefelsaeure auf den Russpartikeln, wodurch der Russ von einer externen in eine interne Mischung uebergeht und seine hygroskopischen Eigenschaften aendert, parametrisiert. Mit dem so erweiterten Modellsystem wird fuer zwei Themenschwerpunkte die Wirkung des Aerosols auf die physikalischen und chemischen Bedingungen in der

  10. Die binding van die konfessie

    P. J. Coetzee


    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  11. "Barrierefreiheit" und Heterogenität - eine erweiterte Perspektive auf Zugänglichkeit und Nutzung Neuer Medien

    Joachim Schröder


    Full Text Available Das politische Konzept der Barrierefreiheit zielt auf die Gestaltung Neuer Medien – insbesondere des Internets. Es ist eine Reaktion auf deren Bedeutungszuwachs sowie auf die Wahrnehmung eines anhaltenden, konstruktionsbedingten Ausschlusses von deren Nutzung, vor allem von bestimmten Gruppe Behinderter. Dies gilt in vergleichbarer Weise aber ebenso für weitere soziale Gruppen. Für das Ziel einer realen Nutzung dieses Mediums durch alle ist es sinnvoll, es als sozialen Raum zu interpretieren, in dem bestimmte Bedingungen zur Teilhabe herrschen und der sozial differenzierende Wirkungen hat.

  12. Family care of the dying in the Republic of Moldova: a qualitative study.

    Kellehear, Allan; Mindruta-Stratan, Rodica; Pogonet, Vadim; Gorelco, Victor


    This paper reports the principle findings of a national, cross-sectional, interview-based study of the experiences of people who cared for a dying family member in the Republic of Moldova. Study data, collected from 102 interviews, covered four broad areas: the experiences of the dying person; family members' own experiences of caring; the practice (or non-practice) of any traditional customs for dying or death; and family carers' views of their own needs in these circumstances. Most carers reported high levels of psychological distress. Dying persons were reported to experience significant and unrelieved suffering. The practice of traditional customs was uneven, and there were significant levels of non-practice. Most respondents expressed a need for greater professional support, respite, specialized equipment and medicines, and home help from health care professionals. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of potential local developments and international aid.

  13. Betting on rising electricity rates with solar power systems. The amended direct consumption regulation; Mit Solaranlagen auf steigende Strompreise wetten. Die erweiterte Direktverbrauchsregelung

    Wellershoff, Jan-Kristof [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Muenchen (Germany); Obst, Michael [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    When the German government decided to cut down funds for photovoltaic power systems in June 2010, many were unaware of the fact that the amended EEG (Renewables Act) also affected the so-called direct consumption regulation according to Section 33 No. 2 EEG. This regulation offers chances for good profits to owners of photovoltaic power systems in case of increasing electricity rates, at limited risk. It is also a model of better integration of renewable energy sources in the existing markets and systems as set down by the German government in its energy concept of 28 September 2010.

  14. Open Access am Standort D – erweiterte Perspektiven für die Wissenschaft / Open Access in Germany – new prospects for science and scholarship

    Ilg-Hartbecke, Karin


    Full Text Available The increasing implementation of the Open Access idea has given rise to new scholarly information-supply and communication models in both the German and international research landscapes. For example, over half the research-oriented universities in Germany now operate their own institutional repository. In the long term, Open Access repositories represent an ideal basic infrastructure for handling scholarly publications since they offer worldwide accessibility, enhanced visibility and value-added services such as disciplinary and cross-disciplinary search options, usage statistics and citation analysis. This contribution provides an up-to-date overview and describes not only the current framework conditions and developments but also the barriers to development in the German repository landscape. It also deals with initiatives designed to introduce publishers, authors and general information providers to Open Access practices.

  15. Die instelling van die doop

    J. L. Venter


    Full Text Available Die eerste plek in die evangeliebeskrywings waar daar van die doop as ’n opdrag van Jesus Christus gepraat word en waar die betekenis die duidelikste uitkristalliseer, staan in Matteus 28 : 16 - 20. Heilshistories gesien, is dit die begin van kerklike inlywing van die wat gehoor het hoedat Jesus sy koninkryk proklameer, die evangelie aanvaar en tot bekering kom. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word hierdie gedeelte ondersoek om te sien hoe die instelling geskied het, wat die plek en betekenis van die Christelike doop is.

  16. Archaeometric study on minting dies produced under papal rule in Ferrara

    Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea; Vaccaro, Carmela; Gulinelli, Maria Teresa; Garagnani, Gian Luca


    In the Civic Museum of Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara, a collection of 1104 coin striking tools is stored. Among these, eight steel dies produced from the 2nd decade of the seventeenth to the half of the eighteenth century, representative of the whole period of activity of the papal mint in Ferrara, have been chosen and studied. In that period, while important innovations in the coin minting technique were introduced in Europe, Ferrara declined from the rank of ducal mint to that of peripheral minting center of the highly centralized Papal States. The dies have been characterized by metallographic, chemical, and microhardness investigations. The results suggest that the dies were obtained by a manual smithing technique consisting in hammer hot forging. The die quality improved with time. In fact, in the period 1619-1622, a hardening treatment for the engraved die end consisting in a simple local carburization coexisted with a more efficient production method, based on the application of a proper final heat treatment. This treatment induced a graded microstructure from the engraved end, with a hard martensitic or bainitic structure, to the opposite end, with a tough ferritic/pearlitic structure. From 1675 onward, the latter production method was applied on all the studied dies. The chemical analysis of the alloys suggest that they were likely obtained from iron ores with a common provenance, while the analysis of the slag inclusions suggests the adoption of a direct method of ironmaking throughout the activity period of the mint.

  17. Frühe Behandlung von Patienten mit Multipler Sklerose - die CHAMPS-Studie und ihre Konsequenzen

    Berger T


    Full Text Available Die CHAMPS-Studie wurde als randomisierte, doppelblinde, placebokontrollierte Multizenter-studie in Nordamerika durchgeführt. 383 Patienten mit einer wahrscheinlichen Multiplen Sklerose (MS aufgrund einer rezenten klinischen Monosymptomatik und typischen MRT-Veränderungen wurden entweder mit Interferon beta-1a (Avonex® 30 mcg einmal wöchentlich i.m. oder Placebo behandelt. Nach einer geplanten Interimsanalyse nach 18 Monaten wurde die Studie aus ethischen Gründen frühzeitig abgebrochen. Zum Zeitpunkt dieser Interimsanalyse zeigte sich, daß Interferon beta-1a die Entwicklung einer definitiven MS klinisch und anhand von MRT-Parametern signifikant hinauszögert. Dieser Übersichtsartikel diskutiert die Konsequenzen, die sich aus den Ergebnissen der CHAMPS-Studie ergeben. Diese Konsequenzen beinhalten die dringende Notwendigkeit von und Forderung nach neuen diagnostischen Kriterien bei MS, viel mehr aber die Etablierung von individuellen prognostischen Kriterien bei Patienten mit isolierter klinischer Symptomatik.

  18. Case study: an ethical dilemma involving a dying patient.

    Pacsi, Alsacia L


    Nursing often deals with ethical dilemmas in the clinical arena. A case study demonstrates an ethical dilemma faced by healthcare providers who care for and treat Jehovah's Witnesses who are placed in a critical situation due to medical life-threatening situations. A 20-year-old, pregnant, Black Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in critical condition following a single-vehicle car accident. She exhibited signs and symptoms of internal bleeding and was advised to have a blood transfusion and emergency surgery in an attempt to save her and the fetus. She refused to accept blood or blood products and rejected the surgery as well. Her refusal was based on a fear of blood transfusion due to her belief in Bible scripture. The ethical dilemma presented is whether to respect the patient's autonomy and compromise standards of care or ignore the patient's wishes in an attempt to save her life. This paper presents the clinical case, identifies the ethical dilemma, and discusses virtue ethical theory and principles that apply to this situation.

  19. Die wese van godsdienssin - ’n empiriese studie

    J.C. Kok


    Full Text Available In this article the following issues concerning the essence of religiosity are considered: faith, trust, decision making, knowledge of principles, commitment, direction, hope, peace, meaning and security. The respondents used in this study were politicians, businessmen and teacher educators from all sectors and regions of South Africa. Higher order factor analysis and item analysis were used to evaluate the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. Subsequently differential differences were investigated by applying Hotelling's T-square test followed by the Student t-test as well as Multivariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Scheffe. Significant differences in the degree of religiosity were found between language and religious groups, as well as between respondents with different educational qualifications and between those living in urban and rural areas. Ministers of religion should note that it is essential to guide believers to a greater commitment and to the religious seeking of meaning and peace. The correct knowledge of and insight into the essence of religiosity will lead to attaining this goal.

  20. Symptoms, treatment and "dying peacefully" in terminally ill cancer patients: a prospective study

    Georges, J.J.; Philipsen, B.D.; Heide, van der A.; Wal, van der G.; Maas, van der P.J.


    GOALS: The aims of this study were to describe the symptoms, their treatment during the final months of life of terminally ill cancer patients and to assess characteristics of the dying process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used a prospective study design. From a representative sample of physicians who

  1. Analog Studies of Thermomechanical Fatigue and Abrasive Wear of Cast and Forged Steels for "Autoforge" Dies

    Kolesnikov, M. S.; Mironova, Yu. S.; Mukhametzyanova, G. F.; Novikova, I. E.; Novikov, V. Yu.


    Processes of thermomechanical fatigue and abrasive wear of suspension-cast precipitation-hardening ferrite-carbide steel 30T6NTiC-1.5 and standard steel 4Kh5MFS are studied. The dominant kinds of fracture typical for dies for semisolid stamping are determined. The factors and parameters of cyclic temperature and force loading are shown to produce a selective action on the competing kinds of damage of the die steels. A comparative analysis of the properties of the steels is performed. Steel 30T6NTiC-1.5 is shown to have substantial advantages over steel 4Kh5FMS traditionally used for making "Autoforge" dies.

  2. Theoretical study on Cold Open Die Forging Process Optimization for Multipass Workability

    Gaikwad Ajitkumar


    Full Text Available Cold Workability limits strength enhancement of austenitic materials through cold deformation. The intrinsic workability is the material characteristic whereas state-of-stress workability is governed by nature of applied stress, strain rate and geometry of deformation zone. For Cold Open Die Forging (CODF, multipass workability is essential. In this work, FEM tool FORGE-3 is used to optimize CODF on hydraulic press by analysis of stress-strain profiles and use of Latham-Cockroft damage criterion. Study recommends optimized process parameters, die combinations and pass-schedules.

  3. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of four different die materials before and after disinfection of the impression: an in vitro study.

    Nandini, Yamini; Vinitha, K B; Manvi, Supriya; Smitha, M


    This study was conducted to compare the linear dimensional accuracy of die materials before and after disinfection of the impression. Type IV and V conventional dental stone, type IV-resin impregnated and copper-plated die materials were studied. A stainless-steel master die analogs to a complete veneer crown preparation with three scribed lines (I: vertical, II and III: horizontal) was machined and measurements were made from these scribed reference lines. Impressions were made with monophase addition silicone impression material for each of the specimens. 2% glutaraldehyde was used as a disinfectant. The fabricated dies were measured to the nearest 0.0001 mm. ANOVA and post hoc was carried out using Scheffe multiple comparison test at significance level of 0.05. Type IV resin-impregnated dental stone and copperplated dies approximated the dimensions of the master die. Type IV and V conventional dental stone dies showed greater variation in measurements. Statistically significant differences were observed for type IV resin-impregnated and copper-plated dies in dimension I and III. For dimension II no significant differences were found for dies fabricated from four die materials. A one-way analysis of variance indicated no statistical significant differences among the two groups of dies fabricated from disinfectant treated impressions and those fabricated from nondisinfectant treated impressions. Type IV resin-impregnated dental stone and copper-plated dies are dimensionally more accurate than type IV and V conventional dental stone die materials. No significant linear distortion in the dies fabricated from the disinfected impressions was observed.

  4. Where to die? That is the question: A study of cancer patients in Israel.

    Barak, Frida; Livshits, Sofia; Kaufer, Haana; Netanel, Ruth; Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Alkalay, Yasmin; Kreitler, Shulamith


    Most patients prefer to die at home, but barely 30% do so. This study examines the variables contributing to dying at home. The participants were 326 cancer patients, of both genders, with a mean age of 63.25 years, who died from 2000 to 2008 and were treated by the palliative care unit of the Barzilai Hospital. Some 65.7% died at home and 33.4% in a hospital. The data were extracted from patient files. The examined variables were demographic (e.g., age, gender, marital status, ethnic background, number of years in Israel until death), medical (e.g., age at diagnosis, diagnosis, nature of last treatment, patient received nursing care, patient given the care of a social worker, patient had care of a psychologist, family received care of a social worker, patient had a special caregiver), and sociological (e.g., having insurance, having worked in Israel, living alone or with family, living with one's children, living in self-owned or rented house, family members working). The findings indicate that the chances of dying at home are higher if the patient is non-Ashkenazi, the family got social worker care, the patient lived in a self-owned house, the patient lived with his family, the family members worked, and the patient's stay in Israel since immigration was longer. Logistic regression showed that all the predictors together yielded a significant model accounting for 10.9-12.3% of the variance. The findings suggest that dying at home requires maintaining continued care for the patient and family in a community context.

  5. Telemedicine's Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    Gurp, J.L.P. van; Soyannwo, O.; Odebunmi, K.; Dania, S.; Selm, M. van; Leeuwen, E. van; Vissers, K.; Hasselaar, J.G.J.


    OBJECTIVES: This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals' concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN

  6. Telemedicine’s potential to support good dying in Nigeria: a qualitative study

    J. van Gurp; O. Soyannwo; K. Odebunmi; S. Dania; M. van Selm; E. van Leeuwen; K. Vissers; J. Hasselaar


    Objectives This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Materials and Methods Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN)

  7. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    Hamilton, Josephine A.


    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  8. New approaches for the reliability-oriented structural optimization considering time-variant aspects; Neue Ansaetze fuer die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung unter Beachtung zeitvarianter Aspekte

    Kuschel, N.


    The optimization of structures with respect to cost, weight or performance is a well-known application of the nonlinear optimization. However reliability-based structural optimization has been subject of only very few studies. The approaches suggested up to now have been unsatisfactory regarding general possibility of application or easy handling by user. The objective of this thesis is the development of general approaches to solve both optimization problems, the minimization of cost with respect to constraint reliabilty and the maximization of reliability under cost constraint. The extented approach of an one-level-method will be introduced in detail for the time-invariant problems. Here, the reliability of the sturcture will be analysed in the framework of the First-Order-Reliability-Method (FORM). The use of time-variant reliability analysis is necessary for a realistic modelling of many practical problems. Therefore several generalizations of the new approaches will be derived for the time-variant reliability-based structural optimization. Some important properties of the optimization problems are proved. In addition some interesting extensions of the one-level-method, for example the cost optimization of structural series systems and the cost optimization in the frame of the Second-Order-Reliabiity-Method (SORM), are presented in the thesis. (orig.) [German] Die Optimierung von Tragwerken im Hinblick auf die Kosten, das Gewicht oder die Gestalt ist eine sehr bekannte Anwendung der nichtlinearen Optimierung. Die zuverlaessigkeitsorientierte Strukturoptimierung wurde dagegen weit seltener untersucht. Die bisher vorgeschlagenen Ansaetze koennen bezueglich ihrer allgemeinen Verwendbarkeit oder ihrer nutzerfreundlichen Handhabung nicht befriedigen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist nun die Entwicklung allgemeiner Ansaetze zur Loesung der beiden Optimierungsprobleme, einer Kostenminimierung unter Zuverlaessigkeitsrestriktionen und einer

  9. Die verband tussen werknemers se houding jeens regstellende aksie en hul werksbetrokkenheid: 'n Eksploratiewe studie

    S. M. Muller


    Full Text Available The relationship between employees' attitudes toward affirmative action and their work involvement: an explorative study. The principal aim of the study was to determine whether or not employee's attitude towards affirmative action bears any relation to their work involvement. A random sample of 600 participants taken from a large insurance company yielded 138 usable questionnaires. Although intercorrelations between attitude towards affirmative action and four work-related involvement foci produced no significant relation, chi square analyses did indicate the possibility of employee's attitude towards affirmative action and their work involvement being moderated by their gender and home language. Subsequently, the implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die onderhawige studie was om te bepaal of daar 'n verband tussen werknemers se houding jeens regstellendc aksie en hul werksbetrokkenheid bestaan. 'n Ewekansige steekproef van 600 deelnemers geneem uit 'n groot versekeringsonderncming het 138 bruikbare vraelyste opgelewer. Hoewel interkorrelasies tussen houdings jeens regstellende aksie en vier werkverwante betrokkenheidsfokusse geen betekenisvolle verbande opgelewer het nie/ het chi-kwadraatontledings daarop gedui dat werknemers se houdingjeens regstellende aksie en hul werksbetrokkenheid moontlik wel dcur faktore soos geslag en huistaal gemodereer word. Die implikasies van die bevindinge word vervolgens bespreek.

  10. To be involved - A qualitative study of nurses' experiences of caring for dying patients.

    Andersson, Erika; Salickiene, Zivile; Rosengren, Kristina


    The aim of this study was to describe nurses' experiences (>two years) of caring for dying patients in surgical wards. Palliative care is included in education for nurses. However, the training content varies, and nurse educators need to be committed to the curriculum regarding end-of-life situations. A lack of preparation among newly graduated nurses regarding dying and death could lead to anxiety, stress and burnout. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge regarding end-of-life situations. A qualitative descriptive study was carried out in two surgical wards in the southern part of Sweden. The study comprised six interviews with registered nurses and was analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis, a qualitative method that involves an inductive approach, to increase our understanding of nurses' perspectives and thoughts regarding dying patients. The results formed one category (caring-to be involved) and three subcategories (being supportive, being frustrated and being sensitive in the caring processes). Nurses were personally affected and felt unprepared to face dying patients due to a lack of knowledge about the field of palliative care. Their experiences could be described as processes of transition from theory to practice by trial and error. Supervision is a valuable tool for bridging the gap between theory and practice in nursing during the transition from novice to expert. Improved knowledge about palliative care during nursing education and committed nursing leadership at the ward level facilitate preparation for end-of-life situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of leakages and leakage pathways in wooden buildings. Part 2.: Manual for blower door measurements - advanced methods. Final report; Quantifizierung einzelner Leckagen und Leckagewege bei Gebaeuden in Holzbauart. T. 2: Handbuch zur Durchfuehrung von Blower Door-Messungen - Erweiterte Messmethoden. Abschlussbericht

    Hall, M.; Geissler, A.; Hauser, G.


    The first part of the project investigated the limits of application of the Opening A Door, Adding A Hole, Guard Zone and Deduction methods in order to find out which of them is the most reliable in given circumstances. This involved comparative measurements in the roof section of a model building. The roof section was specially designed and constructed for this purpose. The second part of the investigations comprised in situ measurements using a prototype measuring system developed in an earlier project, which was further developed into a flexible system for quantification of random leakages also in corners and along edges. It can be used either as a double chamber or as a single chamber combined, e.g., with a blower door as compensating volume flow meter. The laboratory experiments were supplemented by field tests. [German] Fuer die Quantifizierung der Luftdichtheit einzelner Gebaeudebereiche werden im ersten Teil des Projektes zur Schaffung von soliden Grundlagen die bekannten Methoden Opening A Door, Adding A Hole, Guard Zone und Deduktion auf ihre Anwendungsgrenzen untersucht. Es wird erarbeitet, unter welchen Bedingungen mit welcher Methode die sichersten Ergebnisse erhalten werden. Hierfuer werden Vergleichsmessungen im Dachbereich eines Versuchsgebaeudes unter bekannten Randbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Um die Moeglichkeit zu haben, konkrete Randbedingungen einzustellen wurde das vorhandene Versuchshaus umgebaut bzw. erweitert. Ein neuer Dachaufbau wurde entsprechend den Anforderungen des Projektes konzipiert und errichtet. Die Leckagen von einzelnen Bauteilen sollen im zweiten Teil des Projektes mit Hilfe eines in situ-Messgeraetes quantifiziert werden. Ein Messsystem zur Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit von Bauteilen in situ wurde im Rahmen eines frueheren Forschungsvorhabens als Prototyp bereits entwickelt. Ausgehend von dem aelteren Prototypen wird in diesem Projekt ein flexibles Messsystem entwickelt, mit dem die Quantifizierung beliebiger einzelner Leckagen

  12. Telemedicine’s Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    van Gurp, Jelle; Soyannwo, Olaitan; Odebunmi, Kehinde; Dania, Simpa; van Selm, Martine; van Leeuwen, Evert; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen


    Objectives This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Materials and Methods Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN) and the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks. Results The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical–technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria’s palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education ‘lite’ scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication. Discussion Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve

  13. Telemedicine's Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    Jelle van Gurp

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals' concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice.Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN and the University College Hospital (UCH in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks.The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical-technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria's palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education 'lite' scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication.Nigerian health care professionals' concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve palliative care in Africa. Telemedicine can only help

  14. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Marieke Peché


    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  15. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    A. S. Engelbrecht


    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  16. Die Lerneffekte von Exkursionen im Rahmen eines Study-Abroad-Programms: Eine Fallstudie

    Donohue-Bergeler, Devon Johanna


    Betreute kulturelle Exkursionen sind ein fester Bestandteil von vielen Study-Abroad-Programme. Sie werden allgemein positiv bewertet und bieten viele Chancen für fremdsprachliches und landeskundliches Lernen, sowie als „Handlungsfeld“ für das Gelernte. Es fehlen jedoch wissenschaftliche Begründungen sowie empirische Untersuchungen, die den Lernwert von Exkursionen bei Study-Abroad-Programmen nachweisen. Deshalb wurden folgenden Leitfragen untersucht: Welche Lerneffekte können Exkursionen ...

  17. Die verbond - van Ou Testament na Nuwe Testament

    H. F. van Rooy


    Full Text Available Die verbondsbegrip het in die Ou Testamentiese wetenskap weer ’n plek gekry op grond van die werk van Eichrodt en die studie van ooreenkomste tussen die verbond in die Ou Testament en die buite-Bybelse staatsverdrae, sedert die werk van Korosec,Mendenhall en baie ander. Natuurlik bestaan hieroor nie eenstemmigheid nie, veral omdat oor die ouderdom van die verbondsgedagte in die Ou Testament nie eenstemmigheid bestaan onder geleerdes nie. Die studie van die verbond in die Nuwe Testament het egter nie naastenby dieselfde aandag gekry nie - iets wat miskien as een van die redes vir die ontkenning van die waarde van die verbond vir Nuwe Testamentiese gelowiges beskou kan word. In hierdie studie word drie sake aangeraak, nl. die terminologie vir verbond in die Ou en Nuwe Testament, die agtergrond vir en belangrikste vorme van die verbond in die Ou Testament en enkele opmerkings oor die verbond in die Nuwe Testament.

  18. The perspectives of bereaved family carers on dying at home: the study protocol of ‘unpacking the home: family carers’ reflections on dying at home

    Payne Sheila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent end of life care policy prioritises patient choice over place of care and in particular promotes dying at home. This policy is predicated on the assumption that there are family carers able and willing to provide care for the dying person. Through the accounts of bereaved family members, the ‘Unpacking the home’ study aims to gain an in-depth understanding of ‘home’ and the issues faced by family members caring for a dying older person at home; it also aims to examine the way the home is transformed in the process of providing end of life care, and offer a critical analysis of policies that aim to increase home deaths. This paper presents the protocol for this study. Methods/design A cross-sectional qualitative study has been designed to achieve the study aims. In-depth interviews will be conducted in the north and south of England with 50 bereaved family carers to elicit their accounts of witnessing the dying in the home of an older person (50+ years. All interviews will be subjected to thematic analysis, and narrative analysis will be undertaken on a subset of 30 interview transcripts. A final phase of integration and policy analysis will be conducted towards the end of the study. User involvement is integral to this study, with service users actively engaged at every stage. Discussion This study will seek to take a qualitative approach by explicitly recognising that family carers are central to the experience of dying at home for older people, and they have needs that may be amenable to support and anticipatory planning. The strengths of this study, which include its interdisciplinary and participatory approach, and in-depth data collection and analysis methods, will be explored. The limitations and challenges of this research will also be considered. This study seeks to make recommendations that will ensure that family carers receive appropriate and adequate support in caring for their loved ones at the end

  19. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    J. C. D. Augustyn


    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  20. Die menswaardigheid van die menslike embrio : die debat tot dusver

    Vorster, J.M


    ...), "Stem cell research: the ethical issues". Rakende die gebruik van menslike embrio's in stamselnavorsing, behandel hierdie artikels die potensiaal van die menslike embrio, die morele status (menswaardigheid...

  1. Clinical decision making in the recognition of dying: a qualitative interview study.

    Taylor, Paul; Dowding, Dawn; Johnson, Miriam


    Recognising dying is an essential clinical skill for general and palliative care professionals alike. Despite the high importance, both identification and good clinical care of the dying patient remains extremely difficult and often controversial in clinical practice. This study aimed to answer the question: "What factors influence medical and nursing staff when recognising dying in end-stage cancer and heart failure patients?" This study used a descriptive approach to decision-making theory. Participants were purposively sampled for profession (doctor or nurse), specialty (cardiology or oncology) and grade (senior vs junior). Recruitment continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with NHS medical and nursing staff in an NHS Trust which contained cancer and cardiology tertiary referral centres. An interview schedule was designed, based on decision-making literature. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed and analysed using thematic framework. Data were managed with Atlas.ti. Saturation was achieved with 19 participants (7 seniors; 8 intermediate level staff; 4 juniors). There were 11 oncologists (6 doctors, 5 nurses) and 8 cardiologists (3 doctors, 5 nurses). Six themes were generated: information used; decision processes; modifying factors; implementation; reflecting on decisions and related decisions. The decision process described was time-dependent, ongoing and iterative, and relies heavily on intuition. This study supports the need to recognise the strengths and weaknesses of expertise and intuition as part of the decision process, and of placing the recognition of dying in a time-dependent context. Clinicians should also be prepared to accept and convey the uncertainty surrounding these decisions, both in practice and in communication with patients and carers.

  2. Talking about dying and death: a focus group study to explore a local community perspective

    Marilyn N. Y. Kirshbaum


    Full Text Available There is a general perception held by health care practitioners based in hospices, palliative care services and general healthcare services that society is reluctant to talk about dying and death. This avoidance behaviour is observed, noted and expressed in national policy briefings as being detrimental to patient involvement in decision making, effective coping and preparation for death, organ donation, writing a will, and the process of bereavement. The aim of the pilot study was to explore the perceptions of a local community on the broad subject of Talking about Dying and Death. An interactive qualitative methodology using a constructivist approach enabled exploration of a wide range of views from a self-selected group resident within the local community (n=8. Data were collected from a focus group session facilitated by the researcher and an associate researcher. Systematic and analytical coding of transcripts was undertaken using Framework Analysis (Richie and Spencer 1994. Four overriding themes were identified: i emotions, beliefs and behaviours; ii coping with adversity; iii difficulties, barriers and tensions, and iv fostering a participative future. There were some notions of superstition amongst the participants, but little mention of formal religious beliefs. Within the themes, Coping with Adversity and Difficulties, Barriers and Tensions is the core of the community’s views and needs. The link to the local hospice service is significant for it is the place where practical help, spiritual care, and an appreciation for sensitivity, openness and honesty can be put into action. The importance of communication and language are critical above all else. Dying and death was articulated as an upsetting topic, and remains a taboo in this community in the United Kingdom, with a belief that talking will bring harm. Promotion of talking about dying and death was discussed in relation to the role of the local hospice and several suggestions

  3. Von Nobel bis Viagra: Die Geschichte eines kleinen Moleküls mit großer Wirkung: Stickstoffmonoxyd (NO

    Philipp T


    Full Text Available Es wird kurzgefasst die Geschichte des Nitroglyzerins und von Alfred Nobel dargestellt. Nitroglyzerin war als explosiver Bestandteil von Dynamit der gewaltigste Sprengstoff seiner Zeit und wurde von Alfred Nobel weiterentwickelt und kommerzialisiert, der später den Nobelpreis stiftete. Gleichermaßen ist Nitroglyzerin in öliger Dispersion und in geringsten Mengen seit 100 Jahren als „Koronardilatator“ eingeführt und weiterhin nahezu unersetzlich. Der Mechanismus, mit dem Nitroglyzerin Gefäße erweitert, wurde erst vor 25 Jahren von Furchgott, Ignarro und Murad vollständig aufgeklärt, indem sie die große Bedeutung des Endothels und des gefäßerweiternden Stickstoffmonoxyds beschrieben. Die 3 Forscher erhielten 1998 den Nobelpreis für Medizin zu gleichen Teilen "für die Entdeckung des NOs als Signalmolekül für das kardiovaskuläre System".

  4. Is Email Business Dying?: A Study on Evolution of Email Spam Over Fifteen Years

    De Wang


    Full Text Available With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, which contains 5.5 million spam emails over 15 years (1998 – 2013. We statistically analyze emails contents including header information (e.g. content type and embedded items (e.g. URL links. Also, we investigate topic drift using topic modeling technique. Moreover, we perform network analysis on sender-to-receiver IP routing networks. Our study shows the dynamic nature of email spam over one and a half decades and demonstrate that the email spam business is not dying but more capricious.

  5. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    K. J. Stanz


    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  6. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    I. J. van der Walt


    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  7. Dorfentwicklung und Dorferneuerung . Die neuen Bundesländer

    Bender, Oliver; Richter, Horst P.


    Das 1975 in Kraft getretene Bundesraumordnungsprogramm forderte, in allen Landesteilen angemessene und gleichwertige Lebensbedingungen herzustellen. Mit der Novellierung des Flurbereinigungsgesetzes 1976 bzw. dem Zukunftsinvestitionsprogramm 1977 bis 1980 startete die Dorfentwicklung/Dorferneuerung nicht zuletzt als Initiative zur Konjunkturbelebung im ländlichen Raum. Seit 1984 ist sie Bestandteil der von Bund und Ländern getragenen Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der Agrarstruktur und des Küstenschutzes" (GAK) und liegt im Zuständigkeitsbereich der Landwirtschaftsministerien. Die Dorferneuerungsprogramme der Länder werden aus Mitteln der GAK, der EU und des Landes finanziert. Neben Ortssanierungen nach dem Städtebauförderungsgesetz bzw. Baugesetzbuch stellen sie das wichtigste Instrument zur Förderung von ländlichen Orten und Gemeinden dar. Nach der Vereinigung wurde das Dorferneuerungsrecht auf die neuen Bundesländer übertragen, indem man sich zunächst an den Regelungen der jeweiligen Partnerländer im Westen orientierte. Doch hatten sich die Dörfer in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg völlig unterschiedlich entwickelt, so dass sich im Osten ein erweiterter Handlungsbedarf zeigte. Für Fachleute aus Politik, Verwaltung, Wissenschaft und freien Planungsberufen, nicht zuletzt für angewandt arbeitende Geographen, stellten sich neue Herausforderungen.

  8. Meganisisme, vitalisme en holisme in die Biologie

    P.J. Botha


    Full Text Available Die Biologie word omskryf as die wetenskap van die lewende wesens (organismes. Die lewe staan dus in die brandpunt van die biologiese studie en ondersoek. Vra ons ons egter af wat onder „lewe” verstaan word, besef ons dadelik dat ons hier met ’n uiters moeilik definieerbare begrip te doen het. In verband met die aard van lewe het daar onder die bioloë en natuurfilosowe veral twee denkrigtings posgevat, nl. meganisisme en vitalism.

  9. Case study of lean manufacturing application in a die casting manufacturing company

    Ching, Ng Tan; Hoe, Clarence Chan Kok; Hong, Tang Sai; Ghobakhloo, Morteza; Pin, Chen Kah


    The case study of lean manufacturing aims to study the application of lean manufacturing in a die casting manufacturing company located in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. This case study describes mainly about the important concepts and applications of lean manufacturing which could gradually help the company in increasing the profit by studying and analyzing their current manufacturing process and company culture. Many approaches of lean manufacturing are studied in this project which includes: 5S housekeeping, Kaizen, and Takt Time. Besides, the lean tools mentioned, quality tool such as the House of Quality is being used as an analysis tool to continuously improve the product quality. In short, the existing lean culture in the company is studied and analyzed, with recommendations written at the end of this paper.

  10. Parametric Study on the Influence of Warping Deformation upon Natural Frequencies of Die Springs

    Ying Hao


    Full Text Available The free vibrational characteristics of die springs are examined by Riccati transfer matrix method in this study. The warping deformation of spring’s cross section, as a new design factor, is incorporated into the differential equation of motion. Numerical simulations show that the warping deformation is a significant role of the behavior of natural frequencies of die springs and should be considered carefully. Approximately 40% of the errors may occur if warping is neglected. The change laws of warping effect with the parameter variations of springs are also explored, including the height-to-width ratio of the cross section, the cylinder diameter, the helix pitch angle, and the number of coils. The warping effect exhibits the most remarkable changes with the variation in the height-to-width ratio of the cross section. However, this effect is not fairly sensitive to the changes in other parameters, and it is particularly significant when the cross section is relatively narrow regardless of the changes in other parameters. This study evidently answers the key scientific question: “under what working condition should the warping effect be considered or ignored?” The analysis results can be used to guide spring designers in engineering.

  11. Medizinstudierende Eltern – die Dichotomie der Erfahrungswelten [Parents Studying Medicine – the dichotomy of studying with a family

    Iden, Kirstin


    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: In this article the personal study and life situation of parents who are also medical students at the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main is discussed. There is a special focus on the topics “studying with children” and “family-friendly university”, which have been present in discussions about university development and in the daily life of academics, especially during the last decade. The workgroup “Individual Student Services” at the medical faculty at the Goethe University tries to meet the necessities of the individual study courses and to support the study success with a new counselling and student service concept.Methods: The experience of parents studying medicine was recorded in semi-structured interviews (Date: April 2010, which were held as part of the sponsored pilot project on part-time medical studies (“Pilot Project Part-time Medical Studies”. Additionally, study results from the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main were integrated as well as a literature analysis.Results: It was found that the teaching demands and support services, which have been suggested and needed for years now, have been partially implemented and are without sufficient support at the faculty level to date. Thus the current situation of medical students with children is still difficult and seems a big challenge for everyone involved.Solution: As part of the “Individual Student Services” a new pilot project on part-time medical studies was established in November 2009. Only the use of new, unconventional and innovative ideas allows universities to adequately support the changing and heterogeneous student population and support them to successfully completing their medical studies.[german] Einleitung: In dem vorliegenden Artikel wird die persönliche Studien- und Lebenssituation von Studierenden mit Kindern am Fachbereich Medizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

  12. [The meaning of dying with dignity from caregivers perspective: a phenomenological study].

    Ibáñez-Masero, Olivia; Ortega-Galán, Ángela M; Carmona-Rega, M Inés; Ruiz-Fernández, M Dolores; Cabrera-Troya, José; García-Cisneros, Rogelio; Medina, Fernando Relinque

    To explore the meaning of dying with dignity from the perspective of the direct witnesses who have accompanied this process in dying people from Andalusia. Phenomenological study conducted in different centres, which including analysing the transcriptions of the dialogues from discussion groups with 40 participants in five provinces in Southern Spain. The data was analysed using the Van Manen proposal and Atlas Ti 7.0 program was applied as a software tool. Being in the company of loved ones is noted as a key element in the perception of a dignified death. The following elements, according to a priority order, were also pointed out: relief of suffering, a good professional care, decision making ability, and the opportunity to consider their spiritual dimension. Achievement of their Living Wills is hardly mentioned. The essential elements defined in the Death with Dignity Law, 2/2010 are confirmed as being true (without suffering, with company, respecting living wills, having possibilities of the farewell, and the transcendental meaning of the death process). Caregivers, at the end of life, give priority to psychological aspects, underlying the need of company, a farewell of the loved ones, and a good professional care on the physical aspects. The promotion of the dignified Death Law and Living Wills are still being developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter


    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  14. Der Weg zum Java-Profi Konzepte und Techniken für die professionelle Java-Entwicklung

    Inden, Michael


    Sie haben bereits Einiges an Erfahrung mit Java und möchten Ihre Entwicklungstätigkeit nun professionalisieren? Oder sind Sie schon auf dem Weg zum Profi, benötigen aber ein Nachschlagewerk, das Ihnen die wichtigen Themen aus der Java-Welt kompakt und kompetent vermittelt? Dieses Buch bietet eine umfassende Einführung in die professionelle Entwicklung und vermittelt Ihnen das notwendige Wissen, um stabile und erweiterbare Softwaresysteme auf Java-SE-Basis zu bauen. Praxisnahe Beispiele helfen dabei, das Gelernte rasch umzusetzen. Neben der Praxis wird viel Wert auf das Verständnis zugrunde liegender Konzepte gelegt. Dabei kommen dem Autor Michael Inden seine umfangreichen Schulungs- und Entwicklererfahrungen zugute - und Ihnen als Leser damit ebenso. Diese Neuauflage wurde durchgehend überarbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. Natürlich darf das aktuelle Java 8 nicht fehlen. Verschiedene Kapitel sind Java 8 und seinen Neuerungen gewidmet. Dort wird ein fundierter Einstieg in die umfangreichen Erweit...

  15. Study of laser die release by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Karlitskaya, N.; de Lange, D.F.; Meijer, J.; Sanders, Rene; Phipps, Claude R.


    A new laser-assisted process called "Laser Die Transfer" is developed for high speed assembling of miniature electronic components. Silicon dies, fabricated on an optically transparent carrier are released using a laser pulse. This process has the potential to offer major advantages compared to

  16. Study on the microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon Cr-Si-Mn-Mo-V steel for cast inserted dies

    HAO Xiao-yan


    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of cast inserted dies for automobile covering components were studied. The results show that the as-cast microstructures of cast inserted dies are composed of pearlite, martensite,bainite, and austenite; and that the annealed microstructure is granular pearlite. The mechanical properties of cast inserted dies approach that of forged inserted dies. The tensile strength is 855 MPa, the elongation is 16%, the impact toughness is 177 J/cm2, and the hardness after annealing and quenching are HRC 19 and HRC 60-62. In addition, the cast inserted dies have good hardenability. The depth of the hardening zone and the hardness after flame quenching satisfy the operating requirements. The cast inserted dies could completely replace the forged inserted dies for making the dies of automobile covering components.

  17. Metal complexes of Proline-Azo Dyes, Synthesis, Characterization, Dying Performance and Antibacterial Activity Studies

    Alya Khider Abbas


    Full Text Available The synthesis, structural spectroscopic properties of 4-(2-benzimidazolylazoproline (BMP and its complexes derived from [Cu(II, Ag(I and Au(III] salts were done. The mode of bonding for the complexes were accomplished based on elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis and HNMR spectroscopy, magnetic measurement and molar conductivity. It has been found that the ligand (BMP behaves as N,N-neutral bidentate which was forming chelates with molar ratio (1:2 (M:L stoichiometry for [Cu(II and Ag(I] while Au(III complex form molar ratio (1:1 at optimum concentration and pH as well as (λmax. The stability constant and Gibbs free energy for the prepared complexes are evaluated by spectroscopic methods. The prepared ligand (BMP in comparison to its metal complexes, were screened for their antibacterial activity against two bacterial species, Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus. Dying performance was also studied.

  18. Fundamental studies on a novel die concept for round-point shear-clinching

    Hörhold, Réjane; Müller, Martin; Merklein, Marion; Meschut, Gerson


    A newly-developed round-point shear-clinching technology could increase the use of different materials like well formable aluminium and hardly formable ultra-high-strength steels (UHSS). This innovative technology joins in a single-stage process without any pilot-hole, surface pre-treatment or auxiliary joining part. The combination of an inner and outer punch realises an indirect cutting operation of the die-sided material, whereas the punch-sided material remains unharmed. The current die-sided tool set acts as a cutting die and enables a radial extrusion of the punch-sided material after being drawn though the created hole in the UHSS. The die has a fixed die depth. After ejecting the joined components, the slug has to be removed from the top of the spring-loaded anvil. The novel die concept investigated in this paper offers the possibility to push the slug continuously through the die in the joining direction. The removed slugs remain inside the die, so manual removal is unnecessary. The one-parted tool is supposed to be more robust than the multi-parted one that is currently used. This paper represents the task to evaluate the geometry of a useful shear-clinching die concept. To reduce the experimental effort, FEM should assist the development of the most promising approach. To quantify the success, conventional shear-clinching with opening die acts as a reference. The results show the high potential and the raison d'être of shear-clinching technologies as a mechanical joining technology for future multimaterial applications especially for UHSS.

  19. Beliefs concerning death, dying, and hastening death among older, functionally impaired Dutch adults: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Sullivan, M; Ormel, J; Kempen, G I; Tymstra, T


    Population surveys have documented increasing public support for euthanasia and assisted suicide but have not focused on the population of chronically ill older persons, obtained detailed sociocultural or health status information, or performed repeat assessments. This study seeks to describe the views of functionally-impaired Dutch elders on death, dying, and hastened death and to relate these to sociocultural and health status. One-year prospective epidemiologic survey. Community-dwelling participants in the longitudinal component of the Groningen Longitudinal Aging Study were assessed at home by interview and questionnaire in 1994 (n = 632) and again in 1995 (n = 575). Independent variables were sociocultural characteristics (eg, age, sex, income, education, religious affiliation, strength of religious belief), physical health status (number of chronic medical conditions, functional impairments), and mental health status (life satisfaction, self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, and neuroticism). Dependent variables were preoccupation with and fear of death, fears of the dying process, and attitudes toward hastened death. Low and stable rates of preoccupation with death and fear of death were found. Occasional but not persistent fears about the dying process were common. Fears of death and dying were most closely related to health status, especially mental health status. Views concerning hastening death were most strongly related to sociocultural variables, especially religious belief and affiliation. There was little change over the 1-year follow-up, with a trend toward less fears of death and dying and less support for hastened death. Significant changes in fears of death and dying and attitudes toward hastened death were not seen even in the 25% of subjects with the greatest deterioration in activities of daily living or greatest increase in anxiety and depression during the 1-year follow-up. Beliefs about death, dying, and hastened death are stable over 1-year

  20. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    P.J. Schabort


    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  1. Die Krakauer Kirche von Karmeliten und Karmelitaninnen

    Józef Szymon Wronski


    Karmeliter Zur Unbefleckten Empfängnis Mariens, in der Rakowicka-Straße. Der Bau der Kirche begann im Herbst 1907 nach dem Entwurf von Tadeus Stryjeński und sollte von ihm ausgeführt werden. Wegen der hohen Preise, die seine Baufirma gestellt hat, verzichtete man auf dieses Vorhaben und der Bau wurde dem Krakauer Baumeister Kazimierz Brzeziński anvertraut. Die Kirche wurde aus Backstein mit Verwendung von Stein (das Fundament aus Polygonalmauewerk gebaut. Die Kirche erhebt sich uber einem rechteckingen Grundriss (40 x 21. Sie ist eine dreischiffige Basilika. An den Gemeinderaum schließt das „zweiteilige“ Presbyterium (es scheint eingezogen zu sein und sein zweiter Teil ist etwas niedriger als der erste Teil und im Altarbereich polygonal geschlossen. Die Kirche wurde in zwei Bauabschnitten gebaut: der erste Bauabschnitt 1907-1910; im zweiten Bauabschnitt 1929-1932 um den Gemeinderaum erweitert. Das Hauptschiff ist von den Seitenschiffen durch spitzbögige Arkaden geteilt. Die Fenster sind im Hauptschiff mit Spitzbogen, im Presbyterium mit Rundbogen geschlossen. Zu beiden Seiten des Presbyteriums liegen Annexe (rechts eine Kapelle, links die Sakristei. Zwischen der Sakristei und dem Seitenschiff liegt der Turm, der 50 m hoch ist. Das Äußere der Kirche: Sie besteht aus drei Separatteilen, mit Separatsatteldächern gedeckt. Der Baukörper ist von den Strebepfeilern eingefasst: am Presbyterium sind die Stufenpfeiler, am Gemeinderaum die massiven stufenlosen Strebepfeiler, die mit Zickzackornament versehen sind. An der Fassade stehen die Strebepfeiler schräg an den Ecken. Das Kranzgesims unter dem Dach hat die Zickzackformen. Die Kirche hat zwei Frontone (Frontwände: die Vorderwand der Vorhalle ist mit einem Staffelgiebel geschlossen und die Stirnwand des Gemeinderaumes (hinter ihm ist mit einem dreieckigen Giebel geschlossen. Der Eingang zur Kirche führt durch ein rechteckiges Portal (mit zweiflügeligen Türen und dem Oberlicht darüber.

  2. Polish African Studies at a Crossroads: Past, Present and Future Die polnische Afrikaforschung am Scheideweg: Gestern, heute und morgen

    Konrad Czernichowski


    Full Text Available The main objective of this contribution is to examine the developments and challenges of African Studies in Poland, with a special focus on the fields of political science and economics. The article demonstrates that the historical development of Polish African Studies has shaped, but also limited, the ongoing debate concerning its nature and objectives. The paper discusses two competing interpretations of the substance of African Studies and deals with the current challenges and hopes of the Polish academic community studying Africa. It argues that while the field of African Studies usually serves as a common denominator and a type of “area” platform where various scholars doing research on Africa can share their findings, this does not necessarily lead to integration within the community and/or to better communication. Quite paradoxically, the diagnosis of Polish African Studies presented almost 50 years ago by Jan Halpern can still be applied today: “Generally speaking, Polish scholars in African subjects feel that the further progress of their work demands, above all, a better coordination of research and closer contact with specialists abroad.”Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Entwicklung der Afrikaforschung in Polen und den Herausforderungen, vor denen sie steht, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Politik- und Wirtschaftswissenschaft. Die Autoren legen dar, dass die derzeitige Debatte in Polen zu Gegenstand und Zielen der Afrikaforschung durch die historische Entwicklung dieses Forschungsgebiets im Land geprägt und begrenzt ist. Sie stellen die beiden konkurrierenden Interpretationen zum Gegenstandsbereich der Afrikaforschung vor sowie die aktuellen Herausforderungen und Hoffnungen der polnischen Afrikawissenschaftler. Sie argumentieren, die Afrikaforschung diene zwar als gemeinsamer Nenner und regionenbezogene Plattform zum Austausch von Forschungsergebnissen, dies führe aber nicht notwendigerweise zur Integration innerhalb der

  3. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    Samuel J Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0-5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6-11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9-12.7], in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2-25.3], and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2-15.6]. This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0-6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2-5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before

  4. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Yasuhiro Arisuda; Akihito Hasuno; Junji Yoshida; Kazunari Tanii


    High-speed injection die casting is an efficient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, deficiencies (such as die damage in eady period) due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die temperature analysis, flow analysis and thermal stress analysis). The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  5. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Akihito Hasuno


    Full Text Available High-speed injection die casting is an effi cient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, defi ciencies (such as die damage in early period due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die emperature analysis, fl ow analysis and thermal stress analysis. The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  6. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    Krämer, Luis-Martín


    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  7. Study on Numerical Simulation of Mold Filling and HeatTransfer in Die Casting Process


    A 3-D mathematical model considering turbulence phenomena has been established basedon a computational fluid dynamics technique, so called 3-D SOLA-VOF (Solution Algorithm-Volume of Fluid), to simulate the fluid flow of mold filling process of die casting. In addition, the mathematical model for simulating the heat transfer in die casting process has also been established.The computation program has been developed by the authors with the finite difference method (FDM) recently. As verification, the mold filling process of a S-shaped die casting has been simulated and the simulation results coincide with that of the benchmark test. Finally, as a practical application, the gating design of a motorcycle component was modified by the mold filling simulation and the dies design of another motorcycle component was optimized by theheat transfer simulation. All the optimized designs were verified by the production practice.

  8. Die Heimkunft

    Stephen Romer


    Full Text Available En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  9. Machining studies of die cast aluminum alloy-silicon carbide composites

    Sornakumar, Thambu; Kathiresan, Marimuthu


    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) with high specific stiffness, high strength, improved wear resistance, and thermal properties are being increasingly used in advanced structural, aerospace, automotive, electronics, and wear applications. Aluminum alloy-silicon carbide composites were developed using a new combination of the vortex method and the pressure die-casting technique in the present work. Machining studies were conducted on the aluminum alloy-silicon carbide (SiC) composite work pieces using high speed steel (HSS) end-mill tools in a milling machine at different speeds and feeds. The quantitative studies on the machined work piece show that the surface finish is better for higher speeds and lower feeds. The surface roughness of the plain aluminum alloy is better than that of the aluminum alloy-silicon carbide composites. The studies on tool wear show that flank wear increases with speed and feed. The end-mill tool wear is higher on machining the aluminum alloy-silicon carbide composites than on machining the plain aluminum alloy.

  10. Vraagstelling vir bemagtiging: die tradisionele klaskamer as ...

    Erna Kinsey

    ... loep geneem aan die hand van kwalitatiewe data wat tydens 'n empiriese studie op die voor- .... stelling in die klas opgelei, wat die hantering van die leerders se ant- ..... tent, but as part of the meta-communication in the classroom. Reasons.

  11. [The right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital: a qualitative study].

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Morales-Gil, Isabel María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Crespillo-García, Eva; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María


    To examine the perceptions and beliefs of doctors and nurses, and the barriers and facilitators they must address as regards the right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital, and to consider the applicability of the provisions of Law 2/2010 of 8 April in this respect. A qualitative descriptive study, based on the focus group technique, using discourse analysis of the views of doctors and nurses responsible for the health care of terminal cancer and non-cancer patients in an acute-care hospital. The results obtained show that there are diverse obstacles to assure the rights of terminal patients, and to ensure the proper performance of their duties by healthcare professionals and institutions. The nature and impact of these difficulties depend on the characteristics of the patients and their families, the health workers involved, the organisation of health care, and cultural factors. The study highlights the need to improve the process of communication with patients and their families, to facilitate shared decision making and to establish measures to clarify issues such as palliative sedation and treatment limitation. It is necessary to improve the applicability of the law on living wills and dignified death in non-cancer specialist areas. Further training is needed regarding ethical, spiritual and anthropological aspects of care in these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    R. Allen Miller


    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  13. Does ethnicity affect where people with cancer die? A population-based 10 year study.

    Jonathan Koffman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a 'tracer' to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD. AIM: To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001-2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS. Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death. RESULTS: 76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%, Europe(5.4% and Caribbean(4.3%. Most deaths(52.5% occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%. During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36-0.64%]p<0.001, Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64-1.30%]p<0.001, Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94-1.20%]p<0.001 and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72-1.30%]p<0.001. However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR1.12[95%CI1.08-1.15]p<0.001 and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07-1.16]p<0.001. Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68-0.80] p<0.001, Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74-0.93]p<0.001, and 'other' geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82-0.98]p<0.001. Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85-0.98]p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from patient-centred preferences

  14. Calvyn en die Skrifgesag

    L. F. Schulze


    Full Text Available Die probleem van die Skrifgesag het die (teologiese geeste nog altyd in beroering — vandag (ná die Aufklarung! nog meer as gedurende die sestiende eeu. Gedurende die laaste paar jaar is ons in Suid-Afrika hardhandig uit ons isolement geruk en skielik lewensgroot gekonfronteer met die probleem van die Skrifgesag.

  15. Aspekte van die siekepastoraat

    H. J. C. Pieterse


    Full Text Available Die siekepastoraat vra ons aandag in hierdie tyd omdat die versorging van siekes ’n kenmerk is van die koms van die koninkryk van God. God se barmhartigheid het in sy volheid tot gelding gekom in die optrede van Jesus Christus. Die volle seën van die heil van die Ryk van God hou ook die versorging van die siekes in. Deur die heilswerk van Christus sien die blindes weer, loop die kreupeles, word melaatses gereinig, hoor die dowes, word dooies opgewek (Luk. 7:22.

  16. The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: a qualitative study

    Kimmelman Jonathan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. Methods We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones. One-on-one interviews were conducted according to a pre-designed interview guide. A combination of open-ended questions, as well as clinical scenarios was presented to participants in order to understand what is meaningful and valuable to them when determining treatment options and management approaches. The results were analyzed, coded, and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques in order to arrive at several common overarching themes. Results Seven major themes were identified. In general, respondents were united in viewing brain cancer as unique amongst malignancies, due in large part to the premium placed on mental competence and cognitive functioning. Importantly, participants found their experiences, however difficult, led to the discovery of inner strength and resilience. Responses were usually framed within an interpersonal context, and participants were generally grateful for the opportunity to speak about their experiences. Attitudes towards religion, spirituality, and euthanasia were also probed. Conclusion Several important themes underlie the experiences of brain cancer patients and their caregivers. It is important to consider these when managing these patients and to respect not only their autonomy but also the complex interpersonal toll that a malignant diagnosis can have.


    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan


    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  18. The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: a qualitative study

    Lipsman, Nir; Skanda, Abby; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Bernstein, Mark


    Background Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. Methods We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones. One-on-one interviews were conducted according to a pre-designed interview guide. A combination of open-ended questions, as well as clinical scenarios was presented to participants in order to understand what is meaningful and valuable to them when determining treatment options and management approaches. The results were analyzed, coded, and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques in order to arrive at several common overarching themes. Results Seven major themes were identified. In general, respondents were united in viewing brain cancer as unique amongst malignancies, due in large part to the premium placed on mental competence and cognitive functioning. Importantly, participants found their experiences, however difficult, led to the discovery of inner strength and resilience. Responses were usually framed within an interpersonal context, and participants were generally grateful for the opportunity to speak about their experiences. Attitudes towards religion, spirituality, and euthanasia were also probed. Conclusion Several important themes underlie the experiences of brain cancer patients and their caregivers. It is important to consider these when managing these patients and to respect not only their autonomy but also the complex interpersonal toll that a malignant diagnosis can have. PMID:17996072

  19. Die prediking oor die historiese stof van die Ou Testament

    F. N. Lion-Cachet


    Full Text Available Uit ’n steekproef wat gedoen is uit die preke wat in Die Kerkblad (1986- 1987 verskyn het, blyk dit dat 40% van hierdie preke historiese stof uit die Ou Testament as teks gebruik het.

  20. Geslagsverskille in die ouditiewe ontlokte potensiaal van die brein

    Anita D Stuart


    Full Text Available Gender differences in the auditory evoked potential of the brain. Based on literature indications of an association between temperament characteristics and the evoked potential of the brain, and indications of gender differences in certain temperament traits, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether evoked responses also differentiated between the genders. A sample of 81 male and 210 female students was randomly selected. Two auditory evoked potential procedures were applied. The results indicated statistically significant differences in evoked potential responses between the genders. The results are interpreted against the background of sensory and neurological sources of the evoked potential responses and linked to the neurophysiological foundations of temperament. Opsomming: Gegrond op aanduidings in die literatuur van ’n assosiasie tussen temperamentskenmerke en die ontlokte potensiaal van die brein, sowel as aanduidings van geslagsverskille in sekere temperamentstrekke, was die doel van die huidige studie om te bepaal of ontloktepotensiaal-response ook tussen die geslagte onderskei. ’n Steekproef van 81 manlike en 210 vroulike studente is ewekansig geselekteer. Twee ouditiewe ontloktepotensiaal- prosedures is toegepas. Die resultate het op statisties beduidende verskille tussen die geslagte gedui. Die bevindinge word teen die agtergrond van die sensoriese en neurologiese oorsprong van ontloktepotensiaal–response geïnterpreteer en verbind aan die neurofisiologiese verankering van temperament.

  1. Die gesag van die Heilige Skrif

    S.C.W. Duvenage


    Full Text Available Dit geld nie maar t.o.v. ’n ongeloofsbeskouing soos dié van Karl Jaspers nie wat beweer: „Die Bibel ist das Depositum eines Jahrtausends menschlicher Grenzerfahrung” of van die Rooms-Katolieke skrifbeskouing nie wat die kerklike leertradisie, soos dogmaties op die konsilie van Trente vasgelê is, beskou as die enigste gesaghebbende kriterium vir die kanonisering en interpretasie van die Skrif.

  2. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc


    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  3. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards.

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc


    Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Large scale, retrospective study. General practice in Belgium. A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005-2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met.

  4. Die Meting van die verband tussen geslag en konformiteit as groepdinamiese veranderlikes.

    W. S. de Villiers


    Full Text Available The amount and kind of conformity induced by group pressure depend upon the nature of the situation. The nature of the group and the characteristics of the individual. In this particular study the experimental measurement of conformity developed by Asch and Crutchfield was repeated. Confirmation was found that sex operates as one of the determinants of conformity. OpsommingIn die sosiale bedryfsielkunde is die invloed van die groep op die individu een van die vernaamste studieterreine. Die mate waarin ‘n individu konformeer tot groepsdruk hang af van die aard van die situasie, die aard van die groep en die eienskappe van die individu. In hierdie studie is die eksperimentele meting van konformiteit soos ontwikkel deur Asch en Crutchfield herhaal en bevestiging is gevind dat geslag een van die individuele determinante van konformiteit is.

  5. Die ontwrigting van die Afrikanervolk en volkseenheid

    H. du Plessis


    Full Text Available Die gevare wat ons Afrikanerdom voor die deur staan, is baie en ernstig. Daar is die gevaar van immigrasie van buitelanders, daar is die al driester geroep om gelykstelling tussen blank en gekleurd, daar is die dreigende oorheersing van ’n oppervlakkige Amerikaanse „jazz”-gees.

  6. Perceptions of Speech-Pathology and Audiology Students Concerning Death and Dying: A Preliminary Study

    Rivers, Kenyatta O.; Perkins, Rosalie A.; Carson, Cecyle P.


    Background: Formal training in dealing with death and dying issues is not a standard content area in communication sciences and disorders programmes' curricula. At the same time, it cannot be presumed that pre-professional students' personal background equips them to deal with these issues. Aim: To investigate the perceptions of pre-professional…

  7. Existential Concerns About Death: A Qualitative Study of Dying Patients in a Danish Hospice

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug


    afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  8. Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD

    L. A. Genis


    Full Text Available Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD ressorteer onder die Hoofdirektoraat Kultuur en Vakkundige Hulp- dienste van die Departement van Nasionale Opvoeding. Die hoofdoelwit van die NVD is die skepping van ’n fijnksionele vakwoordeskat in veral Afrikaans, parallel met die inter- nasionaal gebruikte terminologieë.

  9. Die nichtinvasive Pränataldiagnostik aus dem mütterlichen Blut: schrittweiser Einzug in den klinischen Alltag

    Lapaire O


    Full Text Available Die frühzeitige Erkennung chromosomaler Pathologien, neben fetalen Malformationen, ist ein Schwerpunkt der heutigen pränatalen Diagnostik. Mit verschiedenen Techniken kann das Anliegen von Klinikern und Forschern, den Schwangeren eine möglichst risikofreie diagnostische Methode anzubieten, um die Anzahl invasiver Eingriffe (Amniozentese [AC], Chorionzottenbiopsie [CVS] und die damit verbundenen Komplikationen, wie Abort oder Infektionen, zu verringern, sowie neue Marker für die pränatale Diagnostik zu evaluieren, umgesetzt werden. Bis heute sind die Schwierigkeiten in der Anreicherung fetaler Zellen so groß, daß diese eine routinemäßige Anwendung im klinischen Alltag verhindert haben. Im Gegensatz dazu kann heute die zellfreie DNA im Blut der Schwangeren für eine genaue Beurteilung fetaler genetischer Informationen genutzt werden, welche sich klar von maternalen Sequenzen zum Beispiel im Falle der Rhesus-Genotypisierung unterscheiden. Das Spektrum der pränatalen Diagnostik hat sich kürzlich mit dem Nachweis fetaler RNA im mütterlichen Blut erweitert. Die nachgewiesene fetale RNA ist erstaunlich stabil. Ihr Nachweis könnte zukünftig für ein nichtinvasives fetales Screening auf Aneuploidien und schwangerschaftsassoziierte Erkrankungen von Bedeutung sein.

  10. Die kritiese taak van die literator

    A. L. Combrink


    Full Text Available Die beoefening van die literêre kritiek was aanvanklik slegs ’n deeltydse aktiwiteit. Die vroegste literêre kritici was nie as sodanig kritici nie maar het as deel van hulle totale intellektuele aktiwiteit hulle ook uitgelaat oor die letterkunde. Die motivering wat hulle hiertoe gehad het sou in ons dag heeltemal verdag voorkom: ’n uitgesproke didaktiese of moraliserende houding was die reel.

  11. Rezension zu: Rebecca Pates, Daniel Schmidt: Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Jenny Künkel


    Full Text Available Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt ‚Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universität Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbestände lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials wären wünschenswert gewesen.

  12. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.


    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  13. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    E. L. Coetzer


    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  14. Die Via Dolorosa

    W. J. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available In die hartjie van Jerusalem, die heilige stad vir Jood, Mohammedaan en Christen staan daar ’n boog, die ,,Ecce Homoboog” genaamd, en 'n klein endjie daarvandaan, die Heilige Grafkerk.

  15. Studies of the quality and cost-effectiveness of a novel conceptof open-die forged powerplant main shaft

    P. Skubisz


    Full Text Available An innovatory concept of open-die forging of windmill main shaft is described. Comparative study of the new technology based on the concept of cogging hollow shaft on mandrel featuring material savings and higher quality of a finished part versus traditional production chain of this component is presented, indicating benefits and technological setbacks of industrial implementation. Results of industrial sampling aided with numerical simulation form guidelines for technological realization.

  16. Bevordering van transformerende leer: Die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe

    Erna R. du Toit


    Full Text Available Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon hoe die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe die perspektiewe en denke van onderwysstudente kan transformeer en/of leer kan bevorder. Die studie maak voorspraak vir die gebruik van ’n reflektiewe joernaal as ’n instrument vir studente om betekenis te gee aan die leeromgewing vanuit verskillende perspektiewe deur te leer in praktyk. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gevolg om die inskrywings in ’n joernaal te analiseer aan die hand van bepaalde indikatore. Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste studente na die praktykervaring positief was en sommiges het tot ander perspektiewe vanweë hul ervaring gekom.

  17. Luther die prediker

    J. J. van der Walt


    Full Text Available ’n Prediker moet ’n getroue herder wees wat magtig is in die Heilige Skrif, want die Woord bring die kerk voort. Daarom moet die prediker in sy bediening aan mense ’n woord van sekerheid hê deur seker te wees hy het die Woord van God. Met hierdie gedagtegang het Luther se pastorale besorgdheid vaste bodem vir die prediking in die gesag van die Woord van God.

  18. Study of Nozzle and Vent Locations on Die Casting Filling Process


    The casting nozzle location plays an important role in die casting. Improper location results in defects, such as cold shut, air cavity, shrinkage, etc. Therefore, it's sure that the molten metal full fills the mould cavity before it solidifies. And, it's to be wished that no vortex occur during the filling process, because the vortex is a main source that induces gas entrapment. To get the high quality and performance product, the inlet and outlet locations must be set properly. This paper, an optimal desi...

  19. The claim to compensation for enhanced use of power transmission lines for telecommunication purposes in the light of Union law; Der Ausgleichsanspruch fuer die erweiterte Nutzung von Energieversorgungsleitungen zu Telekommunikationszwecken im Lichte des Unionsrechts

    Boms, Wilfried Michael


    The publication starts by outlining the relation between Union law and national law in those cases where the two contradict. The general opinion in law publications is taken into consideration as well as the development of EU contracts. The second part outlines the European legislation for the telecommunications sector, including its future development and corresponding legislation. After establishing the EU regulations that must be integrated in German national law, German legislation on telecommunications is gone into, including right of way regulations for properties that are not public routes. The third section discusses whether compensation for way of right as stated in German telecommunication law is compatible with European law, and if not, how it can be made so. This is folled by a comparative analysis of EU court rulings and EU Commission decisions in the telecommunications sector and an outlook to the proceedings of the European Court of Justice on telecommunications law. The consequences of an assumed violation of European law are outlined, although this is not currently assumed. The fourth and final section contains a summary.

  20. Review: Reinhard Müller (2008. Marienthal. Das Dorf – Die Arbeitslosen – Die Studie [Marienthal. The Village—the Unemployed—the Study

    Gerhard Jost


    Full Text Available The book by Reinhard MÜLLER deals with the well-known study "Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community" by Marie JAHODA, Paul F. LAZARSFELD, and Hans ZEISEL (1933, 1971. The author presents interesting socio-historical details about the study itself as well as about the community and factory. More than half of the book is dedicated to the development of the workers' settlement of Marienthal, starting with the founding of the village and then the textile factory. The author describes historical events, important people' and developments in the community. Also additional information—portraits and memories—about the well-known study is presented. The book not only enables a deeper insight into the classical study and the settlement of Marienthal, it also illustrates (Austrian history by way of a community and a study. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903206

  1. Liver histology in ICU patients dying from sepsis:A clinico-pathological study

    John Koskinas; Ilias P Gomatos; Dina G Tiniakos; Nikolaos Memos; Maria Boutsikou; Aspasia Garatzioti; Athanasios Archimandritis; Alexander Betrosian


    AIM:To determine end-stage pathologic changes in the liver of septic patients dying in the intensive care unit.METHODS:Needle liver biopsies obtained immediately after death from 15 consecutive patients with sepsis and no underlying liver disease were subjected to routine histological examination.Liver function tests and clinical monitoring measurements were also recorded.RESULTS:Liver biochemistries were increased in the majority of patients before death.Histology of liver bi-opsy specimens showed portal inflammation in 73.3%,centrilobular necrosis in 80%,lobular inflammation in 66.7%,hepatocellular apoptosis in 66.6% and cholan-gitis/cholangiolitis in 20% of patients.Mixed hepatitic/cholestatic type of liver injury was observed in 6/15 (40%)patients and hepatitc in 9/15 (60%).Steatosis was ob-served in 11/15 (73.3%) patients affecting 5%-80% of liver parenchyma.Among the histological features,the presence of portal inflammation in liver biopsy was as-sociated with increased hospitalization in the ICU prior death (P = 0.026).CONCLUSION:Features of hepatitis and steatosis are the main histological findings in the liver in the majority of patients dying from sepsis.

  2. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow Behavior in High Pressure Die Casting

    Saeedipour, Mahdi; Schneiderbauer, Simon; Pirker, Stefan; Bozorgi, Salar

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is one of the most important and yet little known manufacturing methods especially during liquid metal injection and filling phase. During its application different problems can arise: on the one hand, wavy disintegration of the jet might result in cold shut defect in the final product, on the other hand a high degree of atomization may strongly increase the porosity defect. A numerical simulation using volume of fluid approach (VOF), is carried out to model the global spreading of liquid metal jet. The formation of droplets, which are usually smaller than the grid spacing in computational domain, is determined by a surface energy-based criterion. An Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is introduced to track and model the droplets after formation. Since liquid metal is hardly to access, we performed experiments based on water analogy to capture the flow regime changes and drop formation. The comparison between numerical results and experiments shows a very good agreement.

  3. Study of Dynamic Characteristics for Hydraulic System on 300MN Die-forging Press

    Chen, Guoqiang; Tan, Jianping


    The faults such as seal breakdown and pressure sensor damage occur in 300MN Die-forging press frequently. First, the fault phenomenon and harm of the hydraulic system was compiled statistics, the theoretical analysis of the hydraulic impact of hydraulic system are carried out based on the momentum theorem; Then, the co-simulation model of hydraulic system was established by AMESim and Simulink software and the correctness was verified. Finally, the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic system for the key working condition “forging stroke changing to mold collision” was analyzed, the influences rules of system parameters such as the leak gap of valve, diameter of water way pipeline, emulsion temperature and air contain act on hydraulic system are obtained. This conclusions have a theoretical guiding significance to the improvement and maintains of high pressure and large flow hydraulic system.

  4. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    C. W. I. Pistorius


    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  5. Brief Study and Spanish Translation of Die Kunst das Clavier zu Spielen by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (Berlin, Henning, 1750

    María de las Nieves Pascual León


    Full Text Available This paper includes the fi rst Spanish version of F. W. Marpurg’s treaty Die Kunst das Clavier zu spielen, which had been restricted for the common Spanish-speaking reader since its fi rst appearance in 1750. This philological translation of the treaty (with the facsimile of the fi rst edition and its Spanish translation on the opposite page is instroduced by a brief study of the text’s various editions published during the author’s life, and pretends to offer an initial approach to the treaty, to facilitate the public’s access to the work and to contribute to its full disclosure.

  6. A Study of the Timing of Death in Patients with Tuberculosis Who Die During Anti-Tuberculosis Treatment

    Bhavik Patel


    Full Text Available Introduction: India has 2.0 million estimated tuberculosis (TB cases per annum with an estimated 280,000 TB related deaths per year. Understanding when in the course of TB treatment patients die is important for determining the type of intervention to be offered and crucially when this intervention should be given. The objectives of the current study were to determine in a large cohort of TB patients in India: - i treatment outcomes including the number who died while on treatment, ii the month of death and iii characteristics associated with and ldquo;early and rdquo; death, occurring in the initial 8 weeks of treatment. Methodology: This was a retrospective study in C.U.Shah Medical College and Hospital in Surendranagar, Gujarat India. A review was performed of treatment cards and medical records of all TB patients (adults and children registered and placed on standardized anti-tuberculosis treatment from January 2007 to April 2012. Results: There were 376 TB patients of whom 41 (11% were known to have died during treatment. Case-fatality was higher in those previously treated (24% and lower in those with extra-pulmonary TB (1%.Most of deaths during anti-tuberculosis treatment were early, with 66% of all patients dying in the first 8 weeks of treatment. Increasing age and new as compared to recurrent TB disease were significantly associated with and ldquo;early death and rdquo;. In this large cohort of TB patients, Most of deaths occurred early after starting anti-TB treatment. Reasons may relate to i the treatment of the disease itself, raising concerns about drug adherence, quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs or the presence of undetected drug resistance and ii co-morbidities, such as HIV/ AIDS and diabetes mellitus, which are known to influence mortality. iii Late stage presentation by patients themselves. More research in this area from prospective and retrospective studies is needed. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(2.000: 186-190

  7. Die verbondeling in verband

    J. A.L. Taljaard


    Full Text Available Daar is dikwels en deur groot outoriteite al geskryf oor die mens in die samelewing. Hier wil ons egter die saak probeer aanraak uit ’n nuwe hoek, veral om die Skrifbeligting van die siening te benader. Vanselfsprekend verg hierdie benaming ’n skrifmatige mensbeskouing, maar ook ’n skrifmatige verbandsbeskouing. Die mens staan egter nie slegs in verhouding tot sy medemens nie maar ook in verhou­ ding tot stof, plant en dier. Boweal staan die mens in verhouding tot God, en hierdie verhouding is deurslaggewend vir al die ander verhoudinge waarin die mens hom bevind. Tog staan die mens ook in verhouding tot homself; wie kan die diepere roersele van die menslike siel peil, wie weet van die wroeginge, vreugde, leed en genot van die mens beter as hyself? Ook hierdie aspek verdien ons aandag. Op volledigheid kan nie aanspraak gemaak word nie, dit is ook nie my bedoeling nie. Die bedoeling is maar om die omvang van die tema aan te dui, die gedagtes te prikkel en veral om aan te spoor tot nuwe denkoriëntering waarin ook terminologies gebreek behoort te word met die neo-skolastiek binne reformatoriese lyn.

  8. A study on the die steel surface modification by electron beam

    Wu Ai Min; Zou Jian Xin; Hao Sheng Zhi; Dong Chuang; Zhang Ai Ming; Xu Tao


    A new surface modification technology-high current pulsed electron beam treatment method was applied to the surface of die steel to improve its properties. It has been shown that as a result of the HCPEB treatment, the most pronounced changes of the structure-phase state occur in the near-surface layers quenched from the liquid state, where the crystallization front velocity reaches its maximum. In these layers partial or complete dissolving of second phases and formation of over saturated solid solutions and ordered nano-sized structures may take place. This makes it possible to improve substantially the electrochemical and strength properties of the surface layer. The authors found that the thickness of remelt layer is about 10 mu m, and the sectional microhardness increased accompanied by the enhancement of the wear resistance of the material. After modification, the relative wear resistance of D2 steel have increased 5.63 times and that of H13 steel increased 11.76 times

  9. Wege in die Zukunft

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  10. Die Gewalt der Frauen

    Angelika Ebrecht


    Full Text Available Anhand historischer Beispiele aus der Zeit der letzten Jahrhundertwende in Europa stellt die Autorin den Zusammenhang von Transgression, Aggression und Inversion dar. Gegen die gängige Auffassung, Gewalt sei männlich, setzt sie Selbst- und Fremdentwürfe von Frauen, die als Duellantinnen, Soldatinnen und Mörderinnen die gesellschaftlich festgelegten Grenzen der Gewalt verletzten. Sie interpretiert dies als Versuch, die Geschlechtergrenzen zu überschreiten und sich eine Subjektposition anzueignen.

  11. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    E. Ragan


    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  12. Antiglobalisierung die Andere Globalisierung

    Ljiljana Croce


    Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, ein je größeres Interesse an diesem Thema zu erwecken und auf die Gefahren hinzuweisen, denen wir alle verlaufen, wie die Armen, sowie auch die Reichen und die kleine Gruppe der zum mittleren Stand gehörenden, die immer mehr in die offene Armut versinken. Es wäre zu viel, in einer Welt solcher Globalisierung, die soziale Empfi ndlichkeit der Menschen zueinander zu erwarten. In Wirklichkeit geht sie immer mehr verloren. Der Mensch als Einzelperson, sowie auch die Völke...

  13. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker


    In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale...

  14. Leierskapstyl en die lerende organisasie

    W. G. Victor


    Full Text Available Leadership style and the learning organisation. In the present highly competitive environment, it has become increasingly important for organisational leaders to establish a learning organisation. In this study the focus was on the extent of influence that the evolution of organisations, as determined by their relative level of leadership practises (leadership style, has on the establishment of a learning organisation. Opsomming Die daarstel van ’n lerende organisasie deur bedryfsleiers word toenemend belangrik in die hedendaagse hoogskompeterende omgewing. In hierdie studie is gefokus op die mate van beinvloeding wat die evolusie van organisasies, soos deur hul relatiewe vlak van demokratiese leierskapspraktyke (leierskapstyl bepaal, op die daarstelling van’n lerende organisasie het.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Formability of Materials in Hot Stamping and Cold Die Quenching Processes

    Li, N.; Mohamed, M. S.; Cai, J.; Lin, J.; Balint, D.; Dean, T. A.


    Formability of steel and aluminium alloys in hot stamping and cold die quenching processes is studied in this research. Viscoplastic-damage constitutive equations are developed and determined from experimental data for the prediction of viscoplastic flow and ductility of the materials. The determined unified constitutive equations are then implemented into the commercial Finite Element code Abaqus/Explicit via a user defined subroutine, VUMAT. An FE process simulation model and numerical procedures are established for the modeling of hot stamping processes for a spherical part with a central hole. Different failure modes (failure takes place either near the central hole or in the mid span of the part) are obtained. To validate the simulation results, a test programme is developed, a test die set has been designed and manufactured, and tests have been carried out for the materials with different forming rates. It has been found that very close agreements between experimental and numerical process simulation results are obtained for the ranges of temperatures and forming rates carried out.

  16. Surgical nurses' attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer - a pilot study of an educational intervention on existential issues.

    Udo, C; Melin-Johansson, C; Henoch, I; Axelsson, B; Danielson, E


    This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Is axillary dissection further required in clinically node negative breast cancer?; Ist die Axilladissektion beim klinisch nodal negativen Mammakarzinom weiter indiziert?

    Boehler, F.K.; Eiter, H.; Rhomberg, W. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie


    ] Hintergrund: In der Behandlung des Mammakarzinoms wurde in den letzten Jahren die Indikationsstellung fuer eine adjuvante Systemtherapie auch auf N0-Stadien erweitert, weshalb der Indikatorstatus der Axilladissektion oft entfaellt. Es sollen deshalb bei klinisch negativer Axilla die Notwendigkeit einer Axilladissektion neu ueberdacht und der Einsatz der weniger Morbiditaet verursachenden primaeren axillaeren Radiotherapie ueberlegt werden. Methodik: In einer Literaturuebersicht werden internationale Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse bei Verwendung der Axilladissektion, axillaeren Radiotherapie und `sentinel node dissection` (SLND) praesentiert. Es werden auch 19 eigene brusterhaltend operierte Patientinnen mit axillaerer Radiotherapie ohne Axilladissektion vorgestellt. Ergebnisse: Die axillaere Rezidivrate betraegt bei axillaerer Radiotherapie im Median 2,0%, die regionaere (supraklavikulaere und retrosternale) Rezidivquote im Median 2,7%. Mit Axilladissektion treten axillaere Rezidive in 1 bis 2%, bei pN0-Stadium in 0 bis 1% auf, regionaere Rezidive im Median in 2,2%. Eine erste Metaanalyse zu diesem Thema wurde von der Early Breast Cancer Study Group 1995 praesentiert. Auch hier konnte sowohl fuer die lokoregionaere Kontrolle als auch fuer das Ueberleben kein signifikanter Unterschied zwischen Axilladissektion und axillaerer Radiotherapie erhoben werden. Bei der SLND wird nur ein `Waechterlymphknoten` entfernt. Durch genauere pathologische Aufarbeitungsmoeglichkeiten mittels molekularer und immunhistochemischer Marker soll der praediktive Wert der Methode sehr hoch liegen. Schlussfolgerungen: Da die Indikation fuer eine Systemtherapie auch auf N0-Stadien ausgeweitet wurde, wird die Axilladissektion als Therapieindikator nicht mehr benoetigt und kann bei klinisch negativer Axilla durch die in der Wirkung gleichwertige, aber nebenwirkungsaermere und kostenguenstigere axillaere Radiotherapie ersetzt werden. Bei kleinen Tumoren mit niedrigem Risikoprofil ohne Indikation zu einer

  18. Die waarde van voorafopleiding deur die ouer vir pedo-oudiometrie by drie- en vierjarige kleuters

    Merisa Lodewyckx


    Full Text Available Die verkryging van akkurate, betroubare inligting aangaande die gehoorvermoë van jong kinders is van besondere belang vir die oudioloog, maar word dikwels bemoeilik aangesien die kleuter nie goeie samewerking bied in die vreemde pedo-oudiometriese situasie nie. Die oplossing hiervoor is grootliks geleë in die opleiding van die kind voor formele  gehoortoetsing en meer spesifiek  opleiding tuis deur die ouer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n voorbereidende program op te stel wat die ouer tuis met die kind kan uitvoer, voordat formele  toetsing plaasvind. Die waarde en effek van hierdie program in die pedo-oudiometriese situasie is geevalueer by 'n groep drie- en vierjarige kleuters. Resultate dui daarop dat laer en meer akkurate drempels, 'n korter toetstydperk, verminderde angs en beter samewerking verkry is by die kleuters wat vooraf  opleiding ontvang het. Die opleidingsprogram kan dus in die kliniese praktyk benut word as voorafopleiding  vir pedo-oudiometrie.

  19. Die Ulmer Studie und die Konsequenzen für die Beratungspraxis des Studiendekanats der Medizinischen Fakultät Heidelberg [The Ulm Study and the implications for the advisory services of the Dean of Studies at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg

    Nützenadel, Susanne


    Full Text Available [english] Increasing the flexibility of medical degree courses as well as individual advice and curriculum planning are essential needs of pregnant students and student parents. The results of the Ulm Study gave the academic advisers in the Dean of Studies’ office in Heidelberg a large number of suggestions on how to offer sensitive, competent and needs-based advice to this target group. Comprehensive reflection on many years of experience in giving advice and recent survey results leads to a series of concrete measures which will contribute to more family-friendliness in Heidelberg’s medical school.[german] Eine Flexibilisierung des Studiums sowie eine individuelle Beratung und Curriculumsplanung sind grundlegende Bedürfnisse von schwangeren Studierenden und studentischen Eltern. Die Ergebnisse der Ulmer Studie haben den Fachstudienberatern im Studiendekanat Heidelberg vielfache Anregungen zu einer einfühlsamen, kompetenten und bedürfnisorientierten Beratung dieser Zielgruppe gegeben. Eine umfassende Reflexion über langjährige Erfahrungen aus der Beratungspraxis und über aktuelle Umfrageergebnisse führt zu einer Reihe von konkreten Maßnahmen, die künftig zu einer erhöhten Familienfreundlichkeit im Medizinstudium in Heidelberg beitragen.

  20. Die voorspellingswaarde van die takseersentrum: 'n Oorsig

    H. J. Pietersen


    Full Text Available The assessment centre: a brief review of predictive value. Factors such as the rise of the professional manager, industrialization and worker expectations have, over the last few decades, increasingly placed managers in the limelight as a key occupational group. In this regard the assessment centre has become prominent as a method for the identification of managerial potential. However, a brief review of the relevant research literature indicates low predictive variances for the managerial assessment centre. This fact, together with the limited scope of the assessment centre, therefore necessitates, amongst other things, a wider research perspective which will include other work and non-work related factors as well. Opsomming Verskynsels soos die opkoms van die professionele bestuurder, industrialisering en stygende werkerverwagtinge het meegebring dat die kollig die afgelope paar dekades al hoe meer op bestuurders as sleutelberoepskategone geplaas is. In hierdie verband het veral die takseersentrum aandag gekry as 'n metode vir die identifisering van bestuurs- potensiaal 'n Kort oorsig van die betrokke navorsingsliteratuur toon egter lae voorspellingsvariansiesyfers vir die takseersentrum aan. Hierdie feit, tesame met die beperkte fokus van die takseersentrum, noodsaak, onder andere, 'n wyer navorsingsperspektief wat ook ander relevante werk- en nie-werkverwante faktore msluit.

  1. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Jan A. Erasmus


    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos.Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  2. Die identifisering van ’n geskikte vraelys vir die bepaling van lewenskwaliteit by Suid-Afrikaanse vroue met servikskanker

    George du Toit


    Full Text Available Servikskanker is een van die algemeenste kankertipes onder Suid-Afrikaanse vroue. In die afwesigheid van ’n voldoende voorkomende servikale sitologieprogram presenteer die meer derheid vroue met servikskanker in ’n gevorderde stadium. Die prognose van dié vroue, ondanks terapie, is beperk. Menslike immuniteitsgebreksvirus-infeksie (MIV-infeksie benadeel die behandeling van servikale kanker. Servikskanker, en die behandeling daarvan, het ’n impak op die lewenskwaliteit van die vroue. Die objektiewe bepaling van lewenskwaliteit kan lei tot aanpassing van behandeling, asook toepaslike ondersteuning. Hierdie studie is gedoen om die mees geskikte vraelyste vir Suid-Afrikaanse vroue met servikskanker te identifiseer. Die twee vraelyste wat internasionaal die meeste gebruik word, is die European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC en die Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Measurement System (FACIT. Deur die sistematiese ondersoek van gepubliseerde artikels is die twee vraelyste aan die hand van spesifieke kenmerke geëvalueer. Hierdie kenmerke sluit in: studiestruktuur (dwarssnit of prospektief, lewenskwaliteit- uitkoms (primêr of sekondêr, tydstip van gebruik tydens die siekte en die nasionaliteit van die studiebevolking. Gebaseer op hierdie kenmerke is die EORTC as die mees geskikte vraelys geïdentifiseer.

  3. ’n Vergelykende studie na die vlak en oorsake van werkstres by ’n groep geletterde en ongeletterde swartwerknemers

    Coen Bester


    Full Text Available Acomparable study intoworkstress amongst a group of literate and illiterate black employees. Despite the fact that the South African black employee experience a broad spectrum of stressors, there is limited research which describes their actual levels and typical causes of stress. It was decided then to identify and to compare South African literate and illiterate black employees’ level and causes of stress. This information could help psychologists/employers to maintain a distinctive approach in communicating and handling problems with the distinguish groups. In order to identify black employees’ level and causes of stress the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances questionnaire was applied on an occasional sample of 60 persons. Opsomming Nieteenstaande die feit dat die Suid- Afrikaanse swart werknemer aan ’n bree spektrum van stressors blootgestel word, bestaan daar relatief min navorsing wat hul werklike vlak en tipiese oorsake van stres uitwys. Derhalwe is besluit om geletterde en ongeletterde swart werknemers se vlakke en oorsake van stres te identifiseer en te vergelyk. Met die inligting sal dit veral sielkundiges enwerkgewers in staat stel om’n effektiewe benadering ten opsigte van die kommunikasie en hantering van problememet die onderskeie groepe te kan handhaaf. Die Ervaring van werk -en lewensomstandighede vraelys is op ’n geleentheidsteekproef van 60 persone.


    H. Tian; J. Wang; W.P. Dong; J. Chen; Z. Zhao; G.M. Wu


    Traditionally a rotary forging process is a kind of metal forming method where a conic upper die, whose axis is deviated an angle from the axis of machine, forges a billet continuously and partially to finish the whole deformation. For the rotary forging process simulation, more researches were focused on simulating the simple stage forming process with axisymmetric part geometry. Whereas in this paper, the upper die is not cone-shaped, and the billet is non-axisymmetric. So the movement of the punch is much more complicated than ever. The 3D FEM simulation models for the preforming & final forming processes are set up after carefully studying the complicated movement pattern. Deform-3D is used to simulate the material flow, and the boundary nodal resisting forces calculated by the final stage process simulation is used to analyze the final forming die strength. The CAE analysis of the die shows that the design of the final forming die is not reasonable with lower pre-stress which is easy to crack at the critical comers. An optimum die design is also provided with higher pre-stress, and verified by CAE analysis.


    O. L. Bobarikin


    Full Text Available Investigation by numerical modeling of influence of the form of deforming zone of die at drawing of steel high- carbon wire on temperature and strained-deformed state in wire and die is carried out.


    norm aan die een kant en deur die S^^eeksnorm aan die ander." (ibid. 384). ...... grondslag, hoewel die groot aantal voorbeelde uit die werke van Thomas Mann ...... Mentrup, W., & P. Kuhn, (1980) "Deutsche Sprache in Osterreich und in der.

  7. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper


    Soldering of cast alloys to the dies has been a continuing source of die surface damage in the aluminum die-casting industry. To reduce the repair and maintenance costs, an approach to modeling the damage and predicting the die lifetime is required. The aim of the present study is the estimation...... of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  8. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    Carolyn Lee


    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  9. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    F. G. de Kock


    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  10. Die etiek van Luther

    J. H. van Wyk


    Full Text Available Dink ons aan die etiek van Luther dan spring onmiddellik ’n paar boeiende uitsprake van hom na vore soos o.a. dat Christene vanuit die gemeenskap met Christus nuwe dekaloë moet maak wat helderder as die van Moses kan wees, of dat ons in bepaalde sin vir ons naaste ’n Christus moet word. Die bydrae van Luther 'tot die Christelike etiek is sonder twyfel van groot betekenis en die bestudering daarvan die moeite werd. Luther is geprys as rewolusionêr en verguis as konserwatis, hy is geëer as iemand wat weer die ware be­tekenis van godsdiens ontdek het toe die lewe vervloei het in etiek. Of dit egter korrek is om sy etiek as konserwatief te tipeer, soos White doen, moet betwyfel word.

  11. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases

    Vrakking, A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Looman, C.W.; Delden, van J.J.M.; Philipsen, B.D.; Maas, van der P.J.; Wal, van der G.


    OBJECTIVE: To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. STUDY DESIGN: We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's

  12. Ambrosius en die virginitas

    C. J. Malan


    Full Text Available Ambrosius het met reg die benaming “Leraar van Maagdelikheid” ontvang (Dooley, 1948:119. Die opmerking van Thamin: “C’est une vertu proprement chrétienne que la vertu de virginité, proclame tout d’abord saint Ambroise” (1895:344, gee dadelik aanleiding tot die vraag of Ambrosius dan geen waardering vir die huwelik gehad het nie. Hierdie vraag word nog meer dringend as sy beskrywing van die kruis van die getroude lewe nagegaan word.

  13. Die persoonlikheidseienskappe en bestuurspotensiaal van bestuursgemotiveerde persone

    A. S. Engelbrecht


    Full Text Available The personality traits and managerial potential of managerial motivated persons: In the ligth of criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation a new scale, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ, was developed. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory of Miner. The MMQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency. The aim of this study is to clarify the construct validity of the MMQ. Significant and positive correlations were found between managerial motivation, overall managerial potential, and nine managerial dimensions. The construct validity of the MMQ was further supported by correlations between sixteen personality traits and managerial motivation. Opsomming In die lig van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering is 'n nuwe skaal, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV/ ontwikkel. Dit is gedoen op grond van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering en die rolmotiveringsteorie van Miner. Die BMV vertoon toereikende interne konsekwentheid. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die konstrukgeldigheid van die BMV verder op te klaar. Beduidend positiewe korrelasies is tussen bestuursmotivering/ globale bestuurspotensiaal en nege bestuursdimensies gevind. Hierbenewens het die korrelasies tussen sestien persoonlikheidseienskappe en bestuursmotivering verdere ondersteunende bewyse gelewer van die konstrukgeldigheid van die BMV.

  14. Die vier Social-Media-Typen in der Wissenschaft. Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Studie

    Ostrzinski, Ulrike


    Full Text Available [english] ZB MED and its partners within the Leibniz Research Alliance Scienc participated in a nationwide study involving academics and researchers from universities and Leibniz Association research institutions. The purpose was to examine the use of social media tools. One of the key goals was to learn more about the usage patterns and behaviours of target groups, and the study has provided some important pointers to assist in this task. The preliminary part of the study identified four types of social media user who display significantly different patterns of behaviour in their use of and attitudes toward social web applications. The poster shows the figures for researchers working in the fields of medicine and life sciences – the main user group of ZB MED.

  15. Die verband tussen beroepsbesluitloosheid, vrees vir gebondenheid en beroepsidentiteit

    L. J. Goosen


    Full Text Available The relationship between career indecisiveness, fear for commitment and vocational identity. This study examined the correlation between the constructs career indecision, fear of commitment and vocational identity. Ninety-eight under-graduate university students served as research participants and completed the Career Decision Scale (CDS, the Vocational Identity Scale (VIS and the Fear of Commitment Questionnaire (FOCQ. The results indicated that the scores on the CDS were significantly related (p is smaller than 0,05 to the scores on the VIS and the FOCQ. Support was obtained for the important role of the construct of identity in the explanation of career indecisiveness. Opsomming In die onderhawige studie is die aard van die verband tussen die konstrukte beroepsbesluitloosheid, vrees vir gebondenheid en beroepsidentiteit ondersoek. Ag-en-egentig voorgraadse universiteitstudente is by die studie betrek. Die ondersoekgroep het die Career Decision Scale (CDS, die Vocational Identity Scale (VIS en die Fear of Commitment Questionnaire (FOCQ voltooi. Die resultate het aangetoon dat daar beduidende verband (p is kleiner as 0,05 tussen die verkree totaaltellings op die CDS, die VIS en die FOCQ bestaan het. Die belangrike rol wat die konstruk identiteit in die verklaring van beroepsbesluitloosheid speel word deur die bevindings van die onderhawige studie ondersteun.

  16. Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study

    Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.


    For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

  17. Sodomie, gender studies und die baltische Geschichte : Anmerkungen zu einer schwedischen Dissertation / Aivar Põldvee

    Põldvee, Aivar, 1962-


    Arvustus: Sjödin Lindenskoug, Susanna. Manlighetens bortre gräns : tidelagsrättegångar i Livland åren 1685-1709. (Stockholms Studie in history, 94 ; Södertörn doctoral dissertations, 55). Stockholm, 2011

  18. Sodomie, gender studies und die baltische Geschichte : Anmerkungen zu einer schwedischen Dissertation / Aivar Põldvee

    Põldvee, Aivar, 1962-


    Arvustus: Sjödin Lindenskoug, Susanna. Manlighetens bortre gräns : tidelagsrättegångar i Livland åren 1685-1709. (Stockholms Studie in history, 94 ; Södertörn doctoral dissertations, 55). Stockholm, 2011

  19. "It is Possible to Die Before Being Born". Negative Integers Subtraction: A Case Study

    Gallardo, Aurora


    A Case Study is presented in this article, where there is a contradiction between pre-algebraic language semantic and syntax used to solve word problems through a negative integers subtraction. Appendix includes answer key. (Contains 1 figure.) [For complete proceedings, see ED500859.

  20. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn


    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  1. Navorsing op die gebied van die sosiale wetenskappe*

    P. M. Robbertse


    Full Text Available In Hollands is die woord scientia vertaal met wetenskap, wat sowel die natuur- as die geesteswetenskappe insluit, waardeur die woordsy oorspronklike betekenis behou. Die neiging bestaan om die Engels science met wetenskap in Afrikaans te vertaal, waarmee dan eintlik die natuurwetenskap bedoel word.

  2. Kulturvergleichende Studie über die Menschzeichnungen deutscher und palästinensisch-israelischer Kinder- Kinderzeichnung als Ausdruck kultureller Werte


    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Zusammenhang zwischen den Normen und Werten der palästinensischen und der deutschen Kulturen und den Menschzeichnungen der in ihnen lebenden Kinder erforscht. Dabei werden die Erkenntnisse aus zwei Disziplinen, nämlich der �Cross Cultural Psychology� (bzw. �Kulturvergleichender Psychologie�; Thomas, 2003) und der Kinderzeichnungsforschung zusammengestellt. Unter dieser Forschungslinie wird die Kinderzeichnung als eine symbolische Mitteilung verstanden, welc...

  3. Foute in die meting van die aarde se magneetveld met die protonmagnetometer

    G. P. Hancke


    Full Text Available Die tipiese foute wat voorkom wanneer die metode van periode-meting gebruik word vir die bepaling van die presessiefrekwensie van die magnetiese moment van protone, word bespreek, en metodes om dit teen te werk word voorgestel. Belangrike gevolgtrekkings wat sal lei tot die optimale funksionering van die periodemeter, word gemaak — veral ten opsigte van die meettyd, polarisasietyd en die eienskappe van die sensorvloeistof.

  4. Wake up and Die

    Schubart, Rikke


    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  5. Die radio in Afrika

    S. de Villiers


    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  6. Die woord van God as lewende, kragtige en tweesnydende sward - 'n studie van hebreërs 4:12-13 binne die konteks van die hele Hebreërs

    J.C. Coetzee


    Full Text Available Within the wider scope of interdisciplinary studies on The Power of the Word of God this article gives a New Testament perspective on the theme through an exegetical study of Hebrews 4:12-13 within its broader context. Whilst this pericope is often used as a prooftext (locum probantium for the divine authority of Scriptures this study starts on the as­ sumption that this is not the primary focus of the text. It is as­ sumed that the text is primarily concerned with the effective power of God's Word in the lives of men, especially In the lives of members of God's people. Four hypotheses are stated at the beginning and are exegetically tested in the article: (i In the whole Bible Hebrews 4:12-13 is one of the clearest and most compact expressions of the dynamic power of the Word of God. (ii Hebrews 4:12-13 is indeed a cornerstone in the message of this sermon to "the Hebrews". (HI Although various Biblical passages seemingly have strong parallels on the matter of the power of the Word Hebrews 4:12-13 proves to have a singular emphasis, namely of the living, powerful and the decisively penetrating power of JUDGE of the deepest heart of man. (iv Hebrews 4:12-13 within its context gives an important portrait of the most intimate relation between the Word of God and the God of the Word.

  7. Wasting and sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients: a post hoc analysis of 4D (Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie).

    Drechsler, Christiane; Grootendorst, Diana C; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Krane, Vera; Dekker, Friedo; März, Winfried; Ritz, Eberhard; Wanner, Christoph


    Wasting is common in hemodialysis patients and often is accompanied by cardiovascular disease and inflammation. The cardiovascular risk profile meaningfully changes with the progression of kidney disease, and little is known about the impact of wasting on specific clinical outcomes. This study examined the effects of wasting on the various components of cardiovascular outcome and deaths caused by infection in hemodialysis patients. Prospective cohort study. 1,255 hemodialysis patients from 178 centers participating in Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie (4D) in 1998-2004. Moderate wasting was defined as body mass index, albumin, and creatinine values less than the median (26.7 kg/m(2), 3.8 g/dL, and 6.8 mg/dL, respectively) and C-reactive protein level less than the median (5 mg/L) at baseline. Severe wasting was defined as body mass index, albumin, and creatinine levels less than the median and C-reactive protein level greater than the median at baseline. Risks of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, combined cardiovascular events, deaths due to infection, and all-cause mortality were determined using Cox regression analyses during a median of 4 years of follow-up. 196 patients had wasting (severe, n = 109; and moderate, n = 87). Overall, 617 patients died (160 of SCD and 128 of infectious deaths). Furthermore, 469 patients experienced a cardiovascular event, with MI and stroke occurring in 200 and 103 patients, respectively. Compared with patients without wasting (n = 1,059), patients with severe wasting had significantly increased risks of SCD (adjusted HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1), all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.4), and deaths due to infection (adjusted HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3). In contrast, MI was not affected. The increased risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1) was explained mainly by the effect of wasting on SCD. Selective patient cohort. Wasting was associated strongly with SCD, but

  8. African Studies – Striving for Integrated Information Services: Recent Developments in Germany and Europe Integrierte Informationsdienstleistungen für die Afrikaforschung: Neuere Entwicklungen in Deutschland und Europa

    Hartmut Bergenthum


    Full Text Available New projects, services and collaborations have recently brought the infrastructural services for African Studies a big step forward. This report gives an account of new subject gateways and digitisation projects. It discusses recent European cooperation ventures in the field of librarianship. Additionally, new developments and services of the Africa Collection at Frankfurt University Library are presented, which help to address the changing needs of researchers and to handle information overload, while keeping up with the latest developments. Nevertheless, the fragmentation and compartmentalisation of the different services still hinder more integrated information services. Neue Projekte, Dienstleistungen und Kooperationen haben die Informationsversorgung der Afrikastudien einen großen Schritt vorangebracht. In diesem Bericht werden neue Fachportale und Digitalisierungsprojekte präsentiert; die in den vergangenen Jahren intensivierte europäische Zusammenarbeit der Afrika-Bibliotheken wird nachgezeichnet. Schließlich werden neue Dienstleistungen der Afrika-Sammlung der Frankfurter Universitätsbibliothek vorgestellt, die veränderten Bedürfnissen der Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler Rechnung tragen und es erlauben, die Informationsflut besser zu bewältigen und gleichzeitig den Überblick über aktuelle Entwicklungen zu behalten. Gleichwohl ist die Fragmentierung unterschiedlicher Dienstleistungsangebote noch nicht überwunden.

  9. The numerical study of the influence of rheological parameters stratified flows characteristics in cable dies

    Kozitsyna, M. V.; Trufanova, N. M.


    Today the process of coextrusion is the most technological in the cable production with cross-linked polyethylene, composed of two or more layers of polymeric insulation. Since the covering technology is a simultaneous imposition of all necessary layers (two semiconducting shields on the insulation and conductor and one - on insulation), the main focus of this study is the analysis of significance of various factors influence on stratified flows characteristics. This paper has considered the flow of two abnormally viscous liquids in the cable head. The problem has been solved through a three-dimensional statement by applying the finite element method in the Ansys software package. The influence has been estimated by varying the rheological properties of materials to create all necessary layers thickness.

  10. Old habits die hard: a nationwide utilization study of short-acting nifedipine in Taiwan.

    Chia-Lin Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the nationwide trend of ambulatory prescriptions of short-acting nifedipine on a PRN (pro re nata order over a fifteen-year period in Taiwan. METHODS: The systematic sampling claims datasets (0.2% sampling ratio of ambulatory care visits within Taiwan's National Health Insurance from 1997 to 2011 were analyzed. The prescriptions of short-acting capsule-form nifedipine on a PRN order were stratified by the patient's age, the prescribing physician's specialty, and the setting of healthcare facility for each year. RESULTS: During the study period, 8,189,681 visits were analyzed. While the utilization rate of calcium channel blockers changed with time from 2.8% (13,767/489,636 in 1997 to 5.1% (31,349/614,719 in 2011, that of short-acting nifedipine were from 1.0% (n = 5,070 to 0.2% (n = 1,246. However, short-acting capsule-form nifedipine on a PRN order still existed (from 447 prescriptions in 1997 to 784 in 2011. More than one half of these PRN nifedipines were prescribed by the internists and to the elderly patients; almost four-fifths of PRN nifedipines were prescribed during non-emergent consultations. CONCLUSION: The physicians in Taiwan still had the habit of prescribing short-acting nifedipines for PRN use. The reason for such practices and the impact on patients' health deserve attention.

  11. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases.

    Vrakking, Astrid M; van der Heide, Agnes; Looman, Caspar W N; van Delden, Johannes J M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Wal, Gerrit


    To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's (explicit) request, and the opinion of the parents varied. Two hypothetical cases were also presented to 125 general practitioners and 208 clinical specialists. Most pediatricians were willing to increase morphine in all cases. A total of 48% to 60% of pediatricians were willing to use lethal drugs in children at the child's request, when the parents agreed; when parents requested ending of life of their unconscious child, 37% to 42% of pediatricians were willing; 13% to 28% of pediatricians were willing when parents did not agree with their child's request. General practitioners and clinical specialists were as willing as pediatricians to use lethal drugs at the child's request, but less willing to grant a request of parents for their unconscious child. Many Dutch pediatricians are willing to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for children. The legal limit of 12 years, as the age under which voluntary euthanasia is forbidden, is not fully supported by Dutch physicians.

  12. Die verhouding doop en geloof

    L. Floor


    Full Text Available By die aanvalle wat op die kinderdoop geloods word, kom telkens die verhouding doop en geloof ter sprake. Die geloof is so wesentlik met die doop verbonde, sodat daar nie gedoop mag word waar die geloof nie aanwesig is nie. 0ns lees inderdaad dwarsdeur die Nuwe Testament van ’n innige samehang wat daar tussen geloof en doop beslaan.

  13. Morir con dignidad: Estudio sobre voluntades anticipadas Dying with dignity: A study of living wills

    Cristina Nebot


    draw up a living will, to analyze physicians´ knowledge of living wills and attitudes toward them, and to compare the regulations pertaining to this right in the distinct autonomous regions of Spain. Method: A descriptive study that included an analysis of a systematic sample of 931 living wills registered in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain, a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 physicians working in emergency departments and intensive care units (45% response rate, and a comparison of the regional legislation covering living wills. Results: A total of 1.6% of inhabitants aged 16 or over had registered a living will (female/male ratio: 1.8/1. Most (73.8% used a standard document drawn up by a particular religious faith. The most common reasons for writing a living will were to limit therapeutic efforts (99% and obtain pain-relieving drugs (98%. Although 61 physicians (72.6% frequently attended the terminally ill, only 6% consulted the register of living wills in these situations and 28% did not know how to consult this register. There is wide variation among regions in the minimum age for registering a living will, in the procedure to be followed if the signer is pregnant, in designating a person as having the authority to make a living will, and in the number of registration points available to deposit livingwills. Conclusions: Most persons registering a living will are healthy individuals with a particular religious faith who reject certain treatments. Most health professionals do not check whether critically ill patients have made a living will. Exercising the rights contained in living wills is complicated by the diversity of criteria among different regions.

  14. Dying from cancer in developed and developing countries: lessons from two qualitative interview studies of patients and their carers.

    Murray, Scott A; Grant, Elizabeth; Grant, Angus; Kendall, Marilyn


    To describe the experiences of illness and needs and use of services in two groups of patients with incurable cancer, one in a developed country and the other in a developing country. Scotland: longitudinal study with qualitative interviews. Kenya: cross sectional study with qualitative interviews. Lothian region, Scotland, and Meru District, Kenya. Scotland: 20 patients with inoperable lung cancer and their carers. Kenya: 24 patients with common advanced cancers and their main informal carers. Descriptions of experiences, needs, and available services. 67 interviews were conducted in Scotland and 46 in Kenya. The emotional pain of facing death was the prime concern of Scottish patients and their carers, while physical pain and financial worries dominated the lives of Kenyan patients and their carers. In Scotland, free health and social services (including financial assistance) were available, but sometimes underused. In Kenya, analgesia, essential equipment, suitable food, and assistance in care were often inaccessible and unaffordable, resulting in considerable unmet physical needs. Kenyan patients thought that their psychological, social, and spiritual needs were met by their families, local community, and religious groups. Some Scottish patients thought that such non-physical needs went unmet. In patients living in developed and developing countries there are differences not only in resources available for patients dying from cancer but also in their lived experience of illness. The expression of needs and how they are met in different cultural contexts can inform local assessment of needs and provide insights for initiatives in holistic cancer care.

  15. Numerical simulation and experimental study for the die forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub

    Sun, Mingyue; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Long; LI, Dianzhong


    With the aim of manufacturing a near-net shape forging product of a brake disk hub for the high-speed railway, the die forging process was designed and optimized in this study. Firstly, based on the measured stress-strain curves at different strain rates and the thermal-physical parameters of 40Cr A steel, a finite element model for the forging process of a high-speed railway brake disc hub was established. Then, the temperature, stress and strain fields were studied and analyzed at the pre-forging and the finial-forging stages. Besides, in order to trace the stress and strain evolution, five points at different positions were chosen on the billet, and the comparison of the state conditions was made among these points. The results have demonstrated that the product can be well formed by an elaborately designed three-stage forging process, which may reduce the metal machine allowance and the producing cost effectively. Finally, an industrial trial was made and a machined product with sound quality was obtained.

  16. "Perhaps I will die young." Fears and worries regarding disease and death among Danish adolescents and young adults with cancer. A mixed method study

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Timm, Helle U; Graugaard, Christian


    about dying; (Q2) with whom, if anyone, they had shared those worries; and finally, (Q3) how fears and worries influenced their daily life. The emphasis will be on Q3. Methods: A 151-item questionnaire (including two closed- and one open-ended questions about fears of death and dying) was distributed...... among all 15–29-year-old Danes registered with a cancer diagnosis from 2009 to 2013. A total study population of 822 persons participated. Data was analyzed using a mixed design of descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Results: Q1: Almost 80 % of AYAs with cancer expressed some...

  17. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    J. M. Vorster


    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  18. Die lebensvision des semonides

    Milivoj Sironić


    Full Text Available Der Autor analysiert die Weibersatire des Semonides und andere seiner kurzen Fragmente. Dabei kommt er zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass sich die Verse der Satire durch eine gute Technik auszeich­ nen, dass aber auch eine unnötige Weitschweifigkeit nicht zu Ubersehen ist. Trotzdem kann man jedoch dem Dichter nicht die künstlerische Überzeugungskraft absprechen, wie auch die Ten­ denz nach Detailschilderungen und die Feinheit geistreicher Charakterisierungen. Die Aussage beinhaltet manchmal eine be­ stimmte innere Ironie in der Einfachheit der Wörter.In kurzen Fragmenten wird die Fähigkeit des Semonides sichtbar, sich sehr präzise auszudrücken. Seine ironisch-epische Sprache ist sehr reich  und verdient vom linguistischen Standpunkt aus Auf­ merksamkeit wegen ihres reichhaltigen lexischen und termino­ logischen Materials, insbesondere was die Bereiche der Tier­ welt und des Essens anbelangt.Die Weltanschauung des Dichters ist in dem ersten Fragment recht deutlich erkennbar. Da sieht man, dass er düster und pessimistisch auf das Leben blickt. Das Fehlen jeglicher positiven Einstellung hat dann den Sar­ kasmus zur Folge, mit dem der Dichter die Darstellung der Weiber einkleidet, ihn aber auch auf die Menschen schlechthin ausweitet.

  19. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    S.P. van der Walt


    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study.

    Kulkarni, Poonam R; Kulkarni, Rahul S; Shah, Rupal J; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita


    The clinician's skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the plastic trays in reference of tray selection and

  1. Die karst-ekologie van die Bakwenagrot (Gauteng

    François Durand


    Full Text Available Die Bakwenagrot huisves ’n verskeidenheid organismes wat ’n ingewikkelde en verweefde voedselweb vorm. ’n Kolonie Natalse langvingervlermuise gebruik hierdie grot regdeur die jaar as blyplek. Die vlermuisguano en dooie plantmateriaal wat van buite in die grot inval, vorm die basis van die ekologie in die grot wat ook as ’n tipiese detritus-gedrewe ekostelsel beskryf kan word. Afbrekers soos bakterieë en swamme wat vir die afbraak van die guano en plantreste verantwoordelik is, word deur ’n verskeidenheid organismes, insluitend nematode en myte, as voedselbron benut. Hierdie organismes wat die volgende trofiese vlak vorm, word deur predatoriese artropode as voedselbron benut. Die Bakwenagrot is een van die weinige dolomietiese grotte in Suid-Afrika wat dit vir ‘n mens moontlik maak om tot by die grondwatervlak te kom. Die grondwater huisves verskeie tipes organismes waaronder bakterieë, swamme en diere – hoofsaaklik nematode en krustaseë. Die Bakwenagrot is ook die hoofvindplek waar varswater-amfipode in Suider-Afrika gevind is. Hierdie besondere en sensitiewe ekostelsel is hoofsaaklik van guano van die vlermuiskolonie afhanklik. Die grasveld in die gebied rondom die grot, wat as voedingsarea vir die vlermuiskolonie dien, word tans deur voorstedelike ontwikkeling en die gevolglike habitatfragmentasie en -vernietiging bedreig. Indien die vlermuise die grot sou verlaat, sal dit ’n hele domino-effek van uitsterwing van die grotbewonende organismes tot gevolg hê.

  2. Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.


    This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

  3. Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.


    This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

  4. Die voorgeskiedenis van kwantumberekening

    P. H. Potgieter


    Full Text Available

    Die hoofidees wat tans gestalte vind in die teorie en tegnologie van kwantumberekening is in die laat 1970’s en vroeg 1980’s deur fisici in die Weste en ’n wiskundige in die voormalige Sowjetunie neergelˆ e. Dat di´ e teorie ook wortels in die Russiestalige vakliteratuur het, is nie algemeen bekend in die Weste nie. Daar word kortliks gekyk na die idee soos deur Benioff en (veral Feynman in die Weste versprei, asook die voorstel van di´ e rekengrondslag deur Manin in die Russiese literatuur. Die outeur hoop om hiermee so ’n onpartydig moontlike sintese van die vroe ¨ e gedagtegeskiedenis rondom kwantumberekening aan te bied. Die rol van omkeerbare en onomkeerbare berekeningsprosesse word vlugtig bekyk soos dit verband hou met die ontstaan van kwantumberekening, asook die sogenaamde Inligtingsparadoks in die fisika. Die inligtingsteorie en die fisika het heelwat met mekaar te kommunikeer, soos hierdie paradoks uitwys.


    The pre-history of quantum computation

    The main ideas behind developments in the theory and technology of quantum computation were formulated in the late 1970s and early 1980s by two physicists in the West and a mathematician in the former Soviet Union. It is not generally known in the West that the subject has roots in the Russian technical literature. The idea, as propagated by Benioff and (especially Feynman, is reviewed along with the proposition of a foundation for this kind of computation by Manin in the Russian literature. The author hopes to present as impartial a synthesis as possible of the early history of thought on this subject. The role of reversible and irreversible computational processes will be examined briefly as it relates to the origins of quantum computing and the so-called Information Paradox in physics. Information theory and physics, as this paradox shows, have much to communicate to each other.

  5. Die benutting van water in die landbou: strategie vir die toekoms

    D. S. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available ’n Uiteensetting word gegee van die faktore wat die hoofrol in die toekomstige waterbenutting in die landbou gaan speel. Hierdie faktore is die hoeveelheid water beskikbaar vir landboudoeleindes; die toenemende mineraiisasie van besproeiingswater; en die invloed wat energiebehoeftes op besproeiing sal hê. Navorsing is nodig om die situasie na wense te hanteer, en die aanbevelings van besproeiingsnavorsingswerksessies in hierdie verband word kortliks aangedui en bespreek.

  6. A population based study on variations in the use of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients; Bevoelkerungsbezogene Studie ueber die Anwendung adjuvanter Strahlentherapie bei Patientinnen mit Mammakarzinom

    Nagel, G.; Katenkamp, D. [Feldstudie Mammakarzinom/Tumorzentrum, Univ. Jena (Germany); Roehrig, B.; Hoyer, H. [Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Dokumentation, Univ. Jena (Germany); Fueller, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abteilung fuer Strahlentherapie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany)


    nodes, multiplicity, poor histologic differentiation grade (G3/4), medial localization, and younger age (35-49 years) were positive predictors for the application of radiation therapy. For R-classification, hormone receptor status and comorbidity no influence on the use of radiation therapy was observed. Among clinics adjusted for case-mix variations in the compliance of treatment recommendation both following BCT and mastecomy were found (Figure 1). Conclusion: Following BCT compliance with treatment recommendations regarding radiation therapy was high. Women in older age or with comorbidities received less often radiation therapy. Subsequent to mastectomy indicators for the use of radiation therapy were identified. Among clinics differences in the adherence to treatment recommendations were observed. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Umsetzung von Behandlungsempfehlungen zur adjuvanten Strahlentherapie bei Patientinnen mit Mammakarzinom zu evaluieren. Patientinnen und Methode: Die Studie basiert auf Daten einer bevoelkerungsbezogenen Kohortenstudie. In der Studienregion Ostthueringen leben ca. eine Million Einwohner. In den Jahren 1995 bis 2000 wurden 2031 Faelle mit invasivem Mammakarzinom ohne primaere Fernmetastasierung (MO) und ohne inflammatorische Ausbreitung erfasst. Von diesen konnten 1700 Faelle mit vollstaendigen Angaben der Kovariaten in eine multivariate Analyse einbezogen werden. Der Einfluss von klinischen Faktoren und 'Caseload' als Klassifizierung nach behandelten Faellen pro Jahr bzw. einzelnen Kliniken auf die Durchfuehrung von adjuvanter Strahlentherapie des Brustdruesenkoerpers oder der Thoraxwand nach Mastektomie wurde in logistischen Regressionsmodellen ermittelt. Ergebnisse: Nach brusterhaltender Therapie (BET) wurden 90,6% der Patientinnen adjuvant bestrahlt. In der univariaten Analyse wurde bei aelteren Patientinnen ({>=}70 Jahre) seltener eine Strahlenbehandlung durchgefuehrt. Dies war auch bei Patientinnen mit Begleiterkrankungen zu

  7. Spanische Identität unter der Voraussetzung des trikulturellen Mittelalters: zu Fabian Sevillas StudieDie ‚Drei Kulturen‘ und die spanische Identität“

    Jan Henrik Witthaus


    Full Text Available Fabian Sevilla, Die „Drei Kulturen“ und die spanische Identität: ein Konflikt bei Américo Castro und in der spanischsprachigen Narrativik der Moderne, Siegener Forschungen zur romanischen Literatur- und Medienwissenschaft 26 (Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 2014, 372 S.

  8. Openbaring, teologie en die regswetenskap

    S. Postma


    Full Text Available In die jongste tyd is telkens en weer gewaarsku teen die gevare van oorspesialisasie en die hipertrofie van professionalisme. Die gemis aan ’n totaliteitsvisie wat hiermee gepaard gaan, word dan ook tereg teengegaan en wel deur aan die Wysbegeerte as die Wetenskap van die totaliteit van die kosmos in toenemende mate sy regmatige plek as wetenskapsintegreerder te gun. Hierdie grootmoedige gun van ’n plek in die son van geleerdheid kan egter ook uit bedenklike motiewe plaasvind. Die vakwetenskaplike kan nie of wil nie die plek en betekenis van sy spesifieke vak bepaal en bepeins nie en vind dit in elk geval moeilik om die verband tussen Gods Woord en sy besondere vak in duidelike perspektief te sien; vandaar dan ’n grootmoedige toelaat dat die wysbegeerte die „veritas” dien terwyl die eie ek tevrede is om die „utilitas” onderdanig te wees.

  9. Rebecca Pates, Daniel Schmidt: Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Jenny Künkel


    Full Text Available The publication stemming from the research project “Governing Prostitution” at the University of Leipzig approaches the question as to which problems of definition, categorization, and inventories of knowledge local administrators in Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic use as a basis for regulating prostitution. The study shows that law not only implements partially autonomous governing acts but also produces them. The monograph enters into uncharted territory with its local focus on the regulation of prostitution as its subject and its state-based ethnographical approach. A little more information as to methodology as well as a more explicit take on the theoretical concepts in the format of the empirical materials would have been desirable.Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt ‚Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universität Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbestände lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials wären wünschenswert gewesen.

  10. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    J. Visser


    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  11. Die ontwerp van ’n digitale pedagogiese patroon vir die verbetering van leerders se mondelinge kommunikasievaardighede

    Carina Grobler


    Full Text Available Suid-Afrikaanse voorgraadse vreemdetaalstudente het meer geleenthede nodig om hulle mondelinge kommunikasievaardighede te oefen. Nie net lewer die akademiese literatuur ‘n pleidooi vir meer klem op mondelinge vaardighede nie (Delena-le Roux 2010, dit is ook een van die sentrale gevolgtrekkings uit ’n opname onder beginnerstudente wat Frans neem by die Potchefstroomkampus van die Noordwes-Universiteit (Suid-Afrika. Dit was dus noodsaaklik om 'n onderrig- en leerervaring te ontwerp wat daarop gemik is om beginnerstudente se mondelinge kommunikasievaardighede in Frans te verbeter. Laurillard (2012 se Gespreksraamwerk was die inspirasie vir die ontwerp van 'n digitale pedagogiese patroon (DPP wat bestaan uit konteks en pedagogiese beskrywers ten einde vreemdetaalleerders se mondelinge vaardighede te ontwikkel. Die Gespreksraamwerk analiseer formele leer en die struikelblokke met die gebruik van nuwe tegnologieë in leer. Die implementeringsproses van ‘n DPP vir die ontwikkeling van die mondelinge vaardighede van studente (in Frans het drie siklusse, elk met sy eie uitkomste, en drie groepe deelnemers – die kontrolegroep en twee eksperimentele groepe – behels. Die toetsing van die voorgestelde DPP het belangrike insigte gebied wat geïntegreer behoort te word in die ontwerp van toekomstige digitale pedagogiese patrone vir die spesifieke konteks: deelnemersgroepe behoort tot twee beperk te word; leerervarings wat uitgevoer word tydens die beperkte onderrigtyd van ʼn semester behoort verminder te word; daar moet verseker word dat elke stap van die leerervaring voldoen aan die vereistes van die Gespreksraamwerk. Studente-uitslae van die leerervarings in toekomstige studies behoort te onthul watter siklus die beste bydra tot die verbetering van mondelinge kommunikasievaardighede.

  12. Where do the elderly die? The impact of nursing home utilisation on the place of death. Observations from a mortality cohort study in Flanders

    Van Hecke Ettiene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the research concerning place of death focuses on terminally ill patients (cancer patients while the determinants of place of death of the elderly of the general population are not intensively studied. Studies showed the influence of gender, age, social-economical status and living arrangements on the place of death, but a facet not taken into account so far is the influence of the availability of nursing homes. Methods We conducted a survey of deaths, between January 1999 and December 2000 in a small densely populated area in Belgium, with a high availability of nursing homes (within 5 to 10 km of the place of residence of every elderly. We determined the incidence of total mortality (of subjects >60 years from local official death registers that we consulted via the priest or the mortician of the local parish, to ask where the decedent had died and whether the deceased had lived in a nursing home. We compared the distribution of the places of death between parishes with a nursing home and with parishes without nursing home. Results 240 women and 217 men died during the two years study period. Only 22% died at home, while the majority (78% died in an institutional setting, either a hospital (50% or a nursing home (28%. Place of death was influenced by individual factors (age and gender and the availability of a nursing home in the 'own' parish. The chance of in-hospital death was 65% higher for men (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 14 to 138%; p = 0.008 and decreased by 4% (CI: -5.1% to -2.5%; p Conclusion Demographic, but especially social-contextual factors determine where elderly will end their life. The majority of elderly in Flanders die in an institution. Age, gender and living situation are predictors of the place of death but the embedment of a nursing home in the local community seems to be a key predictor.

  13. Climate. The earth and its atmosphere in the changing times. 3. upd. ed.; Klima. Die Erde und ihre Atmosphaere im Wandel der Zeit

    Buchal, Christoph [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Peter-Gruenberg-Institut PGI-9; Schoenwiese, Christian-Dietrich [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt


    The Climate Change Challenge. Throughout the world, great efforts are being made to better understanding the development of the global climate and to model future trends. What characterizes the weather what the climate? How did the climate history of the Earth? What factors are affecting the climate? In the third, updated edition 2016 of the widespread attractive and scientifically-based four-volume nonfiction series ENERGY, AIR, POWER and MOBILITY which clearly explained basic knowledge of the climate system is expanded to include the latest information about the IPCC and keep up-to-date insight into modern research, especially the REKLIM project of the Helmholtz Association of German research Centres. [German] Herausforderung Klimawandel. Ueberall auf der Welt werden grosse Anstrengungen unternommen, um die Entwicklung des Weltklimas genauer zu verstehen und zukuenftige Trends zu modellieren. Was kennzeichnet das Wetter, was das Klima? Wie verlief die Klimageschichte der Erde? Welche Faktoren beeinflussen das Klima? In der dritten, aktualisierten Auflage 2016 der weit verbreiteten attraktiven und wissenschaftlich fundierten vierbaendigen Sachbuchreihe ENERGIE, KLIMA, STROM und MOBILITAeT wird das verstaendlich erlaeuterte Basiswissen zum Klimageschehen erweitert um die neusten Daten des IPCC sowie um up-to-date Einblicke in die moderne Forschung, insbesondere auch das REKLIM-Projekt der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft deutscher Forschungszentren.

  14. Die sterwende kindjie

    J.T. De Jongh van Arkel


    Full Text Available The thought of a child dying appears as an antithesis and thus the feelings evoked by the dying child are stronger than when older persons are dying. Around the child’s death bed there is no place for detached spectators and all become involved in caring for and supporting him. Caregivers also have a supporting responsibility towards the members of the child’s family.

  15. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    N. G.S. Van der Walt


    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die


    G.E. Visser


    Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African Military Academy was established on 1 April 1950 with a view to placing candidate officer training in the Union Defence Force on par with standards abroad and at the same time to elevating it to the level of a university degree. In addition, the Minister of Defence, F.C. Erasmus, wanted to use the Academy as an instrument enabling Afrikaners to take up their rightful place alongside English-speaking citizens in the officer corps. In so doing, he hoped, eventually, to replace the predominant British character of the Union Defence Force with a unique South African, and more particularly an Afrikaner, character. Despite strong resistance to change from within the officer corps, motivated by political sentiment and more so by opposition to the novel idea of degree studies for officers, the Academy developed into a viable training institution. Broadly based on the training systems of Sandhurst and West Point, and following the example of the Indian National Defence Academy, the Military Academy became a joint training institution for all four arms of the service. Yet financial constraints, a lack of suitable candidates, as well as the conflicting sentiments and training needs of the arms of the service, prevented the formative training of all candidate officers from being assigned to the Academy.   The absence of formative training, together with the admittance of junior officers, instead of solely candidate officers, resulted in the Academy gaining the character of a military university rather than a traditional military academy. The Academy was deprived of a distinct function in the overall officers' development system, which put its survival in the balance and triggered a series of investigations into its role and function. The opposing subcultures that developed between the Dean and the Faculty of Military Science on the one hand, and the Officer Commanding and the Military Training Branch on the other, formed

  17. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    S. A. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  18. Nina Degele: Gender/Queer Studies. München: UTB Fink 2008. — Franziska Schößler: Einführung in die Gender Studies. Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2008

    Heike Kahlert


    Full Text Available Nina Degele und Franziska Schößler treiben mit ihren Einführungsbüchern in die Gender Studies beziehungsweise in die Gender/Queer Studies die Disziplinierung dieser neuen Wissensfelder voran. Ausgehend von ihren jeweiligen Herkunftsdisziplinen (Soziologie und Literaturwissenschaft legen sie übersichtliche Überblicke vor, die explizit für die Hochschullehre konzipiert sind. Beide Bücher leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Kanonisierung der Gender Studies als akademisches Fach, bleiben aber in ihrer Konzeption stark den Herkunftsdisziplinen ihrer Verfasserinnen verhaftet. Hier stößt die viel beschworene Interdisziplinarität der Gender Studies an ihre Grenzen.Nina Degele and Franziska Schößler promote the disciplinary establishment of new fields of knowledge with their introductory books in Gender Studies and Gender/Queer Studies. Using their individual home disciplines (sociology and literary studies as a starting point, they present clear overviews of these new fields of knowledge explicitly conceived for use in higher education. Both books contribute to the canonization of Gender Studies as an academic discipline, however they remain in their conception strongly attached to the home disciplines of their authors. It is here that the often-touted interdisciplinarity of Gender Studies reaches its limits.

  19. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Francois P. Retief


    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  20. On death and dying - an exploratory and evaluative study of a reflective, interdisciplinary course element in undergraduate anatomy teaching.

    Alt-Epping, Bernd; Lohse, Constanze; Viebahn, Christoph; Steinbüchel, Nicole von; Benze, Gesine; Nauck, Friedemann


    Teaching in palliative care aims not only at providing students with specialized knowledge in symptom therapy in advanced disease, but also at developing a professional attitude consistent with the principles and philosophy of palliative care. Reflecting about one's own or the patient's death and dying is considered essential for empathic patient care. In medical education the dissection course is often the first encounter with the issue of death and dying and represents a significant emotional challenge to many medical students.Against this background we implemented a new course element in preparation for the dissection course, offering opportunity to reflect own experiences with death and dying and providing support in finding a balance between authentic empathy and pragmatic action towards deceased persons. We discuss issues such as dignity and professional distance and reason whether guided support for medical students regarding these issues might influence their future attitude as doctors caring for their patients. In tandem, we performed a formal evaluation of the seminar and explored the students' experiences with death and dying, their expectations and fears in the run-up to the dissection course and their attitude towards dissection. This article describes the structure and the concept of this new interdisciplinary course element and presents the results of the formal course evaluation as well as the explorative part of the accompanying research. Medical students had broad experiences with death and dying even before the dissection course. 89.1% of students had worried about some kind of emotional stress during the dissection course before, but 61.7% stated to have actually perceived emotional stress afterwards. The willingness to donate one's own body for anatomy purposes decreased significantly during the course. The given room for reflection and discussion was appreciated by the students, who felt that the effects of this seminar might be of use even

  1. Prediking oor die poëtiese stof van die Ou Testament - Die Psalms

    E. J. Smit


    Full Text Available ’n Belangrike rede waarom die prediking uit die Psalms ’n aparte bespreking regverdig, is die feit dat die Psalms die omvangrykste verteenwoordiging van poetiese stof in die Ou Testament be vat. Dit is nie vir almal ewe maklik om poesie te lees en te verklaar nie.

  2. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce


    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  3. Die hebsugtige seekoei en Rooikappie: Die groteske in sprokies

    Dineke van der Walt


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n vergelykende lees van twee volksverhale wat ook as kinderverhale getipeer kan word (een vanuit Venda-folklore en die ander ’n populêre Europese narratief met die oog daarop om spesifieke ooreenkomste uit te lig – soos die eet van mensvleis, goedgelowige mense wat deur ‘n maskerspel om die bos gelei word en ander ‘onetiese’ en ‘immorele’ aktiwiteite. In Die hebsugtige seekoei boots die monster byvoorbeeld die stem van die jong seun na om sy suster te flous en toegang tot hulle hut te verkry, terwyl die wolf in Rooikappie op sy beurt die ouma flous om die huis te kan betree sodat hy later ook vir Rooikappie kan mislei. In albei stories word die jong meisies (asook Rooikappie se ouma deur ’n seekoei óf ’n wolf opgeëet. Soos gewoonlik in sprokies, word die slagoffers gered of ontsnap en die verhale het ’n gelukkige einde. Alhoewel dit absurd mag voorkom dat kinderverhale elemente van die groteske bevat, argumenteer ek dat dit inderdaad ’n bruikbare doel dien. Hierdie verhale betrek kinders nie net op ’n emosionele vlak nie (as gevolg van die skokwaarde van die groteske; die groteske dien ook as objek van fassinasie. Sodoende word die waarskuwingsboodskap in die verhale beter oorgedra en onthou deur die kinders.

  4. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Kamerer Eva


    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  5. Die Gattung Oerstedia

    Stiasny-Wijnhoff, G.


    Die vorliegenden Individuen von Oerstedia dorsalis (Abildg.) wurden in den Helder an der holländischen Küste gesammelt; die Art war in frühern Jahren im Hafen sehr allgemein. Sie lebte zwischen Tubularien und Muschelbrut, welche in der Gezeitenzone den Schiffsrümpfen angewachsen sind und enthielt im

  6. Die Mollusken der Njalindungschichten

    Martin, K.


    Die Versteinerungen, welche im folgenden behandelt sind, sammelten meine Frau und ich im Jahre 1910 in den Preanger-Regentschappen von Java, in der Gegend von Njalindung ¹). Sie stammen aus Sedimenten, für welche ich den Namen Njalindungschichten einführte, und für die Gastropoden wurde bereits eine

  7. Climate changes and their consequences. An examplary case study on the possibilities and limits of an interdisciplinary climate change risk assessment; Klimaaenderungen und die Folgen. Eine exemplarische Fallstudie ueber die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen einer interdisziplinaeren Klimafolgenforschung

    Krupp, C.


    The work looks at the consequences of a possible climate change by means of the example of tourism in Schleswig-Holstein. It proceeds on the hypothesis that the social, economic and political consequences of climate change do not solely depend on climatic developments but also on how those concerned, and decision-makers, react to climate changes, i.e., what precautions or remedial action they take.- By so doing, it contributes at the same time to the development of methods for climate change risk assessment, which, in Germany, is still in its early stage. It is therefore considered equally important to accompany the work by a method-critical approach (orig./KW). [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht am Beispiel des Fremdenverkehrs in Schleswig-Holstein die Folgen einer moeglichen Klimaaenderung. Sie laesst sich dabei von der Hypothese leiten, dass die sozialen, oekonomischen und politischen Folgen von Klimaaenderungen nicht allein von klimatischen Entwicklungen abhaengen, sondern auch davon, wie die Betroffenen und Entscheidungstraeger auf Klimaaenderungen reagieren, wie sie sich vorsorgend bzw. nachsorgend anpassen. Damit wird zugleich ein Beitrag zur Methodenentwicklung fuer die Klimafolgenforschung geleistet, die in Deutschland noch am Anfang steht. Auf eine methodenkritische Begleitung wird daher Wert gelegt. (orig./KW)

  8. Outobiografie as hermeneutiek van die self: Van Rousseau tot Le Clézio

    Elisabeth Snyman


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel ondersoek die hipotese dat outobiografie as ’n soort hermeneutiek van die self beskou kan word. Vir hierdie doel word ’n seleksie van Franse outobiografieë behandel. Aangesien hierdie studie ’n verwerking van ’n intreerede is, is dit oorsigtelik van aard en poog dit nie om ’n gedetailleerde ontleding van óf die teorie óf die tekste waarna verwys word, te gee nie. Jean-Jacques Rousseau se Confessions, wat allerweë as een van die hoekstene van die moderne outobiografie beskou word, is as vertrekpunt gebruik vir die interpretasie van verstaanshandelinge ingebed in outobiografiese tekste. Die artikel toon voorts aan hoe die skrywers van die res van die korpus op verskillende wyses Rousseau se historiese model bevraagteken in aansluiting by nuwer denkwyses. So word daar aangetoon dat George Perec die historiese model laat vaar om eerder tekens uit die verlede te ontsyfer; dat Nathalie Sarraute die gedagte van die verdeelde subjek van die Nuwe Roman kombineer met haar konsep van tropismes om ’n deurleefde weergawe van haar kinderjare te skep; en dat Roland Barthes die aanname dat taal ’n medium van uitdrukking van subjektiwiteit kan wees, problematiseer om ’n ‘anti-outobiografie’ te skryf. Voorts is aangetoon hoe Marguerite Yourcenar wegbreek van die antropomorfisme van die humanisme om die weg te baan vir die besef dat die teenwoordigheid van die Ander die uitleg van die self ten diepste bepaal. Laastens word die etiek van die Ander in interkulturele ontmoetings, soos geboekstaaf in die outobiografieë van Ken Bugul en Jean-Marie Le Clézio, ondersoek. Die artikel toon aan hoe literêr-filosofiese tendense die gedagte van singewing en interpretasie van die persoonlike verlede en gevolglik die aard van outobiografie vanaf die agtiende eeu beïnvloed het.

  9. Rationale and design of a trial improving outcome of type 2 diabetics on hemodialysis. Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie Investigators.

    Wanner, C; Krane, V; Ruf, G; März, W; Ritz, E


    Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus dialysis patients have the highest cardiovascular mortality known in any group of patients. Mixed dyslipidemia with moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is common in this condition. It is not known, however, whether patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis with this form of dyslipidemia derive benefit from lipid-lowering therapy. Recently, drugs have become available that potently lower triglyceride-rich, apoB-containing lipoproteins and thus permit testing of this issue. This is the first trial to address specifically the issue of whether the excessive cardiovascular mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis can be lowered by statins. The Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie is a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that tests the hypothesis that atorvastatin, a hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, decreases the rate of cardiovascular mortality and of nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes who have been on hemodialysis treatment for no more than two years. The primary endpoint, cardiovascular mortality, includes fatal myocardial infarction, sudden death, death during coronary intervention, death from heart failure, and other coronary causes. Secondary endpoints comprise overall mortality, nonfatal cardiovascular events, fatal and nonfatal cerebrovascular disease, and the mean percentage change in lipid profile from baseline. The trial enrolls 1200 men and women on hemodialysis for less than two years and with type 2 diabetes at 150 centers throughout Germany. Inclusion criteria are age of 18 to 80 years, low-density cholesterol of 80 to 190 mg/dl (2.1 to 4.9 mmol/liter), and triglyceride levels of less than 1000 mg/dl (11.4 mmol/liter). Patients are randomized to cither inactive (placebo) or active (atorvastatin, 20 mg/day) drug therapy. The average duration of follow-up is more than

  10. Die oorsake vir die ontstaan en besondere aard van die Zion Christian Church

    M. A. Kruger


    Full Text Available Aanvanklik het die Z.C.C. geen opsienbarende groei getoon nie, maar veral sedert die veertigerjare het hulle getalle skerp toegeneem en versprei oor die hele land. In 1963 is Edward Lekganyane toegelaat tot die Stofberg Teologiese Skool van die N.G. Kerk. Sedert die stigting van die Z.C.C. het die groep al verder van die Woord af weg beweeg, maar met hierdie toetrede tot die skool het daar by Edward self ’n mate van verandering gekom.

  11. A comparative study of inter-abutment distance of dies made from full arch dual-arch impression trays with those made from full arch stock trays: An in vitro study

    Reddy Jagan; Prashanti E; Kumar G; Suresh Sajjan M; Mathew Xavier


    Objectives: The dual-arch impression technique is convenient in that it makes the required maxillary and mandibular impressions, as well as the inter-occlusal record in one procedure. The accuracy of inter-abutment distance in dies fabricated from dual-arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of inter-abutment distance in dies obtained from full ar...

  12. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    C. J. A. Simpson


    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  13. Why Children with Severe Bacterial Infection Die: A Population–Based Study of Determinants and Consequences of Suboptimal Care with a Special Emphasis on Methodological Issues

    Elise Launay; Christèle Gras-Le Guen; Alain Martinot; Rémy Assathiany; Elise Martin; Thomas Blanchais; Catherine Deneux-Tharaux; Jean-Christophe Rozé; Martin Chalumeau


    INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal care is frequent in the management of severe bacterial infection. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of suboptimal care in the early management of severe bacterial infection in children and study the determinants. METHODS: A previously reported population-based confidential enquiry included all children (3 months- 16 years) who died of severe bacterial infection in a French area during a 7-year period. Here, we compared the optimality of the management of these cas...

  14. Tweedetaalteorie vir die eerstetaalonderwyser

    Ludolph Botha


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die eerstetaalonderwyser se aandag op tweedetaalteorie gevestig. Krashen se tweedetaalteorie word uitgesonder en die implikasies van sy werk vir eerstetaalonderwysersword ondersoek. Die oordrewe beklemtoning van vormen struktuur in moedertaalklasse ( oor die taal praatl lees/ skryf word vanuit die gesigspunt van Krashen se taalverwerwingsteorie beskou en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat daar veel meer klem op gebruiksvaardigheid behoort te val (in die taal praat!lees!skryf. In this article the first language teacher is made aware of second language teaching theory. Particularly Krashen' s second language theory is referred to and implications of his work for mother tongue teachers are discussed. The over-emphasis on form and structure in first language classes (talking/reading/writing about the language is looked at in terms of Krashen' s theory and it is concluded that the emphasis in first language classes should be far more on the functional use of the language (talking/reading/writing in the language.

  15. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Francois P. Retief


    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  16. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    Snell, Joel C.


    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  17. Die kairos van die New Age: 'n Kultuurhistoriese skets

    the whole universe, manifesting the two aspects of spirit and matter, .... vestiging van die Christendom het hierdie leer uit die Westerse kultuur verdwyn tot- ... Hegel (1770-1831) het die Simboliste aangespreek (Mathews 1986:30-31, 33). Sy.

  18. Oor die einders van die bladsy as konseptuele kuns

    Rita M.C. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n filosofies-besinnende oorsig oor konseptuele kuns. Ek argumenteer dat, soos wat die projek Oor die einders van die bladsy die grense van boekwees oorskry en konseptueel uitbrei, dit in geheel ’n konseptuele en taalgebaseerde kunsinstallasie is wat uit verskeie komponente, naamlik kunstenaarsboeke,bestaan. Hierdie saamgestelde konseptuele kunsinstallasie daag vanweë die interdissiplinêre aard daarvan, die grense van konseptuele kuns uit. Hierdie projek en uitstallings bevestig dat kunstenaarsboeke ’n ideale medium is om kunstenaars uit verskillende dissiplines by die spel met en ontdekking van die moontlikhede van die boek te betrek. Die projek kan in die geheel as konseptuele kuns getipeer word omdat die konsep boek herdink, herskep en oor gefilosofeer word.

  19. Antiretroviral therapy status among people who died of AIDS-related causes from 2009 to 2013 in Brazil: a population-based study.

    de Freitas, Marcelo Araújo; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; de Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa; Mesquita, Fabio; Ford, Nathan


    To describe the antiretroviral therapy status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who died of AIDS-related causes between 2009 and 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study. Data were obtained by linking the mortality information system and the national ART dispensing database. Trends were modelled using linear regression analysis. A total of 61 425 AIDS-related deaths were registered in Brazil between 2009 and 2013. Median age at death was 41 years (IQR: 33-49), and 65.7% (40 337) of deaths were among men; 47.2% (29 004) of PLHIV who died during the study period had never started treatment, 7.0% (4274) had discontinued it, 15.9% (9775) were on ART for 6 months or less and 29.9% (18 372) were on ART for more than 6 months. Only 1.3% of PLHIV were on third-line ARV regimens when they died. AIDS-related mortality remains a challenge even in a context of sustained universal access to antiretroviral treatment due to failure of service provision, not to therapy failure. Robust health policies closing gaps in the HIV continuum of care are crucial to further reduce mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    L. Roeleveld


    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  1. Rezension von: Hilge Landweer, Catherine Newmark, Christine Kley, Simone Miller (Hg.: Philosophie und die Potenziale der Gender Studies. Peripherie und Zentrum im Feld der Theorie. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2012.

    Mirjam Dierkes


    Full Text Available Können die akademischen Disziplinen Gender Studies und Philosophie voneinander profitieren? Die am vorliegenden Sammelband Beteiligten bejahen diese Frage eindeutig und sind der Überzeugung, dass hier ein erhebliches – größtenteils noch unausgeschöpftes – Potential liegt, dessen Facettenreichtum bei der Lektüre des Buches tatsächlich sehr anschaulich wird. Gerade aufgrund der Fülle der bearbeiteten Fragestellungen hätte allerdings eine deutlicher inhaltlich-systematisch angelegte Struktur dem Band gutgetan. Doch liefert er durch Anregungen zu vielfältigen Reflexionen über konkret-inhaltliche und wissenschaftstheoretische Fragen und deutliche Akzentsetzungen für die Weiterentwicklung feministischer Theorie nicht nur den Beweis des Potentials der Gender Studies für die Philosophie, vielmehr wird die Inspirationskraft auch in umgekehrter Richtung deutlich.

  2. Study into the effects of hemopoietic growth factors on the radiation sensitivity of hemopoiesis and hemopoietic recovery; Untersuchungen ueber die Wirkung haemopoetischer Wachstumsfaktoren auf die Strahlenempfindlichkeit der Haemopoese und ihr Regenerationsvermoegen

    Nothdurft, W.; Kreja, L.; Selig, C.


    The report is dealing with experimental work performed to test therapy protocols by means of hemopoietic growth factor treatment which could be effective in accelerating hemopoietic recovery after total-body irradiation or partial-body irradiation. In dogs which were exposed to total-body irradiation (2.4 Gy) treatment with erythropoietin completely compensated the radiation induced damage to the erythroid lineage. Treatment with interleukin-6 stimulated megakaryocyte regeneration and platelet recovery in most of the animals but had adverse effects on the blood erythrocyte concentration. In dogs which had received upper body irradiation with a radiation dose of 11.7 Gy causing complete aplasia in 72% of the total bone marrow mass treatment with G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) and - to a lesser extent - with GM-CSF (granulocytemacrophage CSF) accelerated hemopoietic recovery in the damaged sites. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht befasst sich mit tierexperimentellen Untersuchungen, mit denen geprueft wurde, inwieweit es moeglich ist, die Regeneration der Haemopoese nach homogener Ganzkoerperbestrahlung sowie Teilkoerperbestrahlung durch Anwendung von haemopoetischen Wachstumsfaktoren zu foerdern. Bei Hunden, die eine Ganzkoerperbestrahlung (2,4 Gy) erhalten hatten, konnte die Strahlenschaedigung der Erythropoese durch Behandlung mit Erythropoetin gaenzlich kompensiert werden. Durch Behandlung mit Interleukin-6 wurde die Regeneration der Megakaryozytopoese bei den meisten Tieren deutlich beschleunigt, die Erythrozytenkonzentration aber negativ beeinflusst. Bei Hunden, bei denen 72% der gesamten Knochenmarkmasse durch Bestrahlung des Vorderkoerpers mit einer Strahlendosis von 11,7 Gy zerstoert wurde, konnte die Regeneration des zerstoerten Knochenmarks durch kurzzeitige Behandlung mit den beiden haemopoetischen Wachstumsfaktoren GM-CSF (=Granulozyten/Makrophagen-Kolonien stimulierender Faktoren) und G-CSF beschleunigt werden. (orig.)

  3. 铆模倾角对铆接质量的影响研究%Effect Study on Riveting Quality with Different Angles of Riveting Die

    李奕寰; 曹增强; 张岐良; 冯东格


    As a novel riveting process, electromagnetic riveting (EMR) can make a rivet form the swage head in the forming cup in one shoot. In order to study the influence of die configuration on the riveting quality of EMR, this paper analyzes the riveting quality of swage heads, interference-fit and residual compressive stress with different angles of riveting die through numerical simulation and experiment. A fatigue test is designed for experimental verification and analysis on the riveting specimens using different angles of riveting die. The results show that the variety of angles has a great influence on interference-fit: a smaller angle can obtain a greater amount of interference-fit. A 66° riveting die angle is recommended for use to achieve an appropriate interference and the longest fatigue life of joints.%电磁铆接(EMR)作为一种新的铆接工艺方法,可以使铆钉在铆模型腔内一次完成镦头成形.为了研究铆模构型对EMR质量的影响,通过数值模拟和试验对不同倾角铆模铆接的铆钉镦头、干涉量和残余压应力进行了研究分析.设计疲劳试验对不同倾角铆模铆接的试件进行验证和分析.研究结果表明:铆模倾角对干涉量有较大影响,倾角越小,干涉量越大;采用66°铆模倾角可以实现较理想的干涉配合,接头疲劳寿命最长.

  4. Die omvang en aard van afwesigheid in die werkplek: ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse gevalstudie

    Anel Du Plessis


    Full Text Available The scope and nature of absenteeism in the workplace: A South African case study. The objective of the study was to develop quantitative measures for monitoring trends of absenteeism in a company within the meat industry and to assess qualitatively the possible existence of a collective culture of absenteeism within the organisation. The scope and frequency of absenteeism, costs incurred due to absenteeism, and individual absenteeism patterns of 145 employees, were studied over a period of one year. It was found that 2900 planned and 912 unplanned leave workdays that were lost, resulted in direct costs of R895,054.55. Five employees who were absent most often accounted for 18.60% of the unplanned leave taken. The extraordinary levels of absenteeism found in this case study were ascribed to specific employees. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om kwantitatiewe metings vir die monitering van afwesigheidstendense vir ‘n maatskappy in die vleisbedryf te ontwikkel en om die moontlike bestaan van ‘n kollektiewe afwesigheidskultuur kwalitatief te ondersoek. Die omvang, frekwensie en koste van afwesigheid, asook individuele afwesigheidspatrone, is bestudeer vir 145 werknemers oor ‘n tydperk van een jaar. Daar is bevind dat 2900 beplande en 912 onbeplande verlofwerkdae wat verloor is, die maatskappy R895,054.55 gekos het. Vyf werknemers wat die meeste afwesig was, was verantwoordelik vir 18,60% van die onbeplande verlof geneem. Die uitsonderlike vlakke van afwesigheid in hierdie gevalstudie is toegeskryf aan spesifieke werknemers.

  5. Die plek en funksie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus in ’n omkeerstrategie in die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika

    Callie F.C. Coetzee


    Full Text Available Die herdenking van die 450 jarige bestaan van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (1563−2013 is ’n baie besondere geleentheid. Dit is ’n geleentheid om ons in die ryke erfenis van die 16de-eeuse Reformasie te verheug. Dit is ook ’n geleentheid om met die oog op die toekoms van kerkwees oor die relevansie, handhawing en belewing van hierdie erfenis te besin. Wat die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika betref, word hierdie besinning oor die plek en funksie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK in besonder in hierdie artikel gedoen in die lig van die sogenaamde omkeerstrategie waarop die Algemene Sinode van 2012 besluit het. Deputate wat die volgende sinode moet adviseer, het onder andere die opdrag om ’n studie te doen ‘… van die suiwerheid en toepaslikheid van die leer wat op elke vlak verkondig word, asook hoe dit verder uitgebou kan word’. In die artikel word beredeneer dat die volgende sake in die besinning oor ’n omkeerstrategie vir ’n kerkgemeenskap in die reformatoriese tradisie aandag sal moet ontvang: Die wese van die kerk, kerk en belydenis en die belydenis as deel van die wese van die kerk. Wat die HK in besonder betref, word aandag gegee aan die unieke aard daarvan, die kategismusprediking en die apologetiese en missionale gerigtheid daarvan omdat dit ’n belangrike onderdeel van die werk van bogenoemde deputate vorm. Die artikel word afgesluit met enkele slotopmerkings en ‘aanbevelings’ dat opnuut oor die kategismusprediking besin word en dat die handhawing van die belydenis in enige omkeerstrategie ononderhandelbaar is.The place and function of the Heidelberg Catechism in a ‘turn-around’ strategy within the Reformed Churches in South Africa. The commemoration of the 450th year of the Heidelberg Catechism (1563−2013 is a special occasion worldwide. It is an opportunity to experience gratitude and joy for the rich heritage of the 16th-century Reformation. It is also an opportunity to reflect on maintaining and

  6. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    V. Sathiyamoorthy


    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.


    M.F.V.T. Pereira


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  8. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Erik Swyngedouw


    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  9. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type 1) within the product group: wood pellet heating systems; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)


    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  10. Die Anima in Eschenbachs Parzival

    Kitunen, S. (Sakari)


    In meiner Pro-Gradu -Arbeit untersuche ich die Darstellung und Entwicklung des Jungschen Animabegriffes im Parzival von Wolfram von Eschenbach. Ich werde die in Parzival vorkommenden Charaktere als Anima- und Animus-Figuren analysieren und untersuchen, wie die Interaktion zwischen ihnen die Entwicklung des Helden beeinflusst. Viele Werke, die das Thema Frauen bzw. Weiblichkeit im Mittelalter behandeln, gehen oft davon aus, dass die Frauen in der mittelalterlichen Literatur als Objekte behande...

  11. Die liefde wat die son beweeg en die ander sterre: Digterlike transendering – tot die vermenigvuldigde lewe ontroer

    A.S. (Rensia Robinson


    Full Text Available T.T. Cloete se oeuvre word onder andere gekenmerk deur fyn waarneming van ’n mistieke vervlegtheid in die skepping. Dit word op vele maniere ontgin en geïnterpreteer. Die poëtiese potensiaal van die vrou, in uiteenlopende gestaltes, is een van die sentrale temas waardeur die digter hieraan vorm gee. In die kunstige, bibliofiele uitgawe Uit die wit lig van my land gesny val die lig op die vrou se kreatiewe rol in die groter skepping wat haar onder andere identifiseer as haarveer vir digterlike insig en vormgewing. Vrou (alternatief Anna Perenna, universele moeder, is nie slegs draer van die lewenskiem wat tot gees transendeer nie, maar sy funksioneer as ligbron (’sonvrou’ wat selfs kosmiese insig verwesenlik. Dit raak meervoudige vorms en patrone waarin die mens ingeweef is in die universele hologram van lewe. Vir die digter is hierdie patroonvorming vergelykbaar met die maak van Persiese tapyte waarvan die patrone vasgelê is in die geheue van voorouers, en oorgedra word na opeenvolgende geslagte. In dié verkenning word digterlike transendering ontgin as ’n proses waarin die kleurvolheid van lewe en dood in en deur individuele sowel as universele vroulikheid geïnspireer word.

  12. Die liefde wat die son beweeg en die ander sterre: Digterlike transendering – tot die vermenigvuldigde lewe ontroer

    A.S. (Rensia Robinson


    Full Text Available T.T. Cloete se oeuvre word onder andere gekenmerk deur fyn waarneming van ’n mistieke vervlegtheid in die skepping. Dit word op vele maniere ontgin en geïnterpreteer. Die poëtiese potensiaal van die vrou, in uiteenlopende gestaltes, is een van die sentrale temas waardeur die digter hieraan vorm gee. In die kunstige, bibliofiele uitgawe Uit die wit lig van my land gesny val die lig op die vrou se kreatiewe rol in die groter skepping wat haar onder andere identifiseer as haarveer vir digterlike insig en vormgewing. Vrou (alternatief Anna Perenna, universele moeder, is nie slegs draer van die lewenskiem wat tot gees transendeer nie, maar sy funksioneer as ligbron (’sonvrou’ wat selfs kosmiese insig verwesenlik. Dit raak meervoudige vorms en patrone waarin die mens ingeweef is in die universele hologram van lewe. Vir die digter is hierdie patroonvorming vergelykbaar met die maak van Persiese tapyte waarvan die patrone vasgelê is in die geheue van voorouers, en oorgedra word na opeenvolgende geslagte. In dié verkenning word digterlike transendering ontgin as ’n proses waarin die kleurvolheid van lewe en dood in en deur individuele sowel as universele vroulikheid geïnspireer word.

  13. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    M. M. Nel


    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  14. HSM strategy study for hardened die and mold steels manufacturing based on the mechanical and thermal load reduction strategy


    The paper discussed cutter-work engagement situation hidden behind the mechanical and thermal load effect on curing edges during high speed hard machining process.The engagement situation was investigated in great detail using experimental and geometrical analytic measures.Experiments were conducted using A1TiN-coated micro-grain carbide end mill cutters to cut hardened die steel.On the basis,a general high speed hard machining strategy,which aimed at eliminating excessive engagement situation during high-speed machining (HSM) hard machining,was proposed.The strategy includes the procedures to identify prone-to-overload areas where excessive engagement situation occurs and then to create a reliable tool path,which has the effect of cutting load reduction to remove the prone-to-overload areas.

  15. Ambrosiaster se uitleg van die Filemonbrief en die retoriese analise van hierdie brief

    D. Francois Tolmie


    Full Text Available Die studie van Paulus se brief aan Filemon het gebaat by die hernude belangstelling in die retoriese analise van Nuwe-Testamentiese geskrifte, in die sin dat ’n groot aantal retoriese analises van die brief gepubliseer is. Hierdie retoriese analises is vanuit ’n verskeidenheid perspektiewe gedoen, maar tot dusver het niemand nog die manier sistematies ondersoek waarop die vierde-eeuse outeur, wat later die naam Ambrosiastergekry het, die brief in sy kommentaar op die Pauliniese briewe geïnterpreteer het nie. Hierdie artikel bied dus ’n oorsig van Ambrosiaster se interpretasie van die brief aan Filemon en dui aan watter bydrae dit tot die retoriese analise van die brief kan maak. Ambrosiaster’s exposition of the Letter to Philemon and the rhetorical analysis of the letter. In recent times, the study of Paul’s letter to Philemon benefitted from the renewed interest in the rhetorical analysis of New Testament writings, in the sense that a large number of rhetorical studies of the letter have been published. These rhetorical analyses of the letter have been done from different perspectives, but thus far, no one has systematically investigated the way in which the fourth-century author, who was later called Ambrosiaster, interpreted the letter in his commentary on the Pauline letters. Accordingly, this article offers an overview of Ambrosiaster’s interpretation of the letter to Philemon, and then outlines the contribution that his reading of the letter can make to the rhetorical interpretation of it.

  16. Diskussie oor die millenium en die herstel van Israel

    J. J. Engelbrecht van Waverley


    Full Text Available Dit verheug my dat daar eindelik gereageer word op my boekie. Behalwe telefoonoproepe en briewe van medechiliaste was daar tot dusver geen kommentaar van anti-chiliastiese kant. Ek het die boekie aan ongeveer 1800 predikante en professore gestuur en vriendelik uitgenooi tot nuwe besinning. Net soos oor die soteriologie, is die Bybel nêrens in teëspraak met homself oor die eskatologie nie. God gee in sy Woord nie vir ons drie verskillende toekomsbeelde om uit te kies nie. God is een en sy profetiese Woord is deurgaans eenstemmig m.b.t. die raad van God oor Israel, die nasies en die kerk.

  17. Awareness of Dying Preface

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD


    Full Text Available Recently The New York Times reported: “VERY ILL CHILDREN TOLD OF DISEASE; Leukemia Patients at N.I.H. Not Shielded From Truth. . . . A child should always be told the truth, even when he has an incurable disease such as leukemia, according to two researchers who interviewed 51 children hospitalized at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, for treat¬ment of leukemia.” This kind of news item reflects the growing concern among researchers and public about matters which touch on morality as much as on the technical aspects of medi¬cine. The rapidly increasing proportion of elderly people in the American population presents a range of personal and social questions; not the least is how they view their newly won longevity (often including anticipated years of chronic disease as well as their attitudes toward death. In consequence, many geriatric specialists are beginning to study American attitudes toward death, while others, spurred on by what seems a sense-less prolonging of life within hospital walls by medical tech¬nology run wild, are raising questions about death and dying in American life.

  18. Adapt or die?

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H


    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  19. Die kerk en die kommunisme, uitgangspunt en perspektief

    A. H. Murray


    Full Text Available Waar ons onmiddellike opdrag is om die konkrete taak van die kerk in die bestryding van Kommunisme en Marxisme te beskrywe, is ons gedwing om terug te dink aan die eerste grondslae van die vyandelike aanslag — die grondslae waarop sy leer en sy beleid van gewelddadige optrede berus. Want ons het nie te doen met ’n opportunistiese onderneming of ’n imperialistiese waagstuk as dit oor die Kommunisme gaan nie, en ook nie met die blinde opbruising van laere en agterlike volksklasse nie, maar wel met ’n deurdagte en afgeronde heelal-filosofie wat oor die aardbol versprei is en wat op sistematiese wyse en met wetenskaplike strategie ’n aanval op die bestaande Christelike orde maak.

  20. Die design and process optimization of die cast V6 engine blocks


    The use of aluminum, particularly for engine blocks, has grown considerably in the past ten years, and continues to rise in the automotive industry. In order to enhance the quality and engineering functionality of die cast engine blocks, die design and processes have to be optimized. In this study, a computer simulation software,MAGMAsoft, as an advanced tool for optimizing die design and casting process, was employed to virtually visualize cavity filling and patterns of a V6 engine block. The original die design and process was simulated first to establish a baseline.A reality check was used to verifythe predicted results. Then, the die modification with a different runner system was made by using a CAD software, Unigraphics (UG). The simulation on combinations of the modified die design and revised process was performed to examine the effect of die modification and process change on flow filling of V6 engine blocks. The simulated prediction indicates that the enhancement of cavity filling due to the die and process modification minimizes the occurrence of defects during casting, and consequently improves the quality of blocks. The results of mechanical testing show a significant increase in fatigue strengths, and a moderately improvement on tensile properties for the blocks die cast with the new die design and process in comparison with those produced by the original ones.

  1. Die Psychosen bei Epilepsie

    Glauninger G


    Full Text Available In einer Übersicht werden die verschiedenen Formen psychotischer Zustandsbilder bei Epilepsiepatienten, deren Ätiopathogenese und Möglichkeiten der Behandlung dieser Störungen beschrieben. Risikofaktoren finden sich durch neurobiologische Gegebenheiten - besonders bei Mitbeteiligung des Temporallappens, durch psychosoziale Einflüsse und manchmal auch durch medikamentöse Behandlung. Anhand von Fallbeispielen sollen dem Leser typische Krankheitsverläufe von psychotischen Episoden bei Epilepsiepatienten, die zumeist erst bei einer schon länger dauernden Epilepsie auftreten, nähergebracht werden. Es wird deutlich, daß sich die Beschwerden von Patienten mit Epilepsie nicht auf iktale Phänomene beschränken. Bei der Behandlung dieser Patienten kommt einer guten interdisziplinären Zusammenarbeit besondere Bedeutung zu.

  2. Die doeltreffendheid van talentbestuursprogramme in uitgesoekte Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies

    Jo-Ann P. Gainsford


    Full Text Available Oriëntasie: Die identifisering, behoud en ontwikkeling van talent moet doeltreffend bestuur word. Navorsingsdoelwit: Die studie het ten doel om die doeltreffendheid van bestaande talentbestuursprogramme in uitgesoekte Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies in die finansiële, vervoer- en mynbousektore te evalueer.Motivering vir die studie: Streng wetgewing (soos regstellende aksie en die swak ekonomiese situasie in Suid-Afrika veroorsaak dat goeie presteerders as baie waardevol beskou word en behou moet word. Indien organisasies nie oor ’n doeltreffende talentbestuursprogram beskik nie, sal hulle waarskynlik talentvolle werknemers verloor.Navorsingsontwerp, -benadering en -metode: Hierdie studie maak van ’n kwantitatiewe navorsingsontwerp gebruik. Deur middel van toevallige steekproefneming is 117 werknemers in die onderskeie sektore ingesluit. Die ANOVA-toets en Tukey se paarsgewyse vergelykingstegniek is aangewend om die verskille tussen die drie sektore te bepaal.Resultate: Die resultate van die studie dui daarop dat die organisasies wat aan die studie deelgeneem het grootliks al die noodsaaklike komponente in die talentbestuursprogramme insluit. Die uitsondering is egter talentbestuursagteware, wat oor die algemeen nie in die talentbestuursprogramme ingesluit is nie. Verdere resultate dui daarop dat die oorgrote meerderheid van die respondente nie baie tevrede is met die komponente van die talentbestuursprogramme in hul organisasies nie. Die respondente van die mynbousektor het die laagste tevredenheidsvlakke ten opsigte van die talentbestuursprogram getoon. Die resultate dui verder daarop dat die finansiële sektor se talentbestuursprogram meer doeltreffend as dié van die mynbousektor is.Praktiese/bestuursimplikasies: ’n Omvattende lys van komponente van ’n talentbestuursprogram is ontwikkel om organisasies te ondersteun in die ontwerp en implementering van ’n doeltreffende talentbestuursprogram.Bydrae/waardetoevoeging: Die resultate van

  3. What a wish to die can mean: reasons, meanings and functions of wishes to die, reported from 30 qualitative case studies of terminally ill cancer patients in palliative care.

    Ohnsorge, Kathrin; Gudat, Heike; Rehmann-Sutter, Christoph


    Despite research efforts over recent decades to deepen our understanding of why some terminally ill patients express a wish to die (WTD), there is broad consensus that we need more detailed knowledge about the factors that might influence such a wish. The objective of this study is to explore the different possible motivations and explanations of patients who express or experience a WTD. Thirty terminally ill cancer patients, their caregivers and relatives; from a hospice, a palliative care ward in the oncology department of a general hospital, and an ambulatory palliative care service; 116 semi-structured qualitative interviews analysed using a complementary grounded theory and interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. THREE DIMENSIONS WERE FOUND TO BE CRUCIAL FOR UNDERSTANDING AND ANALYSING WTD STATEMENTS: intentions, motivations and social interactions. This article analyses the motivations of WTD statements. Motivations can further be differentiated into (1) reasons, (2) meanings and (3) functions. Reasons are the factors that patients understand as causing them to have or accounting for having a WTD. These reasons can be ordered along the bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model. Meanings describe the broader explanatory frameworks, which explain what this wish means to a patient. Meanings are larger narratives that reflect personal values and moral understandings and cannot be reduced to reasons. Functions describe the effects of the WTD on patients themselves or on others, conscious or unconscious, that might be part of the motivation for a WTD. Nine typical 'meanings' were identified in the study, including "to let death put an end to severe suffering", "to move on to another reality", and - more frequently- "to spare others from the burden of oneself". The distinction between reasons, meanings and functions allows for a more detailed understanding of the motivation for the WTD statements of cancer patients in palliative care situations. Better understanding

  4. Wêreldgebeure gedurende die jaar 1954.

    S. du Toit


    Full Text Available Die jaar 1954 het begin sonder Stalin, die magtigste diktator van die modeme tyd, en dit wa s nog onseker hoe die nuwe regime sou optree.Teen die einde van die ja a r weet ons nou dat hulle oënskynlik meer toeskietlik is maar in wese nog net so geheimsinnig en nog net so geslepe. Die Petrof-gesjriedenis in Australië het weereens laat blyk dat daar oordie hele aarde ’n netwerk van spioene is.

  5. Die voorspelling van akademiese prestasie na die eerste universiteitsjaar

    G. K. Huysamen


    Full Text Available The prediction of academic performance after the first year at university. In agreement with findings elsewhere, the correlations of high school performance (Swedish Formula Point and the verbal and nonverbal GSAT scores with the mean percentage marks (MPMs gradually decreased from the first through sixth semester at university, whereas the decrease in the corresponding correlations with the cumulative mean percentage marks (CMPMs was less pronounced. The later the semester for which either an MPM or a CMPM was used as a predictor, the higher the latter tended to correlate with the MPMs of subsequent semesters but these correlations also decreased in size over the ensuing semesters. The best predictor of the MPM of any given semester was either the MPM of the immediately preceding semester or the CMPM of all the preceding semesters. Opsomming In ooreenstemming met bevindings elders, het die korrelasies van hoërskoolprestasie (Sweedse Formulepunt en verbale en nie-verbale ASAT-tellings met die gemiddelde persentasiepunte (GPP's geleidelik van die eerste tot die sesde semester op Universiteit afgeneem, terwyl die afname in die ooreenstemmende korrelasies met die kumulatiewe gemiddelde persentasiepunte (KGP's minder opvallend was. Hoe later die semester waarvan die GGP of KGP as voorspeller gebruik is, hoe hoër was dit geneig om met die GGP's van die daaropvolgende semesters te korreleer, maar die korrelasies het: eweneens met die toename in laasgenoemde semesters in grootte afgeneem. Die beste voorspeller van die GPP van enige gegewe semester was of die GPP van die pas afgelope semester, of die KGP van al die voorafgaande semesters.

  6. Living and dying with dignity: a qualitative study of the views of older people in nursing homes.

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene


    most older people living in nursing homes die there. An empirically based model of dignity has been developed, which forms the basis of a brief psychotherapy to help promote dignity and reduce distress at the end of life. to explore the generalisability of the dignity model to older people in nursing homes. qualitative interviews were used to explore views on maintaining dignity of 18 residents of nursing homes. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. The analysis was both deductive (arising from the dignity model) and inductive (arising from participants' views). the main categories of the dignity model were broadly supported: illness-related concerns, social aspects of the illness experience and dignity conserving repertoire. However, subthemes relating to death were not supported and two new themes emerged. Some residents saw their symptoms and loss of function as due to old age rather than illness. Although residents did not appear to experience distress due to thoughts of impending death, they were distressed by the multiple losses they had experienced. these findings add to our understanding of the concerns of older people in care homes on maintaining dignity and suggest that dignity therapy may bolster their sense of dignity.

  7. Die verband van leerprosesveranderlikes met leersukses

    D. F. Lotriet


    Full Text Available The relationship between learning process variables and study success. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the constructs “meaning orientation” (in-depth approach to study, “transformational conception” and “self-regulation” in the distance education context (TV– learning. A random sample of 1951 participants taken from a large financial institution yielded 263 usable questionnaires. The responses obtained to the 167 items were subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die onderhawige studie was om te bepaal of daar ‘n verband tussen die konstrukte“betekenisoriëntasie"? (dieptebenadering tot leer, “transformasionele begrip"? en “selfregulering"? in die afstandsonderrigkonteks (TV-leer bestaan. ‘n Ewekansige steekproef van 1951 deelnemers geneem uit ‘n groot finansiële instelling het 263 bruikbare vraelyste opgelewer. Die response op 167 items is aan faktor- en itemontledings onderwerp. Daarna is die interver-wantskappe tussen die leerprosesveranderlikes, naamlik “benadering tot leer"?, “begrip van leer"? en regulering-strategieë"? bepaal.

  8. 'n Lewe met die vaders Oor Carl Borchardt as student van die vroee kerk

    J.H. Ie Roux


    Full Text Available A life with the fathers Carl Borchardt's views on the early church This article focuses on Carl Borchardt's contribution to the study of the early church. Especially one aspect of his historical endeavours is highlighted: the close link between the Bible and church history. He illustrated how the early church lived from the Bible and how patristic theology was shaped fundamentally by the Bible. Because he was so wellequiped for the study of the early church Borchardt succeeded highlighting the beauty of patristic exegesis and opening up new ways� of understanding our religious past. Dit was in Julie 1968 dat ek Carl Borchardt vir die eerste keer ontmoet het. Professor Ben Marais was die semester weg en Borchardt moes die middeleeue en die reformasie aan ons doseer. Hy was inderdaad 'n uitstekende keuse. Pas twee jaar gelede het hy in Leiden by die befaamde Bakhuizen van den Brink gepromoveer. Sy proefskrif, Hilary of Poitier's role in the Arian struggle, was van so 'n gehalte dat dit in die reeks, Kerkhistorische Studien, opgeneem is. Borchardt was 'n uitnemende plaasvervanger vir Ben 1-farais. So ver ek egter kan onthou, was dosent Borchardt 'n bietjie skugter en manuskripgebonde, maar tog was daar iets in sy Iesings wat my na al die jare nog bybly: 'n deeglike kennis van en 'n vaardigheid met primere en sekondere bronne van die middeleeue en die reformasie. Nou nog onthou ek van die bronne wat hy met die oog op 'n Lutherstudie vermeld het. Drie jaar later was ons saam kollegas aan die Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. Borchardt was in aIle opsigte my senior, maar tog was hy 'n besondere kollega. Tydens daardie goeie Unisajare was ons dosentegetalle klein en gevolglik het ek Borchardt op 'n besondere manier leer ken. Talle gesprekke oor die kerkgeskiedenis het in sy kantoor of by die teekan plaasgevind. Toe hy in 1975 Unisa se diens verlaat en hom by die Universiteit van Pretoria aangesluit het, was dit 'n droewige dag. Vir my was dit egter 'n

  9. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    Juul, Jesper


    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  10. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    B. C. Schutte


    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  11. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    Juul, Jesper


    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  12. Die Creol Taal

    Rossem, van Cefas; Voort, van der Hein


    Negerhollands is the original creole language, lexically closely related to Dutch, of the Virgin Islands. It emerged as a separate language around 1700 and died out completely only a few years ago, having gradually been replaced by English in the course of the nineteenth century. Apart from giving i

  13. Die andere Revolution

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf


    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  14. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  15. 'n Ondersoek na die potensiaal-bepaling van werknemers in die landbousektor.

    J. C. D. Augustyn


    Full Text Available An investigation into determining the potential of workers in the agricultural sector. Industrial Psychological principles and concepts are not being applied extensively in the agricultural sector. Against this background an attempt was made to scientifically identify potential and predict job performance amongst farm labourers. Using the PAQ method of job analysis, critical attributes were identified and a satisfactorily valid battery of tests was developed. The results of this study underlines the importance of the identification of the potential of farm labourers as a first step in the personnel management process. It also serves as a source of information that could be used by farmers for counselling purposes. Opsomming Wat die toepassing van Bedryfsielkundige beginsels en konsepte betref bestaan daar in die landboubedryf nog groot leemtes. Teen hierdie agtergrond is 'n poging aangewend om op 'n wetenskaplike wyse die potensiaal van plaasarbeiders te bepaal. Deur middel van die WOV-metode van posontleding is kritieke attribute by workers geidentifiseer en kon 'n toetsbattery met aanvaarbare geldigheid saamgestel word. Die resultate van die studie bevestig dat die identifisering van die potensiaal van plaaswerkers 'n noodsaaklike eerste stap in die personeelbestuursproses is. Dit kan ook met groot vrug as voorligtingshulpmiddel deur boere gebruik word.

  16. Kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruikshindernisse ten opsigte van die riglyne vir die ontwikkeling en validering van personeelkeuringsprosedures

    M. Boolsen


    Full Text Available The guidelines for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures: knowledge, usage and obstacles. Selection is a key human resources function in any organization. Expected changes in South African Labour Law combined with the importance of advancing organizational efficiency lead in 1992 to the publication of the Guidelines on the Development and Validation of Personnel Selection Procedures. The study in question is aimed at a description of the current knowledge base, usage patterns and usage obstacles vis-a-vis the Guidelines of a specific group of human resource specialists in South Africa. Recommendation based on the research findings are made. Opsomming Keuring is 'n sleutel menslike hulpbronbestuursfunksie in enige onderneming. Verwagte veranderinge in Suid-Afrikaanse Arbeidswetgewing en die noodsaaklikheid van die bevordering van organisatoriese doeltreffendheid lei in 1992 tot die publikasie van die Riglyne vir die Ontwikkeling en Validering van Personeelkeuringsprosedures. Die onderhawige studie is gerig op 'n beskrywing van die heersende kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruiks- hindernisse vis-a-vis die Riglyne by 'n spesifieke groep menslike hulpbronkundiges in Suid-Afrika. Aanbevelings word op grond van die bevindinge gemaak.

  17. Automatische Qualitätsverbesserung von Fraktur-Volltexten aus der Retrodigitalisierung am Beispiel der Zeitschrift Die Grenzboten

    Manfred Nölte


    die Funktionalität der Nachkorrektur deutschsprachiger Frakturschrift erweitert. In einem Ausblick werden Bedarfe und Möglichkeiten für die Zukunft aufgezeigt. Gradually, the humanities are provided with a number of computer based tools and scientific infrastructures of the digital humanities. As digital full text is strongly needed for these tools and infrastructures, the demand for high-quality full texts is constantly rising. OCRed full text from Gothic typeface texts is of considerably worse quality than OCRed full text from Antiqua. The value of uncorrected and unstructured OCR full text is fairly low. As multiple millions of pages need to be processed, the method should be efficient with respect to expenditure and costs. Therefore, we introduce an almost fully automated approach for the post correction of OCR full text. The approach developed at the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen (SuUB is a straightforward one. One of the requirements, a list of historical word forms, was easily generated. An efficient algorithm carries out the matching of 1,7 million word forms against almost 80 million words taken from the historical journal Die Grenzboten. The parametrization of the algorithm, i.e. the adaption to the specific requirements of the full text project, is comprehensible and easy to understand. The results which can be achieved strongly depend on the initial quality of the full text, the dimension and quality of the list of historical word forms and the error model applied. For example, specific types of errors can only be corrected by taking context information into account. Furthermore, the cloud service overProof was enhanced by the ability to correct German Gothic typeset. This was done in a cooperation with the Australian company ProjectComputing. In the discussion, requirements and options for the future are presented.

  18. Die ontwikkeling van 'n instrument vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepte-orientasie

    L. C. De Jager


    Full Text Available The development of an instrument (the RD-Depth Questionnaire, Form B for measuring the construct psychological depth orientation is discussed. Results show that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal consistency and that the items of the questionnaire in general measure the same characteristic. Further research is needed to refine and improve the questionnaire until it meets all the psychometric requirements of a good measuring instrument.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling van 'n instrument (die RD-Diepte Vraelys, Vorm B vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepteoriëntasie word bespreek. Resultate dui daarop dat die vraelys bevredigende interne bestendigheid toon en dat die items van die vraelys oor die algemeen dieselfde eienskap meet. Verdere navorsing word egter nog vereis om die vraelys te verfyn en te verbeter sodat dit aan al die psigometriese vereistes van 'n goeie meetinstrument sal voldoen.

  19. Die Wiege stand doch in Africka


    Kaum ein Forschungsgebiet ist so umstritten wie die Palaeoanthropologie, die Lehre yore Ursprung der Menschheit. Nicht nur die Vorgeschichte, ouch die unmittelbare Entstebung des Homo sapiens entzweit die Experten: Die einen verrnuten die Wiege in Afrika,die anderen gehen davon aus, dass sich tier moderne Mensch auf mehreren Kontinenten gleichzeifig aus Vorfahren eatwickelte,

  20. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard


    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  1. Die integrasie van humoristiese tekste in die opleiding van taalonderwysstudente binne 'n konstruktivistiese paradigma

    Estelle Kruger


    Full Text Available Die artikel beskryf ’n gevallestudie waarin humoristiese tekste in die onderrig van Afrikaans aan onderwysstudente geïntegreer is. Die betrokke navorsingsprogram is gebaseer op 'n onderrigprogram wat binne 'n konstruktivistiese paradigma ontwerp en aangebied is. Ná 'n literatuuroorsig van bestaande navorsing wat die aanwending van humor in onderrigsituasies regverdig, word die navorsingsmetode binne 'n kwalitatiewe raamwerk bespreek. Verskillende fases van die onderrigprogram geniet aandag, aangevul deur voorbeelde van onderrigmateriaal en -vrae om die leergebeure te fasiliteer. Laastens volg 'n bespreking van bevindinge wat uit die navorsingsprogram gespruit het, met spesifieke verwysing na die waarde van die skryf van limerieke en parodieë, asook webgebaseerde rolspeldebatte en virtuele kletskamers as deel van rekenaarondersteunde taalonderrig. Ter afronding word die deelnemende studente se refleksie en kommentaar op die onderrigprogram ook in aanmerking geneem. This article describes a case study in which humorous texts have formed part of the method of teaching Afrikaans course for education students. This particular research focuses on a teaching programme conceptualised and executed within a constructivist paradigm. A literature review of research on the use of humour in teaching purposes is followed by a description of the qualitative methodology used. Specific examples of the educational material used in the different phases of the teaching programme and the questions posed to facilitate the learning process are then provided. This is followed by a discussion of the results of the research programme, focusing on the value of writing limericks and parodies, as well as on web-based role-play and chatrooms forming part of computer-assisted language teaching. The article ends with reflection and commentary by the education students who participated in the research programme.

  2. A robust and quick method for the estimation of long-term average indoor radon concentrations (extended Blower-Door method); Ein robustes und schnelles Verfahren zur Abschaetzung der langzeitlich mittleren Radonkonzentration in einem Gebaeude (erweiterte Blower-Door-Methode)

    Maringer, F.J. [Bundesversuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Arsenal, Vienna (Austria); Akis, M.C.; Stadtmann, H. [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria); Kaineder, H. [Amt der Oberoesterreichischen Landesregierung, Linz (Austria); Kindl, P. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria); Kralik, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Lebensmitteluntersuchung und -forschung, Vienna (Austria); Lettner, H.; Winkler, R. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Ringer, W. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria)]|[Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)


    Within the Austrian radon mitigation project `SARAH` different methods of radon diagnosis had been used. For these investigations a `Blower-Door` had been employed to apply a low pressure and to look for radon entry paths. On the occasion of the radon sniffing the team got the idea to measure the radon concentration in the Blower-Door exhaust air to get an estimate of the long-term average radon concentration in the building. In this paper the new method and their application possibilities are given. The estimation of the average radon entry rate, the average long-term radon concentration, and the evaluation of the mitigation success are described and discussed. The advantage of this procedure is to obtain a result for the annual mean indoor radon concentration after only about three hours. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des oesterreichischen Radonsanierungsprojekts `SARAH` wurden verschiedene Methoden zur Radondiagnose von Gebaeuden angewandt. Zum raschen Auffinden von Radoneintrittspfaden wurde auch ein `Blower-Door` zur Applikation eines Unterdrucks (-50 Pa) innerhalb der untersuchten Haeuser verwendet. Dabei entsprang die Idee, durch Messung der Radonkonzentration der Blower-Door-Abluft einen Hinweis auf die durchschnittliche Radonkonzentration im Gebaeude zu erhalten. In dieser Arbeit werden die neue Methode und deren Anwendungsmoeglichkeit zur Abschaetzung der mittleren Radoneintrittsrate und der langzeitlich mittleren Radonkonzentrationen (`Jahresmittelwert`) sowie des Sanierungserfolges (Ausmass der Radonreduktion) eines Gebaeudes beschrieben und diskutiert. Der Vorteil der Methode liegt darin, dass innerhalb von etwa drei Stunden Messzeit eine Abschaetzung fuer den Jahresmittelwert der Radonkonzentration eines Gebaeudes vorliegt. (orig.)

  3. Die Tambaniprojek: ’n rekenaaranimasie van Die hebsugtige seekoei

    Rita M.C. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n ondersoek na en refleksie op die tegnieke en die produksieprosesse wat gebruik is in die omskakeling van ’n tradisionele Ngano-Venda-volksverhaal, Die hebsugtige seekoei, vanaf borduurwerk in ’n digitale animasiefilm. Die artikel word gerig deur ’n metode wat afgelei is uit ’n praktykgebaseerde navorsingsmodel vir skeppende uitsette. Hierdie navorsingsmodel omskryf wyses waarvolgens skeppende uitsette as geldige navorsingsopsies gereken kan word. Die metode bestaan uit die dokumentering van en refleksie ten opsigte van die projek in drie fases, naamlik pre-produksie, produksie en post-produksie. Die Tambani-borduurwerkprojek is ’n gemeenskapsuitreikingsinisiatief wat deur Ina le Roux van stapel laat loop is. Ngano is die versamelwoord vir tradisionele Vendavolksverhale. In hierdie artikel argumenteer ons dat rekenaaranimasietegnieke wel suksesvol geïmplementeer word in die digitale omskakeling van ’n Venda-volksverhaal wat oorspronklik uit ’n mondelinge tradisie stam. Ons demonstreer hierdie argument aan die hand van Christiaan van der Westhuizen se omskakeling van Die hebsugtige seekoei in ’n rekenaaranimasie.

  4. Wider die Verherrlichung des Weiblichen : Kritik des Ökofeminismus

    Attia, Iman


    Die Studie ist eine Kritik am Frauen- und Gesellschaftsbild des Ökofeminismus. Nach der Darstellung wesentlicher theoretischer Kategorien des Ökofeminismus, die sich zentrieren im Ideal der Hausarbeit als wichtigste Form von Subsistenzarbeit, stellt die Autorin zusammenfassend fest, daß der Ökofeminismus die gesellschaftlichen Unterschiede und historischen Veränderungen ignoriert, indem er den Weiblichkeitsbegriff aus der Gebärfähigkeit ableitet. Jede Ausbeutungsform wird reduziert auf biolog...

  5. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    W. Vosloo


    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  6. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  7. Gedagtes oor die begin van die kerk - 'n geskiedenis van ...

    seriously, affirm, and thankfully acknowledge Christendom, the. Church. We must ... In all this we at least approached the theology and practice of a spiritual partisan ..... Hegel se geskiedsfilosofie hou juis 'sintese' voor as die eindpunt van die.

  8. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    C .P. Ackermann


    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  9. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Augstein, E.


    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  10. Dying for security

    Buchan, Bruce


    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  11. Dying for Security

    Bruce Buchan


    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  12. Dying from cardiac tamponade

    Powari Manish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the causes of cardiac tamponade (CT, focussing especially on haemopericardium (HP, as a terminal mode of death, within a 430,000 rural English population. Methods Our hospital mortuary register and, all postmortem reports between 1995 and 2004 inclusive, were interrogated for patients dying of CT or HP. The causes of CT/HP and selected morphological characteristics were then determined. Results 14,368 postmortems were performed in this period: of these, 461 patients died of CT. Three cases were due to non-haemorrhagic pericardial effusion. HP accounted for the remaining 458 cases of which, five were post-traumatic, 311 followed rupture of an acute myocardial infarction (RAMI, 138 after intra-pericardial rupture of dissecting ascending aortic aneurysms (RD3A and four were due to miscellaneous causes. HP was more commonly due to RAMI. Men tended to die from RAMI or RD3A earlier than women. RAMI or RD3A were commoner in men Two thirds of RAMI were associated with coronary artery thrombosis. Anterior free wall rupture was commonest overall, and in women, but posterior free wall rupture was commoner in men. The volume of intrapericardial blood in RAMI (mean = 440 ml and RD3A (mean = 498 ml varied between 150 and 1000 ml: intrapericardial blood volume was greater in men than in women dying from either RAMI or RD3A. Conclusion At postmortem, CT is most often related to HP, attributable to either RAMI or intrapericardial RD3A. Post-traumatic and other causes of CT are infrequent.

  13. ’n Teoretiese besinning oor die implikasies van die filosofie van tegnologie vir kriteria vir vakkurrikulumontwikkeling en -evaluering

    Piet Ankiewicz


    Full Text Available Tegnologie-onderwys wat wêreldwyd nog relatief nuut is, het nie ’n uitgebreide navorsingsbasis, goed gevestigde klaskamerpraktyk en ’n wetenskaplik deurdagte,vakgefundeerde, filosofiese raamwerk waarop dit kan steun nie. Tegnologie is ook ’n ontwikkelende skoolvak sonder ’n ekwivalente akademiese dissipline waarop kurrikulumontwikkeling en klaskamerpraktyk kan bou. Teen hierdie agtergrond is die Kurrikulum-en-assesseringsbeleidverklaring (KABV vir Tegnologie byvoorbeeld in 2014 in die senior fase amptelik geïmplementeer. Daar is wye reaksie op die intensionele of gespesifiseerde vakkurrikulum, hetsy positief of negatief, vanaf verskillende rolspelers en belangegroepe. Dog by die gebrek aan vakfilosofies gefundeerde kriteria vir die ontwikkeling en evaluering van die intensionele tegnologiekurrikulum is dit dikwels nie duidelik of sulke reaksie geregverdig is nie. Gevolglik is dit onmoontlik om sodanige vakkurrikula na waarde te beoordeel. Gebaseer op Mitcham se raamwerk, rapporteer die literatuur oor ’n filosofiese raamwerk vir tegnologie, wat rigtinggewend is vir tegnologieklaskamerpraktyk, tegnologieonderwyseropleiding en vir Wetenskap-, Tegnologie- en Samelewing-studies (WTS. Die doel van hierdie artikel was om ondersoek in te stel hoe ’n wetenskaplik deurdagte, filosofiese raamwerk vir tegnologie rigtinggewend in die ontwikkeling en evaluering van tegnologiekurrikula kan wees. Die volgende navorsingsvraag het as vertrekpunt vir die teoretiese besinning gedien: Gebaseer op die vier wyses waarop tegnologie manifesteer – naamlik as objek, kennis, aktiwiteit, en wilshandeling – watter wetenskaplik gefundeerde kriteria kan afgelei word vir die ontwikkeling en evaluering van die intensionele tegnologiekurrikula? As antwoord is dit belangrik dat die kurrikulumontwikkelaars en -evalueerders hulle deeglik vergewis van die filosofiese raamwerk vir tegnologie wat rigtinggewend vir vakkurrikulumontwikkeling en -evaluering is.

  14. Die medizinische Diskussion um die Fettleibigkeit 1800-1914

    Holstermann, Inga Kristine


    Gegenstand der Untersuchung ist die medizinische Diskussion um die Fettleibigkeit von 1800 bis 1914. Dargestellt werden die unterschiedlichen Betrachtungsweisen der Fettleibigkeit beeinflusst durch gesellschaftliche, industrielle und medizinische Entwicklungen im Untersuchungszeitraum unter den Aspekten der Ursachen (Lebensführung, erbliche Veranlagung, Geschlecht, Alter, Stoffwechselstörungen) und Folgen (Gesundheitsgefahren, Ästhetik, psychische Auswirkungen). Des weiteren werden Konzepte z...

  15. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik



    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.


    M. Blanckenberg


    Full Text Available

    You died two thousand years ago, Catullus,
    Myriads since then have walked the earth you knew
    All their long lives and faded into nothing,
    And still across that waste men think of you.

    J C Squire: “To a Roman” (19231

    Hierdie bespreking ondersoek die moontlikheid dat beide Gaius Valerius Catullus en Antjie Krog in hulle digkuns gebruik maak van 'n persona as metafoor vir die kreatiewe proses van skryf.

    Gedig c. 50 van Catullus word as voorbeeld gebruik waar die moontlikheid bestudeer word dat die Calvus in gedig c. 50 gebruik word as 'n metafoor vir die kreatiewe proses van skryf. Deur die bestudering van die betrokke gedig word die effek wat Calvus op Catullus uitoefen metafories vergelyk met die effek wat die kreatiewe proses op Catullus uitoefen.

    Volgens hierdie lesing van c. 50 konsentreer die digter-persona op sy ervaring van die kreatiewe proses as soortgelyk aan die ervaring van 'n liefdesverhouding. Die studie verken Catullus se gebruik van die Calvus persona in c. 50 as 'n poging van die digter om beide die emosionele en erotiese ervaring van digkuns te verwoord.

    In 'n soortgelyke ondersoek word Antjie Krog se gedig “die skryfproses, as sonnet” as 'n voorbeeld van moderne digkuns bespreek, waar (a die man as metafoor gebruik word vir die proses van kreatiwiteit, en (b voorbeelde van erotika gebruik word om die ervaring van die kreatiewe proses te verwoord.


    Hierdie bespreking van die gedigte van beide 'n antieke en moderne digter plaas die kompleksiteit van Catullus se ervaring van die kreatiewe proses in perspektief ten opsigte van moderne digkuns.


  17. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    Friedrich W. de Wet


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale tipering van die verhouding tussen die teks, hoorders en prediker waarin al drie faktore ’n regmatige plek het; die maniere waarop die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die spanningsveld tussen teks, hoorders en prediker kan skeeftrek; en pneumatologiese verankering van die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die kragveld van die verbondsruimte, waarin Jesus Christus versoenend (integrerend teenwoordig is. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die prediker in die kragveld van die verbond in staat gestel word om getrou te bly aan die teks (waarin God aan die Woord kom, aan die hoorders (as mededeelgenote in die genade van God sowel as – in missionêre konteks – mense wat geroep word om deelgenote in hierdie genade te word en aan hom- of haarself (as nuwe mens in Christus sonder dat die verbintenis aan een element in die  kommunikatiewe driehoek die verbintenis aan die ander versteur of laat disintegreer.Reckoning with the force field of the covenant in aligning the communicative triangle between text, listener and preacher. In this article the communicative triangular relationship between the Biblical text, the listeners and the preacher is reflected upon from a homiletic point of view. The problem statement deals with potential distortions in this triangular relationship when the listeners and preacher (in their human finitude are brought into contact with the eternal Word of God as it proceeds from the Biblical text. In the course of the article the

  18. Die graad van werkbetrokkenheid: 'n Bipolere kontinuum?

    G. Roodt


    Full Text Available The degree of work involvement: a bipolar continuum? In a motivational approach towards the degree of work involvement work alienation and work involvement were conceptualized as extreme poles of a continuum. Some theorists even suggested that the continuum should be extended towards extreme work involvement. This study empirically investigated the possibility to conceptualize the degree of work involvement as a bipolar continuum. Results of this study show that low work involvement is an indicator of work alienation and that high work involvement is an indicator of workaholism and type A behaviour. Further proof of a bipolar continuum resulted from a confirmatory factor analysis on the work involvement questionnaire, because some items loaded negatively and others positively on the same factor. Opsomming In 'n motiveringsbenadering tot die graad van werkbetrokkenheid is werkvervreemding en -betrokkenheid as uiterste pole van 'n kontinuum gekonsepsualiseer. Sommige teoretici het selfs gesuggereer dat die kontinuum in die rigting van ekstreme werkbetrokkenheid uitgebrei moet word. Hierdie studie het die moontlikheid om die graad van werkbetrokkenheid as 'n bipolere kontinuum te konsepsualiseer, empirics ondersoek. Resultate van hierdie studie dui daarop dat lae werkbetrokkenheid 'n aanduider van werkvervreemding is en dat hoe werkbetrokkenheid 'n aanduider van werkbeheptheid en tipe A-gedrag is. Verdere stawing vir 'n bipolere kontinuum word deur 'n bevestigende faktorontleding op die werkbetrokkenheidvraelys verskaf, omdat sommige items negatief en ander positief op dieselfde faktor laai.

  19. A Study of the First Year of the End-of-Life Clinic for Physician-Assisted Dying in the Netherlands.

    Snijdewind, Marianne C; Willems, Dick L; Deliens, Luc; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Chambaere, Kenneth


    Right to Die NL, an organization in the Netherlands that advocates for the option of euthanasia, founded the End-of-Life Clinic in 2012 to provide euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide for patients who meet all legal requirements but whose regular physicians rejected their request. Many patients whose requests are rejected have less common situations, such as a psychiatric or psychological condition, dementia, or being tired of living. To study outcomes of requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide received by the clinic and factors associated with granting or rejecting requests. Analysis of application forms and registration files from March 1, 2012, to March 1, 2013, the clinic's first year of operation, for 645 patients who applied to the clinic with a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and whose cases were concluded during the study period. A request could be granted, rejected, or withdrawn or the patient could have died before a final decision was reached. We analyzed bivariate and multivariate associations with medical conditions, type of suffering, and sociodemographic variables. Of the 645 requests made by patients, 162 requests (25.1%) were granted, 300 requests (46.5%) were refused, 124 patients (19.2%) died before the request could be assessed, and 59 patients (9.1%) withdrew their requests. Patients with a somatic condition (113 of 344 [32.8%]) or with cognitive decline (21 of 56 [37.5%]) had the highest percentage of granted requests. Patients with a psychological condition had the smallest percentage of granted requests. Six (5.0%) of 121 requests from patients with a psychological condition were granted, as were 11 (27.5%) of 40 requests from patients who were tired of living. Physicians in the Netherlands have more reservations about less common reasons that patients request euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, such as psychological conditions and being tired of living, than the medical staff working for the End

  20. Die amtliche Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik

    Schilling, Matthias


    Unter Rückgriff auf verschiedene wissenschaftliche Methoden umfasst die Dissertation eine differenzierte Untersuchung der amtlichen Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik (KJH-Statistik). Da die wissenschaftliche Sozialpädagogik erst langsam und zögerlich beginnt, die amtliche Statistik der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe wahrzunehmen, liegt das Forschungsinteresse darin, dass eine grundlegende und umfassende wissenschaftliche Analyse der Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der KJH-Statistik vorgenommen wird. Die KJ...

  1. Laboratory and Performance Studies of Anti-wear Coatings Deposited on Nitrided Surfaces of Tools used in an Industrial Hot Die Forging Process

    Hawryluk, Marek; Widomski, Paweł; Smolik, Jerzy; Kaszuba, Marcin; Ziemba, Jacek; Gronostajski, Zbigniew


    The paper presents the results of laboratory studies performed on produced anti-wear coatings as well as the results of performance tests conducted on tools with these coatings in industrial conditions, in the process of hot die forging. Three different coatings were selected: AlCrTiSiN, Cr/CrN and AlCrTiN, deposited by means of the vacuum-arc method on test samples as well as forging tools used in the hot forging process of a lid. The first part of the paper discusses the results of the studies performed in laboratory conditions, which included: surface morphology by means of SEM, hardness and Young modulus measurements, determination of the chemical composition by means of the EDS method, adhesion tests by means of the scratch method and tribological tests by means of the ball-on-disk method. The obtained results were correlated and applied in the analysis of the performance tests on forging punches with these coatings at an early stage of their performance (up to 4000 produced forgings), which were tested on 19 tools, of which 3 representatives were selected for each coating. A thorough analysis was performed of the wear phenomena and mechanisms and the manner of wear of hybrid layers as well as their resistance to the particular destructive mechanisms. Based on the performed laboratory and performance studies as well as their analysis, it was possible to select the optimal hybrid layer, which enables an increase in the durability of forging tools used in industrial hot die forging processes. The preliminary results showed that the best results for the whole working surface of the tool were obtained for the Cr/CrN layer, which characterizes in high adhesion as well as a lower Young modulus and hardness. In the case of high pressures and the correlated friction, better results were obtained for the AlCrTiN coating, which, besides its good adhesion properties, also exhibited the highest frictional resistance.

  2. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    Ibhadode, A O Akii


    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  3. Gods hand in die natuur

    A. Duvenage


    Full Text Available Kan ons van so iets spreek? Daaroor bestaan daar seker geen verskil nie. Die Bybel is vol daarvan van Genesis tot Openbaring. God is Skepper. ’n Ander vraag is of ons God ook kan ken uit wat daar in die natuur gebeur? Verloop alles nie maar volgens ewige natuurwette waaraan tog niks verander kan word nie? Ons bely egter dat die Here nie net in die hart van die mens gelê het wat ons noem die „saad van die religie” nie (semen religionis, maar dat ons Hom ook ken deur die skep- ping, onderhouding en regering van die hele wêreld, aangesien dit voor ons oë is soos ’n mooi boek waarin alle skepsels, groot en klein, die letters is wat ons die onsigbare dinge van God duidelik laat sien, nl. sy ewige krag en Goddelikheid ...; dinge wat almal genoegsaam is om die mense te oortuig en hulle alle verontskuldiging te ontneem (Art. 2 Ned. Gel. Bel..

  4. Die eunug in die klassieke mitologie en samelewing

    F. P. Retief


    Full Text Available Die konsep, eunug, wat na ’n gekastreerde persoon (gewoonlik manlik verwys, het sy oorsprong in die mitologie. Van hier word dit deurgevolg na die Klassieke tydperk. Kastrering vir religieuse redes was deel van godsdiensrituele gekoppel aan verering van aardgodinne en fertiliteit. Die kultusse wat aan die godinne Kubele, Hekate, Atargatis-Dea, Astarte, Artemis en Innana-Ishtar gewy was en wat deur eunugpriesters bedien was, word beskryf. Kastrering vir niereligieuse redes, oorwegend weens sosio-ekonomiese oorwegings, het waarskynlik tydens die 2de millennium v.C. sy oorsprong in Midde-Oosterse lande gehad vanwaar dit teen ongeveer die 5de eeu v.C. na Griekeland, en twee eeue later na Rome uitgebrei het. ’n Oorsig word gelewer van die invloed en rol van die eunug ten tye van die klassieke beskawing. Die sogenaamde “kongenitale eunug” waar hipogonadisme weens ’n aangebore letsel ontstaan, ’n baie seldsame verskynsel, word nie verder bespreek nie.

  5. Aard, funksie en invloed van die Literatuur

    J. van der Elst


    Full Text Available Binne die raam werk van die tema van hierdie simposium gaan dit om twee komponente:die Literatuur, meer bepaald die letterkundige werk of woordkunswerk met sy drie genres endie gemeenskap, die onlvangers of belewers van die Literatuur of doodgewoon die lesers.

  6. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    Fankhauser, Regula


    Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen m...

  7. Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica - Review and a clinical-radiological study with special emphasis on SAPHO syndrome; Die Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica: Nosologische Studie mit klinischer und radiologischer Darstellung innerhalb des SAPHO-Syndroms

    Schilling, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)]|[Zentrum fuer Rheuma-Pathologie, Mainz (Germany); Kessler, S. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)


    Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica (Spond.hyp.pp-Schilling), corresponding nosologically to pustulotic arthroosteitis, is a dermato-skeletal `double system` disease of adults. It consists of the triad (a) palmo-plantar pustulosis (Ppp) or, alternatively, Koenigsbeck-Barber-type psoriasis, (b) sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH), and (c) truncal-skeletal changes with syndesmophite-like, hyperostotic and/or parasyndesmophite-like ossifications of layers of the anterior vertebral ligament taken together in the sense of a desmophytal hyperostosis. There is also a potential for sclerosing inflammatory arthritis of the sacro-iliac joints and `dry` inflammatory arthritis of the sacro-iliac joints and `dry` inflammatory arthritis of peripheral joints. Thus, the pustulo-psoriatic terrain seems to have a decisive influence on osseous pathology. A total of 38 cases from a study during the years 1982 to 1992 is analysed with regard to morphological characteristics. Rare cases with diaphyseal and pelvic hyperostotic lesions subsequent to bland sclerosing osteomyelitis constitute an overlapping region to chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and illustrate the relationship between hyperostotic spondarthritis and CRMO. The syndromes of `acquired hyperostosis` and `SAPHO`, the former more radiologically oriented and the latter more clinically oriented, together with mainly CRMO and hyperostotic spondarthritis and its forms, constitute the `Spond.hyp.pp.`. Although hyperostosis is a guidepost for the radiologist and SAPHO symptoms are one for the clinician, the syndrome does not represent a diagnosis by itself and requires further differentiation. In this report the entity `Spond.hyp.pp.` is considered and requires contributions from rheumatologically and osteologically oriented radiologist. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Uebersicht beschreibt unter vorwiegend radiologischen Gesichtspunkten das Krankheitsbild der Spondarthritis hyperostatica

  8. Die wisselende rol van kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit in die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde

    Danie F.M. Strauss


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel wil lig werp op die onvermydelikheid van diskreetheid en kontinuïteit as primitiewe (ondefinieerbare verklaringswyses in die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde. Dit beliggaam die algemene uitdaging om rekenskap van die samehang van iets wat uniek is te gee. Gödel beklemtoon die samehang van ‘primitiewe begrippe’. Die Griekse filosofie het reeds die ruimtelike geheel-dele-relasie – en die oneindige verdeelbaarheid daarvan – ontdek. Gedurende en na die Middeleeue het filosowe wipplank gery tussen ’n atomistiese waardering van die kontinuum en die teenoorgestelde daarvan, wat byvoorbeeld in die denke van Leibniz aangetref word as die gepostuleerde wet van kontinuïteit (lex continui. Die ontdekking van ‘inkommensurabiliteit’ (irrasionale getalle deur die Grieke het aanleiding gegee tot die eerste grondslagkrisis van die wiskunde en die geometrisering daarvan. Leibniz en Newton kon die probleme rondom die limietbegrip nie besleg nie en spoedig sou dit tot die derde grondslagkrisis van die wiskunde aanleiding gee. Dit het Frege en die ‘kontinuum-teoretici’ daartoe gebring om prioriteit aan die kontinuum te gee – diskreetheid is ’n katastrofe. Onlangs waardeer Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis kontinuïteit as iets wat ’n ‘ongebroke en ononderbroke geheel’ daarstel. Die intuïsionistiese wiskunde het opnuut aangesluit by die klem op die ruimtelike geheel-dele-relasie. Ondanks pogings om kontinuïteit eksklusief aritmeties en ruimtelik te verstaan bevestig die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde onmiskenbaar dat die medekondisionerende rol van hierdie twee wyses van verklaring ’n konstante metgesel in die nadenke oor kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit sou bly. (Die rol van kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit in die fisika en biologie sal in ’n aparte artikel ondersoek word.

  9. Reuchlin und die Kabbala


    Auszug: Hundert Jahre nachdem Johannes Reuchlin sein wissenschaftliches Werk vollendet hatte, war der von ihm hinterlassene Eindruck auf die europäische Wissenschaft und das europäische Denken so nachdrücklich, daß er - liebe- oder vorwurfsvoll - einmal >Rabbi Capnion< genannt wurde. Und wirklich - so meint Joseph Blau in seiner Darstellung der christlichen Kabbala - habe Reuchlin der hebräischen Literatur mehr gedient als mancher ordentliche Rabbiner. Ähnlich hat Gershom Scholem, der Begründ...

  10. Die Mythosphilosophie Ernst Cassirers

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    Bogen undersøger Ernst Cassirers filosofiske hovedværk - Die Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - for at finde frem til, hvilken betydning det har, at Cassirer inddrager myten som den menneskelige kulturs grundform og dermed på mange måder sidestillet med videnskab, sprog og kunst. Der...... argumenteres for, at netop arbejdet med myten muliggjorde en frugtbar åbning af erkendelsesteorien i retning af udtryksfænomenet og følelsers betydning for menneskets livsverden. Bogens anden del ser nærmere på, hvordan Cassirer bruger sin mytefilosofi fra 1920'erne til at forstå 1940'ernes fascistiske...

  11. EULAR-Richtlinien für die Behandlung von Kniegelenksarthrose: Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe des Standing Committees for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT

    Leeb BF


    Full Text Available Hintergründe: Arthrose (OA ist eine der häufigsten Gelenkserkrankungen in Europa. Eine Arbeitsgruppe des EULAR Komitees für klinische Tests wurde 1998 gegründet, um eine methodologische und logistische Annäherung zu schaffen, die für eine Entwicklung von aussagekräftigen und belegten Richtlinien für die Behandlung von Kniegelenks-OA notwendig ist. Die geforderten Richtlinien müssen alle derzeit verfügbaren Behandlungen für Kniegelenks-OA, die entweder klinisch oder/und radiologisch diagnostiziert wurde und das gesamte Kniegelenk betrifft, abdecken. Methoden: Erste Phase: Selektion der Behandlungsmethoden, die berücksichtigt werden sollten. Zweite Phase: Suche in den elektronischen Datenbanken Medline und Embase mittels Stichwort- und Überschriftenabfragen. Alle Europäischen Publikationen von systematischen Übersichtsarbeiten, Meta-Analysen, stichprobenkontrollierten Tests und kontrollierten Studien sowie Beobachtungsstudien wurden einbezogen. Dritte Phase: Alle relevanten Studien wurden qualitätsgeprüft. Die zusammengefaßten Statistiken wurden, soweit gültige Resultate vorlagen, aufgezeichnet und die Anzahl der Behandlungen (NNT und das Ausmaß des Behandlungserfolges wurden berechnet. Vierte Phase: Die wichtigsten klinischen Aussagen wurden durch Übereinkommen der Experten mittels Delphimethode (Expertendiskussion festgesetzt. Fünfte Phase: Die aufgestellten Aussagen wurden anhand der verfügbaren Beweise gereiht. Eine weitere Reihe zukünftiger Forschungspläne wurde durch einen Expertenkonsensus festgelegt. Ergebnis: Über 2.400 englisch- und 400 anderssprachige Publikationen wurden durchgesehen. Über 744 Studien zeigten nützliche Endresultate bzgl. der Behandlung von Kniegelenks-OA. Eine quantitative Analyse des Behandlungserfolges war nur in 61 Studien möglich. Empfehlungen für die Behandlung der Kniegelenks-OA, basierendauf derzeit vorhandenen Daten und Expertenmeinungen, konnten erstellt und Vorschläge für zuk

  12. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue


    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  13. Why children with severe bacterial infection die: a population-based study of determinants and consequences of suboptimal care with a special emphasis on methodological issues.

    Elise Launay

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal care is frequent in the management of severe bacterial infection. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of suboptimal care in the early management of severe bacterial infection in children and study the determinants. METHODS: A previously reported population-based confidential enquiry included all children (3 months- 16 years who died of severe bacterial infection in a French area during a 7-year period. Here, we compared the optimality of the management of these cases to that of pediatric patients who survived a severe bacterial infection during the same period for 6 types of care: seeking medical care by parents, evaluation of sepsis signs and detection of severe disease by a physician, timing and dosage of antibiotic therapy, and timing and dosage of saline bolus. Two independent experts blinded to outcome and final diagnosis evaluated the optimality of these care types. The effect of suboptimal care on survival was analyzed by a logistic regression adjusted on confounding factors identified by a causal diagram. Determinants of suboptimal care were analyzed by multivariate multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Suboptimal care was significantly more frequent during early management of the 21 children who died as compared with the 93 survivors: 24% vs 13% (p = 0.003. The most frequent suboptimal care types were delay to seek medical care (20%, under-evaluation of severity by the physician (20% and delayed antibiotic therapy (24%. Young age (under 1 year was independently associated with higher risk of suboptimal care, whereas being under the care of a paediatric emergency specialist or a mobile medical unit as compared with a general practitioner was associated with reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal care in the early management of severe bacterial infection had a global independent negative effect on survival. Suboptimal care may be avoided by better training of primary care physicians in the specifics of

  14. Die ideaal van die spreker in die satiriese gedig: M.M. Walters

    S. M. Cameron


    Full Text Available Wanneer van die satirikus gepraat word, word eintlik die spreker in die satiriese gedig veronderstel. “For the Muse ought always to be our reminder that it is not the author as man who casts these shadows on our printed page, but the author as poet” (Mack, 1971:193.

  15. The Barrien natural gas deposit. Status, results and outlook of an interdisciplinary reservoir study; Die Erdgaslagerstaette Barrien. Status, Ergebnisse und Ausblick einer interdisziplinaeren Reservoirstudie

    Baerle, C.; Beuthan, H. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstorf (Germany); Weihe, T. [Wintershall AG, Kassel (Germany)


    Geological and geophysical investigation and modelling of the Detfurth series of the Barrien natural gas deposit provided new and detailed information on the reservoir horizon. Seismic reinterpretation yielded new findings especially on the crest region of the structure and verified the complex fault model. Core profiles, facial analysis and log correlation demonstrate the lateral distribution and horizontal variability of the sedimentary units and thus of the petrophysical characteristics (porosity, permeability). Petrographic investigations provided detailed, production-relevant information on sandstone cementation and pore space characteristics. The results were integrated in the geological models together with the known deposit parameters. [German] Die geologische-geophysikalische Bearbeitung und Modellierung der Detfurth-Folge in der Gaslagerstaette Barrien erbrachte neue und z.T. detailliertere Informationen ueber die Ausbildung der Traegerhorizontale. Die Reinterpretation der Seismik liefert hauptsaechlich im Scheitelbereich der Struktur neue Erkenntnisse und verifiziert das komplexe Stoerungsmodell. Die Kernaufnahme, fazielle Einstufung und Logkorrelation demonstriert die laterale Verbreitung sowie horizontale Variabilitaet der sedimentaeren Einheiten und damit der petrophysikalischen Werte (Porositaet, Permeabilitaet). Die petrographischen Untersuchungen erbrachten detaillierte und produktionsrelevante Informationen zur Sandsteinzementation und der Porenraumbeschaffenheit. Zusammen mit den bekannten Lagerstaettenparametern wurden diese Ergebnisse in die geologische Modellierung integriert. (orig.)

  16. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.


    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  17. Die historiese Jesus, die Jesus-beweging en die vorming van die kerk

    Andries van Aarde


    Full Text Available The historical Jesus, the Jesus movement and the birth of the church. The article focuses on the birth of the church. The point at which the church began its existence is located within the boundaries of fonnative Judaism. The parting of the ways is explained as a movement from faction to sect, to the eventual fonnation of the church in its own right as distinct from the synagogue. The historical Jesus should therefore not be seen as the founder of the church. However, the article argues that the relation of the life and death of the historical Jesus to the resurrection belief of the post-paschal Jesus movement constitutes the cradle of the church. This continuum between Jesus and New Testament Christendom is referred to by means of the Gennan phrase die Sache Jesu. Reconsideration of this trajectory results in the conviction that the vision and program of the historical Jesus cannot be neglected when one reflects on the nature of the church in the New Testament or on the vocation of the church through history to the present day. Two thought complexes form the kernel of die Sache Jesu: God's unbounded presence and the concept that everyone has unmediated and non-hierarchical access to the grace of God.

  18. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozeß : eine theoretisch empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    Kropp, Per Bruno


    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. The theoretical considerations, which are used in this study, are mainly based on results of labor market research in western economies (i.e., theories on labor market segme

  19. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozeß : eine theoretisch empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    Kropp, Per Bruno


    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. The theoretical considerations, which are used in this study, are mainly based on results of labor market research in western economies (i.e., theories on labor market segme

  20. Die hermeneutiek van gereformeerde kerkreg

    Andries le Roux du Plooy


    Full Text Available Die artikel het op die belangrikheid en noodsaaklikheid van ‘n hermeneutiek vir die gereformeerde kerkreg gefokus. Die kerkregtelike dokument wat besonderlik ter sake was, is die kerkorde van die Gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika, met sy besondere band met die Dordtse kerkorde van 1618 en 1619. Agtereenvolgens is aandag gegee aan die volgende aspekte soos (1 die eiesoortige aard van ‘n kerkorde as ‘n teologiese dokument en teks, in onderskeiding van regsdokumente; (2 die aard van die hermeneutiek van kerkreg; (3 enkele teorieë oor die interpretasie of uitleg van tekste, veral regstekste en (4 normatiewe vooronderstellings en reëls vir die interpretasie en verstaan van die teks en artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite van kerklike vergaderinge. Die gevolgtrekking was dat weinig indringende navorsing gedoen is oor die saak van hermeneutiek vir kerkreg, hoewel dit noodsaaklik is. Duidelike hermeneutiese reëls is gesuggereer en verduidelik, wat sou kon meehelp dat kerke en kerklike vergaderinge die artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite en reglemente wat daarop berus het, kan interpreteer en toepas.The hermeneutics of reformed church polity. The article focused on the importance and urgency of a design for reformed hermeneutics on church polity. The Church Order referred to in the article is the Church Order of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, which are closely related to the Church Order of Dordt of 1618 and 1619. The following aspects received attention namely (1  the unique character of a Church Order, in comparison to and distinguished from legal documents and statutes; (2 the character and nature of hermeneutics of church polity; (3 theories of interpretation in the common law tradition and their relevance to church polity and (4 normative presuppositions and marks for the interpretation and understanding of the text and articles of the Church Order, as well as the resolutions of church assemblies. It was found that

  1. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Johan Buitendag


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het.Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  2. Healthcare utilization of bereaved relatives of patients who died from cancer. A national population-based study

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert


    efter tabet af en nærtstående. Formålet med dette studie var at beskrive mønstre i forbrug af sundhedsydelser efter tabet af en ægtefælle til cancersygdom. Studiet blev udført som et populationsbaseret registerstudie, hvor 6659 mennesker, der i 2005 mistede en ægtefælle til kræft, blev fulgt i...... populationsbaseret studie om forbrug af sundhedsydelser efter sorg, og fundene i dette studie vil kunne bistå i at finde ud af, hvem der har behov for et behandlingstilbud i en tid med sorg....

  3. Beliefs concerning death, dying, and hastening death among older, functionally impaired Dutch adults : A one-year longitudinal study

    Sullivan, M.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I J M; Tymstra, T.


    OBJECTIVES: Population surveys have documented increasing public support for euthanasia and assisted suicide but have not focused on the population of chronically ill older persons, obtained detailed sociocultural or health status information, or performed repeat assessments. This study seeks to

  4. Coping-strategieë, stres en selfmoord-denkbeeldvorming in die Suid-Afrikaanse polisiediens in die Vrystaat

    A. S. Van Der Merwe


    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping, stress and suicide ideation within the South African Police Service. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A random, stratified sample was taken of police officials in the Free State (N = 333. The Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, Police Stress Inventory and COPE Questionnaire were administered. The results of this study indicated that the following factors were related to suicide ideation: passive coping, problem-focused coping, former suicide attempts, medical condition, alcohol consumption and police stressors. The discriminant analysis furthermore indicated that these variables correctly classified 77,55% of the respondents with a high score in respect of suicide ideation. Opsomming Die algemene doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen coping-strategieë, stres en selfmoord- denkbeeldvorming binne die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens in die Vrystaat te ondersoek. ’n Dwarsdeursneeopnameontwerp is gebruik. ’n Ewekansige, gestratifiseerde steekproef (N = 333 is van polisiebeamptes in die Vrystaat geneem. Die Selfmoord denkbeeldvormingsvraelys, Polisiestres-inventaris en COPE-vraelys is aangewend. Die resultate van die studie het aangetoon dat die volgende faktore met selfmoord denkbeeldvorming verband hou: passiewe coping, probleemgerigte coping, vorige selfmoordpogings, mediese toestand, gebruik van alkohol en polisiespesifieke stressors. Die diskriminantontleding het verder aangedui dat bogenoemde veranderlikes 77,55% van die deelnemers met ’n hoë telling ten opsigte van selfmoord denkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  5. Die verband tussen studie-oriëntasie, metakognisie en wiskundeprestasie by graad 7-leerders / Mignon Reynolds

    Reynolds, Mignon


    The poor mathematics achievement of South African learners is a great shock and reason for concern in our country. The question is asked why the learners achieve so poorly and whether something can be done to improve learners’ mathematics achievement. Research has shown that the field of study orientation is a primary factor for learners’ mathematics achievement. A positive study orientation towards Mathematics has a great influence on the positive achievement of learners in ...

  6. Study of the genetics of progeny, brothers and sisters of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday from lung cancer. Final report; Studie der Genetik bei Nachkommen und Geschwistern von Wismut-Mitarbeitern, die vor dem 51. Lebensjahr an Lungenkrebs verstorben sind. Schlussbericht

    Wichmann, H. Erich [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informationsverarbeitung, Biometrie und Epidemiologie


    The project was aimed to reconstruct the genotype of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday due to lung cancer using genetic data from their children, brothers and sisters, in order to study the individual radiation sensitivity of the person and to develop a bio-sample data base. The final report includes the description of planning and realization of the project, investigation strategies, development and organization of a phenotype and bio-sample data base, preparation of data storage and genotype evaluation.

  7. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    Goodman Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg to a study on living and dying in care homes. Methods A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. Results There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. Conclusions

  8. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes.

    Goodman, Claire; Mathie, Elspeth; Cowe, Marion; Mendoza, Alex; Westwood, Daphne; Munday, Diane; Wilson, Patricia M; Crang, Clare; Froggatt, Katherine; Iliffe, Steve; Manthorpe, Jill; Gage, Heather; Barclay, Stephen


    Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) to a study on living and dying in care homes. A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg) positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. The contribution of the PIRg supported a successful recruitment

  9. Metateoretiese vertrekpunte ten opsigte van wetenskaplike navorsing in die Pastorale Wetenskap

    Gert Breed


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is deel van ’n reeks oor die verrekening van die metateoretiese vertrekpunte in die wetenskap van die Praktiese Teologie. Die eerste fase van die reeks bied die teoretiese onderbou vir die werklikheids-, hermeneuties- en wetenskapsteoretiese beskouing van die vak. Die tweede fase fokus op die invloed wat hierdie vertrekpunte op die wetenskaplike navorsing van die verskillende vakgroepe in die Praktiese Teologie het. Hierdie artikel handel oor die wetenskaplike benaderingswyse tot die navorsingsveld van die Pastorale Wetenskap. In hierdie navorsingsartikel word die persoonlike metateoretiese perspektief waarmee die vakgebied van die Pastorale Wetenskap benader word, uitgespel en verantwoord ten opsigte van die volgende aspekte: die werklikheidsbeskouing waarmee daar op die navorsingsveld van die Pastorale Wetenskap gefokus word; die onderbou van die hermeneutiese beskouing wat nodig is om tot ’n verstaan te kom van die elemente in die Pastoraat en om tot ’n verantwoordbare verhouding tussen te kom van die elemente wat in die Pastoraat ter sprake is; en ten slotte, om die wetenskapsteoretiese benadering te beskryf waarmee die navorsingsveld van die Pastorale Wetenskap op ’n wetenskaplik-verantwoorde wyse ondersoek kan word.his article is part of a series about taking into account the metatheoretical assumptions in scientific practical-theological research. The first part of this series gives the theoretical foundation for the view on reality-, hermeneutical- and scientific-theoretical approaches to the research field. The second part focuses on the effect these assumptions will have on the scientific research of the various subject groups in Practical Theology. This article describes the scientific approach to the research field of pastoral care. This research article describes the personal metatheoretical perspective from which the subject area is approached and gives account of the following: the view on reality with

  10. In-service monitoring of piping and vessels in nuclear power plants. Report on BMU-study SR 2218; Betriebsueberwachung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern in Kernkraftwerken. Bericht ueber die BMU-Studie SR 2218

    Hofstoetter, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany); Dittmar, S. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Maile, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Metzner, K.J. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Hauptverwaltung


    On behalf of the BMU, the authors carried out a study intended to give an overview of and evaluate current practice and methods applied in fatigue monitoring of pipes and vessels of nuclear power plants. The authors on the one hand present fundamentals relating to typical load cases, monitoring and measuring techniques and fatigue computation methods, as well as the relevant legal provisions, and on the other hand describe the monitoring practice, tools and techniques referring to available literature, own experience, and interviews with operators/owners and manufacturers of existing power plants. The locations selected for examinations, measuring techniques, data acquisition and evaluation as well as measuring protocols are explained. The monitoring and inspection methods applied are assessed in a critical review which is the basis of proposals for improvement, relating to the measured data acquisition and especially to data analysis and evaluation. The paper focuses on the essential results of the study, excluding those parts of the study dealing with the calculation of fatigue in components, which will be the subject of another paper to be published. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Auftrag ders BMU erarbeiteten die Verfasser eine Studie zur Darstellung und Bewertung der heute in Kernkraftwerken ueblichen Ermuedungsueberwachung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern. Dazu wurden einerseits die Grundlagen zur Beanspruchung, Messtechnik und Ermuedungsberechnung zusammengestellt sowie geltende Vorschriften aufgefuehrt. Andererseits wurde auf der Basis der verfuegbaren Literatur, eigener Erfahrungen sowie einer Befragung von Betreibern und Herstellern der heute ueblichen Anlagen die Messstellen, Messverfahren, Messwerterfassungsanlagen und Auswertungsmethoden sowie bisherige Ergebnisse der Messungen dargestellt. Das derzeitige Vorgehen wurde kritisch bewertet. Daraus resultierten Verbesserungsvorschlaege zur Messwerteerfassung, vor allem aber zur Auswertung und Bewertung der

  11. Die effekvan punttoekenningstandaarde op die korrelasie tussen matriek- en universiteitsprestasie

    G. K. Huysamen


    Full Text Available The effect of marking standards on the correlation between matriculation and university performance. Marking standards differ between courses in the sense that the same group of students shows different course means in different courses. Goldman andWidawski (1976 proposed a within-persons procedure to adjust for such differences between university departments and Elliott and Strenta (1988 adjusted this procedure to perform such corrections between courses within departments. In this study the correlation between matriculation performance and university performance has been increased by applying this adjustment not only to university courses but also to matriculation subjects. Opsomming Punttoekenningstandaarde verskil tussen kursusse in die opsig dat dieselfde groep studente verskillende kursusgemiddeldes in verskillende kursusse toon. Goldman en Widawski (1976 het 'n tussenproefpersoonprosedure voorgestel om vir sodanige verskille tussen universiteitsdepartemente te korrigeer en Elliott en Strenta (1988 het dit aangepas om sodanige korreksies tussen kursusse binne departemente uit te voer. In hierdie ondersoek is die korrelasie tussen matriekprestasie en universiteitsprestasie verhoog deur hierdie aanpassing nie slegs op universiteit-kursusse nie, maar ook op matriekvakke toe te pas.

  12. The impact of Erasmus mobility on the professional career: Empirical results of international studies on temporary student and teaching staff mobility Die Auswirkungen der Erasmus-Mobilität auf die berufliche Entwicklung : empirische Ergebnisse internationaler Studien über temporäre Mobilität von Studierenden und Lehrenden

    Constanze Engel


    Full Text Available The impact of an Erasmus study period abroad for mobile students and teaching assignments of Erasmus teachers on professional development is the focus of the article. Temporary study abroad is expected to have a positive impact on personal and academic development, but also to be conducive to transition to employment and career development. Though the impact has been declining, study abroad remains an important experience for the professional career. Erasmus teaching assignments often do not last longer than a few days. Nevertheless, mobile teachers report a positive impact on their career. The article is based on the VALERA Study1 “The professional value of Erasmus mobility”, a European-wide evaluation study by the International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.Im Zentrum des Artikels steht der Einfluss temporärer internationaler Studien- und Lehraufenthalte auf den Berufsweg ehemaliger Erasmus Studierender und Lehrender. Es wird erwartet, dass ein Auslandsaufenthalt während des Studiums nicht nur auf die persönliche und akademische Entwicklung der mobilen Studierenden einen positiven Einfluss hat, sondern auch auf den Übergang in den Beruf und die erste Karriere. Ein Auslandsaufenthalt im Studium hat einen sehr wichtigen Einfluss auf die berufliche Entwicklung ehemals mobiler Studierender, auch wenn der individuelle Ertrag im Laufe der Zeit gesunken ist. Lehraufenthalte im Rahmen des Erasmus Programmes dauern häufig nicht länger als wenige Tage. Dennoch berichten auch die Erasmus Lehrenden von einem positiven Einfluss des Lehraufenthaltes im Ausland auf ihre berufliche Entwicklung. Dieser Artikel basiert auf Ergebnissen der VALERA-Studie “Der berufliche Ertrag der Erasmus-Mobilität“, einer europaweiten Evaluierungstudie des Erasmus Programms durchgeführt vom Internationalen Zentrum für Hochschulforschung Kassel.

  13. Die gebruik van metode in die filosofie, spesiaal in die reformatoriese tra­disie 1

    N. T. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available Die onderw erp van my voordrag, Die gebruik van metode in die fílosofie, verg ’n paar verduidelikende opinerkings vooraf. Ek dink u verm oed alreeds dat hierdie fomulering ’n versuikerde pil is om u in so ’n mate nuuskierig te maak dat una ’n heerlike vrye filosofiese ‘onderonsie’ gedurende die teepouse darem vir ’n tw eede sessie terugkeer. Want is dit nie twee smaaklike heuningdruppels nie: filosofie en sy metode’ en ‘metode in die Reformatoriese filosofiese tradisie'?! Veral as in gedagte gehou word dat in teenstelling met wat ’n mens sou verw ag, daaroor dié onderwerp as sodanig relatief maar heel weinig geskrywe is en word, selfs as die ‘Inleidings in die Metodologie’ daarby gereken word.

  14. Beliefs concerning death, dying, and hastening death among older, functionally impaired Dutch adults : A one-year longitudinal study

    Sullivan, M.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Tijmstra, T.


    OBJECTIVES: Population surveys have documented increasing public support for euthanasia and assisted suicide but have not focused on the population of chronically ill older persons, obtained detailed sociocultural or health status information, or performed repeat assessments. This study seeks to des

  15. Het voorschrijfgedrag van de huisarts. Een studie van 118 huisartsen naar factoren die verschillen in voorschrijfgedrag verklaren

    Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora Marcia


    The main purpose of this study is to elucidate the substantial variation in the prescribing patterns of physicians. Differences between physicians have been documented concerning overall rates of prescribing, rates of prescribing particular drugs, drug costs and drug prescribing quality. Review of l

  16. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois


    Untersuchung der zeitnahen Eintragungen in diese Handschrift gelang es, die Tätigkeit von zumindest drei wichtigen, im 12. Jahrhundert in Melk identifizierbaren, namentlich nicht bekannten Schreibern chronologisch zuzuordnen. Erstmals wurden die nur fragmentarisch als Makulatur in den Bucheinbänden erhaltenen Handschriften in die Untersuchung einbezogen, so dass für die Wende vom 12. zum 13. Jahrhundert ein Bücherbestand von 68 Handschriften erschlossen werden konnte. Besonders hervorzuheben ist, dass in der Sonderausstellung von 1996 und im Begleitband erstmals eingehend die Bedeutung der ältesten Melker Handschrift, Cod. 412 aus dem frühen 9. Jahrhundert mit naturwissenschaftlichen Texten des Beda Venerabilis, als Vorlage für drei weitere Handschriften diente: Vatikan, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, abgeschrieben wahrscheinlich in Melk, davon abhängig Zwettl, Cod. 296, und Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685. Die Abschriften der Melker Beda-Handschrift sind inhaltlich fast identisch, allerdings um den im Mittelalter fälschlicherweise Beda Venerabilis zugeschriebenen Sternbilderkatalog erweitert.

  17. Die dialektiek in die waardes van die 1996 Grondwet

    J Swanepoel


    Full Text Available In his paper The Dialectics in the Values of the 1996 Constitution Jan Swanepoel discusses various value statements in the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and focuses the attention on indications of a lack of coherence as far as these value statements are concerned.He does this against the background of some introductory perspectives on the 1996 Constitution. In this regard he points out that the 1996 Constitution, as successor to the 1993 Constitution with its set of thirty four constitutional principles, can be regarded as a document of political and ideological compromise. He points out that constitutions (and in particular the value statements in Bills of Rights generally tend to be formulated rather broadly in order to promote flexibility and adaptability. He also focuses the attention on the fact that such a dialectic of values point to the variety of interests that has to be harmonized in a modern state, something which is unmistakably the case in South Africa with its heterogeneous society.The 1996 Constitution contains a variety of "value terms". A closer study of these terms does, however, indicate that these terms (value, principle, foundation, and the like are not used in a very systematic or technical fashion.The problems regarding the value statements are, however, not only of a terminological nature. There are also some substantive problems, as becomes clear from a discussion of value terms in the Preamble and in Sections 1 and 7 of the 1996 Constitution. Swanepoel indicates that a tension exists between what can be called the "process" formulation in section 1(a and the "state of affairs" formulation of the values in section 7(1. . While section 1(a speaks of "the achievement of equality" and "the advancement of human rights and freedoms", section 7(1 simply makes mention of "equality" and "freedom". The dialectic between these two formulations is discussed with reference to other relevant sections of the 1996

  18. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    ]ože Toporišič


    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  19. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    H. Myburgh


    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  20. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    D. J. Van Rooy


    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  1. Spearman se G en die faktorstrukture van die senior aanlegtoetse en die algemene skolastiese aanlegtoets

    G. P. De Bruin


    Full Text Available Spearman's G and the factor structures of the Senior Aptlitude Test and the General Scholastic Aptitude Test. Scores of 1507 university students on the six subtests of the General Scholastic Aptitude Test (GSAT and on nine subtests of the Senior Aptitude Tests (SAT were subjected to a joint confirmatory factor analysis. This procedure was followed to examine (a the extent to which scores in respect of the two batteries of tests, are explained by a general factor (Spearman's g, and (b the relationship between the two general factors. Scores on the GSAT subtests were adequately explained by just one factor. With regard to the SAT three group factors could be distinguished, namely Verbal Ability, Visual-Spatial Ability and Numerical Ability. The correlations between the group factors were so high that the influence of a general factor was evident. The general factors underlying the SAT and GSAT respectively, also correlated significantly. In view of findings suggesting the general intelligence is the best single predictor of criteria such as academic success and work performance, the GSAT is recommended for selection purposes. Opsomming Tellings van 1507 universiteitstudente op die ses subtoetse van die ASAT en nege subtoetse van die SAT, is gesamentlik aan 'n bevestigende faktorontleding onderwerp. Hierdie prosedure is gevolg om ondersoek in te stel na (a die mate waartoe 'n algemene faktor (Spearman se g die tellings op die twee batterye toetse onderskeidelik onderle, en (b wat die verwantskap tussen die twee algemene faktore sou wees. Ten opsigte van die ASAT is dit duidelik dat slegs een faktor tellings op al ses subtoetse verklaar. Ten opsigte van die SAT kon drie groepsfaktore onderskei word/ naamlik Verbale Vermoe, Visueel-Ruimtelike Vermoe en Numeriese Vermoe. Die korrelasies tussen die drie groepsfaktore was egter so hoog dat dit duidelik is dat daar 'n algemene faktor onderliggend is aan die nege subtoetse. Die algemene faktore wat die

  2. Die MCI im Wandel: User Experience als die zentrale Herausforderung?

    Jetter, Christian


    Die Informationstechnologie hat heute einen Reifegrad erlangt, der stark umkämpfte Massenmärkte von interaktiven Produkten hervorgebracht hat. In diesen sind - wie auch in den herkömmlichen Konsumgütermärkten - nicht nur die pragmatische Produktqualität, sondern auch das Benutzungserlebnis und die Gesamtwirkung auf den Käufer entscheidend für den Markterfolg. Eine erfolgreiche Gestaltung dieser "User Experience" geht dabei über die reine Softwareergonomie hinaus und erfordert interdisziplinär...

  3. Kollektiewe bedinging binne die Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsbedryftak

    H. O. L. Kamffer


    Full Text Available A comparative literary study of the collective bargaining systems of four countries (U.S.A., Britain, West Germany and South Africa is presented in order to facilitate the identification of conflict issues in the South African collective system. 165 Employers and 75 trade unions in the South African manufacturing industry were used as u randomly selected sample. A Likert questionnaire was designed to measure the attitudes of the sample employers and unions regarding conflict issues. The results indicate strong differences of opinion between the participating groups about the efficiency of the present industrial relations and collective bargaining systems in South Africa. An explanation for obtained results is given and recommendations for further research and development work are made. OpsommingDie gebrek aan konsensus aangaande 'n ideale nywerheidsverhoudinge en kollektiewe bedingingsisteem vir Suid-Afrika kan toegeskryf word aan die verskillende houdings van die onderskeie partye daarby betrokke. Dit lei op sy beurt weer tot konflik tussen die onderskeie partye. 'n Vergelykende literatuurstudie van die kollektiewe bedingingsisteem van vier lande (tewete V.S.A. Brittanje, Wes-Duitsland en Suid-Afrika is gedoen ten einde konflikaan- geleenthede in die Suid-Afrikaanse kollektiewe bedingingsisteem te identifiseer. 'n Ewekansige steekproef van 165 werkgewers en 75 vakbonde in die Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsbedryfstak is in die studie betrek. Die houdinge aangaande die geïdentifiseerde onflikaangeleenthede is met behulp van 'n Likertvraelys verkry. Die resultate dui op sterk meningsverskille tussen die deelnemende groepe omtrent die doeltreffendheid van die bestaande nywerheids verhoudinge en kollektiewe bedingingstelsel in Suid-Afrika. Aanbevelings vir toekomstige navorsing en ontwikkelingswerk word gemaak.

  4. Old habits die hard: a case study on how new ways of teaching colonoscopy affect the habitus of experienced clinicians

    Lund, Ole; Andersen, Berit


    Objectives The purpose of this study is to explore the habitual constraints and opportunities that affect how experienced clinicians learn new skills and, in particular, how new ways of teaching can influence these. Methods We conducted a case study based on a specialized training program for colonoscopy services in Denmark. Data was obtained from a short-term ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews during this program. Participants were 12 experienced colonoscopists and three expert colonoscopy trainers from Denmark and UK. The analysis of data involved categorization, inductive coding, and theoretical reading inspired by sociological theory. Results The experienced clinicians' responsiveness to training was shaped by an underlying logic of colonoscopy practice that was characterized by tacit skills, routine work, lower status, skepticism and self-protectiveness. In order to overcome these habitual constraints, the trainers applied a pedagogical approach based on four methods: 1) intellectualization: 'academization' of skills and competencies, 2) sensing and scaffolding: hands-on experiences and learning by doing, 3) asymmetry: accentuating the authority and respect of the trainer, and 4) relation-building: building relationship and engagement between trainer and clinician. This multi-dimensional approach to teaching enabled the trainers to affect the clinicians' logic of practice and to create buy-in (so-called illusio). Conclusions Clinical skills include socially constructed behaviors and unconscious competences which affect experienced clinicians' responsiveness to continuing medical education. This study suggests four educational strategies that may help trainers to establish new logics of practice in experienced clinicians and to improve the clinicians' conscious competence. PMID:27643986

  5. Old habits die hard: a case study on how new ways of teaching colonoscopy affect the habitus of experienced clinicians

    Lund, Ole; Andersen, Berit; Christensen, Mette Krogh


    these habitual constraints, the trainers applied a pedagogical approach based on four methods: 1) intellectualization: 'academization' of skills and competencies, 2) sensing and scaffolding: hands-on experiences and learning by doing, 3) asymmetry: accentuating the authority and respect of the trainer, and 4......) relation-building: building relationship and engagement between trainer and clinician. This multi-dimensional approach to teaching enabled the trainers to affect the clinicians’ logic of practice and to create buy-in (so-called illusio). Conclusions: Clinical skills include socially constructed behaviors...... and unconscious competences which affect experienced clinicians’ responsiveness to continuing medical education. This study suggests four educational strategies that may help trainers to establish new logics of practice in experienced clinicians and to improve the clinicians’ conscious competence....

  6. Die verband tussen sekere persoonlikheidseienskappe en transformasionele leierskap

    C. van Rensburg


    Full Text Available The relationship between certain personality traits and transformational leadership. The purpose of the study was to investigate certain personality characteristics of transformational leaders. The Jackson Personality Research Form (PRF-E and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ of Bass and Avolio were administered to a random sample of 164 middle and top managers. The results of t-test analyses yielded statistically significant differences between certain personality traits of transformational versus non-transformational leaders. Using a stepwise logistical regression analysis, a prediction model was created to predict transformational leadership using four personality traits of the Jackson PRF-E. The findings provide support to the central hypothesis of this study and the implications of these results on transformational leadership are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om sekere persoonlikheidseienskappe van transformasionele leiers te ondersoek. Die Jackson Personality Research Form (PRF-E en die Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ van Bass en Avolio is op n ewekansige steekproef van 164 middel- en hoevlakbestuurders toegepas. Die resultate van t-toets ontledings het statistics beduidende verskille tussen sekere persoonlikheidseienskappe van transformasionele teenoor nie-transformasionele leiers gelewer. Met behulp van 'n stapsgewyse logistiese regressie-ontleding is n voorspellingmodel ontwikkel wat transformasionele leierskap, met behulp van vier persoonlikheidsfaktore van die Jackson PRF-E, voorspel. Die bevindinge ondersteun die sentrale hipotese van hierdie studie en die implikasies van die bevindinge op transformasionele leierskap word bespreek.

  7. A comparative study of inter-abutment distance of dies made from full arch dual-arch impression trays with those made from full arch stock trays: An in vitro study

    Reddy Jagan


    Full Text Available Objectives: The dual-arch impression technique is convenient in that it makes the required maxillary and mandibular impressions, as well as the inter-occlusal record in one procedure. The accuracy of inter-abutment distance in dies fabricated from dual-arch impression technique remains in question because there is little information available in the literature. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of inter-abutment distance in dies obtained from full arch dual-arch trays with those obtained from full arch stock metal trays. Results and Conclusion: The metal dual-arch trays showed better accuracy followed by the plastic dual-arch and stock dentulous trays, respectively, though statistically insignificant. The pouring sequence did not have any effect on the inter-abutment distance statistically, though pouring the non-working side of the dual-arch impression first showed better accuracy.

  8. Treating palliative care patients with pain with the body tambura: A prospective case study at St. Joseph′s hospice for dying destitute in Dindigul South India

    Cordula Dietrich


    Full Text Available Background: The Body Tambura is a recently invented stringed instrument that is used for receptive music therapy designed to be placed and attached on the human body. The aim of this study was to record perceived effects of a treatment with the Body Tambura on palliative care patients with special reference to pain. Materials and Methods: A prospective case study was carried out with patients of St. Joseph′s Hospice for Dying Destitute in Dindigul/South India. Patients were treated with a treatment after baseline assessment and also on the next day. Outcomes were measured quantitatively by using a numeric rating scale (0-10, 10 maximum intensity of pain felt at baseline, directly after treatment, and the day after the treatment to determine the intensity of the pain. Results: Ten patients (five women and five men participated in the study. The majority described the therapy as a pleasant experience. The pain intensity at baseline was reduced from 8.3 ± standard deviation (SD 1.16 to 4.6 ± 1.52 at day 1 and from 4.6 ± 2.07 to 2.4 ± 1.58 at day 2. Conclusion: A clinically relevant pain reduction was described as short time outcome; the therapy was received and perceived well. Forthcoming research should include a control group, randomization, a larger number of participants, and a longer period of treatment.

  9. Die mites rondom die val van Troje en Vergilius se uitbeelding daarvan in die tweede boek van die Aeneïs

    J. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available Die mites oor die val van Troje vertel ’n aangrypende verhaal en in die tweede boek van die Aeneïs gee Vergilius op ’n besondere wyse gestalte daaraan. Maar Vergilius se vergestalting daarvan is slegs een van die variante van die verhaal.

  10. Die skrifbeskouing van feministiese teoloë, in die besonder dié van Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – beoordeel in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie

    Alta E. Swart


    Full Text Available Dit wil voorkom asof die feministiese Skrifbeskouing op die beginsel van selektiewe Skrifgesag berus. Dit beteken dat slegs dié dele in die Bybel wat met die feministiese ideologie ooreenstem, as gesaghebbend aanvaar word. Dit is veral die sogenaamde androsentriese taalgebruik wat dit vir aanhangers van hierdie benadering moeilik maak om die hele Skrif as gesaghebbend te erken. Hermeneuties vertoon hierdie benadering groot ooreenkomste met die Postmodernisme, waarin geen vaste reëls bestaan om die betekenis van tekste te bepaal nie. Gesien in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie, soos veranker in die Woord en belydenisskrifte, vertoon die feministiese teologie ernstige leemtes. Die bydraes (Skrifbeskouing van drie prominente feministiese teoloë – Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – word onder die loep geneem en teologies-krities geëvalueer ten einde hierdie leemtes uit te wys.It appears that the feminist view of Scripture is based on the principle of selective authority of the Scriptures, which means that only the parts of the Bible corresponding with the feminist ideology are accepted as authoritative. The use of androcentric language, in particular, makes it difficult for followers of feminism to accept the whole Bible as authoritative. Hermeneutically, their approach resembles Postmodernism, interpreting without any rules. Viewed from the paradigm of the reformed theology, which is anchored in Scripture and the articles of faith, feminist theology shows serious shortfalls. The contributions of three prominent feminist theologians – Fiorenza, Brenner and Van Dijk-Hemmes – are studied closely and evaluated critically in the light of the reformed theology, to underline these shortfalls.

  11. Lady Di - Die moderne Madonna

    Steuten, Ulrich; Strasser, Hermann


    Die authentischen Bekundungen von Trauer und Wertschätzung, die der bei einem Autounfall in Paris ums Leben gekommenen Prinzessin Diana weltweit entgegengebracht und seit Jahren von mehreren Seiten instrumentalisiert werden, sind unübersehbar. Das Leben und Sterben der Prinzessin von Wales ist nach Ansicht der Autoren geeignet, einer populären Mythenbildung in der modernen Gesellschaft Substanz zu verleihen. Vor allem bietet es die Möglichkeit, einen modernen Kult zu etablieren, der sich im Z...

  12. Deformation properties of pharmaceutical excipients determined using an in-die and out-die method.

    Ilić, Ilija; Govedarica, Biljana; Šibanc, Rok; Dreu, Rok; Srčič, Stane


    This study investigated deformation mechanisms of some commonly used pharmaceutical fillers, such as microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, dicalcium phosphate, isomalt and cornstarch, using a combination of the in-die and out-die method with the Heckel and Walker models. The tableting mixtures contained of 98.5% (w/w) filler, the rest consisted of dry binder and an antiadhesive agent. Our results showed that plasticity and elasticity may be considered independent deformation properties as highly plastic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cornstarch) also exhibited high elasticity. Particular emphasis was placed on explaining the differences observed between the in-die and out-die method-comparison revealed that the differences are a consequence of the material's elastic properties. Larger error of in-die results can be expected for more elastic materials, and thus in-die Heckel should be used with some considerations. In contrast, the Walker model was found to be more robust and smaller differences were observed between the two methods. We consider the most correct results to have been obtained by the out-die approach, which excludes the elastic properties of the material evaluated. An excellent correlation between elastic determination at the single-particle level and multiple-particle scale was demonstrated, suggesting a great potential of nanoscale determination of a material's mechanical properties for better elucidation of deformation mechanisms.

  13. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.


    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  14. Die Umstrukturierung des Ingenieurberufs und die Mobilisierung der Frauen als Ressource im Systemwettstreit

    Petra Behrens


    Full Text Available Karin Zachmann geht in ihrer Habilitationsschrift, die Ansätze der Technik- und der Geschlechtergeschichte sowie der neueren DDR-Forschung aufgreift, den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen technischer und politischer Elite um einen grundlegenden Umbau des Ingenieurberufs in der SBZ/DDR nach. Sie untersucht für den Zeitraum von 1945 bis zum 1971 erfolgten Machtwechsel von Ulbricht zu Honecker, wie die politische Elite ihren Anspruch auf eine umfassende Verfügbarkeit technischen Wissens geltend machte und welche Auswirkungen dieses auf das berufliche Selbstverständnis der technischen Experten hatte. Dabei stehen die Feminisierungsprozesse und die Verschiebungen in der geschlechtlichen Codierung des Ingenieurberufs, die mit einer verstärkten Mobilisierung von Frauen für technische Berufe einhergingen, im Zentrum. Die auf einer breiten Quellengrundlage basierende Studie gibt nicht nur Aufschluss über die Frage nach den Handlungsspielräumen der technischen Experten in der DDR, sondern stellt zudem einen wichtigen Beitrag zur „Dekonstruktion der staatssozialistischen Geschlechterordnung“ dar.

  15. Die ontwerp van 'n werkmonstertoets vir die keuring van swart elektrisienambagmanhelpers

    J. B. Worfaardt


    Full Text Available A work sample test, the Cable Joints Test, which could serve as a selection instrument for Black electrician aides in the mining industry was designed and applied with a rating scale as criterion. The predictors were scores on two testings with the work sample, an improvement score, Dudec and related job experience. A validation study (N=53 yielded low reliability coefficients and no significant correlation between predictors and criterion, but a cross validation (N=62 had shown that a combination of the second test score and Dudec combined could predict work performance. However, the multiple correlations (0,40 to 0,52 were low and the variance explained inadequate to be of any practical value in a selection battery.Opsomming'n Werkmonstertoets, die Kabellastoets, wat kan dien as keuringinstrument vir Swart elektrisiënambagmanhelpers in die mynbouindustrie is ontwerp en toegepas met 'n beoordeling- skaal as kriterium. Die voorspellers was tellings op twee toetsings met die werkmonster, 'n verbeteringtelling, Dudec en verwante werkervaring. 'n Valideringstudie (N=53 het lae betroubaarheidskoëffisiënte en geen betekenisvolle korrelasies tussen voorspellers en kriterium opgelewer nie, maar 'n kruisvalidering (N=62 het aangetoon dat 'n kombinasie van die tweede toetstelling en Dudec werkverrigting kan voorspel. Die meervoudige korrelasies (0,40 tot 0,52 was egter laag en die variansie wat verklaar word onvoldoende om van enige praktiese waarde in 'n keuringbattery te wees.

  16. Die interne konsekwentheid en konstrukgeldigheid van die persoonlike orientasievraelys vir 'n groep universiteitstudente

    W. J. Fouche


    Full Text Available The internal consistency and construct validity of the POI for a group of university students. The aim of this research was to establish the internal consistency and construct validity of the POI for a group of university students. The study population was selected by means of an availability sample and consisted of university students. Alpha coefficients varying between 0,24 and 0,75 were obtained. From the results it is evident that the POI can only be accepted as internally consistent concerning certain scales. It seems that the POI has a reasonable degree of construct validity. Opsomming Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die interne konsekwentheid en konstrukgeldigheid van die Persoonlike Orientasievraelys (POI vir n groep universiteitstudente te bepaal. Die ondersoekgroep is deur middel van beskikbaarheidsteekproefverkry en het bestaan uit universiteitstudente. Alfa-koeffisiente wat wissel tussen 0,24 en 0,75 is verkry Uit die resultate blyk dit dat die POI slegs ten opsigte van sekere skale as intern konsekwent aanvaar kan word. Dit blyk verder dat die POI oor n redelike mate van konstrukgeldigheid beskik.

  17. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.


    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  18. Energy-resolved photoemission studies of Be-containing surfaces for fusion; Energievariierte Photoemissionsstudien an berylliumhaltigen Oberflaechen fuer die Fusion

    Koeppen, Martin


    . Oxygen diffusion is observed and attributed to diffusion of BeO. Further, the influence of a BeO-interlayer on the carbidisation in the system C-W is investigated. Already at RT small amounts of carbidised W are visible. At 1280 K further carbidisation of W is observed. No reaction between BeO and W is visible. Carbidisation of W shows, that BeO does not serve as a diffusion barrier for C, even at RT. Using energy-resolved XPS and the newly developed quantitative model allows detailed studies of multi-component surface reactions considering the evolution of the depth distribution.

  19. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Johan J. Du Preez


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal- holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  20. Voedingpraktyke en behoeftes van hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe deur die oë van laerskoolonderwysers

    Ronel Ferreira


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel bespreek ons die persepsies van onderwysers (n = 45 wat betref die voedingpraktyke van ’n steekproef laerskoolleerders en hul gesinne in ’n hulpbron-arm gemeenskap. Ons fokus spesifiek op die behoeftes, praktyke en verwagtings ten opsigte van die gebruik van voedsel, wat die produksie, keuse en voorbereiding van voedsel impliseer. Ons studie vorm die eerste deel van ’n groter institusionele navorsingprojek. Vir die doel van ons studie het ons deelnemende refleksie en aksie-gebaseerde werkwinkels gehou om data te genereer en tydens die interpretasie van bevindinge op interpretivisme staatgemaak. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die behoeftes van hulpbron-arm en werklose gemeenskapslede wat dikwels genoodsaak is om teen verlaagde pryse voedsel te koop waarvan die kwaliteit nie optimaal is nie. ’n Verskraalde ontbyt, middagete of aandete waarvan die keuse algemeen beperk is tot swart tee, pap en een of twee snye ou brood, bevestig die manifestasies van armoede in hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe. Maaltye is dikwels beperk tot groot hoeveelhede koolhidrate, min groente, ingelegde vis, pap met inkomazi en marog. Hoenderpote en afval vul soms die spyskaart aan. Onderwysers beklemtoon die feit dat gemeenskapslede tipies op skenkings van werkgewers, kerke en kruidenierswinkels staatmaak om hul voedselbegroting aan te vul. Onderwysers fokus verder op die behoeftes aan opleiding vir gemeenskapslede. Na hulle mening moet gemeenskappe ingelig word oor voedselproduksie, groentetuine, die wyses waarop die kwaliteit van grond bepaal kan word, besproeiing en die toepassing van volhoubare wisselbou. Die artikel word afgesluit met uitvoerbare en leersame wenke vir die opleiding van landelike gemeenskappe. Op grond van dié navorsingsbevindinge word ’n intervensieprogram tans ontwikkel, met die doel om dit in die onderskeie deelnemende skole te implementeer ter bevordering van gesonde voedselverwante gedrag en welsyn.

  1. Op die grens van vakwetenskap en filosofie

    M Elaine Botha


    Full Text Available Die begrip “grens” soos dit voorkom in die titel is vir meerdere uitleg vatbaar. Eerstens sou dit kon dui op ’n onoorskreibare punt tussen die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe, so iets soos ’n grenspaal of baken, met ander woorde ’n punt van waterdigte skeiding tussen die domein van die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe. As ’n mens soms die dramatiese grensgevegte tussen die filo­ sofie en die vakwetenskappe in die wetenskaplike literatuur beskou1 dan blyk dit kennelik noodsaaklik te wees om wel sodanige grens te stel, veral ten einde die gevaar van weten­ skaplike terrorisme van die een of die ander kant die hoof te bied.

  2. Die begeleidingstaak van die mediasentrumonderwyser in rekenaargeletterdheid


    M.Ed. (Media Studies) The twentieth century is characterised by technological development, and even more by electronic development. It is therefore logical that the computer is increasingly used in the labour market and at home. This puts greater pressure on schools to educate and train pupils to attain computer literacy. As it appears that teachers are insufficiently trained to convey these skills, there is a definite need for in-service training regarding computer literacy. The function ...

  3. An Observational Study to Explore the Feasibility of Assessing Bereaved Relatives' Experiences Before and After a Quality Improvement Project to Improve Care of Dying Medical Inpatients.

    Clark, Katherine; Willis, Abby; Byfieldt, Naomi


    Although hospitals are the most likely place of death, the quality of care received by dying inpatients remains variable. This is concerning for both the dying person and their relatives, with poorer bereavement outcomes likely for those who perceived their family member suffered unduly. There is a real need to consider how this situation can be improved. This work was conducted with the aim of exploring the feasibility of including bereaved relatives' experiences as part of a larger project exploring the use of a care bundle to improve care of the dying inpatients. Fifty relatives of inpatients who had died previously in hospital were contacted by letter with a request for interview before the implementation of a care bundle for the dying, with a care bundle being a collection of care processes that are implemented together. After this project had been in place for 6 months, a further 50 families were contacted who had died on the bundle. Ten families responded initially to the first request and 10 the second, with the interviews based on the Quality of Dying and Death (QODD) tool and a final open-ended question. Although all families who agree to be interviewed completed the session, with regard to the QODD, some families indicated that they would rather talk than provide numeric scores. No major differences in the prescores and postscores were noted. When invited to share their experiences, without prompting, families spoke of consistent concerns that included communication, place of death, and symptom control. This work confirms that it is highly feasible to incorporate assessments of bereaved family members' opinions as part of the wider assessment of research into end-of-life care.

  4. het die reformasie die leer gered en aanbidding verloor?

    B. Spoelstra, emeritusprofessor in Diakoniologiese Vakke, Fakulteit Teo- logie, P.U. vir C.H.O. (Skool vir ... Van der Leeuw sê liturgiek en leer is verwant en die geskiedenis van liturgie weerspieël die ...... VAN LEEUWEN G. 1946. Liturgiek.

  5. Study on the planning of a demonstration plant for hydrogen fuel production by electrolysis using caching in salt caverns under pressure; Studie ueber die Planung einer Demonstrationsanlage zur Wasserstoff-Kraftstoffgewinnung durch Elektrolyse mit Zwischenspeicherung in Salzkavernen unter Druck



    In a two year research project the long-term storage of hydrogen as energy carrier has been assessed in detail for large renewable electricity quantities in underground storage caverns in Germany. Next to a regions analysis for potential storage sites, the benchmarking against other large scale storage concepts, a comparative and perspective analysis of alkaline and PEM-electrolysers also potential business cases for Power-to-Hydrogen in the mobility sector as well as for the chemical, electricity and natural gas industry have been analysed. [German] Durch den geplanten Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus fluktuierenden, erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ruecken Speichertechnologien fuer elektrische Energie immer staerker in den Fokus des industriellen und politischen Interesses. Eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit fuer eine Langzeitspeicherung bei hohen Anteilen von Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen sind Speichertechnologien wie die Wasserstoffspeicherung mit Hilfe von Wasserelektrolyseuren. Diese koennen erneuerbaren Strom in grossen Mengen und bei entsprechender Steuerung selektiv in Zeiten mit hohem Dargebot z.B. an Windstrom chemisch speichern. Der gespeicherte Wasserstoff kann dann entweder zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt wieder rueckverstromt oder direkt stofflich verwertet werden, z.B. als Kraftstoff fuer den Verkehrssektor, als chemischer Rohstoff oder fuer den Hausenergiebereich durch Einspeisung in das Erdgastransportnetz. Thema der vorliegenden Studie sind Analysen und Planungen fuer die Erprobung des Gesamtsystems ''Wasserstoff-Elektrolyse-Speicherung'' in energiewirtschaftlich relevanten Dimensionen. Dazu werden mit einem neuen Ansatz techno-oekonomische Entwicklungspfade fuer Wasserstoff-Systeme unterschiedlicher Groesse und Technologien charakterisiert und technologische Risiken bei der Realisierung dieser Systeme identifiziert und bewertet. Diese Arbeiten werden ergaenzt durch Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Salzkavernenspeicherung in Form

  6. Studentesimposium in die Natuurwetenskappe 30 Oktober 2009, Universiteit van die Vrystaat ’n Seleksie van referaatopsommings

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van verskillende tipes luminessensie en verskillendetipes fosfors: gebruike en karakterisering’n GIS-ondersteunde benadering ter visualisering van stedelikegroeiVereenvoudigde chemiese modellering van rodiumkatalisator –wen of verloor?Korrelgroottes en tweelingstrukture in vervormde koperAluminium- (III- trifl aat as ’n katalisator vir die ring-oopmaak vanepoksiede: sintese van piperasien-bevattende β-aminoalkohole’n Naby infrarooi studie van die suidelike hoëmassa-stervormingsgebiedRCW 34Sintese van ’n mikolmotief vir TB-diagnose ’n Kritiese evaluasie van die plasing van die Ingula-pompopgaarskema Fischer-metaalkarbene as alkeenmetatesekatalisatore Monte Carlo-simulasie en AES-karakterisering van fasevormingin Pt-Al- dun laeChemiese omskakeling van plantmateriaal na biobrandstowwe innie-klassieke toestande             Die Pd-verwering van SiC’n [2,3]-Wittig-herrangskikkingsbenadering tot die sintese vandie fumonisien-ruggraatLitostratigrafi ese korrelasie van ysterryke sedimentêre gesteentesin die argaïese Witwatersrand-Mozaanopeenvolging: Implikasiesvir vroeë afsettingsomgewings op aardeDie afskaling van globale sirkulasiemodelvoorspellings nadaaglikse reënval oor die Bo-Olifantsrivieropvanggebied’n Evalueringsinstrument vir wetenskaphandboeke vir UGO inSuid-AfrikaRF-bestraling van kalsiet/dolomiet-monstersDie evaluering van goud(I-P,N- heteroditopiese verbindings asantivirale agenteDie ontwikkeling van ’n in vitro-eritrosiet-oksidasieskadetoetsvir die bepaling van die anti-oksidantaktiwiteit van plant- enheuningekstrakteOntwikkeling van ’n opto-elektroniese stelsel vir die karakteriseringvan ultravioletsensitiewe fotodiodes’n Gestaltegespreksagent met outistiese gedrag

  7. Die wysgerige konsepsie van Thomas van Aquino

    Thomas Van Aquino


    Full Text Available Samevattend is tot dusver die volgende aangetoon: Die werklikheid vertoon volgens Thomas 'n hierargiese struktuur. Daar is verskillende grade van syn. God is die hoogste, die volheid van syn, en by die laere synsniveaus is daar steeds 'n verdere verwydering van hierdie synsvolmaaktheid in die rigting van absolute afwesigheid van syn. Hierdie synshiërargie is volgens die vorm-materieskema opgebou. Die materie in die hoëre synslaag word vorm vir die laere, of omgekeerd: die vorm van die laere is die materie vir die hoëre dinge. God is absoluut suiwer vorm of wet (essensie. Die vorme van die dinge is die goddelike wet (genoem exemplar, similitudo, ratio, verbum of imago wat deur God daarin geskape is. God druk op dié wyse sy gelykenis op wyse uit. Sy absolute volmaaktheid kan alleen tot uitdrukking gebring word deur 'n veelheid en verskeidenheid van geskape dinge. God word deur Thomas die causa effiaiens en exemplaris genoem. Die verhouding tussen Skepper en geskape werklikheid is dus dié van oorsaak en gevolg. As gevolg van sy wetsidee word daar deur Thomas dus nie duidelik tussen Skepper en skepping onderskei nie, want skepping beteken volgens hom onder andere dat God iets goddeliks (die wet in die dinge lê. Via die goddelike wet in die dinge ingeskape, is daar 'n sekere kontinuiteit tussen God en kosmos.

  8. Die navorsingsmetode van die fundamentele opvoedkunde*

    J. L. Van der Walt


    Full Text Available Fundamental Pedagogics, as one of the group of sciences constituting Education, has it's own set of research methods, although investigation of and thought about these do not always seem to he firmly grounded. Such investigation reveals that the inductive, verification o f hypothesis method as well as the method of literature study, is a basic method  of this discipline. Apart from these well-known methods there are, however, other methods of research which are useful only for Fundamental Pedagogics. Such methods would include the method of reflection about principles where the process of thinking fulfils itself within the framework of regulative principles; the method of the analysis of phenomena as a subsection of the encompassing method of the empirical study of structure, the transcendental-critical method with its various phases (the immanent. the transcendental, the. transcendent and the ethretical and the problem- historical method. For the Fundamental Pedagogics student all these methods (as far as possible in combination to evade the danger of monism are useful and important, because they do not only enable him to analyse the phenomenon of education, hut also to reflet tellingly on educational events and to describe educational structures, as well as to dele mine which religion is the driving force behind a specific theory of education and practice of education, and which then functions within that framework.

  9. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels


    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...... of a centreline hole in a single compression operation. Friction is also taken into account. The numerical analysis indicates that a lower die angle of approximately 140o results in the largest centreline hole closure for a wide range of material hardening. The value of optimum die angle is not influenced...... by friction, which was found only to change the degree of centreline porosity closure in case of small lower die angle....

  10. Statues Also Die

    Pierre-Philippe Fraiture


    Full Text Available “African thinking,” “African thought,” and “African philosophy.” These phrases are often used indiscriminately to refer to intellectual activities in and/or about Africa. This large field, which sits at the crossroads between analytic philosophy, continental thought, political philosophy and even linguistics is apparently limitless in its ability to submit the object “Africa” to a multiplicity of disciplinary approaches. This absence of limits has far-reaching historical origins. Indeed it needs to be understood as a legacy of the period leading to African independence and to the context in which African philosophy emerged not so much as a discipline as a point of departure to think colonial strictures and the constraints of colonial modes of thinking. That the first (self-appointed exponents of African philosophy were Westerners speaks volumes. Placide Tempels but also some of his predecessors such as Paul Radin (Primitive Man as Philosopher, 1927 and Vernon Brelsford (Primitive Philosophy, 1935 were the first scholars to envisage this extension of philosophy into the realm of the African “primitive.” The material explored in this article – Statues Also Die (Marker, Resnais, and Cloquet, Bantu Philosophy (Tempels, The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa (Cheikh Anta Diop, and It For Others (Duncan Campbell - resonates with this initial gesture but also with the ambition on part of African philosophers such as VY Mudimbe to challenge the limits of a discipline shaped by late colonialism and then subsequently recaptured by ethnophilosophers. Statues Also Die is thus used here as a text to appraise the limitations of African philosophy at an early stage.  The term “stage,” however, is purely arbitrary and the work of African philosophers has since the 1950s often been absorbed by an effort to retrieve African philosophizing practices before, or away from, the colonial matrix. This activity has gained momentum and has been

  11. Die karakterisering van Pilatus in die Johannesevangelie

    D.F. Tolmie


    Full Text Available

    The characterisation of Pilate in the Gospel of John

    Quite a number of scholars have already investigated the characterisation of Pilate in the Fourth Gospel, but no agreement has thus far been reached on how this interesting character should be interpreted. In this article an overview of some of the interpretations of the characterisation of Pilate is presented before an own analysisis attempted. This is done in terms of the approach to characterisation proposed by Seymour Chatman, according to which characters in narrative texts may be studied from the perspective of the traits which are revealed to the implied reader as the narrative unfolds. In this article the paradigm of traits associated with Pilate is discussed and it is shown how the characterisation of Pilate develops as the narrative unfolds.

  12. Die Presbiter by Lukas en Paulus

    L. Floor


    Full Text Available In die jongste navorsing oor Lukas word die skrywer van die derde evangelieverhaal en die Handelinge van die Apostels aan ons bekend gestel as ’n teoloog wat uit die ‘Sitz im Leben’ (uit die situasie van sy eie tyd die boodskap aangaande Christus interpreteer . Lukas sou hom by sy interpretasie van die Christusboodskap laat lei het deur ’n bepaalde dogmatiese ‘Verstandnis’ waardeur hy homself verraai as ’n teoloog van die na-apostoliese tyd.

  13. Die invloed van grootgroeponderrig op die selfgereguleerde leer van tersiêre wiskundeleerders



    Full Text Available elfregulering is belangrik in die ontwikkeling van lewenslange leerders, veral by voordiensonderwysers wat op hul beurt modelleerders van selfregulering in hul eie klaskamers gaan wees. Onderrig op tersiêre vlak word grootliks gekenmerk deur tradisionele onderrigmetodes vanweë die groot groepe leerders betrokke. In hierdie studie is vasgestel of ’n bepaalde grootgroeponderrigstrategie ’n invloed het op lede van groot klasgroepe se selfregulering, al dan nie. ’n Kwantitatiewe voortoets-natoets-ontwerp is gebruik waarin die studiegewoontesveld van die Studie-Oriëntasievraelys in Wiskunde aan die begin en einde van die semester ingesluit is. In ’n tweede vraelys het leerders hul belewenis van die grootgroeponderrigstrategie volgens ’n vyfpunt-Likertskaal beoordeel en ’n oopeindevraag voltooi wat ingesluit is om moontlike addisionele verklarings te bied vir die resultate wat verkry is uit die geslote vrae van die vraelys oor grootgroeponderrig. Beskrywende statistiek is gebruik om die data te interpreteer. Uit die resultate blyk dit dat daar nie ’n verbetering in leerders se selfregulering was nie. By ontleding van die oopeindevraag het dit aan die lig gekom dat verskeie aspekte van selfregulering by leerders ontbreek, soos tydsbestuur en goeie studiegewoontes, asook die bereidwilligheid om meer as net die voorgeskrewe probleme te doen.The influence of a large group teaching strategy on the self-regulated learning of tertiary mathematics learners. Self-regulation is important in developing lifelong learners, especially in the case of pre-service teachers who will soon be models of self-regulation in their own classrooms. In many instances, teaching at tertiary level is characterised by traditional teaching methods in large classes. In this study a particular large group instructional strategy was examined to determine whether it had an influence on learners’ self-regulation. A quantitative pre-test post-test design was used which

  14. Weibliche Perversion und die Verleugnung des Phallus

    Monika Gsell


    Full Text Available Genauso wie Aggression und Gewalt bis heute fast ausschließlich als spezifisch männliches Phänomen behandelt werden, wurde im klinischen Kontext auch die sexuelle Perversion lange Zeit als Pathologie verstanden, von der ausschließlich Männer betroffen sind. Welldons Studie öffnet uns den Blick für die spezifisch weiblichen Formen von Perversion. Der augenfälligste Unterschied zwischen der weiblichen und der männlichen Perversion liegt in der Richtung des aggressiven Impulses: Während der Mann die Aggression nach außen wendet, wendet die Frau sie gegen den eigenen Körper – und dessen Produkte, die Kinder. Konkret: Frauen hungern sich zu Tode, fügen sich selbst Verletzungen zu oder suchen sich dazu gewalttätige Partner, lassen sich schwängern, um den Fötus (als Teil ihrer selbst abzutreiben, oder behandeln ihre geborenen Kinder genau so wie ihren Körper: als leblosen, entmenschlichten Gegenstand. Weshalb das so ist, vermag uns Welldon leider nicht überzeugend zu erklären.

  15. Die etiek van Karl Barth

    J. H. van Wyk


    Full Text Available Die etiek van Barth kan nie reg verstaan word sonder begrip van sy ganse teologiese agtergrond en opset, en ek wil byvoeg: sonder die besondere tydsomstandighede (oorlog! waarin hy geleef en gewerk het nie. Dit is verder bekend dat in sy teologiese ontwikkeling verskillende figure groot invloed op hom uitgeoefen het.

  16. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas


    Nach den Parlamentswahlen vom März 2008 in Malaysia deutet manches auf einen politischen Umbruch hin: Die regierende Barisan Nasional (BN), die sich bislang einer komfortablen Zweidrittelmehrheit von 91,4 Prozent der Sitze im Parlament des Landes erfreut hatte, rutschte auf 63,1 Prozent ab und das...

  17. Die verband tussen voeding en die leesprestasie van graad 4-leerders in Suid-Afrika: Bevindinge van prePIRLS 2011

    Surette van Staden


    Full Text Available Die effek van voeding op leerderprestasie was al die onderwerp van menige studie. Bewyse wat die oorsaaklike verhouding tussen voeding en prestasie staaf, bestaan egter nie. Op nasionale vlak belê die Departement van Basiese Onderwys tyd, moeite en geldelike hulpbronne in ’n Nasionale Skoolvoedingsprogram in ’n poging om die gesondheid van SuidAfrika se armste leerders te beskerm en om ’n bydrae tot hul opvoeding te maak. Teen hierdie agtergrond ondersoek die huidige studie patrone in die leesgeletterd van graad 4-leerlinge, wat geassosieer word met die response van onderwysers oor leerdervoeding, deur gebruik te maak van die Suid-Afrikaanse data van die Pre-Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (prePIRLS 2011. Volledige verslae van onderwysers oor die mate waartoe onderrig beϊnvloed word deur leerders se gebrek aan basiese voeding word aangebied, terwyl verslae van onderwysers volgens taalgroep ook oorweeg word in ’n poging om beter insig te verkry in patrone van prestasie op ’n gedisaggregeerde vlak. Resultate vir die huidige studie bevestig bestaande literatuur, naamlik dat ’n oorsaaklike verband tussen voeding en leesprestasie nie sonder twyfel vasgestel kan word nie. Nieteenstaande die gebrek aan oorsaaklike bewyse, behoort nasionale skoolvoedingsprogramme egter nie gediskrediteer of gestaak te word nie. Sulke programme kan moontlik juis van waarde wees wanneer realistiese doelwitte gestel word met die oog op verbeterde ondersteuning vir leerders.

  18. 激光模切加工新技术的实验研究%Experimental Study on New Technology of Laser Die-Cutting Processing

    许宝忠; 刘铁根; 王萌; 李梅; 张国顺


    To improve the die-cutting process of the traditional packaging carton, experiments of laser die-cutting have been done. Details of the working principle of laser die-cutting were introdued, and scanning precision of the focusing was analyzed. A laser die-cutting system with galvanometer, radio frequency CO2 laser, hurrySCAN14 scan head, RTC3 card and so on is built, and laser die-cutting has been done with this system. Compared with traditional mechanical cutting, laser die-cutting has lots of advantages, such as convenience, agility, short production cycle and higher efficiency especially in the packaging of small quantities samples.%为了改进传统包装纸盒模切工艺,进行了激光模切的实验研究.详细介绍了激光模切的工作原理,对振镜扫描方式的聚焦误差进行了分析,在采用射频CO2激光器、hurrySCAN14扫描头和RTC3通用激光控制卡等构建的数控激光模切系统上,进行了激光模切技术的研究.与传统机械模切相比,激光模切在小批量样品的生产中具有方便、灵活、生产周期短和效率高等独特的优点.

  19. Die benutting van bestuurstalent met verwysing na die invloed van leierskapstyl en tydspan

    J. C. D. Augustyn


    Full Text Available A field and Laboratory study were conducted to determine the relationship between Leadership style, time-span of discretion and group performance. The results of this research support the prediction that situational variables such as time-span of discretion tend to moderate the relationship between Leadership style and group performance. Implications for future theory development, research and applications are discussed. Opsomming In 'n gekontroleerde laboratorium- en kontrolestudie is die verband tussen leierskapstyl en bestuursdoeltreffendheid onder verskillende tydspantoestande bepaal. Resultate toon aan dat beide leierskapstyl en tydspan 'n invloed uitoefen op bestuursdoeltreffendheid. Doeltreffendheid kan beskou word as 'n funksie van die aanpassing van basiese leierskapstyl by die betrokke situasie. Die gevolge wat hierdie bevindings vir verdere navorsing en bestuursontwikkeling mag inhou, word bespreek.

  20. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Monica Viljoen


    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  1. Filosofiese tendense in die wordinggeskiedenis van ons verstaan van die fisiese natuur

    D. F. M. Strauss


    Full Text Available Die ontstaan van ’n lang tradisie van natuurwetenskaplike denke is in antieke Griekeland te vind – die bakermat van die Westerse beskawing en die bron van geartikuleerde rasionele besinning. Die vroegste fases van die Griekse kultuur het reeds geboorte geskenk aan ’n teoretiese nadenke oor die heelal. Die Pythagoreërs is veral bekend vir hul klem op die verklaringskrag van getalsverhoudinge. In hul tese dat “alles getal is” het hulle egter slegs rasionale getalle (breuke erken en gevolglik uiteindelik vasgeloop in die ontdekking van irrasionale getalle wat tot die geometrisering van die Griekse wiskunde gelei het en tegelyk die bedding gevorm het van waaruit ’n magtige tradisie van ruimte-metafisika gegroei het wat die hele middeleeuse tydperk omspan het. Die vermeende statiese syn is in die mees ekstreme geval – die skool van Parmenides en die argumente van Zeno teen veelheid en beweging – tot in die uiteindelike antinomiese konsekwensies daarvan deurdink. Dit was egter eers die vroeg-moderne tyd – die voorgangers en nakomelinge van Galilei – wat naas getal en ruimte ’n waardering ontwikkel het vir die verklaringskrag van beweging (vergelyk die klassieke meganistiese wêreldbeeld van die heelal as ’n meganisme van stofdeeltjies in beweging. Maar ook hierdie meganistiese reduksie (waardeur alle fisiese verskynsels herlei is tot die beweging van al of niegelade massapunte sou uiteindelik misluk omdat dit nie van die onomkeerbaarheid van fisiese prosesse rekenskap kon gee nie. Gevolglik beliggaam eers die fisika van die 20ste eeu ’n erkenning van die deurslaggewend-stempelende rol van energie-werking (dus van die fisiese aspek in die aard van stoflike dinge en prosesse. Die artikel word afgesluit met ’n vlugtige verduideliking van die implikasies van die voorafgaande argumentasie vir ’n benadering van die misterie van die bestaan van materie.

  2. Novel techniques for petroleum analysis. Vol. 2. Fundamenals of chromatography, instruments and application - an extension of the application according to environmental analysis and forensic analysis according to the hydrocarbons in petroleum. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Neue Mineraloelanalyse. Bd. 2. Chromatographie in Grundlagen, Geraeten und Anwendung - Anwendung erweitert um die Umwelt- und forensische Analyse bezueglich der Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe

    Kaegler, S.H.; Schindlbauer, H. (eds.)


    The authors of the book under consideration report on the state-of-the-art of the chromatographic analysis technique and its applications. In particular the chapter of pure petroleum analysis was extended by the environmental analysis and forensic analysis. Following the introduction to chromatography the authors report on columnchromatography under standard conditions, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), ion chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, thin-film chromatography, gas chromatography as well as the linkage of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

  3. Die rym in Jukstaposisie (T.T. Cloete en die regverdiging van enkele fonologiese begrippe

    D. P. Wissing


    Full Text Available Die taalkundige hon daarvan om te kan se dat die goeie literator sonder taalkundige insigte geen volledige cn behoorlike teksanalise kan docn nie. Maar die situasic kan ook omgekeerd wees: die letterkunde (eintlik die woordkunswerk kan ook vir die taalkunde van waarde wees. In hierdie stuk wil ek meer in die besonder probeer aantoon dat en hoe die taalkundige ook ondersteuning vir die invoering van bepaalde fonologiese begrippe uit die gedig kan vind. Vir die doel beperk ek my tot die bunde Jukstaposisie van T.T. Cloete.

  4. Die Effekte des künstlichen Sauerstoffträgers Diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin auf die Mikrozirkulation des Pankreas

    Dobschütz, Ernst Felix Wilhelm von


    Der Einsatz von allogenen Blutkonserven bei hämorrhagischem Schock ist durch den hohen logistischen Aufwand der Kreuzproben und die Knappheit von Spenderblut limitiert. Deshalb ist die Erforschung eines künstlichen Blutersatzstoffs ein internationales Ziel der chirurgischen und intensivmedizinischen Forschung. Ziel dieser experimentellen Studie war die Analyse der Mikrozirkulation des Pankreas der Ratte nach intravenöser Applikation der modifizierten Hämoglobinlösung Diaspirin ...

  5. General practitioner awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.


    To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. To examine GP awareness of patients' preferred place of death (POD), associated patient- and care-related characteristics, and the congruence between preferred and actu

  6. GP awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.


    Background: To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. Objective: To examine GP awareness of patients’ preferred place of death (POD), associated patient and care-related characteristics, and the congruence betw

  7. General practitioner awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.


    To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. To examine GP awareness of patients' preferred place of death (POD), associated patient- and care-related characteristics, and the congruence between preferred and actu

  8. GP awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.


    Background: To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. Objective: To examine GP awareness of patients’ preferred place of death (POD), associated patient and care-related characteristics, and the congruence betw

  9. Hospice assist at home : does the integration of hospice care in primary healthcare support patients to die in their preferred location - A retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study

    de Graaf, Everlien; Zweers, Daniëlle; Valkenburg, Anna Ch; Uyttewaal, Allegonda; Teunissen, Saskia Ccm


    BACKGROUND: A majority of patients prefer to die at home. Specialist palliative care aims to improve quality of life. Hospice assist at home is a Dutch model of general/specialised palliative care within primary care, collaboratively built by general practitioners and a hospice. AIM: The aims of thi

  10. Ekumeniese kerkreg: Die aangewese weg?

    Pieter J. Strauss


    Full Text Available Die argument word gehoor dat kerkregeringstelsels soos dié van die Rooms-Katolieke, Lutherse en gereformeerde kerke van ’n transendentale aard was en is. Daardeur word geïmpliseer dat hierdie stelsels een transendentale, unieke vaste beginsel gebruik om ’n hele stelsel van kerkregering van buite af te bepaal. Volgens Leo Koffeman, ’n voorstander van ’n ekumeniese kerkreg, plaas hierdie stelsels hulself hiermee buite die diskoers oor kerkreg en kerkregering en die beweging van die Heilige Gees. ’n Ekumeniese kerkreg, daarenteen, is ten gunste van ’n gemeenskaplike kerkreg tussen kerke. Omdat dit verskillende tradisies bymekaar bring, is dit ’n kritiese en daarom beter benadering. Die skrywer oorweeg hierdie argumente krities in die lig van ’n gereformeerde benadering tot kerkreg.The argument is used that church political systems like that of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran and reformed churches were of a transcendental character. By that it is implied that it used one transcendental and unique ‘hard principle’ from outside to direct a system of church government. Such uniqueness, according to Leo Koffeman who advocates an ecumenical church polity, places it outside the church political discourse and the way of the Holy Spirit. An ecumenical church polity seeks a combined polity between churches and is, by bringing different traditions together, a critical and therefore better undertaking. The author examines these arguments critically in the light of a reformed church polity.

  11. 'n Begronde bedieningsmodel vir die diakonia van die gemeente

    15 Feb 2012 ... This work is licensed under the ... Grobler & Van der Walt 2008; Lingenfelter 2005; Armour & Browning 2000) en daarmee saam die ...... missionary structure of the church', Swedish Missiological Themes 93(3), 433–447.

  12. Die Valenz als textgrammatische Kategorie

    Stojan Bračič


    Full Text Available Vor mehr als dreißig Jahren kam der französische Linguist Lucien Tesnière auf die geniale Idee, die gegenseitigen Relationen zwischen dem Verb eines Satzes einerseits und den anderen Satzteilen andererseits mit den chemischen Relationen in der Struktur eines Moleküls zu vergleichen. Die Eigenschaft des Verbs, andere Wörter an sich zu binden, nannte er Verbvalenz. Tesnière schreibt (schon 1959 wörtlich: "Man kann das Verb mit einem Atom vergleichen, an dem Häkchen angebracht sind, so daß es -je nach der Anzahl der Häkchen - eine wechselnde Zahl von Aktanten an sich ziehen und in Abhängigkeit halten kann. Die Anzahl der Häkchen, die ein Verb aufweist, und dementsprechend die Zahl der Aktanten, die es regieren kann, ergibt das, was man die Valenz des Verbs nennt" (Tesnière 1980: 161. Und weiter: "Aufgrund der strukturalen Konnexionen bestehen Dependenzbeziehungen (Abhängigkeitsbeziehungen zwischen den Wörtem. Jede Konnexion verbindet im Prinzip einen übergeordneten mit einem untergeordneten Term" (ibid., 27. Schematisch hat Tesnière diese Relationen bekannt­ lich in den sogenannten Stemmata (Strukturbaumen, graphischen Darstellungen von Konnexionsstrukturen; ibid., 384 wiedergegeben. Im Satz "Mon vieil ami chante cette chanson fort jolie" ist das Verb "chante" als "régissant" allen anderen Wortkonstituenten iibergeordnet, wobei die üntergeordneten Elemente "ami" und "chanson" in einer zweiten Rangstufe wiederum den untergeordneten Elementen "mon", "vieil", "cette", "jolie" übergeordnet sind. (Vgl. Greule 1982: 99.

  13. Die Dankesrede bei der Preisverleihung

    Elenmari Pletikos Olof


    Full Text Available Festliche Preisverleihungen sind Gelegenheiten, bei denen von den Preisträgerneine kurze Rede erwartet wird. Obwohl die Dankesrede eine kleinere Randgattung innerhalb des epideiktischen Genres ist, steht sie im Mittelpunkt des Ereignisses. Rhetorikhandbücher geben zahlreiche Ratschläge, wie eine gute Festrede vorbereitet werden soll, um zu unterhalten, zu bewegen und zu belehren. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es festzustellen, welche Eigenschaften der Dankesrede die Zuhörer als erwünscht oder unerwünscht wahrnehmen und welche Charakteristika am meisten zur Qualität festlicher Dankesreden beitragen. Das Korpus der gesprochenen Texte bilden 30 Dankesreden anlässlich kroatischer Preisverleihungen in den Bereichen Schauspiel, Sport, Musik, Fernsehen, Literatur und Wirtschaft. Die Audio-Aufnahmen der Dankesreden wurden einer Gruppe von Hörern zur Bewertung in folgenden Kategorien vorgelegt: interessant, geistreich, hoher Sprachstil, feierlich, emotiv, persönlich, originell, bescheiden, vorbereitet und spontan. Zusätzlich wurde zu jeder Rede die offene Frage gestellt, was dem Zuhörer an der Rede gefallen oder nicht gefallen habe. Die Resultate der Perzeptionsanalye lassen erkennen, dass die Interessantheit einer Rede mit der Eigenschaft des Geistreichen, des Originellen, des Emotionalen und des Persönlichen in Verbindung gebracht wird und die Eigenschaft des Festlichen im Wesentlichen nur mit dem hohen Sprachstil und der Vorbereitetheit des Textes korreliert. Einige Eigenschaften können sowohl erwünscht als auch unerwünscht sein, z. B. Dialekt, Persönliches und Kürze. Die besten Dankesreden haben Eigenschaften, die im Grunde schwer miteinander zu verbinden sind: Einerseits soll der Text vorbereitet sein (hoher Stil, Wortwahl, Figuren, Originalität der Geschichte, Humor, andererseits wird bei der Ausführung Spontaneität (Aufrichtigkeit, Emotionalität, Persönlichkeit erwartet.

  14. Where is God in My Dying?

    Moestrup, Lene; Hvidt, Niels Christian


    Despite increased focus on the role of spiritual care in palliative care, there is limited knowledge about spirituality / religiosity among dying patients in secularized cultures such as Denmark. This study aims through semi-structured interviews with Danish hospice patients and participant...

  15. Die wêreld en ons

    D. W. Kruger


    Full Text Available Gedurende die jaar 1949 het Sowjet-Rusland twee groot suksesse behaal, n.l. die oorwinning van die Komniunisnie in China en die vervaardiging van die atoombom, albei gebeurtenisse wat vir sy westerse teenstanders ’n groot ontngtering was.

  16. Ueber die Neoperla-Arten aus Java

    Klapálek, Fr.


    Die Anregung zum Versuche die bisher aus Java bekannten Neoperla-Arten zusammenzustellen, gab mir die Sendung des Herrn E. Jacobson aus Semarang. Sie enthielt zwei Arten, von welchen die eine für mich neu war; ich nehme mir die Freiheit dieselbe ihrem Entdecker zu widmen. Bei dieser Gelegenheit habe

  17. Afrika die Onbekende: Die Federasie van Rhodesie Njassaland (I

    J. S. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available Die grondgebied van die Federasie van Rhodesië en Njassaland strek oor 14° 15’ in ’n N.-S.-rigting (vanaf22“ 30’ S. to t 8° 15’ S. en ongeveervanaf 22° 0 to t 36° 0. Dit verteenwoordig afstande in albei gevalle van tussen 900 en 1000 myl.

  18. The Japan HOspice and Palliative Care Evaluation Study (J-HOPE Study): views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units.

    Okishiro, Nao; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Tsuneto, Satoru; Sato, Kazuki; Shima, Yasuo


    There has been a debate in appropriateness of legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia in Japan. To clarify views about these issues, we conducted a large nationwide study of the bereaved whose family member died at palliative care units. The percentages of 429 bereaved family members (response rate 65%) who affirmed legal authorization were 52 for death with dignity and 45 for euthanasia and who affirmed assignment at the discretion of the physician involved were 37 for death with dignity and 38 for euthanasia. In conclusion, views about legalization of death with dignity and euthanasia among the bereaved are inconsistent. No consensus is reached as to legislation of these issues.

  19. Decorative pleats; Falten, die schmuecken

    Marfurt, P. [Sulzer Rueti AG, Rueti (Switzerland)


    Pleated fabrics - also known as plisses - are very popular in the fashion industry. The pleats are normally created in a process which involves pressing and heat-setting. The Sulzer Ruti G6200 rapier weaving machine is now available with special equipment, which allows the pleats to be woven directly into the fabric. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im modischen Bereich sind Faltengewebe - sogenannte Plissees - sehr beliebt. Ueblicherweise entstehen die Falten in einem Press- und Thermofixiervorgang. Die Greiferwebmaschine G6200 von Sulzer Rueti ist jetzt mit einer speziellen Ausruestung lieferbar, mit deren Hilfe die Falten direkt in den Stoff gewebt werden koennen. (orig.)

  20. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    Lüst, Dieter


    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  1. Die plek van goud in die huidige internasionale monetêre stelsel en die rol wat dit kan speel in die herstel van die internasionale monetêre orde.

    D. P. Erasmus


    Full Text Available Die vrye wêreld het sedert die oorloggedwonge opskorting van die goudstandaard in 1914, ’n groot agteruitgang in die internasionale betalingsmeganisme beleef. Hoewel die inter- nasionale goudstandaard in die laaste helfte van die twintiger- jare herstel is, was meeste lande nie langer gedwee om hulle aan die monetêre dissipline van dié stelsel te onderwerp nie en vind ons dat die een land na die ander onder die druk van die depressie in die dertigerjare die goudstandaard laat vaar het. Die Verenigde State van Amerika was die enigste uitson- dering. Geleidelik moes wisselkoersstabiliteit en die vrye inter­ nasionale betalingsverkeer vir wisselkoersmanipulasie en valu- tabeheer plek maak. Hierdie transformasie was ’n weerspieë- ling van die sterker opkoms van ekonomiese nasionalisme en die begeerte van die onderskeie lande om elkeen vir homself die beste voordeel in die internasionale ekonomiese en finan- siële terrein toe te eien. Die daarstelling van die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds te Bretton Woods in 1944, was ’n simptoom van die wêreldwye kommer oor die vooroorlogse neigings op monetêre gebied en terselfdertyd ’n poging om meer dissi­ pline in die internasionale betalingsverkeer te skep. Feit is egter dat ondanks sy positiewe resultate op sommige gebiede, die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds nie heeltemal 'n geskikte substituut vir die goudstandaard daargestel het nie. Wat meer is, die skok van die internasionale monetêre steurnisse word nog steeds deur die lande met die internasionale geldeenhede, naamlik die pond sterling en die dollar ondervind.

  2. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type I) within the product group: small cogeneration plants; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen in Anlehnung an ISO 14024 (Type I) fuer die Produktgruppe: Kleine Blockheizkraftwerk-Module

    Hoffmann, E.; Hirschl, B.; Kaliske, J. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Reese, I.; Grimpe, T. [Hamburg Gas Consult (HGC) GmbH (Germany)


    available data, it is not possible at the moment to derive concrete criteria for an ecolabel in this field. After the introduction of initial products onto the market, corresponding requirements for plants based on this new technology should be specified. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer kleine BHKW-Module gerechtfertigt ist, und welche Anforderungen diese im Vergabefall erfuellen sollten. Im Rahmen der Untersuchung wurde zunaechst eine umfassende Marktanalyse durchgefuehrt, um daraus die Anlagen zu identifizieren, die fuer ein Umweltzeichen in Frage kommen. Im Hauptteil der Studie ging es um die vertiefende Analyse der Umweltrelevanz der ausgewaehlten Anlagen. Hierzu wurde eine Herstellerbefragung durchgefuehrt und ausgeaehlte BHKW anhand eines Systemvergleiches mit Gas- und Oelheizkesseln verglichen. Auf der Basis dieser Analyse wurden Anforderungskataloge fuer Gas- und Diesel-BHKW-Module abgeleitet, die in einem Fachgespraech in einer breiten Runde von Experten und Herstellern vorgestellt und diskutiert wurden. Aus der Studie und dem Fachgespraech konnte ein deutliches Votum fuer ein Umweltzeichen fuer die untersuchten BHWK-Module abgeleitet werden. Die vorgeschlagenen Vergabegrundlagen umfassen Anforderungen an Richtlinienkonformitaet, rationelle Energienutzung (Elektrischer und Gesamtwirkungsgrad bei Nennlast und Teillast, Angabe des Hilfsstrombedarfes), Emissionswerte von CO, NO{sub x}, Staub und organischen Stoffen, Schallemissionen, Angebot von Wartungsvertraegen, Ruecknahmeverpflichtung sowie Anforderungen an die Bedienungsanleitung. Als moegliche Umschrift eines Zeichens fuer kleine BHKW-Module wird empfohlen: 'Umweltzeichen... weil energieefizient'. Neben motorischen BHKW wurden auch kleine Brennstoffzellen-BHKW untersucht. Diese befinden sich zur Zeit noch in einer Feldtest- und Erprobungsphase. Sie weisen deutliche oekologische

  3. Die probleem van hoere ongeletterheid: is skryfonderrig op skool aandadig?

    Ria Smuts


    Full Text Available Die verskynsel dat universiteitstudente nie in staat is om te voldoen aan dosente se eise ten opsigte van hul taalbeheer nie, het aanleiding gegee tot 'n studie wat onder Afrikaanssprekende eerstejaarstudente ondemeem is. Die eksperimentele groep is saamgestel uit studente uit die geesteswetenskappe, wat Afrikaans as vak volg, en studente uit die natuurwetenskappe en handelswetenskappe, wat nie 'n taal as vereiste vak hoef te volg nie. Hulle reaksie op hul ervaring van stelonderrig op skool en hul ervaring van die eise wat aan die universiteit gestel_word t.o. v. hul taalvermoe is ondersoek Op grand daarvan is onder andere bevind dat studente wat probleme het om te voldoen aan die eise van akademiese diskoers geen skoling gekry het in die hantering van eksposisionele teks nie. Die studie toon die noodsaaklikheid om die huidige eksamenstelsel te herstruktureer. Leerlinge gee voorkeur aan sekere tipes opstelle, afhangend van hul geslag en studierigting. Die eksamenstelsel stet leerlinge in staat om sekere opsteltipes konsekwent te ontduik - juis die tipes wat hulle sou toerus vir die idse van die universiteit. The phenomenon that university students fail to comply with the demands of their lecturers as regards their level of linguistic competency, has led to a study which was conducted among Afrikaans speaking first year university students. The experimental group consisted of students from the faculties of human sciences, who were studying Afrikaans at university level, as well as students from the natural and commercial sciences, who were not taking any Afrikaans course. Their reaction to the writing instruction they had received in school, as well as their experience of writing problems posed by academic· discourse, was examined. The results show that students who find it difficult to cope with the demands of academic writing, have usually not received any training in expository writing. The study underlines the need for restructuring the

  4. Verlossing en die verbeelding van die kinderjare: Dickens se voorstelling van kinders in A Christmas Carol

    David E. Robinson


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel oorweeg die uitbeelding van kinders in Dickens se bekendste Kersboek. Sentraal in hierdie staan die oorweging van die historiese omstandighede waarin hierdie boek geskryf is, asook Dickens se eie kinderjare en die moontlikheid van verlossing, deur die mag van die verbeelding, uit die negatiewe gevolge van sosiale omstandighede en persoonlike keuses. Die veranderende opvatting van die Victoriaanse kind, van die idee dat kinders van nature sondig is tot die idee dat hulle suiwer en onskuldig is, plaas hierdie literêre werk histories en teoreties. Die rol van Dickens se herinneringe aan sy kinderdae en die invloed daarvan op sy werk word bespreek. Die werk van Edmund Wilson en die kenner van kinderliteratuur, Adrienne Gavin, word ingesluit in hierdie oorweging van die kort roman.

  5. Die Last mit der Lust

    Lutz Sauerteig


    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  6. Nuwe patogene in die voedselbedryf

    M. M. Ehlers


    Full Text Available ’n “Nuwe generasie” voedselpatogene het die afgelope jare hul verskyning gemaak en kan 'n ernstige gevaar vir die voedselbedryf inhou. Hierdie organismes is uiters aanpasbaar en bestaande voedselprosesseringstegnieke, veral die verkoeling van voedsel, is nie altyd volkome effektief om hul groei te voorkom nie. Clostridium botulinum tipe E, enterotoksigeniese Eschsrichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes en Aeromonas hydrophila is in staat om in voedsel by 5 °C te groei. Campylobacter jejuni en Brucella kan weer by 5 °C oorleef en 'n derde groep organismes, naamlik Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus en Vibrio vulnificus kan by temperature tussen 5 °C en 12 °C groei en hul teenwoordigheid is ’n aanduiding dat die koueketting verbreek is.

  7. A laser-based study of kerosine evaporation and -mixing for lean prevaporized combustion at elevated pressure; Lasermesstechnische Untersuchung der Kerosinverdampfung und -mischung fuer die magere Vormischverbrennung unter erhoehtem Druck

    Brandt, M.


    The evaporation and mixing of a kerosine spray in the turbulent airstream of a prevaporizer is investigated at conditions prevailing in the combustion chamber of gas turbines. An experiment is described that allows to study an evaporating fuel spray downstream a prefilming airblast atomizer with Phase-Doppler anemometry, laser-induced fluorescence and an infrared light absorption technique. At an air pressure of 9 bars, an air temperature of 750 K, a mean air velocity of 120 m/s and a fuel flow rate of 1 g/s the kerosine spray evaporates completely without autoignition. At this operating condition the parameters air pressure, air temperature and air turbulence are varied. The influence of these parametric variations on the dropsize distribution, the evaporation rate and the concentration profiles of liquid and evaporated fuel is presented and discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Verdampfung und Vermischung eines Kerosinsprays in der turbulenten Luftstroemung eines Vorverdampfers wird unter Bedingungen untersucht, die in Brennkammern fuer Gasturbinen vorherrschen. Ein Experiment wird vorgestellt, welches es erlaubt, ein verdampfendes Kraftstoffspray stromab eines ebenen Luftstromzerstaeubers mit Filmleger mittels der Phasen-Doppler-Anemometrie, Laser-induzierter Fluoreszenz und einer Infrarotabsorptionsmesstechnik zu untersuchen. Bei einem Luftdruck von 9 bar, einer Vorwaermetemperatur der Luft von 750 K, einer mittleren Luftgeschwindigkeit von 120 m/s und einem Kraftstoffmassenstrom von 1 g/s verdampft das Kerosinspray vollstaendig, ohne die Selbstzuendungszeit zu erreichen. Bei dieser Betriebsbedingung werden die Parameter Luftdruck, Lufttemperatur und Turbulenzgrad variiert. Der Einfluss dieser Parameter auf das Tropfengroessenspektrum, den Verdampfungsgrad und die Konzentrationsprofile des fluessigen sowie des verdampften Kraftstoffs wird dargestellt und diskutiert. (orig.)

  8. Die gesetzliche Frauenquote in Deutschland

    Amling, Svenja


    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird auf eine per Gesetz vorgeschriebene Frauenquote in Deutschland eingegangen. Im Fokus steht die Frage, ob Frauendiskriminierung durch eine solche Vorschrift tatsächlich bekämpft werden kann oder ob vielmehr die Männer diskriminiert würden. Zudem werden mögliche Unterschiede in den Führungsstilen zwischen Frauen und Männern untersucht sowie einige bereits vorhandene Frauenquoten in Politik und Wirtschaft vorgestellt.

  9. Dies irae ~Acta est Fabula~


    从2007年11月的Diesirae Also sprach Zarathstra到2009年的7月的Dies irae Also sprach Zarathustra—die Wieder kunfl-,Light社的Diesirae的完全版可说是时隔两年的大坑,发行了两个非完全版的游戏吊足玩家们的胃口后。

  10. Gedagtes oor die onbepaaldheidsbeginsel van Heisenberg

    P. H. Stoker


    Full Text Available Van filosofiesc syde en ook deur populariserende skrywers is daar al baie geskryf oor die onbepaaldheidsbeginsel in die Fisika, wat deur Heisenberg in die twintiger jare na vore gebring is.

  11. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    Regula Fankhauser


    Full Text Available Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen machen mögliche Kameraeffekte wie die Performanz vor der Kamera oder die Blickrichtung, die durch das Kameraauge fixiert wird, zum Ausgangspunkt neuer, ästhetischer Verfahrensweisen. Der vorliegende Artikel geht einen dritten Weg: Anhand eines Rückgriffs auf den Wissenschaftssoziologen LATOUR und anhand der methodologischen Reflexion eines forschungspraktischen Beispiels sollen grundsätzliche Probleme der Unterrichtsforschung herausgearbeitet werden, die sich mit dem Einsatz der Videografie besonders deutlich zeigen und mit der sich die Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt auseinandersetzen müsste. URN:

  12. Dying at the best time.

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J


    These are the results of two surveys of relatives, and others who knew people who had died, describing events in the year before death and their views on the time of the person's death. Those surveyed were identified from death certificates in England. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. Variation in peoples' views about whether an earlier death would have been better is reported, in the context of debate about euthanasia. Spouses were less likely than others to feel that it would have been better if the person had died earlier, and this held true even when controlling for the deceaseds' levels of pain, distress, dependency and age. Spouses were more likely than others to say that a later death would have been better, though not in cases where the deceased was reported as having said they wanted to die sooner. Spouses were influenced by the loss which the death of the person represented for them, being more likely than others to say they missed the person who died a great deal, and feel loneliness was a big problem. Non spouses (children and other relatives of the deceased, friends, neighbours and a few officials) on the other hand were more likely than spouses to say an earlier death would have been better, even when levels of pain, distress, dependency and age were controlled for.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Uitdagings in die onderrig van evolusie in die lewenswetenskappeklaskamer

    Josef J. de Beer


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel skryf die outeurs oor navorsing wat hulle gedoen het oor onderwysers se siening van die onderrig van evolusie, wat in 2008 as ’n tema in lewenswetenskappe in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ingesluit is. Hierdie vernuwing in die kurrikulum is met gemengde reaksies begroet. Terwyl sommige onderwysers dit met entoesiasme onderrig, is baie gekant teen die onderrig van evolusie. Die artikel is gebaseer op ’n navorsingsprojek waarby 255 onderwysers betrek is. Vraelyste is gebruik om kwalitatiewe data, wat vir diskoers ontleed is, in te samel. Die diskoers van die onderwysers het getoon dat ’n groot getal van hulle nie hul onderrigopdrag kan versoen met hul geloof nie en konsepte oor evolusie as ‘feite’ verduidelik, maar seker maak dat evolusie as ’n teorie gediskrediteer word. Dit het verreikende implikasies vir sowel onderwyseropleiding as kurrikulumontwikkeling. Konseptuele veranderingsteorie word as ’n lens gebruik om na hierdie problematiek te kyk. Challenges in the teaching of evolution in the life sciences classroom. In this article the authors report on research that was conducted about teachers’ views on evolution, which was introduced as a theme in the school life sciences curriculum in 2008. This innovation in the curriculum has been met with mixed reactions. Whereas some teachers embrace this new theme, many teachers are opposed to the teaching of evolution. The article reports on an inquiry that was conducted amongst 255 teachers and in which survey questionnaires were used to collect qualitative data, which was analysed for its discourse. The discourse of the teachers shows that many of them cannot reconcile their religious faith with their teaching and that they may teach the ‘facts’ of evolution, but make sure that they discredit evolution as a theory. This raises serious concerns about teacher education and curriculum development. The authors examine these issues through the lens of conceptual change

  14. Die Thrombolysetherapie des ST-Streckenhebungsinfarktes 2002

    Huber K


    Full Text Available Einleitung: Die medikamentöse Reperfusion thrombotisch verschlossener Koronargefäße mittels Fibrinolysetherapie ist ubiquitär rasch verfügbar und daher nach wie vor die wichtigste Behandlungsmöglichkeit des akuten ST-Streckenhebungsmyokardinfarktes (ST-Elevation Myocardial Infacrtion; STEMI. Die Fibrinolysetherapie wurde in den vergangenen Jahren an spezialisierten Herzkatheterzentren weniger häufig durchgeführt, da bei entsprechender Organsation ("Door-to-balloon"-Zeit von unter 60-90 Minuten; erfahrener Untersucher, "High-volume"-Center mit der Akutintervention (Akut-PCI die höchsten Wiedereröffnungsraten (TIMI-Grad 3-Fluß in über 90 % und die geringsten 30-Tages-Mortalitätsergebnisse (4,5 % in prospektiven Studien erzielt werden können. In Österreich werden derzeit unter 15 % aller für eine Reperfusionstherapie in Frage kommenden Infarktpatienten einer Akut-PCI zugeführt. Verbesserungsmöglichkeiten der Fibrinolysetherapie: Je kürzer die Zeit zwischen Infarkt- und Therapiebeginn ("time is muscle"! und je fibrinspezifischer (raschere und qualitativ bessere Wiedereröffnung des Infarktgefäßes das verwendete Fibrinolytikum ist (von Vorteil sind hier t-PA, Alteplase und seine Mutanten r-PA, Reteplase, und TNK-tPA, Tenecteplase, desto geringer ist die Mortalitätsrate in klinischen Studien. r-PA weist eine längerer Halbwertzeit (Doppelbolusgabe möglich, aber eine geringere Fibrinspezifität als t-PA auf. Die spezifischen Veränderungen im TNK-tpA-Molekül (3 Punktmutationen haben zu einer längeren Halbwertzeit (dadurch als Einzelbolus applizierbar, einer höheren Fibrinspezifität und einer stärkeren Resistenz gegenüber dem natürlichen Hemmstoff PAI-1 von TNK-tPA gegenüber der Muttersubstanz geführt. Klinische Studien: t-PA (front-loaded = Neuhaus-Schema war bis vor kurzem der "Goldstandard" der Fibrinolysetherpie und hat sich in der GUSTO-1-Studie als deutlich wirksamer verglichen mit Streptokinase herausgestellt. In

  15. Personality Correlates of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale.

    Loo, Robert


    Examined personality dimensions of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale compared to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire in a study of 88 students. Findings supported the validity of the Fear of Death and Dying Scale and its independence of social desirability. (JAC)

  16. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda


    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  17. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal


    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  18. A Study of Meeting the Emotional Needs of Dying Patients and their Families at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC


    for the creation of a special thanatology team called "The Care Team". This interdisciplinary team consisting of volunteer physicians, nurses, social...the status quo, (2) establish a fully operational hospice, or (3) establish a thanatology team that is specifically designed to help dying patients... Thanatology Team To some the status quo is not acceptable, yet at the same time establishing a fully operational hospice at Walter Reed Army Medical Center

  19. Die Departement Godsdiens- en Sending- wetenskap (Afd A ...

    van die teologiese leergang aan die Transvaalse Universiteitskollege (TUK). Die. ISSN 0259 9422 = m s 4 ... Die Universiteit van Pretoria neem in 1916 'n eerste tree met die onderrig van teo- logie. In die TUK ...... Van Leeuwen, A T 1966.

  20. Kantaantekeninge by die formele en materiële beginsels van die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedskrywing

    E. Brown


    Full Text Available Die totstandkoming van ons Kerkhistoriese Werkgemeenskap staan sekerlik in die teken van ’n ‘geschichtliche Bevifusstsein’ met betrekking tot die kerkgeskiedenis in ons land. In die geskiedenis van die ecclesia patria val dit nie sonder rede met die toenemende pleitredes vir ’n krities (teologiese beoefening van hierdie vakgebied saam nie.

  1. Die Literêre Sisteem Van Dertig

    H. Viljoen


    Full Text Available In die literatuurgeskiedenis is daar onteenseglik ’n behoefte aan sistematiek. ’n Vinnige oorsig oor byvoorbeeld die geskiedenis v an die Afrikaanse poesie kan die leser erg verward laat. Daar is verskeie redes daarvoor. Eerstens word verskillende kategorieë gebruik om die verskillende generasies mee te beskryf — as dit al hoegenaamd duidelik is waar die grense tussen generasies nou eintlik lê. Die leser word as belangrike kategorie beskou by die poësie voor 1900, bewuste kunstenaarskap by Dertig, stad en oorlog (tematiese dinge by Veertig. Standaardbegrippe is nodig waarmee verskillende generasies vergelyk kan word.

  2. Die filosofie van Smuts en Boodin.

    J. M. de Wet


    Full Text Available Die werk van generaal Smuts, baie goed bekend omder die titel ,,Holism and Evolution” , en sy artikel oor ,,Some recent scientificadvances in their bearing on philosophy” in ,,Our Changing worldview”, as ook die werke van J. E. Boodin, professor in die wysbegeerteaan die Universiteit van California, Los Angeles, ,,Cosmic Evolution 1925, ,,Three interpretations of the Universe” 1934 en ,,God” 1934, toon die besondere en kenmerkende gedagtegamg vandie filosofie van die laaste tiental jare aan. Die kenmerkende is dit dat dit ’in filosofie is van sintese of, soos Whitehead

  3. Die gebruik van ’n reologiese tegniek in die bepaling van die verhardingsreaksiekinetika van ’n reaktiewe poliësterpoeierdeklaag

    O. C. Vorster


    Full Text Available

    Die studie van die verhardingsreaksiekinetika van deklae word bemoeilik deur die aanwesigheid van vlugtige stowwe, pigmente en bypigmente. In hierdie studie word die verhardingsreaksiekinetika van ’n karboksielgetermineerde poliëstertriglisediel-isosianuraat deur middel van parallelplaatspanningsreometrie bepaal. Jeltye is verkry en skaleringseksponente bepaal. ’n Nuwe metode vir die voorspelling van die verloop van die reaksie word voorgestel en vergelyk met resultate verkry deur middel van differensiël skanderingskalorimetrie.


    The use of a rheological technique in the determination of the curing kinetics of a reactive polyester powder coating

    In this article a study of the curing process of carboxyl terminated polyester-triglycidyl isocyanurate systems is reported. A comparison is made between the generally used Differential Scanning Calorimetric methods and rheokinetic methods, using a parallel plate oscillating stress rheometer. Gel times were determined and scaling exponents calculated. A new method for the estimation of the extent of reaction is presented and compared with results obtained by means of differential scanning calorimetry

  4. Strategieë om die implementering van die Suid-Afrikaanse professionele leergemeenskapmodel te bevorder

    Christina J. van Staden


    Full Text Available Die Geïntegreerde Strategiese Beplanningsraamwerk vir Onderwyseropleiding en -ontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika 2011–2025 vereis dat vakverwante professionele leergemeenskappe tussen 2011 en 2017 op skool- en distriksvlak gevestig word. Die doel daarvan is om onderwysers van geleenthede te voorsien om hul eie leerbehoeftes te identifiseer en te vervul. Slegs sommige van die Distriksonderwysersontwikkelingsentra wat as vergaderplekke moet dien, hoef egter teen 2025 gereed te wees. Die gaping tussen beleid en die implemetering daarvan kan die vestiging van professionele leergemeenskappe rem en selfs verhoed. Drie implementeringsprobleme wat die professionele leergemeenskapmodel op die berugte onderwyshervormingsiklus kan stuur, word geïdentifiseer ten einde strategieë aan die hand te doen om die probleme op te los. Die ondersoek het tot die voorstel gelei dat ’n gekoördineerde benadering noodsaaklik geword het ten einde te verhoed dat die professionele leergemeenskapmodel die prooi van die berugte onderwyshervormingsiklus word.

  5. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    G.J. Jordaan


    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  6. Finding common ground to achieve a “good death”: family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study

    Tan Amy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1 Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2 Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3 Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for

  7. Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study.

    Tan, Amy; Manca, Donna


    Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a "bad death" experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians' experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated.The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a "good death" and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death.Finding Common Ground to Achieve a "Good Death" for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. A novel framework for developing

  8. Die Effizienz der kieferorthopädischen Frühbehandlung: Eine Literaturübersicht über die letzten 25 Jahre

    Wittenberger, Katja


    Die Verbesserung diagnostischer und therapeutischer Verfahrensweisen in der Kieferorthopädie führen zu einer Verschiebung des wissenschaftlichen Interesses von der konventionellen Behandlung hin zur Frühbehandlung. Ein ausführliches Literaturstudium untersucht den Stand der Wissenschaft zur Frühbehandlung, ihre Effizienz und ihre Effektivität. Die Literaturquellen wurden aus den Datenbanken "Medline" und "Biosis" recherchiert und decken den Wissensstand der letzten 25 Jahre ab. Die 113 Studie...

  9. Assistance in dying for older people without a serious medical condition who have a wish to die : a national cross-sectional survey

    Raijmakers, Natasja J H; van der Heide, Agnes; Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34166698X; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/150583265; van Delden, Johannes J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086541331; Rietjens, Judith A C


    BACKGROUND: The Dutch euthanasia law regulates physician assistance in dying for patients who are suffering unbearably from a medical condition. We studied the attitudes of the Dutch population to assistance in dying for older persons who have a wish to die without the presence of a serious medical

  10. Assistance in dying for older people without a serious medical condition who have a wish to die: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Heide, A. van der; Kouwenhoven, P.S.C.; Thiel, G.J.M.W. van; Delden, J.J.M. van; Rietjens, J.A.C.


    Background: The Dutch euthanasia law regulates physician assistance in dying for patients who are suffering unbearably from a medical condition. We studied the attitudes of the Dutch population to assistance in dying for older persons who have a wish to die without the presence of a serious medical

  11. Assistance in dying for older people without a serious medical condition who have a wish to die : a national cross-sectional survey

    Raijmakers, Natasja J H; van der Heide, Agnes; Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; van Delden, Johannes J M; Rietjens, Judith A C


    BACKGROUND: The Dutch euthanasia law regulates physician assistance in dying for patients who are suffering unbearably from a medical condition. We studied the attitudes of the Dutch population to assistance in dying for older persons who have a wish to die without the presence of a serious medical

  12. Die Kunst des Intavolierens: Gebundenheit und Freiheit

    Ring, Johannes


    Full Text Available A big part of 16th century keyboard repertory was intabulated vocal music; arrangements of motets, sets of masses and chansons. Marcant and sometimes little known examples show the different functions of intabulations: repertoire for the organists (liturgical function, music of delight and pedagogical functions. As a part of Ars Organistum intabulations were the basis of professional musical studies, learning to improvise organ music and to compose music. Masters like H. Scheidemann, the both Gabrielis, J. de Lublin, P. Philips, the both Cabezóns, some English and French anonym composers demonstrate that intabulations are much more than keyboard reductions - artful arrangements with their own life and character on the way to artful paraphrases. The intentions of the composers / arrangers in connection with the possibilities of the keyboard instruments definite the character and the step of transforming a vocal set in a (new piece of keyboard music.

    [de] Ein großer Teil des Musikrepertoires für Tasteninstrumente im 16. Jahrhundert bestand aus intavolierter Vokalmusik - Bearbeitungen von Motetten, Messsätzen und Chansons. Markante und teilweise wenig bekannte Beispiele zeigen verschiedene Funktionen der Intavolierungen. Zu nennen sind das Organistenrepertoire (liturgisches Umfeld, die Musik zur Erbauung und Unterhaltung und die pädagogische Funktion. Als Bestandteil der Ars Organistum waren Intavolierungen wichtig um professionell das Improvisieren von Musik und das Komponieren zu erlernen. Exemplarisch dokumentieren besonders H. Scheidemann, die beiden Gabrielis, J. de Lublin, P. Philips, die beiden Cabezóns und einige anonyme Komponisten aus England und Frankreich, dass ihre Kunst des Intavolierens weit über den Übertragungsmodus hinausgeht, bis hin zum virtuosen Arrangement und zur kunstvollen Paraphrase. Die Intentionen der Komponisten in Verbindung mit den Möglichkeiten der Tasteninstrumente pr

  13. Die anderen Ausdrucksweisen: subtile Offensiven

    Ella Jasiowka


    Full Text Available Was passiert, wenn der „Herrscher des filmischen Blickes“ eine Frau ist? Anhand zweier jeweils sehr unterschiedlicher Beispiele „weiblicher“ Filmkunst zeigt die Autorin, dass es nötig ist, herkömmliche Interpretationsmuster zu überwinden, um dem Filmschaffen einzelner Künstler und Künstlerinnen auf den Grund zu gehen. Da es nicht die „feministische Kunst“ an sich gibt, muß man für das Werk so unterschiedlicher Künstlerinnen wie Sally Potter und Jane Campion jeweils unterschiedliche Schlüssel suchen, um ihnen gerecht zu werden. Dies tut Radkiewicz in ihrem Werk – aus feministischer Perspektive. Sie holt jeweils verschieden weit aus, wenn es darum geht, künstlerische Herkunft, Biographie, Vorbilder und Ziele der Künstlerinnen zu deren Werk in Bezug zu setzten. Ohne zu bahnbrechend neuen Erkenntnissen zu kommen, gelingt es ihr doch, ein komplexes Bild der von ihr behandelten Filmemacherinnen und den Filmen zu entwerfen, das einen umfassenden Gesamteindruck vermittelt. Die Kürze des Buches bringt dabei eine Konzentration mit sich, die zu einer Weiterbeschäftigung und Vertiefung einlädt.

  14. Tweedimensionele generatorfunksie vir die vektorkardiogram vir gebruik in volume-geleidingsmodelle van die toraks

    T. A. Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available ’n Elektrokardiogram (EKG meet die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart op die veloppervlak. Volumegeleidingsmodelle van die toraks kan ontwerp word om hierdie metings te simuleer. ’n Generatorfunksie, wat die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart beskryf, word benodig om hierdie simulasies aan te dryf. Hoewel soortgelyke simulasies van variërende kompleksiteit in die literatuur bespreek word, is daar ’n behoefte aan ’n vereenvoudigde, dog omvattende benadering wat kan dien as inleiding tot die onderwerp of vir gevalle waar ’n eerste-orde-benadering tot die probleem voldoende is. In hierdie artikel word ’n oorsig gegee oor die vektorinterpretasie van die EKG, ook bekend as ’n vektorkardiogram (VKG, in die tweedimensionele menslike frontale vlak. Die afleiding van die ekwivalente elektriese dipool (met ander woorde die kardiale vektor vanaf die VKG, wat gebruik kan word as ’n stroombron-generatorfunksie vir volumegeleidingsmodelle wat die EKG simuleer, word bespreek. ’n Prosedure om so ’n volume-geleidingsmodel met die eindige-element-tegniek te implementeer en die vereenvoudigde tweedimensionele generatorfunksie te gebruik, sowel as die resultate daarvan, word bespreek. Die algemene kenmerke van gemete EKG-afleidings stem ooreen met dié wat deur die eenvoudige model voorspel word.

  15. Interdisciplinarity, more than just a word? Findings of a case study on urban water management; Ist die Interdisziplinaritaet mehr als ein Schlagwort? Erkenntnisse aus einer siedlungswasserwirtschaftlichen Fallstudie

    Krejci, V. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz, Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    This is the first interdisciplinary approach to urban water and waste water managment. The author presents the knowledge acquired during the project. [German] Die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Wasserwirtschaft in urbanen Gebieten ist sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis neu. Zwischen der Bearbeitung eines Forschungsprojektes und eines Ingenieurprojektes gibt es grundsaetzliche Differenzen, trotzdem sind wir der Meinung, dass es bezueglich der interdisziplinaeren Aspekte und der ganzheitlichen Betrachtung der Wasserwirtschaft sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis aehnliche Probleme gibt. Aus diesem Grunde wird in dieser Arbeit versucht ueber einige Erfahrungen aus dem interdisziplinaeren und ganzheitlichen Forschungsprojekt zu berichten. (orig.)

  16. Study in hospice home care method of dying children%临终患儿居家临终关怀方法的研究

    冉伶; 彭玉凌; 伍小飞


    Objective To explore hospice home care method of dying children.Methods In 58 cases of dying children at home were given personalized hospice care plan,then the questionnaire were adopted to investigate the related indexes and the results were analyzed.Results In home hospice care,parents had a high recognition and satisfaction to children's pain management and symptom care.The parents with different education background had significant difference in recognition extent of psychological support,games support and death education.The parents anxiety and depression mood got effective mitigation through hospice home care of dying children.Conclusions Implementation of personalized home hospice care can increase life quality of dying children and improve adverse mood of their parents.%目的 探讨临终患儿的居家临终关怀护理方法.方法 对58例临终居家患儿采用个性化的临终护理计划和临终关怀方式,采用调查问卷对相关指标进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 在居家临终关怀中,家长对患儿疼痛管理和症状护理的满意度最高.不同学历的家长,在临终关怀中对心理支持,游戏娱乐支持和死亡教育这3项上,认同程度有显著的差异.通过居家临终关怀,家长的焦虑、抑郁心理得到显著的缓解.结论 开展个性化居家临终护理,能够提高临终患儿的生活质量,改善家长的不良情绪,值得推广.

  17. Rezension zu: Katrin Schütz: Geschlechterentwürfe im literarischen Werk von Lou Andreas-Salomé unter Berücksichtigung ihrer Geschlechtertheorie. Würzburg: Verlag Königshausen & Neumann 2008

    Romana Weiershausen


    Full Text Available Katrin Schütz hat eine Studie zu Geschlechterkonzeptionen in Lou Andreas-Salomés Frühwerk vorgelegt, in der auch die bislang wenig berücksichtigten literarischen Texte der Autorin ausgewertet werden. Die Anlage zielt auf eine Überblicksdarstellung, hinter der die differenzierende Reflexion der einzelnen Thesen zurück steht: Schütz geht es um die Konturierung einer Typologie. Durch die erweiterte Textgrundlage wird dabei Neues erschlossen, woraus sich anregende Impulse für die Jahrhundertwende-Forschung ergeben.

  18. Die resepsie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 17 en 22 insake die opstanding in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk sedert 2000 (Deel 2

    Johannes W. Hofmeyr


    Full Text Available Met die 450e herdenking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus as vertrekpunt, word met die huidige en die vorige artikel gepoog om lig te werp op die plek, die rol en die interpretasie van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in veral Sondag 17 en 22, spesifiek in die konteks van twee besondere eras in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde (NG Kerk. In die vorige artikel is allereers ’n bespreking gevoer oor die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK. Daar is gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die era van Andrew Murray, spesifiek teen die agtergrond van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in Nederland. In die huidige artikel word soortgelyk gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die NG Kerk na 2000, teen die agtergrond van die herverskyning van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in die vorm van die Jesus Seminaar, die Nuwe Hervorming en ondersteuners daarvan binne die NG Kerk. Sowel die negentiende-eeuse liberale stryd in die NG Kerk asook die stryd oor die opstanding in die NG Kerk van die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu, soos verder in hierdie artikel sal blyk, was gekenmerk deur kontekstueelbepaalde uniekhede. Die gemene deler was dat albei deel was van tye van teologiese vrysinnigheid. In die lig van hierdie bespreking word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die NG Kerk tans, betreffende haar identiteit as gereformeerde kerk waarskynlik in ’n kritieke geloofs- en toekomskrisis verkeer. Dit impliseer kommerwekkende gevolge vir haar Skrifverstaan en getuienis as belydenis en belydende kerk van Jesus Christus en haar toekoms. Alleen duidelike visie, verantwoordelike leierskap en ’n herontdekking van die verlossingskrag van Christus se kruis en opstanding sal herstellende, positiewe en dinamiese oplossings kan bied om sodoende die NG Kerk te red van ’n snelwentelende afwaartse spiraal.With the 450th celebrations of the origin of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC in mind, the main aim of this and the

  19. Die «ASEAN-Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft»

    Juego, Bonn


    Entwicklungsstufen, wie sie unterschiedlicher kaum sein können. Der Autor, Bonn Juego, nimmt die ASEAN Vision 2020 sowie die Debatten, die diesbezüglich in den einzelnen Ländern geführt werden, unter die Lupe. Er geht dem Potenzial des ASEANAnsatzes zu sozialer Teilhabe und wirtschaftlicher Verteilungsgerechtigkeit...

  20. Moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag

    J.H. van Wyk


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word aandag gevra vir enkele moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag. Volgens die outeur staan die vrae oor God, Jesus, die mens en die aarde in die sentrum van belangstelling en oorheers dit in ’n groot mate die teologiese debat. Die opkoms van die moderne aggressiewe ateïsme, die wetenskaplike navorsing oor die historiese Jesus, die groeiende vrae oor die mens en die menslike samelewing, asook die dreigende ekologiese krisis op aarde, sorg vir nuwe debatte van ongekende omvang. Die outeur bespreek hierdie debatte oorsigtelik, met kritiek waar nodig, en sluit af met enkele rigtingwysers van wat hy as ‘goeie teologie’ verstaan.In this article attention is paid to some modern discourses in theology today. According to the author the questions about God, Jesus, man and the earth are in the centre of interest and to a large extent dominate the theological debate. The rise of modern aggressive atheism, the scientific research on the historic Jesus, the growing questions about man and human society as well as the threatening ecological crisis on earth, provide new discourses of unparalleled magnitude. The author provides a broad summary of these discourses, with criticism where necessary, and concludes with some indicators of his view what can be called ‘good theology’.

  1. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.


    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  2. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.


    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  3. Die Welt als Fassade : kosmischer Schrecken als Angriff auf die Wirklichkeit

    Zuch, Rainer


    "The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown." Mit diesem Satz eröffnet Howard Phillips Lovecraft 1927 seinen berühmten Essay "Supernatural Horror in Literature". In der Phantastik wird oft die Demontage der Erfahrungswirklichkeit durch die Kontaminierung mit dem Wunderbaren thematisiert; die bekannte Welt bekommt Risse, durch die das Unbekannte eindringt. Radikalisiert wird dies in Konzepten, die die gesamte vertrau...

  4. How Tycho Brahe really died

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Petersen, Lars


    In 2001 we commemorate the 4th centenary of the death of Tycho Brahe, perhaps the first great scientists in a modern sense.This famous Danish astronomer died in Prague on the 24th of October 1601, eleven days after he had attended a banquet at the Bohemian count of Rosenberg. Tycho was too...... courteous to obey the calls of nature during the hour-long dinner and finally his bladder burst, which led to his death. Or so the story goes. But is this the real cause of Tycho's death? Is it at all possible to die from a burst bladder? Or are there more likely explanations of his death?...

  5. Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen

    Michaela Kempter


    Full Text Available In den Games-Workshops der wienXtra-spielebox lernen Kinder zwischen 7 und 12 Jahren empfehlenswerte Computer- und Konsolenspiele kennen und reflektieren nebenbei ihren Spielkonsum. Dieser Beitrag lässt die Leserinnen und Leser einen Blick hinter die Kulissen der Arbeit von wienXtra werfen.wienXtra-spielebox offers gaming workshops for young people between 7 and 12 years. The objective of these workshops is to explore new games that are evaluated as suited for the target group and to let the girls and boys reflect their playing habits. This article describes the work of wienXtra-spielebox.

  6. Adapt or Die

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green


    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost......: the highest lower bound proved for any data structure problem is only polylogarithmic. Our main result is to demonstrate that one can in fact obtain polynomial cell probe lower bounds for non-adaptive data structures. To shed more light on the seemingly inherent polylogarithmic lower bound barrier, we study...

  7. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    Pamental, George L.


    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  8. ’n Etiek van liefde: Die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus

    Koos Vorster


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel behandel die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus – een van die prominente belydenisskrifte in die gereformeerde tradisie. Die etiese relevansie is ingebed in die konfessie se verklaring van die tien gebooie. Die artikel verduidelik dat die etiek van die Heidelbergse Kategismus ten diepste ’n karakteretiek is en dat dit gelowiges oproep tot ’n etiek van liefde. Hierdie liefde sluit in liefde vir die verbondsgemeenskap, die bediening van die Woord, die heiligheid van God en die waardigheid van mense, die gemeenskap van die gelowiges, gesag, die lewe, die huwelik, privaatbesit en arbeid asook waarheid en geregtigheid. As gevolg van die sinekdogeekarakter van die wet is hierdie etiek van liefde vandag baie relevant.This article deals with the ethical relevance of one of the prominent confessions in the reformed tradition, namely the Heidelberg Cathechism. The ethical relevance lies in the confession’s elucidation of the ten commandments and its application to moral conduct. The article explains that the ethics of the Heidelberg Catechism is essentially a virtue ethics calling for an ethics of love. This love should include love for the covenantal communion, ministry of the Word, the holiness of God and the dignity of people, the communion of the saints, authority, life, marriage, private property and labour, and truth and justice. Due to the synecdochical character of the ten commandments this ethics of love is highy relevant in the present times.

  9. Herodes - die Grote?

    Pieter J.J Botha


    Full Text Available Herod - The Great?. The claim to historical understanding is more than simply quoting from ancient sources. Not only must anachronism and ethnocentrism be dealt with in order not to make the ancients mere instruments of modem preferences, but the sources themselves must be carefully interpreted so that we do not become victims of their propaganda. The challenge of historical understanding with sincerity and fairness is illustrated in this study of Herod the Great, king of the Judaeans. Studying history is not to aim at the discovery of final truth, but to participate in the conversation about truth, and therefore the self-reflection and self-discovery implied by historical exploration.

  10. Old habits die hard

    Lund, Ole; Andersen, Berit; Christensen, Mette K


    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to explore the habitual constraints and opportunities that affect how experienced clinicians learn new skills and, in particular, how new ways of teaching can influence these. METHODS: We conducted a case study based on a specialized training program...... for colonoscopy services in Denmark. Data was obtained from a short-term ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews during this program. Participants were 12 experienced colonoscopists and three expert colonoscopy trainers from Denmark and UK. The analysis of data involved categorization, inductive coding......) relation-building: building relationship and engagement between trainer and clinician. This multi-dimensional approach to teaching enabled the trainers to affect the clinicians' logic of practice and to create buy-in (so-called illusio). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical skills include socially constructed behaviors...

  11. Spesialisasie binne die bedryfsielkunde.


    Personnel selection is carried out by the personnel psychologist/ personnel practitioner responsible for the supply of human resources. Selection models and -technology have been refined to a high degree and are scientifically acceptable. With regards to the identification of critical attributes on which selection is based, it is suggested in the study that job analysis be performed in the light of insights and knowledge gained in other branches of Industrial Psychology. Specifically the stud...

  12. Die bestuur van wisselkoersrisiko


    M.Com. (Investment Management) In the research of currency risk management it is important to note that currency risk management forms part of the overall risk management of business and authorised currency dealers. various hedging instruments exist with which currency risk can be managed. This study deals with the origin and the influence of currency fluctuations on business, and the management of such risk. Various factors exist which affect the level of exchange rates. In South Africa t...

  13. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    Maria Kowalik


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveillei, Kaissleriella subalpina, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora cinnamomi occurred less frequently.

  14. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    Maria Kowalik; Agnieszka Wandzel


    The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveille...

  15. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    François P. Retief


    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  16. The Cape Gunsmith / Die Kaapse Geweersmid

    W. Otto


    Full Text Available In die Verslag van die Kommissie van Ondersoek na die Koordinering van Museums op 'n Nasionale Vlak (RP 113/1975, word vyf kolomme gewy aan historiese vuurwapens. Die kommissie wys op die belangrike plek wat vuurwapens in Suid-Afrika se wordingsgeskiedenis inneem en voeg daaraan toe dat geen museum in Suid-Afrika hierdie belangrike veld in sy uitstallings dek nie.

  17. Frauen. Kultur. Mittel- und Osteuropa oder: Über den langsamen Einzug der gender studies in die slawistischen Kulturwissenschaften Women. Culture. Middle and Eastern Europe or: On the Slow Introduction of gender studies into the Slavonic Cultural Sciences

    Barbara Wurm


    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Sammelband, entstanden anläßlich einer Konferenz, die im September 1997 vom Institut für Slawistik der Universität Innsbruck in Zusammenarbeit mit der österreichischen UNESCO-Kommission veranstaltet wurde, untersucht aus soziologischer, kulturhistorischer, literatur- und filmwissenschaftlicher Perspektive verschiedenste Aspekte der Institutionalisierung und Repräsentation von „Frauen in der Kultur“ Mittel- und Osteuropas.This anthology, the result of a conference organized in September 1997 by the Institute for Slavonic studies at the University of Innsbruck in co-operation with the Austrian UNESCO commission, examines various aspects of the institutionalization and representation of women in Middle and Eastern European culture from a sociological and cultural historical perspective and from that of literary and film sciences.

  18. Die invloed van doelwitstelling op prestasie

    J. G. A. Louw


    Full Text Available Although a number of research studies support Locke's goal setting theory, conflicting results are encountered in the Literature which suggest further investigation into the subtleties of the theory. The results of this study indicate that an increase in goal-difficulty does not always lead to a corresponding increase in performance. The latter could also not be explained in terms of the degree of goal-acceptance as an intervening variable. It was found that financial incentives and the way in which a nonspecific goal is formulated could have a significant effect on performance. Recommendations are made for future research.OpsommingOfskoon die meeste navorsing Locke se doelwitstellingsteorie ondersteun, is bepaalde afwykings teengekom wat nie op 'n bevredigende wyse verklaar kan word nie. Die resultate van hierdie studie dui daarop dat 'n toename in doelwitmoeilikheidsgraad nie altyd tot ‘n ooreenstemmende toename in prestasie lei nie. Hierdie resultaat kon ook nie op grond van 'n gebrek aan doelwitaanvaarding verklaar word nie. Daar is voorts gevind dat die wyse waarop 'n nie-spesifieke doelwit gestel word, 'n beduidende invloed op prestasie kan hê. Finansiële aansporings blyk ook 'n onafhanklike invloed op prestasie te hê. Bepaalde aspekte van Locke se teorie word dus deur bogenoemde resultate bevraagteken. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word ten slotte gedoen.

  19. Adapt or Die

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green


    read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...... several different notions of non-adaptivity and identify key properties that must be dealt with if we are to prove polynomial lower bounds without restrictions on the data structures. Finally, our results also unveil an interesting connection between data structures and depth-2 circuits. This allows us...... to translate conjectured hard data structure problems into good candidates for high circuit lower bounds; in particular, in the area of linear circuits for linear operators. Building on lower bound proofs for data structures in slightly more restrictive models, we also present a number of properties of linear...

  20. Ironie in die Johaimesevangelie

    P. P. A. Kotzé


    Full Text Available Irony in the Gospel of John An exponent of literary theory and criticism described the shift of focus from the text to the reader as a revolution. One of the main features of irony is the intensive involvement of the reader. As far as John is concerned, some scholars are convinced that 'In the Fourth Gospel theology is irony'. This may be an exaggeration, but emphasises the need to ascertain to v/hat extent irony is used in John and what contribution the study of irony in John can make to the better understanding of the message of the Gospel. In order to answer these questions, one must first determine what irony is, how it functions and how it can be detected in a text. This article is an attempt in this direction.

  1. Die atmosfeer in die erediens deur die loop van die geskiedenis

    BJ de Klerk


    Full Text Available The worship service occupies a central position in the life of the believer and therefore the atmosphere in the worship service is vital. The variations through history are studied in this article.� The viewpoints of the first four centuries, the Middle Ages, Reformation, post-Reformation and twentieth century came under discussion. Lessons from history are stated. The atmosphere in the worship service should be such that the worshipper meets God with the necessary awe and respect.� The service must also create an atmosphere of love, warmth, friendliness, and joy. All present must be invited and made welcome by the service. The atmosphere must further encourage and create room for everybody to participate and use their specific gifts. It can therefore change from service to service and within a single service. Important instruments in the atmosphere are the liturgical space, symbols, rituals, physical movement, gestures, music, song and the senses.

  2. Die invloed van drie kruisbestuiwers op die saadinhoud van Minneola tangelo (Citrus parodist x C reticulata

    H. J. Esterhuizen


    Full Text Available Die invloed van verskillende kruisbestuiwers (Clementine, Empress en Valencia op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van Minneo­la tangelo is ondersoek. Clementine en Empress as kruisbestuiwers het die grootste invloed op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte gehad, terwyl dié van Valencia nie noemenswaardig was nie. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte het afgeneem met toename in afstand vanaf die kruisbestuiwer. Indien ’n beperking op die afstand tussen kultivar en kruisbestuiwer geplaas word, sal ’n groter persentasie vrugte aan uitvoerstandaarde ten opsigte van saadinhoud voldoen.

  3. MOOCs; vanwaar al die ophef?

    Henderikx, Maartje; Kreijns, Karel


    MOOCs; vanwaar die ophef? Het nog maar zeer recente fenomeen MOOCs (massive open online courses) heeft zich in korte tijd al een onwrikbare positie weten in te nemen in het open online onderwijs. De hype rondom deze nieuwe manier van onderwijs geven bereikte zijn hoogtepunt in 2012, dat prompt werd

  4. Die Suche nach den Gottesteilchen


    2008 wird der größte jemals gebaute Teilchenbeschleuniger in Betrieb genommen Anlässlich des Mathematik-Jahres 2008 hat der Experimentalphysiker der Universität Hamburg und der designierte Generaldirektor des europäischen Zentrums für Teilchenphysik CERN in Genf, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, die Bedeutung des Dialogs zwischen Naturwissenschaftlern und Philosophen hervorgehoben.

  5. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest


    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people.

  6. ’n Voorlopige studie van die waarde van ’n gekombineerde kwantitatiewe-kwalitatiewe benadering tot beroepsvoorligting vir ’n natuurwetenskapstudent: ’n Longitudinale gevalstudie

    Jacobus G. Maree


    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel beskryf die waarde van ’n gekombineerde kwantitatiewe-kwalitatiewe benadering tot beroepsvoorligting vir ’n natuurwetenskapstudent. Die deelnemer, ’n 18-jarige jong man, is geselekteer om deel te neem aan groepassessering en beroepsvoorligting op grond van sy akademiese prestasies, sy begeerte om in die natuurwetenskappe te studeer en die feit dat hy ’n benadeelde is. Die intervensie het twee fases behels: assessering en terugvoer. Data is ingesamel met behulp van die Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, die Differential Aptitude Tests en die Rothwell-Miller Interest Blank, sowel as kwalitatiewe tegnieke (’n collage, die Beroepsbelangstellingsprofiel, lewenslyn, vroeë anekdotes, sowel as die lewensverhaaltegnieke. Na afloop van die intervensie het die deelnemer verhoogde beroepsaanpasbaarheid gedemonstreer en ’n meer aktiewe rol in sy ontluikende beroeps- en lewensverhaal begin speel. Vyf jaar later het sy prestasies alle verwagtings oortref. Dit blyk dat ’n gekombineerde kwantitatiewe-kwalitatiewe benadering tot beroepsvoorligting vir natuurwetenskapstudente die potensiaal het om aan hul beroepsvoorligtingsbehoeftes te voldoen. Meer navorsing met groot groepe studente is nodig.

  7. Adapt or die?

    S. S. Visser


    Full Text Available The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being properly in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances.

  8. Dying of corruption.

    Holmberg, Sören; Rothstein, Bo


    In many poor countries, over 80% of the population have experienced corrupt practices in the health sector. In rich countries, corruption takes other forms such as overbilling. The causal link between low levels of the quality of government (QoG) and population health can be either direct or indirect. Using cross-sectional data from more than 120 countries, our findings are that more of a QoG variable is positively associated with higher levels of life expectancy, lower levels of mortality rates for children and mothers, higher levels of healthy life expectancies and higher levels of subjective health feelings. In contrast to the strong relationships between the QoG variables and the health indicators, the relationship between the health-spending measures and population health are rather weak most of the time and occasionally non-existent. Moreover, for private health spending as well as for private share of total health spending, the relation to good health is close to zero or slightly negative. The policy recommendation coming out of our study to improve health levels around the world, in rich countries as well as in poor countries, is to improve the QoG and to finance health care with public, not private, money.

  9. Die casting process otimization using Taguchi method

    Denilson Jose Viana


    Full Text Available The aluminum die casting process has developed significantly in recent decades, occupying a prominent place for producing innovative engineering components. Among quality problems of this process is porosity due to several factors, including the process parameters that are difficult to determine, and are commonly selected by trial and error approach. This paper sought to answer the question: How to determine the best set of parameters of the aluminum die casting process to minimize porosity in the parts produced? Aiming to improve die casting aluminum parts quality through reducing of porosity. The main contribution of this paper focuses on the application of Taguchi method using ordinal categorical data (porosity classes as a quality characteristic, by analyzing the weighted signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results were analyzed from the average effect of factors and analysis of variance (ANOVA.  In conclusion parameters metal temperature and speed of the first and second injection phase were the most significant in reducing the porosity of the part studied. Also, the Taguchi method achieved the expected result, bringing significant reduction of porosity in the part studied by optimizing the process parameters.

  10. Effects of MRI on the electrophysiology of the motor cortex: a TMS study; Auswirkungen der Magnetresonanztomografie auf die Elektrophysiologie des motorischen Kortex: eine Studie mit transkranieller Magnetstimulation

    Schlamann, Marc; Pietrzyk, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Yoon, M.S.; Gerwig, M.; Kastrup, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Maderwald, S.; Forsting, M.; Ladd, S.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn-Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz; Bitz, A.; Ladd, M.E. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn-Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz


    The increasing spread of high-field and ultra-high-field MRI scanners encouraged a new discussion on safety aspects of MRI examinations. Earlier studies report altered acoustically evoked potentials. This finding was not able to be confirmed in later studies. In the present study transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to evaluate whether motor cortical excitability may be altered following MRI examination even at field strength of 1.5 T. In 12 right-handed male volunteers individual thresholds for motor responses and then the length of the post-excitatory inhibition (silent period) were determined. Subsequently the volunteers were examined in the MRI scanner (Siemens Avanto, 1.5 T) for 63 minutes using gradient and spin echo sequences. MRI examination was immediately followed by another TMS session and a third 10 minutes later. As a control condition, the 12 subjects spent one hour in the scanner without examination and one hour on a couch without the presence of a scanner. After MRI examination, the silent period was significantly lengthened in all 12 subjects and then tended to the initial value after 10 min. Motor thresholds were significantly elevated and then normalized after 10 minutes. No significant effects were found in the control conditions. (orig.)

  11. Totale welstand: 'n Nuwe dimensie in die beheer van gesondheidsorg-,werkersafwesigheids- en personeelomsetkostes

    L. I. Dreyer


    Full Text Available Total wellness: A new dimension in the control of health promotion, absenteeism and staff turnover costs. The aim of this study was firstly, to determine what is implied by the concept total wellness, secondly, to determine the rationale behind total wellness as health promotion strategy and thirdly, to study the cost benefits of companysponsored total wellness programmes. The results of this study indicate that the total wellness concept of health promotion is broader than just illness prevention or risk factor identification and treatment. The aim of total wellness programmes seems to be to stimulate and help the individual to start a self-development programme directed at maximizing his potential within all the dimension of health. The rationale behind total wellness as health promotion strategy is based on the fact that human behaviour (lifestyle is related in a complex manner to psycho-social, environmental and biological factors. Regarding cost benefits it was found that companies can offer total wellness programmes to their workforce in a cost beneficial manner. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is eerstens om te bepaal wat presies bedoel word met die konsep totale welstand. Tweedens om te bepaal wat die rasionaal van totale welstand as gesondheidsbevorderingstrategie is en derdens om die koste voordele van ondernemingsgefundeerde totale welstandsprogramme te bestudeer. Die resultate van die studie dui daarop dat totale welstand 'n veel wyer/breër konsep is as die blote behandeling of voorkoming van siektes. Die doel van totale welstandsprogramme blyk te wees om die individu op 'n selfontwikkelingspad na die bereiking van optimale persoonlike potensiaal binne al die dimensies van gesondheid te plaas. Die konsep berus op die rasionaal dat gedrag komplekse interaksies met verskeie sosio-psigologiese/ omgewings- en biologiese faktore vertoon. Betreffende die kostevoordele van suike programme vir die onderneming blyk dit dat

  12. Die spel van assosiasies in en om 'Die verlossing van die beeld' van Breyten Breytenbach

    P.A. du Toit


    Full Text Available The play of association in and around 'The liberation of the image' by Breyten Breytenbach This analysis focuses on the conjunction of memory and imagination, which is an important impulse in, and key to, Breytenbach’s work. The play with language and with associations, the foregrounding, in the short story, “Die verlossing van die beeld” (Breytenbach, 1983 with its metafictional title and apparently divergent motifs (rain/water, watch, onion, the death and burial of a grandfather acts, as it were, as an invitation to the reader to become a co-player. The reader ventures on a search for traces, intertextual links within the Breytenbach oeuvre and for already acknowledged influences such as Surrealism (which in turn casts some light on the strange title of the story and the Eastern philosophies such as Zen and the even older Taoism. The analysis also takes into account the context in which “Mouroir” was written, namely Breytenbach’s term in prison (1975-1982. Seeing that the writer had to hand in his manuscripts to the jail authorities regularly, he might have decided, consciously or by intuition, to hide some thoughts and feelings behind a screen or a mask, in, for example in “Die verlossing van die beeld”, a lighter tone and irony.

  13. Die Wissensgesellschaft und die Bildung des Subjekts - ein Widerspruch?

    Sebastian Hacke


    Full Text Available Der Beitrag untersucht, inwiefern sich medienpädagogisch relevante Diskrepanzen zwischen dem Diskurs der Wissensgesellschaft und jugendlichem Medienhandeln nachzeichnen lassen. Dazu werden zunächst einige Aspekte des Konstrukts Wissensgesellschaft skizziert, das in seiner gegenwärtig populären Form ins Fahrwasser an volkswirtschaftlichen Verwertungskalkülen orientierter Denkformen geraten ist. Dies wird in Bezug auf die sich daran gekoppelte Programmatik von Kompetenz diskutiert, welche den «homo oeconomicus» beschwört und sich darin konträr zu klassisch bildungstheoretischen Kategorien verhält. Weitergeführt werden diese Überlegungen anhand der Problematisierung des Medienkompetenztheorems, das sich bis heute damit schwer tut, sich von der Vereinnahmung durch zweckrationale und restringierende Tendenzen zu befreien. Argumentiert wird, dass mit Medienkompetenz zu wenig einer milieuspezifischen Differenzierung Rechnung getragen werden kann, die eine wichtige Prämisse für eine soziale Ungleichheiten ernst nehmende Medienpädagogik ist. Als eine Alternative diskutieren wir, inwieweit sich hier praxeologische Perspektiven zum Verständnis jugendlichen Handelns anbieten. Der Beitrag mündet in einige medienpädagogisch fruchtbare Ideen, in deren Zentrum eine reflexivere, stärker am Habitus von Jugendlichen orientierte Praxis steht.

  14. Die impak van tutoriale op die wiskundeprestasie van eerstejaarstudente

    J. G. Maree


    Full Text Available

    Studente uit histories-agtergeblewe gemeenskappe in Suid-Afrika onderpresteer dikwels in wiskunde vanweë ’n verskeidenheid faktore. Aksienavorsing wat aan die (voormalige Technikon Noord-Gauteng uitgevoer is, om ondersoek in te stel na wyses waarop hierdie studente se wiskundeprestasie verbeter kan word, het die implementering van ’n tutoriaalstelsel behels. Kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe data is deur middel van ’n verskeidenheid instrumente ingesamel. Die resultate het sekere tendense in tersiêre wiskundeonderrig, wat in ’n tweede of derde taal geskied, uitgewys.


    The impact of tutorials on achievement in mathematics of first year students

    Historically disadvantaged students in South Africa often underachieve in mathematics due to a number of factors. Action research that was conducted at the (former Technikon Northern Gauteng to investigate ways in which these students’ achievements in mathematics could be improved comprised the implementation of tutorial sessions. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered by means of a variety of instruments. The results revealed certain trends in tertiary mathematics education where learning takes place in a second or third language.

  15. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J


    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  16. Died of wounds: a mortality review.

    Keene, Damian Douglas; Penn-Barwell, J G; Wood, P R; Hunt, N; Delaney, R; Clasper, J; Russell, R J; Mahoney, P F


    Combat casualty care is a complex system involving multiple clinicians, medical interventions and casualty transfers. Improving the performance of this system requires examination of potential weaknesses. This study reviewed the cause and timing of death of casualties deemed to have died from their injuries after arriving at a medical treatment facility during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, in order to identify potential areas for improving outcomes. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who reached medical treatment facilities alive, but subsequently died from injuries sustained during combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It included all deaths from start to completion of combat operations. The UK military joint theatre trauma registry was used to identify cases, and further data were collected from clinical notes, postmortem records and coroner's reports. There were 71 combat-related fatalities who survived to a medical treatment facility; 17 (24%) in Iraq and 54 (76%) in Afghanistan. Thirty eight (54%) died within the first 24 h. Thirty-three (47%) casualties died from isolated head injuries, a further 13 (18%) had unsurvivable head injuries but not in isolation. Haemorrhage following severe lower limb trauma, often in conjunction with abdominal and pelvic injuries, was the cause of a further 15 (21%) deaths. Severe head injury was the most common cause of death. Irrespective of available medical treatment, none of this group had salvageable injuries. Future emphasis should be placed in preventative strategies to protect the head against battlefield trauma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. Retrospective study on radiotherapy efficacy in case of painful heel spur; Retrospektive Studie ueber die Wirksamkeit der Strahlentherapie beim schmerzhaftem Fersensporn

    Klossok-Niethammer, Ruth Giuliana


    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy in context of a plantar fasciitis in order to reduce pain was evaluated in this retrospective study. Patients and methods: The data of 188 patients who suffered of heel spur pain and who were irradiated in the period from 1994 to 2009 were evaluated in this study. All of them had at least one follow up examination after radiatiotherapy. The mean age amounted to 57 years. 76.5% of the patients were female. All patients described a local pain which was the basis for the indication. 74.4 % of the patients described pain especially under stress. The duration of anamnesis was averaged as follows: 15 % of the patients had pain for some weeks to 3 months, 43 % for 4 to 6 months, 28% even for 7 to 12 months. The period of medical history was longer than 12 months for 12 % of the patients in this study. 122 of 188 patients received orthopedic arch support (shoe inlays) as first therapy method. Most of the patients were irradiated using regular lateral opposing fields with photons of the energy 4 MV and 6 MV of a linear accelerator, applying a total dose of 6Gy in 6 fractions to 1,0Gy twice weekly. Only one patient was irradiated using a Co{sup 60} machine. The acquisition of data regarding the effect was performed on the last day of the radiotherapy and in 3 to 6 monthly follow ups. Additionally the doctors who attended the patients beyond the radiotherapy received a special questionnaire about the pain reduction, so that the follow up data could be completed. Results: On the last day of radiotherapy 120/188 patients (63,8%)reported an improvement of pain reduction, 7/188 patients (3,7%) absence of pain. For 52/188 patients (27.6 %) pain remained constant. At the second follow up examination after in the median 100 days the effect of radiotherapy of 165 patients could be evaluated, 43/165 patients (26 %) were pain free, 79/165 patients (47,8 %) reported an obvious pain reduction, and for 33/165 patients there was no pain improvement. At

  18. Die Bedeutung von Anerkennungserfahrungen in der Schule für die Ausprägung von Altruismus und Werten der Offenheit

    Isabella Lussi


    Full Text Available Die Werteentwicklung gilt als eine bedeutende Aufgabe im Jugendalter. Die Schule stellt dabei neben der Herkunftsfamilie eine zentrale Sozialisationsinstanz dar. Unklar ist jedoch, welche schulischen Erlebnisse die Entwicklung von Werten beeinflussen. Basierend auf 20 biografisch-narrativen Interviews mit 19- bis 21-jährigen jungen Erwachsenen in der Schweiz verfolgte die hier berichtete Studie das Ziel, schulische Erlebnisse zu eruieren, die für die Entwicklung von Werten bedeutsam sind. Bei der Auswertung der Interviews wurde das narrationsanalytische Verfahren nach SCHÜTZE (1984 mit dem Kodierverfahren der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie nach STRAUSS (1998 [1994] und der qualitativen Typenbildung (KELLE & KLUGE 1999 kombiniert. Die Ergebnisse der Studie zeigen: Anerkennung (im Sinne von HONNETH 1992 stellt eine Kernkategorie in den sehr unterschiedlichen Schüler/innenbiografien dar, und sie ist eng verknüpft mit der Ausprägung individueller Werte von jungen Erwachsenen. Junge Erwachsene, die sich in der Schule geliebt, respektiert und wertgeschätzt fühlten, kombinieren Sicherheits- und Leistungswerte mit Offenheit und Toleranz. Ist die Schulzeit durch einen Mangel an Anerkennung geprägt, werden Sicherheits- und Leistungswerte priorisiert. Dies scheint darin begründet zu sein, dass Anerkennung eine Bedingung für Autonomie darstellt und für die Fähigkeit, vergangenen und aktuellen Erlebnissen Sinn zu verleihen. URN:


    W.Q. Ma; H.Y. Sun; D.C. Kang; K.D. Zhao


    The steel reinforced plastic pipe is a new kind of pressure pipe. It is made up with steel wires and plastic. Because reinforced skeleton of the steel wire increase the complexity of plastic flow during the extrusion phase, the traditional design criteria of extrusion die is not suitable. The study on extrusion die of the kind of pipe is very important step in produce development. Using finite element (FE) method in this paper, the flow rule of molten plastic inside the die has been predicted and a group of optimal structural parameters was obtained. These results are helpful for reducing the design cycle and improve the quality of the final product.

  20. Application of Magnetic Kinds of Nondestructive Inspection to Parts From Die Tool Steels

    Kornilova, A. V.; Selishchev, A. I.; Idarmachev, I. M.


    Possibilities of control of the level of accumulated damage in dies for cold and hot forming as a function of the coercivity are considered. The coercivity of the material of dies for hot forging and cold stamping is studied. Formulas are obtained for determining the coercivity in steels for hot die forging in the state as delivered.

  1. How do young people evaluate nuclear energy at nuclear power plant sites? An empirical study; Wie bewerten junge Menschen an Standorten von Kernkraftwerken die Kernenergie? Eine empirische Studie

    Kretz, Simon [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Geographie und Geooekologie; Kramer, Caroline [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Professur fuer Humangeographie


    How does the younger generation evaluate nuclear power at sites with nuclear power plants? This has been examined at four sites with different decommissioning stages, as the presence of a nuclear power plant in young people's daily life represents a potential employer as well as a potential risk factor. The attitude of this generation will expectedly and sustainably influence the development of communities. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is currently, optimistically estimated by different energy supplying companies with a time period of 15 to 20 year. Thus the resident population will deal with this topic until the year 2040. Furthermore the decision on a repository exploration has been sighted for the year 2013. As a final repository will not be ready for operation at that time, communities will have to deal with the storage of radioactive waste in local interim-storage facilities. The next generation has the opportunity to shape their future as well as the future of their community. Nevertheless the preconditions are to stay at the side as well as the political and social engagement of these young people. n order to study this aspect and the opportunities of action of young people, data was gathered by carrying out a standardised survey, interviewing 762 pupils in February 2014.

  2. Die aard en problematiek van vertaling

    J. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available George Steiner (1975 se onlangse werk oor vertaling dra die treffende titel: After Babel. Dit is met hierdie dilemma wat die mens in sy na-babelse bestaan in sy strewe na sinvolle kommunikasie te kampe het: die bestaan van ’n magdom van tale wat geen individu, hoe begaafd ookal, eers kan droom om te beheers nie. Vandaar die strewe na die totstandbrenging van ’n eenvoudige en universele wereldtaal, Esperanto, of — meer algemeen — die behoefte aan vertaling. Maar vertaling is nie net ’n dilemma nie, dit is ook ’n uitdaging.

  3. Die Felsfassadengräber von Kyrene

    Greve, Anika


    Die griechische Kolonie Kyrene wurde im letzten Drittel des 7. Jhs. v. Chr. einige Kilometer vom Mittelmeer entfernt im libyschen Innenland gegründet. Die Siedler waren dorische Griechen aus Thera im Süden der Kykladen. Nicht nur die erhaltenen innerstädtischen Gebäude zeugen von einem einstigen Wohlstand, auch die Nekropole nahm im Laufe der Zeit gewaltige Ausmaße mit aufwendig gestalteten Grabanlagen an, die sich rund um die urbane Bebauung entlang der Ausfallstraßen ausbreitete. Viele Ruhe...

  4. A comparison of the accuracy of two removable die systems with intact working casts.

    Aramouni, P; Millstein, P


    This study evaluated the reproducibility of die position using two removable die systems and two die stones. Poly(vinyl siloxane) impressions were made of a stainless steel, U-shaped arch with four evenly spaced abutments. Six groups were evaluated: Zeiser system/Fuji Rock; Zeiser system/Die Keen; solid cast/Fuji Rock; solid cast/Die Keen; Fuji Rock/Pindex; and Die Keen/Pindex. An optical comparator was used to measure the height of each abutment, the distance between the anterior abutments, and the distance between the posterior abutments. The Zeiser system with either Fuji Rock or Die Keen yielded the greatest accuracy. Die Keen exhibited more linear expansion than Fuji Rock, and solid casts had less distortion than the Pindex system.

  5. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study; Die deutsche Braunkohlenwirtschaft. Historische Entwicklungen, Ressourcen, Technik, wirtschaftliche Strukturen und Umweltauswirkungen. Studie



    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation

  6. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Stedeford, A


    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  7. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay


    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  8. Skrifberoep in die vorming van etiese uitsprake, Deel 1: ’n Etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel

    Adriaan L. Rheeder


    Full Text Available Na 30 jaar kon die grammaties-historiese metode van Skrifondersoek nie daarin slaag om die etiese probleem van die vrou in die kerklike ampte (en homoseksualiteit in die GKSA op te los nie. Hierdie metode kan na alle waarskynlikheid nie meer as die enigste verklaringsmetode gebruik word nie en moet deur ander uitgangspunte aangevul word. In hierdie artikel word twee hermeneutiese uitgangspunte bespreek wat saam met die grammaties-historiese metode in die vertolking van die Skrif gebruik kan word. Hierdie hermeneutiese uitgangspunte sal gedemonstreer word in ‘n bespreking oor die etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel, spesifiek soos dit op die vrou in kerklike ampte toegepas word. In aansluiting by laasgenoemde twee vertrekpunte word in ’n opvolgartikel ’n verdere drie hermeneutiese vertrekpunte behandel. Die twee hermeneutiese vertrekpunte wat in hierdie artikel behandel word, staan as reëldoelwit en analogie bekend. Die eerste hermeneutiese vertrekpunt gaan uit van die veronderstelling dat die reëldoelwit van ’n teks swaarder weeg as die teks self, terwyl analogie van die veronderstelling uitgaan dat analogie as beredenering ’n aanvaarbare en noodsaaklike vertrekpunt is. Bogenoemde hermeneutiese vertrekpunte (vyf in totaal is op twee aannames gegrond. Ten eerste word aanvaar dat die Bybel, alhoewel ’n goddelike boek, ’n besliste kreatuurlike kant het wat in die vertolking daarvan in ag geneem moet word. Tweedens word geredeneer dat die Skrif nie ’n  teologiese boek is nie, wat beteken dat gelowiges in etiese sake waaroor daar twee verstaansmoontlikhede bestaan, die reg gegun moet word om self die Skrif te vertolk. Daar word tot die  gevolgtrekking gekom dat ’n etiese verstaan van die vrou daartoe moet lei dat die vrou as gelykwaardig aan die man beskou en behandel moet word, met die gevolg dat die vrou tot alle ampte in die kerk toegelaat moet word.Appeal to Scripture in the formation of ethical judgments, Part 1: An

  9. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Husak, D N


    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  10. Letting die and mercy killing.

    Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras


    We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome.

  11. Ethnographische Filme und die Darstellung von Frauen

    Judith Keilbach


    Full Text Available In dieser Filmographie werden ethnographische und koloniale Filme aus dem Bestand des Nederlands Filmmuseum kommentiert, die für die Frage nach der Darstellung von Frauen und Geschlechterverhältnissen von Interesse sind.

  12. [Die Gründung...] / Anders Henriksson

    Henriksson, Anders


    Rets.: Karsten Brüggemann. Die Gründung der Republik Estland und das Ende des "Einen und unteilbaren Russland" : die Petrograder Front des Russischen Bürgerkrieges, 1918-1920. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2002

  13. Die ausbildung von wertbedeutungen im schuljugendalter*

    Siegfried Heusinger


    Full Text Available Die folgenden Darlegungen stützen sich auf Untersuchungsergebnisse des Verlassers zur Sprachentwicklung in der Ontogenese. Angeregt wurde die UnterSuchung durch die besonders in den letzten Jahren in mehreren Ländern verstärkt erhobenen Forderungen, nicht nur die Sprache des Klein­ kindes, sondern vornehmlich den Entwicklungsstand der Schülersprache auf den einzelnen Klassenstufen zu erforschen und den Prozeß der Sprachentwicklung des Schülers genauer zu bestimmen. Die Forderungen sind (so z. B. in der DDR durch das Bestreben motiviert, weitere wissenschaftliche Voraussetzungen für die Verbesserung der muttersprachlichen Bildung und Erzliehung zu schaffen. Es geht also vor allem um Bedürfnisse des Muttersprachunterrichts, die aus der gesellschaftlichen Bedeutung der Sprache überhaupt und den steigenden Anforderungen an die gesellschaftliche Kommunikation insbesondere erwachsen.

  14. Study on the effect of ring die hole cone angle and feed chamber length on the die hole strength%环模模孔锥角及进料腔长度对模孔强度影响研究

    李震; 薛冰; 俞国胜


    Ring die failure is mainly due to the ring die hole wear and fatigue damage, the structure of the die hole parameters directly affect how the failure of die hole. The die hole structure, and carries on the optimization, ring die life and productivity will play a decisive role. The research application of ABAQUS software to change the cone angle and the feed chamber length of the ring die, finite ele-ment analysis for different feed chamber length and the cone angle of the cone distribution of stress of die hole. Find the cone angle and feed chamber length and the die hole stress influence relations. By the research when the cone angle is 60° , feed cavity length is 6 mm, the die hole stress is minimal.It has provided the basis for the structure improvement of ring die hole.%环模的失效主要是由于环模模孔的磨损和疲劳破坏,模孔的结构参数直接影响模孔的失效快慢。研究环模模孔的结构,并对其进行优化,将对环模的寿命和生产率的提高起到决定性作用。本研究应用ABAQUS软件对改变模孔锥角的大小和进料腔长度的模型进行有限元分析,得到不同进料腔长度和锥角的模孔的应力分布图。找到锥角和进料腔长度对环模孔应力的影响关系。通过研究比较得到当锥角为60°,进料腔长度为6 mm时,环模模孔所受的应力较小。从而为环模孔的结构改进提供了依据。

  15. Die invloed van verpoeiering op die kwikinhoud van verskeie gesertifiseerde verwysingsmateriale

    Frederick Roelofse


    Full Text Available Die meeste analitiese tegnieke wat gebruik word vir die bepaling van die kwikinhoud van aardmateriale benodig komminusie van monsters voor analise. Dit word gewoonlik bewerkstellig deur die vergruising van die monsters, gevolg deur die verpoeiering daarvan. Dit is bekend dat in konvensionele meule hitte tydens verpoeiering vrygestel word, en dit volg dat kwikverlies verwag kan word weens die element se vlugtigheid. Om kwikverlies tydens verpoeiering te bestudeer het ons nege gesertifiseerde verwysingsmateriale van stolrotse geanaliseer voor verpoeiering, asook na 3 en weer na 10 minute van verpoeiering, met behulp van ’n direkte kwikanaliseerder. Die resultate van die eksperimente dui daarop dat: (1 kwikverlies onbeduidend is na 3 minute van verpoeiering, (2 kwikverlies beduidend raak indien monsters oormatige verpoeiering ondergaan, (3 kwikverlies klaarblyklik nie deur mineralogie beheer word nie en (4 vir monsters met ’n lae kwikinhoud, kontaminasie tydens verpoeiering ’n baie meer beduidende invloed op die geanaliseerde kwikinhoud het as die duur van verpoeiering.

  16. Die ontwerp van 'n Praktiese Afrikaans derde taal-kursus vir swart stu'clente in die Regte

    A.E. Swartz


    Full Text Available This article describes the composition and methodology of a third or foreign language practical course in Afrikaans for black university law students. A university course in Afrikaans is compulsory for all law students, but the majority of these students have never studied or spoken Afrikaans, and seldom even heard it. Given this low level of competence (typical errors made by black students are analysed and the specific needs of students to understand and use legal tenninology in Ajrikaans, the author has designed a subject specific language course which has as its objective not only the mastery of basic language skills, but also the inculcation of a positive attitude towards the language. She describes in detail how the course is conducted, using legal texts, thinking skills, some formal input and many communicative activities. Hierdie artikel beskryf die samestelling en metodologie van 'n derde of vreemde taal praktiese kursus in Ajrikaans vir swart universiteitstudente in die Regte. 'n Universiteitkursus in Afrikaans is verpligtend vir alle regstudente, maar die meerderheid van hierdie studente het nog nooit Ajrikaans bestudeer of gepraat nie en dit baie se/de gehoor. As gevolg van hierdie lae vaardigheidspeil (tipiese foute van swart studente word ontleed en die spesifieke behoeftes van studente om regstenninologie in Afrikaans te verstaan en te gebruik, het die outeur 'n vakgerigte taalkursus ontwerp met die doel om nie net basiese taalvaardighede te bemeester nie, maar ook 'n positiewe houding te skep ten opsigte van die taal. Besonderhede van die kursus word verskaf: dit behels die gebruik van regstekste, denkvaardighede, formele taalinsette en heelwat kommunikatiewe aktiwiteite.

  17. Die tätigkeitstheoretische Perspektive

    Stroh, Wolfgang Martin


    Die Perspektive, die der Autor entwickelt, ist die der dialektischen Tätigkeitstheorie. Gemäß dieser Theorie ist Musik eine spezifische Art der Aneignung von Wirklichkeit. SchülerInnen sollten im Musikunterricht lernen, bewusst, selbstbestimmt und sozial zu handeln, wenn sie sich durch Musizieren Wirklichkeit aneignen. Wenn SchülerInnen im Unterricht Musik machen, müssen sie sich daher auch des kulturellen Kontextes bewusst sein, dem die Musik entstammt. Sie sollten auch selbstbestimmt handel...

  18. Aanspreekvorme in die poësie

    D. M. Wybenga


    Full Text Available By die deurblaai van die Groot Verseboek (hierna GV is dit opvallend dat daar so baie keer van aanspreekvorme in gedigte gebruik gemaak word. Van die heel eerste gedig wat daarin opgeneem is, naamlik Klaas Geswind en sy perd (p. 1 tot ’n gedig van die laaste opgenome digter, André le Roux, (struisbaai-blues, p. 506, gebruik digters telkens hierdie taalmiddel om een of ander spesifieke effek te verkry.

  19. “Ruik die verderf in die kieliebakke”: Breyten Breytenbach se blik op die lyk

    M. Crous


    Full Text Available “Smell the rot in the armpits”: Breyten Breytenbach’s perspectives on the corpse The purpose of this article is to analyse Breyten Breytenbach’s so-called corpse poem, “bekommernis”, taken from his debut album “die ysterkoei moet sweet” (1964. The theoretical point of departure is the theories of Kristeva, in particular her essay on abjection. Not only does the article focus on Breytenbach’s portrayal of the abject, but also shows to what extent his use of language describing death, decay and the cadaver illustrates what Kristeva calls “a revolution in poetic language”. Given the fact that the poem is situated in a Zen Buddhist context, the Zen philosophy on death and dying is also taken into consideration when analysing aspects such as the dissolution of the ego, the bardos of death, et cetera.

  20. Die Prozessionsspinner Mitteleuropas - Ein Überblick

    Bräsicke, Nadine


    Full Text Available Die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels lassen sich bereits auch in Deutschland beobachten. Dabei werden die Waldökosysteme in besonderer Weise betroffen. Waldstandorte sind stärker trockenen Bedingungen ausgesetzt, die zusammen mit höheren Vegetationszeittemperaturen eine erhöhte Stressanfälligkeit der Bäume verursachen. Bei den Insekten beeinflusst eine erhöhte Temperatur u. a. die Entwicklungsdauer, die Populationsdichte und die Verwertbarkeit der Wirtspflanzen als Nahrung (BMLFUW 2003, Petercord et al. 2008. Es ist zu erwarten, dass die Wachstumsrate und die Entwicklung der Insektenarten beeinflusst wird (Netherer & Schopf 2009, die aufgrund eines relativ hohen Populationswachstums und hoher Mobilität durch Migration oder Adaption auf veränderte Klimabedingungen rascher reagieren (Harrington et al. 2001. Bei einigen Schädlingen zeichnet sich eine solche Entwicklung bereits ab. Unter ihnen befinden sich humanpathogene Arten, die zunehmend auch zum Forstschädling avancieren und die Waldbestände existenziell gefährden. Der Eichenprozessionsspinner gehört zu diesen Arten. Ebenfalls relevant für Mitteleuropa sind Thaumetopoea pinivora und Th. pityocampa, die mit dem Beitrag näher betrachtet werden.

  1. Die kuns van Maggie Laubser . 1

    G. Dekker


    Full Text Available Dis vir my ’n groot genoeë om iets te mag sê oor die kuns van 'n vrouw at jare lank haar pad eensaam gegaan het, trou gebly het aan haar kunstenaarsoortuiging en nie toegegee het aan die smaak van die publiek, geenkompromieë daarmee gesluit het terwille van populariteit of stoflike gewin nie.

  2. Eenheid en differensiasie in die onderwys

    B. C. Schutte


    Full Text Available Hierdie tenia van die interíakultêre lesings sny in werkliklieid oor alle fakulteite lieen en is ’11 probleem wal by elke dissipliiie ontstaan, sonder twyfel by almal wat met die mens en met levve te doen het, maar ook by die fisiese wetenskappe waar met die lewelosc skepping gewerk word. Waar ons in ons land en veral in Transvaal deesdae voortdurend te doen het met differensiasie in die onderwys, met A-, B- en C-bane, is hierdie beginsel van eenheid en verskeidenheid, van eeridersheid en ver- skillendbeid, van integrasie en differensiasie, van verdeelde beheer in die onderwys en van ’11 eenheidsheleid en -beheer, van nasionale en inter- nasionale onderwys, van verskillende skooltipes en van komprehensiewe skole e.d.m., voortdurend in die nuus. Saam met die eenheid en differen­ siasie in die volkewêreld van Afrika, is die probleem in die onderwys seker die popnlêrste; dis byna reeds gemeen|laas.

  3. Studies on the use of SIR-C and X-SAR data for identification, demarcation, and assessment of forest ecosystems. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von SIR-C und X-SAR Daten fuer die Identifizierung, Abgrenzung und Beurteilung von Waldoekosystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Johlige, A.; Foerster, B.; Ammer, U.


    The purpose of the present evaluation was to use SIR-C and X-SAR data for forest surveying and assess their suitability for this task. Amongst other work this included the discrimination of forest and non-forest, demarcation of cleared areas within forests, discrimination of different forest types, and assessment of the influence of foliation. The chief steps of the study were the preparation of radar data, accompanying aerial photo evaluation for the extraction of training and verification areas, and detailed signature analysis. Evaluation trials in ``Oberpfaffenhofen`` supertest area yielded unsatisfactory results when it came to discriminating different forest ecosystems. This can be attributed to the very heterogeneous and small-scale structure of the area and the absence of topographically coded X, C, and L band data. In the second study area, located in the ``Bavarian Forest National Park``, geocoded data of all three bands were available in the form of combined products. This permitted using the mask of the local angles of incidence to reduce the influence of relief. In this case distinguishability within wooded regions was also enhanced. A general finding was that ground resolution as it presents to the user is clearly poorer than the nominal resolution. What impressed us most was the high degree of weather-independence of the radar data. All data handled in this study were recorded under conditions that would have made photography impossible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Auswertung ist es SIR-C/X-SAR Daten fuer die Waldbeobachtung einzusetzen und ihre Eignung dafuer zu bewerten. Zu loesende Teilaufgaben waren u.a. die Wald-Nichtwaldtrennung, die Abtrennung unbestockter Flaechen im Wald, Unterscheidung verschiedener Waldtypen selbst und die Beurteilung des Einflusses des Belaubungszustndes. Die zentralen Arbeitsschritte waren die Aufbereitung der Radardaten, die begleitende Luftbildauswertung zur Extraktion von Trainings- und Verifizierungsgebieten und die

  4. Compensation Method for Die Shift Caused by Flow Drag Force in Wafer-Level Molding Process

    Simo Yeon


    Full Text Available Wafer-level packaging (WLP is a next-generation semiconductor packaging technology that is important for realizing high-performance and ultra-thin semiconductor devices. However, the molding process, which is a part of the WLP process, has various problems such as a high defect rate and low predictability. Among the various defect factors, the die shift primarily determines the quality of the final product; therefore, predicting the die shift is necessary to achieve high-yield production in WLP. In this study, the die shift caused by the flow drag force of the epoxy molding compound (EMC is evaluated from the die shift of a debonded molding wafer. Experimental and analytical methods were employed to evaluate the die shift occurring during each stage of the molding process and that resulting from the geometrical changes after the debonding process. The die shift caused by the EMC flow drag force is evaluated from the data on die movements due to thermal contraction/expansion and warpage. The relationship between the die shift and variation in the die gap is determined through regression analysis in order to predict the die shift due to the flow drag force. The results can be used for die realignment by predicting and compensating for the die shift.

  5. Missionale kerkwees en die elektroniese sosiale media

    Martin J. Lazenby


    Full Text Available Die geweldige toename in die benutting van die sosiale media as interaktiewe kommunikasiemiddel wêreldwyd, bied aan die Christelike kerk groot missionale geleenthede, maar stel ook groot uitdagings en eise. Hierdie geleentheid moet benut word om missionaal ’n verskil ten gunste van God se koninkryk te maak. Die inhoud en die kommunikasiestyl kom onder die vergrootglas. Hierdie artikel poog om ’n paar bybels-etiese beginsels aan te dui wat as basis vir die missionale styl van kommunikasie moet dien. As uitgangspunt word die Bybel as die Woord van God gebruik. Daar word geredeneer dat die moreel-etiese beginsels wat in die Bybel aan die gelowige voorgeskryf word, van die grootste belang is om gestalte te gee aan die koninkryk van God in hierdie wêreld wanneer via die sosiale media op horisontale vlak met mense gekommunikeer word. Dit gaan dus vir die gelowige nooit net om humanistiese, sosiale kommunikasie nie, maar altyd dat die beeld van God in hierdie wêreld geëer en sy koninkryk daardeur uitgebou word. Vir die Christen-gelowige gaan dit nooit om die mens nie, maar altyd om God se eer en die manifestasie van sy koninkryk.Being a missional church and the social media. The tremendous increase in using the social media as interactive communication medium worldwide creates the opportunity for the Christian church to make a missional difference in favour of God’s kingdom on earth. It also brings great challenges with it. This means that the way communication via the mass social media is done, becomes of the utmost importance. The content as well as the manner in which the communication is conducted must be considered. This article aims at providing certain basic biblical-ethical principles for communicating in the mass social media that will serve the missional calling of the church. The point of departure is the Word of God. The basic focus of the argument is that the moral-ethical principles given to the believer in the Bible are of the

  6. Fabrication of punch and die of micro-blanking tool

    Mahmudah, Aida; Kiswanto, Gandjar; Priadi, Dedi


    The difficulties of tool fabrication in micro level provide an enormous challenge due to the dimension limitation. Reducing the difficulty and tool cost fabrication should always be considered by determining the simplicity of tool geometry, precision tolerance, and an appropriate material selection. This paper study about the manufacturing of micro-blanking punch-die. The mechanical material removal method was chosen to fabricate punch-die since this is a single piece production and intended for small-scale production of micro parts. The manufacturing process consists of punch-die design and fabrication, tool assembly, and clearance measurement. The stress analysis is also conducted to ensure the strength of the punch-die. A micro-blanking experiment was held to observe the tool performance. The result showed that micro-blanking tool can be manufactured successfully and used well to conduct the micro-blanking experiment.

  7. Straatsburg en artikel 2 van die dordtse kerkorde

    L. F. Schulze


    Full Text Available In art. 2 K.O. word daar vier soorte kerklike dienste on dcrskei, nl. „dié van die bedienaars van die Woord, dié van die professore aan die teologiese skool, die van die ouderlinge, en dié van die diakens”.

  8. Patients who die during palliative radiotherapy. Status survey

    Berger, B.; Ankele, H.; Bamberg, M.; Zips, D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is routinely used in end of life care of patients with advanced malignancies; however, unnecessarily burdensome treatment shortly before death should be avoided. There is little knowledge on incidence and causes of intercurrent deaths during palliative RT. In this study death events among inpatients receiving palliative RT between January 2009 and December 2011 at this department were retrospectively analyzed. Among epidemiological factors, treatment schedule and chronology, latency and duration of treatment in relation to the actual survival were identified. In this study 52 patients died during or shortly after palliative RT. Symptomatic bone metastases and brain metastases represented the most common RT indications. The general health status was poor with a median Karnofsky performance score of 50 %, RT was realized with a median single dose of 2.5 Gy to a median total dose of 30.5 Gy and was stopped prematurely in 73 % of patients. On average 53 % of the remaining lifetime was occupied by latency to starting RT. Once RT was begun the treatment duration required a median 64 % of the still remaining lifetime. The majority of patients who died had explicitly adverse pre-existing factors and rarely completed RT as scheduled. Latency to RT and RT duration occupied more than half of the remaining lifetime. (orig.) [German] Die palliative Radiotherapie (RT) hat einen hohen Stellenwert in der Symptomenkontrolle terminal erkrankter Tumorpatienten. Unnoetig belastende Therapien kurz vor Lebensende sollten jedoch vermieden werden. Bislang gibt es kaum strukturierte Daten ueber Sterbefaelle unter palliativer RT. Im Rahmen der vorgestellten Studie wurden die Sterbefaelle unter stationaer palliativ bestrahlten Patienten der eigenen Abteilung zwischen Januar 2009 und Dezember 2011 analysiert. Ausgewertet wurden epidemiologische Faktoren, Behandlungskonzept und -verlauf. Zeit bis zum RT-Beginn und RT-Dauer wurden ins Verhaeltnis zur tatsaechlichen

  9. Effect of Manufacturing Stresses to Die Attach Film Performance In Quad Flatpack No-Lead Stacked Die Packages

    M. F. Rosle


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Repeated heat cure during assembly processes affected the Die Attach Film (DAF material properties and the effectiveness touched area that leads to weak die bonding and delamination. Suitable die attached condition and DAF material selection had been evaluated to achieve required reliability performance in the manufacturing of the 3D Quad Flat No-Lead (QFN stacked die package. Approach: During this study, special attention was given to the development of the residual stresses due to mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion of different DAF materials. Both experimental and finite element method were employed to gain a better understanding in a stress development induced between two different type of DAF, different die attach temperature and during the manufacturing process. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to measure the changes of heat flow characteristics for both types of DAF. The die bond strength results measured using shear testing machine were compared with the finite element method prediction. Results: Although both DAF samples achieved good reliability performance and passed the Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 test (MSL3 at reflow 260°C without any sign of delamination, numerical simulation had demonstrated that the stress development were increased exponentially as the die attach temperature increased. It showed that different DAF gave different values of stresses but presented the same trend which the lowest die attached temperature (100°C in comparison with 125°C and 150°C gave more stress to the die and possibility that the die will have weak adhesion to the substrate was high. Conclusions/Recommendations: Therefore for this case, stress can be relieved by having higher die attached temperature with an adequate bonding force and time, however die attached temperature for both DAF must be used above the glass transition temperature (128°C for DAF A and 165°C for DAF B and being controlled

  10. Logistieke bestuur: die oorsprong, konseptuele ontwikkeling en betekenis daarvan as ’n hedendaagse studiegebied

    W. J. Pienaar


    Full Text Available

    Hierdie artikel beskryf die oorsprong van die woord logistiek, stip die ontwikkeling daarvan uit, en verklaar die hedendaagse betekenis daarvan as ’n studiegebied in ’n bestuurskonteks. Die ontwikkelingsgang van die begrip word aangedui vanaf die oorsprong daarvan in Grieks, met inagneming van die opeenvolgende opname daarvan in Laat Latyn, Frans en Nederlands, tot by die huidige gebruik daarvan in Afrikaans. Die vestiging van die Franse logistique gedurende die Napoleontiese oorloë, en die uitbreiding daarvan na ’n bedryfsbegrip ná afloop van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog word verduidelik. Die ontwikkelingsgang wat die betekenis van die konsep sedertdien in bedryfsverband ondergaan het, word bespreek. Betekenisse van logistiek, soos dit tans in die bedryfslewe gebesig word, word verskaf. Vervolgens bied die artikel ’n eietydse definisie van logistiek in bedryfsverband. Daar word aangetoon hoe doeltreffende bedryfslogistiek waarde toevoeg. Ten slotte word die primêre aktiwiteite wat in die logistieke voorsieningskanaal van produkte voorkom kortliks bespreek.


    Logistics management: its origin, conceptual evolution and meaning as a contemporary field of study

    This article traces the origin of the word logistics, outlines its conceptual evolution, and explains the meaning thereof as a field of study in a contemporary management context. The contextual development of the concept is traced from its origin in Greek, along with its successive adoption in Late Latin, French and Dutch, up to its contemporary usage in Afrikaans. The article describes the establishment of the word logistique in French as a military concept during the Napoleonic wars, and its later extension to commercial usage subsequent to the Second World War. The development of the concept in a commercial context since then is detailed. Contemporary descriptions of logistics relating to its meaning in a

  11. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  12. Organisasievernuwing: Die identifisering en integrasie van enkele konstrukte

    M. L. Watkins


    Full Text Available Organisational renewal: The identification of certain constructs. Organisations consist of interactive subsystems and processes which create a whole-forming "Gestalt". Researchers are nevertheless inclined to focus on divergent organisational subsystems and processes when studying organisational renewal. This propensity possibly gave rise to divergent definitions of organisational renewal which creates a lack of discipline and demarcation in the development of this field of study. Due to a need for the identification and integration of relevant constructs, a content analysis of a number of organisational renewal definitions was made. It was found that the constructs "man", "strategy", "technology", "processes" and "intervention" are the most important building blocks of organisational renewal. These constructs are integrated in a definition to create direction for a more disciplined approach to organisational renewal. Opsomming Organisasies bestaan uit interaktiewe subsisteme en prosesse wat 'n geheelvormende "Gestalt" tot stand bring. Navorsers is nogtans geneig om, by die bestudering van organisasievernuwing, op uiteenlopende organisasiesub- sisteme en prosesse te fokus. Hierdie neiging het moontlik aanleiding gegee tot uiteenlopende organisasievemuwings- definisies wat 'n gebrek aan dissipline en afbakening by die ontwikkeling van die spesialiteitsrigting skep. Na aanleiding van 'n behoefte aan die identifisering en integrasie van verwante konstrukte wat hierdeur voortgebring word, is 'n inhoudsanalise van 'n aantal organisasievemuwingsdennisies gemaak. Daar is gevind dat die konstrukte "mens", "strategic", "tegnologie", "prosesse" en "ingryping" die belangrikste boustene van organisasievernuwing is. Hierdie konstrukte word in 'n definisie geintegreer ten einde 'n rigtingwyser vir 'n meer gedissiplineerde benadering tot organisasievernuwing te skep.

  13. Die rol van kapitaal in die ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling van onderontwikkelde gebiede*

    F. J. du Plessis


    Full Text Available In die teorie oor ekonomiese groei speel kapitaal ’n besonder prominente rol. Kapitaal met die daarby behorende tegnologiese ontwikkeling, word beskou as die belangrikste enkele faktor verantwoordelik vir die bereiking en instandhouding van ’n „ten voile ontwikkelde” volkshuishouding.

  14. Die persoonlikheidsoriëntasieprofiel van die saluto-genies-funksionerende mens

    A. M. Viviers


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to integrate the theoretical personality profile of the salutogenic functioning person, drawn from the literature on Salutogenesis, with the personality orientation profile of the optimal functioning employee, as documented in the literature on Organisational and Personnel psychology. The integration is done according to intra- (cognitive affective, conative and physical characteristics and interpersonal characteristics. The two profiles could be integrated, according to these characteristics, into a profile of the salutogenic functioning person who handles life and work stressors effectively and functions optimally in his daily existence. This integration shows a theoretical relationship between the two constructs and confirms a meaningful relationship found in empirical research. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die teoretiese persoonlikheidsprofiel van die salutogenies-funksionerende mens vanuit die literatuur oor Salutogenese met die persoonlikheidsorientasieprofiel van die optimaal- funksionerende werknemer soos deur die Organisasie- en Personeelsielkunde-literatuur voorgehou, te integreer. Die integrasie word volgens intra- (kognitiewe, affektiewe, konatiewe en fisiese eienskappe en interpersoonlike eienskappe gedoen. Daar is bevind dat die twee profiele volgens die eienskappe geïntegreer kan word tot 'n profiel van die salutogenies-funksionerende mens wat die stressors van die lewe en werk effektief kan hanteer en sodoende optimaal in sy daaglikse bestaan funksioneer. Die integrasie bevind 'n teoretiese verband tussen die twee konstrukte. Dit bevestig empiriese navorsing wat 'n beduidende verband tussen die twee konstrukte bevind het.

  15. Was die neuen Frauen wollen

    Wilhelm, Hannah; Meyen, Michael


    Seit Mitte der 90er Jahre hat sich eine neue Generation von Frauenzeitschriften auf einem als übersättigt geltenden Markt etabliert. Diese Blätter richten sich an Frauen zwischen 20 und 35 Jahren. Glamour aus dem Condé Nast Verlag scheint die Perfektion dieses neuen Zeitschriftentypus zu sein. Das Magazin im Pocket-Format wurde sofort nach seiner Einführung im Februar 2001 Marktführer im Segment der monatlich erscheinenden Frauenzeitschriften. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, wie dieser Erfol...

  16. Where is God in My Dying?

    Moestrup, R N Lene; Hvidt, Niels Christian


    Despite increased focus on the role of spiritual care in palliative care, there is limited knowledge about spirituality / religiosity among dying patients in secularized cultures such as Denmark. This study aims through semi-structured interviews with Danish hospice patients and participant...... observation to elucidate how hospice patients reflect and act upon their potential faith. The results demonstrate three dimensions of faith: (1) "Knowing" (cognition), (2) "doing" (praxis) and (3) "being" (meaning). The article concludes that most patients had a hesitant, but according to their situation...

  17. Courage: die starke Frau der deutschen Literatur

    Battafarano, Italo Michele; Eilert, Hildegard


    Eine außergewöhnliche Frauengestalt der deutschen Literatur, die 1670 von Grimmelshausen erfunden, 1941 von Brecht und 1979 von Grass variiert wurde, ist Objekt dieser Studie. Analysiert wird, wie Grimmelshausen durch das unstete Leben einer Frau den 30jährigen Krieg zum Objekt seiner Kritik macht; ferner, wie diese Kritik am Krieg durch Brechts Maternisierung der Courage im epischen Theater eine Veränderung erfährt und schließlich wie in Grass' Erzählung Das Treffen in Telgte der Blick auf d...

  18. An Integrated Die Casting Design System

    Y; K; Woon; K; S; Lee


    Die casting process is one of the prime options for m anufacturing precisely dimensioned, sharply defined metal parts. The design of d ie casting dies comprises several stages and entails a large amount of time. Tra ditionally, the different stages of the die design were not integrated but exist as separate entities. Moreover, recurring modifications or even redesigns are r equired due to the complexity in achieving an accurate initial die design. As a result, die design is usually time-consuming and cos...



    Logic components are used to support the conceptual design. Taking the stamping die structure as the research object,several logic components are defined for the conceptual die construction design. A new method-logic assembly modeling is presented to satisfy the characteristic of the top-down die design process. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic can provide a natural,intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about die construction design at the conceptual stage. This method can reflect the designer's thought clearly and provide the designer with a test bed for generating alternatives and performing reasoning work at the conceptual die design stage.

  20. Genl. Koos De La Rey, die krygsman.

    J. S. du Plessis


    Full Text Available 22 Oktober is die geboortedag van genl. Koos de la Rey, wat van dag tot ons heldeverlede behoort. Vanjaargedenk ons ook op 11 Oktober die uitbreek van die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, sestig jaar gelede. Daarom wil ek graag by hierdie geleentheid die persoon van Koos de la Rey in herinnering roepen by wyse van hierdie artikel huldebring aan hom wat God aan ons volkgegee het op ’n tydstip toe sulke mannedringend noodsaaklik was; ’n man wat in die ure van dood en benoudheid leidingkon gee; ’n man sonder wie onsvolksgeskiedenis beslis armer sou gewees het. Aangesien hy by uitstek krygsmanen veldheer.