WorldWideScience

Sample records for dichromates

  1. Sodium dichromate expedited response action assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) perform an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill. The ERA lead regulatory agency is Ecology and EPA is the support agency. The ERA was categorized as non-time-critical, which required preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA). The EE/CA was included in the ERA proposal. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the removal action may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. This ERA process started in March 1992. The ERA proposal went through a parallel review process with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE Richland Operations (RL), EPA, Ecology, and a 30-day public comment period. Ecology and EPA issued an Action Agreement Memorandum in March 1993 (Appendix A). The memorandum directed excavation of all anomalies and disposal of the collected materials at the Hanford Site Central Landfill. Primary field activities were completed by the end of April 1993. Final waste disposal of a minor quantity of hazardous waste was completed in July 1993

  2. Performance of dichromate dosimetry systems in calibration and dose intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bof, E.S.; Smolko, E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the High Dose Dosimetry Laboratory of Argentina during ten years of international intercomparisons for high dose with the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of the IAEA, using the standard high dose dichromate dosimetry system, and the results of a high dose intercomparison regional exercise in which our Laboratory acted as a reference laboratory, using the standard high dose and low dose dichromate dosimetry system. (author)

  3. Dichromated gelatin and its importance for optical hologram recording

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Petr; Hiklová, H.; Keprt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2004), s. 1461-1472 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A015 Keywords : dichromated gelatin * holography * volume program Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  4. Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Sodium Dichromate Barrel Landfill. The Sodium Dichromate Barrel Disposal Site was used in 1945 for disposal of crushed barrels. The site location is the sole waste site within the 100-IU-4 Operable Unit. The Waste Information Data System (WIDS 1992) assumes that the crushed barrels contained 1% residual sodium dichromate at burial time and that only buried crushed barrels are at the site. Burial depth is shallow since visual inspection finds numerous barrel debris on the surface. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration from the landfill to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. Since the landfill is the only waste site within the operable unit, the ERA will present a final remediation of the 100-IU-4 operable unit

  5. Silver dichromate - a suitable dosimeter for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Hoa Mai; Nguyen Dinh Duong

    1995-01-01

    An aqueous dosimeter system based on solution of silver dichromate in perchloric acid and spectrophotometry analysis was investigated. The optical absorption characteristics of solutions have been studied. The molar extinction coefficients and radiation-yield of the dosimeter solutions were determined. The mechanism of radiation-induced reactions in the solutions is also considered. A formula for calculating the dose based on absorbance measurements is presented. The G-value of dichromate reduction caused by gamma radiation was determined. The value found, 0.397 is close to the values of the other authors. Two solutions with different concentrations of dichromate have been chosen to match two applicable dose ranges. The solution containing 0.5 mM Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 in 0.1 M HClO 4 is applied to dose range of 1 -12 kGy and the solution with 0.5 mM Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 and 2.00 mM K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in 0.1 M HClO 4 is applied to dose range of 3 to 50 kGy. It was found that the relationship between net absorbance ΔA and radiation dose, D is essentially linear over expected dose ranges. The calibration curves have been drawn up by using least square method. In routine use for gamma radiation the dosimeter show good accuracy, reproducibility and stability of the response. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Practice for use of a dichromate dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This practice covers the preparation, testing, and procedure for using the acidic aqueous silver dichromate dosimetry system to measure absorbed dose in water when exposed to ionizing radiation. The system consists of a dosimeter and appropriate analytical instrumentation. For simplicity, the system will be referred to as the dichromate system. It is classified as a reference standard dosimetry system (see ISO/ASTM Guide 51261). This practice describes the spectrophotometric analysis procedures for the dichromate system. This practice applies only to γ-rays, x-rays/ bremsstrahlung, and high energy electrons. This practice applies provided the following conditions are satisfied: the absorbed dose range is from 2x10 3 to 5x10 4 Gy; the absorbed dose rate does not exceed 600 Gy/pulse (12.5 pulses per second), or does not exceed an equivalent dose rate of 7.5 kGy/s from continuous sources; for radionuclide gamma-ray sources, the initial photon energy shall be greater than 0.6 MeV. For bremsstrahlung photons, the initial energy of the electrons used to produce the bremsstrahlung photons shall be equal to or greater than 2 MeV. For electron beams, the initial electron energy shall be greater than 8 MeV; the irradiation temperature of the dosimeter shall be above 0 deg C and should be below 80 deg C

  7. Interaction of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, Potassium Dichromate and Cadmium Chloride in Artemia franciscana Biotest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Beňová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cadmium chloride (at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg l-1 and potassium dichromate (at a concentration of 50 mg l-1 along with the effect of gamma radiation 60Co (at a dose of 10 and 50 Gy on lethality to Artemia franciscana was investigated. Four different interactions were studied, namely, those of potassium dichromate and gamma radiation, cadmium chloride and gamma radiation, and combinations of potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride in interaction with gamma radiation. A significant (α = 0.05 decrease was observed in lethality due to exposure to radiation (10 Gy in comparison with action of only potassium dichromate and cadmium chloride or their combination without exposure to gamma rays. These results support the theory of hormesis.

  8. Combined effects of gamma radiation and potassium dichromate on morphological changes in guppy kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Almasiova, V.; Dvorak, P.; Halan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Our experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation and potassium dichromate on morphological changes in the kidneys of Poecilia reticulata. Fish were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 Gy and exposed to potassium dichromate in concentration of 50 mg · dm -3 . The combined effects resulted in marked morphological changes in urinary tubules. The brush border on the apical part of the cells was discontinuous, cytoplasm showed vacuolisation and the integrity of vessels was disturbed. (authors)

  9. Designing Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) Systems for Crystallization Processes: A Potassium Dichromate Crystallization Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test and validate a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design on a potassium dichromate crystallization process in the presence of input uncertainties using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. To this end a systematic framework for managing uncertaintie...

  10. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  11. Structural characterization and catalytic properties of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Ståhl, Kenny; Boghosian, Soghomon

    2011-01-01

    The structure of bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium) dichromate was determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P21/n) with a = 10.79714 (15) Å, b = 11.75844 (16) Å, c = 8.15097 (11) Å, β = 109.5248 (6)º. The structure consists of...

  12. Study of skin and mucous membrane disorders among workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vijay Kumar; Deswal, Balbir Singh; Singh, Bachu Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of dusts and fumes arising during the manufacture of sodium dichromate from chrome ore, chromic acid mist emitted during electroplating, and skin contact with chromate produce hazards to workers. (1) To elucidate the prevalence of skin and mucous membrane disorders among the workers engaged in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry. (2) To know the relationship of prevalence with the duration of exposure to chrome mist, dust, and fumes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the workers engaged in sodium dichromate manufacturing and chrome plating from several industries situated near the Delhi-Haryana border in the districts of Faridabad and Sonepat of Haryana, India from January 01, 2014 to December 31, 2014. All the workers available from the concerned industries for the study were interviewed and medically examined after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 130 workers comprising 66 workers from the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and 64 workers from the chrome plating industry were examined on a pretested schedule. Descriptive statistical methods (proportions, relative risk, and Chi-square test of significance with P value analyzed using Epi Info version 7). All the workers were found to be males and of the adult age group. Out of the total examined, 69.69% and 56.22% of the workers had disorders of the nasal mucous membrane in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and the chrome plating industry, respectively. 42.42% and 28.22% of the workers had perforation of the nasal septum in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. 6.06% and 3.12% workers had skin ulcers in the sodium dichromate manufacturing industry and chrome plating industry, respectively. Nasal irritation and rhinorrhea were the most commonly found symptoms in both the processes. 48.48% and 90.52% of the workers were using hand gloves in the sodium dichromate manufacturing

  13. Defect modes in silver-doped photonic crystals made by holography using dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui; Chen, Shujing; Ren, Zhi; Wang, Zhaona; Liu, Dahe

    2012-10-01

    The defect mode in silver-doped photonic crystals is investigated. 1D and 3D photonic crystals were made by holography using dichromated gelatin mixed with silver nitrate. By controlling the concentration of the silver nitrate, the defect mode was observed in the bandgaps of the holographic photonic crystals. The numerical simulations were made, and the results showed the consistency with the experimental observations.

  14. Potassium Dichromate as a Reference Substance for Embryonic Tests of Toxicity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krejčí

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 has already been used as a reference substance in tests of toxicity with aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to determine and compare values of LC50 for potassium dichromate during the whole period of embryonic development (i.e., 120 h and 48 h after hatching of embryos in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.. Fish eggs and embryos were exposed to 5 different concentrations of potassium dichromate (i.e., 372, 409, 450, 495, 545 mg l-1 during two experiments. Such characteristics as the cumulative mortality, the start and the end of hatching, the number of deformities, body length, and body mass of surviving individuals were studied during the tests. The highest mortality was found in the hatched embryos. Mortality and frequency of deformities increased with the growing concentration of potassium dichromate. The value of 120 LC50 for potassium dichromate was 464.91 ± 23.83 mg l-1 and the value of 48 LC50 was 458.94 ± 4.14 mg l-1 (mean ± SD. No statistically significant difference between values 120 LC50 a 48 LC50 was found. This is why reduction of the exposure period to only 48 h after hatching seems a reasonable method to study the control of susceptibility using potassium dichromate in embryonic tests of toxicity.

  15. Preparation of Potassium Dichromate Crystals from the Chromite Concentrate by Microwave Assisted Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the oxidizing roasting process of chromite with sodium carbonate to prepare potassium dichromate crystals was studied in the microwave field with air, by heating the chromite and sodium carbonate. The chromite and sodium carbonate heated separately at 1000 °C in the microwave oven (frequency: 2.45 GHz; power 1.5 kW in order to study the microwave absorption properties. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of the chromite and sodium carbonate examined. Then, chromite with sodium carbonate taken in (1:2 ratio and heated at 750 °C. Thus obtained samples were characterized using various techniques includes Powder-XRD (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The XRD pattern reveals the existence of Fe3O4, Fe2O3, NaAlO2, and Na2CrO4. The iron and aluminum were leached out as Fe2O3 and Al(OH3 respectively. The resulting sample treated with the KCl to prepare potassium dichromate crystals. Finally, potassium dichromate crystals formed.

  16. The use of potassium dichromate for ultra high dose up to 120 kGy measurements in industrial irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Cirilo C.S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the study of radiation-induced reduction of the Potassium Dichromate dosimeter in perchloric acid using modification in the composition of Dichromate dosimeter proposed by Sharpe (NPL, October 1982) to extend dose limit up to 120 kGy. This modification can allow measuring dose in process of irradiation of gem and cork directly, in these processes that the absorbed doses are very high. The dosimeter study reached linear response between 10 to 120 kGy. This dosimeter was traceable to the international metrology system, using Gammacell calibrated by Fricke reference dosimeter. The evaluation of the doses was done by spectrophotometric method. Compared to the costs using PMMA (perpex dosimeters), the use of dichromate dosimeters can reduce up to 70% of the dosimetry costs in Brazil. (author)

  17. Toxic effects of chlorinated organic compounds and potassium dichromate on growth rate and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) on the photosynthesis of natural marine phytoplankton and five species of marine microalgae were investigated. Effect concentrations corresponding to a 50 % depression of photosynthesis (6h...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE Cr (VI ADMINISTRATION DURATION ON GLOBULAR RESISTANCE IN FEMALE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETIŢIA STANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The „in vivo” experiment has had as aim the study of different Cr(VI doses administration on globular resistance in female rats related to administration duration. Study was carried out on 56 female rats divided in 8 groups, 6 experimental and 2 control that received potassium dichromate in drinking water in doses of 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75ppm Cr(VI, for 3 months, respectively, 6 months. Decrease of globular resistance (in terms of haemolysis degree in hypotonic solutions at increasing dose (up to 0.8% NaCl at 75 ppm dose in all experimental groups, in direct relation with the duration of administration was registered. Control groups were in physiological limits. The results of the present study revealed the affecting of erythrocyte membrane in function of administration duration and chromium intake level, because of oxidative lesions produced by it.

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes by Imidazolium Dichromate in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sheik Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde (BA and para-substituted benzaldehydes by imidazolium dichromate (IDC has been studied in aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of perchloric acid. The reaction is first order each in [IDC], [Substrate] and [H+]. The reaction rates have been determined at different temperatures and the activation parameters calculated. Electron withdrawing substituents are found to increase the reaction and electron releasing substituents are found to retard the rate of the reaction and the rate data obey the Hammett relationship. The products of the oxidation are the corresponding acids. The rate decreases with the increase in the water content of the medium. A suitable mechanism is proposed.

  20. Burning characteristics of ammonium nitrate-based composite propellants supplemented with ammonium dichromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohga, Makoto; Nishino, Saeko [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)-based composite propellants have attracted much attention, primarily because of the clean burning nature of AN as an oxidizer. However, such propellants have some disadvantages such as poor ignition and low burning rate. Ammonium dichromate (ADC) is used as a burning catalyst for AN-based propellants; however, the effect of ADC on the burning characteristics has yet to be sufficiently delineated. The burning characteristics of AN/ADC propellants prepared with various contents of AN and ADC have been investigated in this study. The theoretical performance of an AN-based propellant is improved by the addition of ADC. The increase in the burning rate is enhanced and the pressure deflagration limit (PDL) becomes lower with increasing amount of ADC added. The increasing ratio of the burning rate with respect to the amount of ADC is independent of the AN content and the combustion pressure. The optimal amount of ADC for improving the burning characteristics has been determined. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Further development of the ceric oxidation ferrous reduction dichromate titration method of plutonium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-02-01

    The chemical reactions involved in the amperometric titration method for plutonium have been further examined, to identify remaining potential sources of bias. As these effects were not expected to be more than 0.1% at the 30 mg plutonium level, a procedure for analysing small (3 mg) aliquots of plutonium has been developed, to help identify any marginal effects. At this reduced level both plutonium and 'blank' determinations indicated that reduction of potassium permanganate by oxalic acid is slower than previously suspected and that a variable small bias can result. Decreasing the concentration of the potassium permanganate eliminated the latter effect. A low bias, proportional to the amount of excess oxalic acid added, was observed. Experiments suggest the bias is due to the reaction of oxalate with an intermediary in the iron II/ dichromate titration. The effect can be adequately reduced by complexing oxalate with cerium III. The reduction of plutonium VI by iron II has been shown to be faster than previously assumed, permitting a decreased waiting time before titration. Minor changes to the original procedure are recommended for analysis of 3 mg aliquots of plutonium. (author)

  2. Experimental designs applied to desorption of dichromate ions after separation and preconcentration from natural and industrial water by modified Nano-Alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayar, Omid [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadi, Iman Jabbari Zahir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tehran Medical Unit, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Omid; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Tavassoli, Najmeh [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Nano-alumina modified by 9-aminoacridine was used as a sorbent for separation and determination of dichromate ions from water. Statistical method, based on surface response design, has been used for the optimization of dichromate ions elution from 9-aminoacridine nano-alumina. The adsorbed dichromate ions were found to be eluted quantitatively with 0.8 mol L{sup -1} KCl in 1.6 mol L{sup -1} NaOH which optimized by response surface design. Under optimum conditions, the accuracy, precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%) and R-square of the method were calculated as >98, <3, and >94%, respectively. Remarkable agreement between experimental and theoretical data was confirmed the predicted assumption. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of dichromate in natural and industrial water samples. We also examined the retention of dichromate anions in the presence of Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions at pH 3. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. ADSORPSI POLUTAN ION DIKROMAT MENGGUNAKAN ZEOLIT ALAM TERMODIFIKASI AMINA (Adsorption of Dichromate Ions Pollutant Using Ammine Modified-Natural Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sri Kunarti

    2015-11-01

    24,66 kJ/mol. ABSTRACT Chromium (VI is a heavy metal pollutant that is harmful to health and the environment, therefore Cr(VI ions in aqueous solution removal is important to overcome the environmental pollution. Adsorption process is one of simple techniques that can be used to take metal ions. Adsorption study of dichromate ions as a wastewater model of Cr(VI has been conducted in this research by using ammine modified natural zeolite as adsorbents. The research was initiated by preparation of adsorbent of ammine-modified natural zeolites. The preparation was started by washing the natural zeolite (Z using distilled water and refluxing by 3M hydrochloric acid. Refluxed zeolites (ZA were modified by a quaternary ammonium salt, N-cethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and a primary amine, propylamine (PA. The natural zeolite (Z, acid activated zeolite (ZA and amine-modified zeolites were then applied for adsorption of dichromate ions. Characterization of zeolite samples was performed by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods to confirm the crystal structure, and atomic absorption spectroscopy method to analyze the adsorbed dichromate ions. Results showed that all zeolite samples contain clinoptilolite, mordernite and quartz minerals. The zeolite structure was not changed by heat and chemical treatments. Modification of zeolites enhanced the adsorption efficiency of natural zeolites. The dichromate ions were better adsorbed on ammine modified-zeolites compared to that of unmodified-zeolite with adsorption ability of CTAB modified zeolite (CTAB-Z was greater than that of propylammine modified zeolite (PA-Z. The adsorption of dichromate on zeolite samples was achieved in the order of CTAB-Z > PA-Z > ZA > Z, with the adsorption efficiency was about 1.96; 1.74; 0.90 and 0.48 mg/g, respectively. The dichromate ions adsorption by CTAB modified zeolite is chemical adsorption (chemisorption with the adsorption energy of 24.66 kJ/mol.

  4. Synthesis of calix[4]arene-grafted magnetite nanoparticles and Evaluation of their arsenate as well as dichromate removal efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Serkan; Ozcan, Fatih; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Cengeloglu, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Tor, Ali [Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Memon, Shahabuddin [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene (3) has been prepared by the treatment of calix[4]arene with a secondary amine (4-benzylpiperidine) and formaldehyde by means of Mannich reaction. The prepared Mannich base (3) has been grafted onto [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-propyl]-trimethoxysilane-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles (EPPTMS-MN) in order to obtain 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene-grafted EPPTMS-MN (BP-calix[4]arene-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). All new compounds were characterized by a combination of FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR analyses. The morphology of the magnetic nanoparticles was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the studies regarding the removal of arsenate and dichromate ions from the aqueous solutions were also carried out by using 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene in liquid-liquid extraction and BP-calix[4]arene-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (4) in solid-liquid extraction experiments. The extraction results indicated that 3 is protonated at proton-switchable binding sites in acidic conditions. Hence, facilitating binding of arsenate and dichromate is resulted from both electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. To understand the selectivity of 3, the retention of dichromate anions in the presence of Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions at pH 1.5 was also examined. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Selectivity of the adsorption process of modified zeolite rock with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide in front to chromates and dichromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado G, N.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from the Chihuahua state, which was conditioned with sodium chloride solution and subsequently modified with a hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide solution was used to evaluate the removal of Cr (Vi) from chromate or dichromate solutions. The zeolite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface area was also determined. The experiments were performed in a batch system, the influence of ph, contact time between phases were investigated and during the adsorption process was calculated the concentration of chromium ion present in aqueous solution (CrO 4 2- , Cr 2 O 7 2- ). The quantification of chromium removed from the aqueous solution by atomic absorption spectrometry technique was done. In order to understand the behaviour of the adsorption kinetics the pseudo first and pseudo second order models were applied, and to determine the adsorption capacity of the zeolite materials for Cr the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models were chosen. It was found that the removal efficiency of chromium ion is influenced by ph and the chemical species present: chromate or dichromate. The chromate and dichromate sorption kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second and pseudo-first order models, respectively; and the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models described adequately the isotherms data considering a mono component system. In a mixture of Cr (Vi) ad CrO 4 2- and Cr 2 O 7 2- , the surfactant modified zeolite has a greater selectivity for Cr 2 O 7 2- ion than CrO 4 2- . In this case the Langmuir-Freundlich model described the adsorption isotherm behavior. (Author)

  6. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VI Potentiometric titration of vanadium(III) alone and in mixture with vanadium(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1966-09-01

    Vanadium(III) can be titrated at room temperature with potassium dichromate in an 8-12M phosphoric acid medium. Two potential breaks are observed in 12M phosphoric add with 0.2N potassium dichromate, the first corresponding to the oxidation of vanadium(III) to vanadium(IV) and the second to the oxidation of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(V). In titrations with 0.05N dichromate only the first break in potential is clearly observed. The method has been extended to the titration of mixtures of vanadium(III) and vanadium(IV). Conditions have also been found for the visual titration of vanadium(III) using ferroln or barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicator.

  7. A new oxidimetric reagent-potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VIII Potentiometric titration of molybdenum(VI) and vanadium(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, U; Rao, G G

    1968-01-01

    A new titrimetric method is described for the determination of molybdenum(VI) involving prior reduction to Mo(V) with an excess of Fe(II) in a concentrated phosphoric acid solution, followed by titration with dichromate. The titration can be done at room temperature and without protective atmosphere. Uranium interferes, but vanadium may be determined simultaneously.

  8. Recording of interference fringe structure by femtosecond laser pulses in samples of silver-containing porous glass and thick slabs of dichromated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Olga V.; Dement'ev, Dmitry A.; Chekalin, Sergey V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Matveets, Yu. A.; Serov, Oleg B.; Smolovich, Anatoly M.

    2002-05-01

    The recording geometry and recording media for the method of achromatic wavefront reconstruction are discussed. The femtosecond recording on the thick slabs of dichromated gelatin and the samples of silver-containing porous glass was obtained. The applications of the method to ultrafast laser spectroscopy and to phase conjugation were suggested.

  9. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis[dichromate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vetrivel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis(3-ammoniopropylpiperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetrahedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001. N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H...O interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  10. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of cellulosic fabric waste and its application in the removal of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kelesh, N.A.; Hashem, A.; Sokker, H.H.; Abd Elaal, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Graft polymerization and crosslinking in radiation processing are attractive techniques for modification of the chemical and physical properties of the conventional polymers. The graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment can introduce a chelate agent function into a conventional polymer such as cellulosic fabric. Cellulosic graft copolymers were prepared by the reaction of the fiber with acrylonitrile (AN) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) in DMF initiated by gamma-radiation 60 Co. The grafted fabric was chemically treated with hydroxyl amine to obtain amidoxime form. Factors affecting on the grafting such as radiation dose, monomer concentration and solvent concentration as well as monomer composition was investigated. The chemically modified graft fabric was applied for recovery of cyanide and dichromate from aqueous solution. The CN show removal percent 89%, whereas dichromate has 65% removal percent

  11. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 1. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for the determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with potassium dichromate and ISO 7097-2 uses a titration with cerium(IV)

  12. Coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B; Thebo, P; Marshall, R N; Marshall, J A

    2010-05-01

    Preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa N.D. Levine, 1970) as type-specimens of newly described species has long been problematical. Conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. As an alternative, chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to prevent putrefaction of temporary preparations of live oöcysts) has been tested as a long-term preservative of sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria brunetti P.P. Levine, 1942, E. maxima Tyzzer, 1929, E. mitis Tyzzer, 1929, E. necatrix Johnson, 1930, E. praecox Johnson, 1930 and E. tenella (Railliet & Lucet, 1891) (suborder Eimeriorina Léger, 1911; family Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903). Oöcysts from faeces of chickens Gallus gallus (Linnaeus) were placed in 2.5% w/v aqueous potassium dichromate solution (PDS) and stored in the dark at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. After 23 years in storage, oöcysts of each species were administered orally to chickens and failed to initiate infections, indicating that the oöcysts were dead. Nevertheless, after about 24 years, DNA was still recoverable from the oöcysts, and the original species identifications made by classic parasitological methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assays. Furthermore, after almost 25 years, microscopical examination revealed that the walls and internal structures remained well preserved in 83-98% of the oöcysts of the six species investigated. Hence, PDS is potentially suitable for the long-term preservation of sporulated coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens for taxonomic purposes. The samples used in this study are now in the care of the Natural History Museum, London, UK. It is recommended that they be monitored in like manner, by suitably qualified scientists, at intervals of about 5 years to assess their state of preservation and the recoverability of DNA

  13. Probing into the effects of a magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate based on the fundamental electrochemistry kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Huang Delun; Yang Wu

    2005-01-01

    The effects of an applied magnetic field on the electrode processes of iron in sulphuric acid solutions with dichromate have been investigated by electrochemical measurements. Open circuit potentials, cathodic and anodic polarisation curves, values of polarisation resistance were measured in the presence or absence of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF). A potentiostatic polarisation plus magnetic field perturbation technique was used to study the effect of the magnetic field on open circuit corrosion. Cathodic reaction rates at open circuit potentials for iron in sulphuric acid solutions containing dichromate ions are controlled by both the electron-transfer process and the diffusion process. A magnetic field made the open circuit potential move in the positive direction, and changes of the open circuit potentials due to the magnetic field increase with increasing dichromate concentration. When iron was potentiostatically polarised at open circuit potentials in the absence of a magnetic field, a cathodic current was observed after a magnetic field was imposed. Such cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field increases with increasing dichromate concentration. The positive shifts of open circuit potential, the decrease of polarisation resistance, and the occurrence of cathodic currents induced by the magnetic field are caused by the accelerating effect of magnetic field on the cathodic diffusion process. Measured current densities showed lower, equal, or higher values in the presence of the magnetic field than those in the absence of a magnetic field at certain anodic potentials. This effect of the magnetic field is related to the contribution of the cathodic and anodic reactions to the measured current and the types of rate-determining steps for each reaction at certain potentials. The applied magnetic field significantly decreased the polarisation resistance. The experimental results in this paper are formulated based on the fundamental electrochemistry

  14. Sensitivity of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis (copepoda, harpacticoida to potassium dichromate and sediment particle size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. V. Araújo-Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For the future use of the marine benthic copepod Tisbe biminiensis in solid-phase sediment toxicological bioassays, the present study investigated the effect of muddy sediment from the Maracaípe estuary (northeastern Brazil, sediment particle size and the reference toxicant potassium dichromate on the species. Muddy sediment from Maracaípe can be used as control sediment, since it does not interfere in the copepod life-cycle and has metal contamination levels that are unlikely to produce any detrimental biological effects on benthic invertebrates. Neither survival nor fecundity was affected by grain size, suggesting that this species can be used with any kind of sediment from muddy to sandy. The sensitivity of T. biminiensis to K2Cr2O7 in acute tests was similar to that of other organisms. The LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the test organisms medium values for T. biminiensis were 7.51, 4.68 and 3.19 mg L-1 for Cr in 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. These results suggest that T. biminiensis is a promising organism for use in solid-phase sediment toxicity assessments.Visando o uso futuro do copépodo marinho bentônico Tisbe biminiensis em bioensaios toxicológicos de sedimentos na fase sólida, o presente estudo investigou o efeito do sedimento lamoso do estuário de Maracaípe (Nordeste do Brasil. Foram considerados a granolometria e o tóxico de referência dicromato de potássio sobre a espécie. O sedimento lamoso de Maracaípe pode ser usado como controle, uma vez que não interfere no ciclo de vida do copépodo e possui níveis de contaminação de metais que não causariam efeitos biológicos em invertebrados bentônicos. Nem a sobrevivência ou fecundidade foi afetada pelo tamanho do grão, sugerindo que esta espécie pode ser usada com qualquer tipo de sedimento, de lama a areia. A sensibilidade de T. biminiensis ao K2Cr2O7 em testes agudos foi similar a de outros organismos. Os valores de CL50 (concentração letal a 50% dos

  15. Differential patterns of injury to the proximal tubule of renal cortical slices following in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, or hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, C E; Gandolfi, A J; Nagle, R B; Brendel, K

    1987-09-15

    The innate susceptibility of renal cell types to these agents was investigated using precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices made perpendicular to the cortical-papillary axis. Slices were incubated in DME/F12 medium containing 10 microM, 100 microM, or 1 mM concentrations of either metal for 12 hr or in Krebs-Hepes buffer gassed with nitrogen (100%) for 0.75 to 5 hr of hypoxic exposure. To simulate postischemic reperfusion, some slices were transferred to vessels gassed with oxygen after an initial hypoxic period. Mercuric chloride (100 microM) exposure resulted in damage to the straight regions of proximal tubules by 12 hr leaving convoluted regions unaffected. Hypoxia (2.25 hr) and potassium dichromate (100 microM for 12 hr) both caused injury to the convoluted proximal tubules without affecting straight proximal tubular regions. Mercury concentrations of 10 microM and 1 mM had no effect or injured all cell types within the slice, respectively. Similar results were observed for hypoxic periods less than 1.5 hr or greater than 3 hr of exposure. Potassium dichromate had no measurable affect at 10 microM, but at 1 mM focal lesions were observed after 4 hr of exposure, and by 12 hr all cell types within the slice were affected. Intracellular potassium content normalized to DNA correlated well, but always preceded the pathological lesions observed. These results demonstrate that injury to specific regions of the proximal tubule by these agents relates to an innate susceptibility of the intoxicated cell type independent of physiologic feedback or blood delivery patterns proposed as mechanisms of selective injury from in vivo studies.

  16. Synthesis and production of potassium dichromate as a secondary standard dosimeter; Investigation of its comparative properties with Fricke and clear perspex dosimeters in comprehensive dose mapping of IR-136 Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimoori Seechani; Behzad.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the absorbed dose is the principle mode or means of quality control in various application of radiation processing. Specially, the cumulative absorbed dose and its variation in different density product boxes (dose mapping) are often required. Proper discharge of these task would require the use of dosimeters having sufficient degree of accuracy and precision. The secondary standard potassium dichromate dosimeter is synthesized for the first time in Iran. The properties of this dosimeter such as dose response, dose rate dependency, reproducibility, molar extinction coefficient, reduction yield and effect of silver ions on reduction yield of dosimetry solution, irradiation temperature effect as well as pre- and post-irradiation stability of the dosimetry solution have been studied. The comparison of the results of this work with that of the ASTM standard of potassium dichromate has shown very good agreement. The produced dichromate dosimeters were used for comprehensive dose mapping or commissioning of the IR-136 irradiator. The non-uniformity ratio and the isodose lines in various product densities in the IR-136 have been measured. Cumulative dose values were obtained for different rows and levels of the IR-136 irradiator system. The results of dichromate dosimetry, wherever possible, were compared with the response of Fricke and clear perspex dosimeters. At low dose values, the precision of this dosimeter was found to be better than the precision of clear perspex, but about the same as that of Fricke dosimeter. It is thus may be said that this dosimeter has combined the desirable properties of both dosimeter together

  17. Selectivity of the adsorption process of modified zeolite rock with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide in front to chromates and dichromates; Selectividad del proceso de adsorcion de roca zeolitica modificada con bromuro de hexadeciltrimetilamonio frente a cromatos y dicromatos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado G, N.

    2011-07-01

    In the present investigation natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from the Chihuahua state, which was conditioned with sodium chloride solution and subsequently modified with a hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide solution was used to evaluate the removal of Cr (Vi) from chromate or dichromate solutions. The zeolite materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface area was also determined. The experiments were performed in a batch system, the influence of ph, contact time between phases were investigated and during the adsorption process was calculated the concentration of chromium ion present in aqueous solution (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}). The quantification of chromium removed from the aqueous solution by atomic absorption spectrometry technique was done. In order to understand the behaviour of the adsorption kinetics the pseudo first and pseudo second order models were applied, and to determine the adsorption capacity of the zeolite materials for Cr the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models were chosen. It was found that the removal efficiency of chromium ion is influenced by ph and the chemical species present: chromate or dichromate. The chromate and dichromate sorption kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second and pseudo-first order models, respectively; and the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models described adequately the isotherms data considering a mono component system. In a mixture of Cr (Vi) ad CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}, the surfactant modified zeolite has a greater selectivity for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-} ion than CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In this case the Langmuir-Freundlich model described the adsorption isotherm behavior. (Author)

  18. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium--VII. Photometric titration of vanadium(IV) and of cerium(III) alone and in mixtures with iroN(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1967-01-01

    Vanadium(IV) can be accurately titrated with potassium dichromate in media containing phosphoric acid of 3-12M concentration: the change in absorption of vanadium(IV) is followed in the region 660 mmicro using a red filter. It is more convenient to carry out the titration in 3M phosphoric acid because at higher concentrations chloride, nitrate, cerium(III) and manganese(II) may interfere. Photoelcetric titration is more convenient than potentiometric because the former can be made in a 3M phosphoric acid medium, whereas the latter is possible only in 12M phosphoric acid. The simultaneous differential photometric titration of iron(II) and vanadium(IV) is also possible. Conditions have been found for the photometric titration of cerium(III) and of cerium(III) plus iron(II). The titration is carried out (at 450 mmicro or with a blue filter) in about 10.5M phosphoric acid. Application of the method to a cerium mineral is considered.

  19. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  20. Characterization of potassium dichromate solutions for spectrophotometercalibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, F. C.; Silva, E. M.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Borges, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis in the ultraviolet (UV) region is used in the determination of several quantitative and qualitative parameters. For ensuring reliability of the analyses performed on the spectrophotometers, verification / calibration of the equipment must be performed periodically using certified reference materials (CRMs). This work presents the characterization stage needed for producing this CRM. The property value characterized was the absorbance for the wavelengths in the UV spectral regions. This CRM will contribute to guarantee the accuracy and linearity of the absorbance scale to the spectrophotometers, through which analytical measurement results will be provided with metrological traceability.

  1. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  2. Kinetics of Oxidation of Aliphatic Alcohols by Potassium Dichromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ibb University, Ibb 7027, Yemen. 2Department of Chemistry ... The presence of TX-100 enhanced the rate of the ... oxidation of alcohols, namely, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol.

  3. Kinetics of Oxidation of Aliphatic Alcohols by Potassium Dichromate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics of oxidation of four aliphatic alcohols in acidic aqueous and micellar media were investigated. The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to both alcohol and oxidant. Pseudo-first-order kinetics were found to be perfectly applicable with ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol while deviation was observed ...

  4. Pathology Report for Intraperitoneal Sodium Dichromate Exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    injury resulting from exposure to specific metal intoxication . The investigators aim was to validate hypothesized adverse outcome pathways in rats...vessels causing them to become leaky. Injured or inflamed vessels lead to extravasated fibrinogen which rapidly clots into a cross-linked fibrin gel...Sprague-Dawley rats appear to include direct injury to the exposed, capsular surface of the liver, leading to fibrinogen leakage, fibrin formation

  5. 75 FR 35796 - Busan 74 (2-hydroxypropyl methanethiosulfonate); Chlorine Gas; and Dichromic Acid, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ..., and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the docket.... for the pesticide of interest. For general information contact: Lance Wormell, Antimicrobials Division...: wormell.lance@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. General Information A. Does this Action Apply to Me...

  6. Silver chromate and silver dichromate nanostructures: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soofivand, Faezeh; Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, Ag 2 CrO 4 and Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 nanostructures have been sonochemically prepared using silver salicylate. The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of the products was investigated by SEM images. Highlights: ► Herein, Ag 2 CrO 4 and Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 nanostructures have been sonochemically prepared. ► The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of the products was investigated. ► The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Ag 2 CrO 4 nanoparticles was tested. ► XPS spectra indicated the high purity of Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 nanostructures obtained. - Abstract: In this work, Ag 2 CrO 4 and Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 nanostructures have been produced via a sonochemical method using silver salicylate as precursor. Besides silver salicylate, Na 2 CrO 4 and (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 as starting reagents were applied. To investigate the effect of preparation parameters on the morphology and particle size of Ag 2 CrO 4 and Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 , sonication time, type of surfactant and its concentration were changed. The as-produced nanostructures were characterized by techniques like powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron micrographs showed that particle-like and rod-like nanostructures of Ag 2 CrO 4 and Ag 2 Cr 2 O 7 were produced using different surfactants. To investigate the catalytic properties of Ag 2 CrO 4 nanoparticles, photooxidation of methyl orange (MO) was performed. According to the obtained results, it was found that the methyl orange degradation was about 87.3% after 280 min irradiation of visible light

  7. Silver chromate and silver dichromate nanostructures: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soofivand, Faezeh [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures have been sonochemically prepared using silver salicylate. The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of the products was investigated by SEM images. Highlights: ► Herein, Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures have been sonochemically prepared. ► The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of the products was investigated. ► The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} nanoparticles was tested. ► XPS spectra indicated the high purity of Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures obtained. - Abstract: In this work, Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanostructures have been produced via a sonochemical method using silver salicylate as precursor. Besides silver salicylate, Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} as starting reagents were applied. To investigate the effect of preparation parameters on the morphology and particle size of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, sonication time, type of surfactant and its concentration were changed. The as-produced nanostructures were characterized by techniques like powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron micrographs showed that particle-like and rod-like nanostructures of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} were produced using different surfactants. To investigate the catalytic properties of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} nanoparticles, photooxidation of methyl orange (MO) was performed. According to the obtained results, it was found that the methyl orange degradation was about 87.3% after 280 min irradiation of visible light.

  8. Determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using an alternative wet chemical method free of mercury and dichromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit; Teichgräber, Burkhard

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide, the standard methods for the determination of the important wastewater parameter chemical oxygen demand (COD) are still based on the use of the hazardous chemicals, mercury sulfate and chromium(VI). However, due to their properties they are meanwhile classified as "priority pollutants" and shall be phased out or banned in the frame of REACH (current European Chemical Law: Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) by the European Union. Hence, a new wet-chemical method free of mercury and chromium(VI) was developed. Manganese(III) was used as oxidant and silver nitrate for the removal of chloride ions. The quantification was performed by back titration of manganese(III) with iron(II) as done in the standard method. In order to minimize losses of organic substances during the precipitation of silver chloride, suspended and colloid organic matter had to be separated by precipitation of aluminum hydroxide in a first step. In these cases, two fractions, one of the suspended and colloid matters and a second of the dissolved organic substances, are prepared and oxidized separately. The method was tested with potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) as conventional COD reference substance and different types of wastewater samples. The oxidation of KHP was reproducible in a COD range of 20-500 mg/L with a mean recovery rate of 88.7% in comparison to the standard COD method (DIN 38409-41). Also in presence of 1000 mg/L chloride a recovery rate of 84.1% was reached. For a series of industrial and municipal wastewater samples a high correlation (R 2  = 0.9935) to the standard method with a mean recovery rate of 78.1% (±5.2%) was determined. Even though the results of the new method are not 100% of the standard method, its high correlation to the standard method and reproducibility offers an environmentally benign alternative method with no need to purchase new laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  10. Cryoscopic studies in molten salts: dissociation of some alkali isopolymolybdates and some related molybdenum(VI) compounds in molten potassium dichromate and potassium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, M.; Youssef, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    The dissociation of the solutes, viz. M 2 MoO 4 , M 2 MO 3 O 10 , M 2 Mo 4 O 13 , M 2 Mo 5 O 16 (M = Rb or Cs), Na 2 CrO 4 .MoO 3 , K 2 CrO 4 .2MoO 3 , Cr 2 Mo 3 O 12 and V 2 MoO 8 in molten K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and KNO 3 as solvents has been studied employing cryoscopic method. The values of number of foreign ions (ν) show that all the solutes, except V 2 MoO 8 , are either simply dissociated in the melt, or, in some cases after dissociation undergo rearrangement to heteropolyions of the type (CrMo 2 O 10 ) 2- . The solute V 2 MoO 8 , dissolves without any apparent dissociation. An agreement between the experimental and calculated values of activity (a) based on the Temkin and random mixing models and that of Vant Hoff's equation support the proposed simple dissociation scheme for K 2 Cr 2 O 7 -Cs 2 MoO 4 system. (author)

  11. Exposure to Sodium Dichromate at Qarmat Ali Iraq in 2003: Part 2 -- Evaluation of Army and Contractor Actions Related to Hazardous Industrial Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    hexavalent chromium (chromium VI), a known carcinogen. USACE and the Army command in Iraq were made aware of the exposure in 2003 and took a series of...occupational and environmental health risks to U.S. personnel from potential exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and other hazards prior to...chromium, or stigmata such as chrome ulcers. It was assumed by the 12 USACHPPM identified members of the West Virginia Army National Guard as part of the

  12. Environmental conditions influence for real-time hologram formation on dichromated polyvinyl alcohol NiCl2·6H2O doped films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R C; Olivares-Perez, A; Fuentes-Tapia, I; Rios-Velasco, M A

    2011-01-01

    The real-time holographic gratings recording are studied by the presence of a metallic salt. The experimental process refers to analysis of diffraction efficiency by the influence of humidity in the coating solution on holograms formation in presence of electrical potential. The diffraction efficiency is measured as a function of the exposure energy until reach the saturation. The influence of the hologram parameters to get the diffraction efficiency is studied at room conditions.

  13. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Kurniawan; Sri W. Dwintasari; Herbowo A. Soetomenggolo; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained wi...

  14. Preliminary Study on the Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Naphthol Green B by Dichromate Ion in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bako Myek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the oxidation of naphthol green B (NGB3- by Cr2O7 2- has been studied in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium at an ionic strength, I = 0.50 mol dm-3 (NaCl, H+ =1.0  10-4 mol dm-3 (HCl and T = 25  1C. The redox reaction displayed a stoichiometry of 1:1 and obeys the rate law: -dNGB3-/dt = k2NGB3-]Cr2O7 2- . The second order rate constant increases with increase in acid concentration and in the ionic strength of reaction medium. The rates of reaction displayed a positive salt effect. Addition of acrylonitrile to a partially reacted mixture in the presence of excess methanol did not lead to gel formation. Added cations and anions inhibited the naphthol green B - Cr2O7 2- reaction. Results of the Michaelis – Menten plot gave no evidence of intermediate complex formation during the course of the reaction. Based on the results obtained, the reaction is believed to proceed through the outersphere mechanistic pathway.

  15. Determination of ethamsylate by UV spectrophotometry with potassium dichromate as oxidant%重铬酸钾氧化紫外分光光度法测定酚磺乙胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳泽平; 刘忠芳; 刘绍璞

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立测定酚磺乙胺含量的新方法.方法:在1.2 mol·L-1 H2SO4介质中,酚磺乙胺被重铬酸钾氧化,利用紫外检测器于250 nm测定其氧化产物的吸收值.结果:酚磺乙胺的摩尔吸光系数(ε)为1.8×104 L·mol-1 ·cm-1 ,并在0.12~36 μg·mL-1范围内符合比尔定律,其线性回归方程为:A=0.00364+0.0651C(C的单位为μg·mL-1),相关系数r=0.9999,检测限为0.08 μg·mL-1.该法用于注射液、尿液中酚磺乙胺含量的测定,回收率可达92.5%~105.3%.结论:建立了测定酚磺乙胺含量的简单、快速、选择性好和灵敏度较高的方法.

  16. Environmental conditions influence for real-time hologram formation on dichromated polyvinyl alcohol NiCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O doped films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R C; Olivares-Perez, A; Fuentes-Tapia, I; Rios-Velasco, M A, E-mail: rfontanilla@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx, E-mail: ifuentes@inaoep.mx, E-mail: moni_arv@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro No. 1 Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The real-time holographic gratings recording are studied by the presence of a metallic salt. The experimental process refers to analysis of diffraction efficiency by the influence of humidity in the coating solution on holograms formation in presence of electrical potential. The diffraction efficiency is measured as a function of the exposure energy until reach the saturation. The influence of the hologram parameters to get the diffraction efficiency is studied at room conditions.

  17. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of milligram amounts of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Potentiometric titration with potassium dichromate after oxidation by Ce(IV) and reduction by Fe(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This International Standard describes a precise and accurate analytical method for determining 1 mg to 5 mg of plutonium per millilitre in nitric acid solutions. The method is very selective for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to solutions of mixed nuclear materials with a uranium/plutonium ratio up to 20:1. However, potential application to the assay of plutonium in solutions of irradiated nuclear fuels and solutions of mixed nuclear materials with uranium/plutonium ratios of 20:1 to 33:1 has not yet been documented. The method recommends that the aliquot be weighed and that the titration burettes be calibrated gravimetrically in order to obtain adequate precision and accuracy. This does not preclude using any alternative technique which can be shown to give an equivalent accuracy. As the reproducibility of the reaction conditions is important to maintain good performance, extensive automatization of the procedure is beneficial

  18. Insights: Tools of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a demonstration showing the chemical reversibility between the chromate and dichromate ions. Includes reaction equations and listing of equipment needed. Recommends a demonstration for illustrating Le Chatelier's principle and stoichiometric relationships. (ML)

  19. Beware of the Permanganate Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ellie

    1980-01-01

    Discusses hazards associated with the permanganate demonstration of volcanic eruptions. Alternate demonstrations are described, including the ammonium dichromate reaction, lava flow demonstration with baking soda and vinegar, and punk to illustrate air pollution from volcanic ash and cinders. (CS)

  20. In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Vadose Zone Soil Using Gaseous Electron Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration ND Non-detect NDMA N-Nitrosodimethylamine No. Number NO3- Nitrate OD Outside diameter O&M...Nitrite xv • Selenate • Arsenate • Chromate and dichromate (i.e., hexavalent chromium) • Uranylate • Pertechnetate • N-Nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ...Arsenate • Chromate and dichromate (i.e., hexavalent chromium) • Uranylate • Pertechnetate • N-Nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ) • Trichloroethene (TCE

  1. Effect of pressure on the radiation annealing of recoil atoms in chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamouli, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the annealing of recoil atoms by gamma radiation in neutron irradiated potassium chromate, ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate was studied. In potassium chromate the pressure applied before the gamma-irradiation was found to retard the radiation annealing process. In ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate the radiation annealing was found to be enhanced in the compressed samples in comparison to the noncompressed ones. (author)

  2. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of selenium compounds in the in vitro micronucleus assay with human whole blood lymphocytes and tk6 lymphoblastoid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Cemeli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is known to possess both genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties. In the present study, we have evaluated the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of three selenium compounds (sodium selenate, sodium selenite and selenous acid by measuring in vitro micronucleus induction. Assays were conducted in whole blood lymphocytes and in the TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line, with and without co-treatment with potassium dichromate, a known genotoxic compound. In general, the compounds were more active in TK6 cells than they were in blood lymphocytes. Only 1 μM selenous acid increased the frequency of binucleated cells containing micronuclei (BNMN in blood lymphocytes, while all three selenium compounds increased BNMN in TK6 cells. In addition, combinations of selenous acid and potassium dichromate resulted in lower frequencies of BNMN than potassium dichromate alone in blood lymphocytes, while combinations of sodium selenate and potassium dichromate produced lower frequencies of BNMN than potassium dichromate alone in TK6 cells. The concentrations of selenium compounds that were used, in combination with the medium components and the biological physiology of the whole blood lymphocytes and TK6 cells, could have affected the redox potential of the compounds, switching the chemicals from a pro-oxidant to antioxidant status and vice-versa. The lower activities of the compounds in blood lymphocytes may be due to the protective effects of blood components. The results indicate that the genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of selenium compounds are highly dependent upon the conditions under which they are evaluated.

  3. Permeation of chromium salts through human skin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Fullerton, A; Avnstorp, C

    1992-01-01

    Chromium permeation studies were performed on full thickness human skin in diffusion cells. All samples were analysed for the total chromium content by graphite furnace Zeeman-corrected atomic absorption spectrometry. Some samples were analysed by an ion chromatographic method permitting...... the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) as well. The amounts of chromium found in all skin layers were significantly higher when potassium dichromate was applied to the skin compared with chromium chloride or chromium nitrate. Chromium could only be detected in the recipient phase after application...... of the dichromate solution. Chromium skin levels increased with increasing concentrations of applied chromium salts up to 0.034 M Cr. The amount of chromium in recipient phase and skin layers increased with increasing pH when the applied solution contained potassium dichromate. This was ascribed to a decreased skin...

  4. Fe-Mo alloy coatings as cathodes in chlorate production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić-Krstajić Ljiljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the feasibility of partial replacement of dichromate, Cr(VI, with phosphate buffer, focusing on the cathode reaction selectivity for hydrogen evolution on mild steel and Fe-Mo cathodes in undivided cell for chlorate production. To evaluate the ability of phosphate and Cr(VI additions to hinder hypochlorite and chlorate reduction, overall current efficiency (CE measurements in laboratory cell for chlorate production on stationary electrodes were performed. The concentration of hypochlorite was determined by a conventional potentiometric titration method using 0.01 mol dm-3 As2O3 solution as a titrant. The chlorate concentration was determined by excess of 1.0 mol dm-3 As2O3 solution and excess of arsenic oxide was titrated with 0.1 mol dm-3 KBrO3 solution in a strong acidic solution. Cathodic hypochlorite and chlorate reduction were suppressed efficiently by addition of 3 g dm-3 dichromate at both cathodes, except that Fe-Mo cathode exhibited higher catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER. The overvoltage for the HER was around 0.17 V lower on Fe-Mo cathode than on mild steel at the current density of 3 kA m-2. It was found that a dichromate content as low as 0.1 g dm-3 is sufficient for complete suppression of cathodic hypochlorite and chlorate reduction onto Fe-Mo catalyst in phosphate buffering system (3 g dm-3 Na2HPO4 + NaH2PO4. The overall current efficiency was practically the same as in the case of the presence of 3 g dm-3 dichromate buffer (98 %. However, for the mild steel cathode, the overall current efficiency for the chlorate production was somewhat lower in the above mentioned mixed phosphate + dichromate buffering system (95% than in the pure dichromate buffering solution (97.5%.

  5. Redox substoichiometry in isotope dilution analysis Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Ugai, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of antimony(III) with potassium dichromate has been investigated radiometrically. The quantitative oxidation of antimony(III) was found to be not disturbed even in large amounts of tin(IV). On the basis of these results the redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis using potassium dichromate as the oxidizing agent was proposed for the determination of antimony in metallic tin. An antimony content of 1.22+-0.05 μg in metallic tin (10 mg) was determined without separation of the matrix element. (author)

  6. Constant current coulometric method for the determination of uranium in active process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Talnikar, S.G.; Paranjape, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of uranium in the range of 2.5-5 mg by constant current coulometry is described. The procedure is based on the modified version of the DAVIES - GRAY method, wherein uranium, after the reduction step, is oxidized by adding a known amount of potassium dichromate, and the excess of dichromate is determined by titration with Fe 2+ solution. Fe 2+ ions needed for the titration are generated in situ with 100% current efficiency by electrolytic reduction of Fe 3+ . The method is found to be accurate with a coefficient of variation better than 0.2%. (author)

  7. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10...... chromium-allergic patients, and 5 patients without chromium allergy. All were patch tested with potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, nickel sulfate, and nine different metallic discs. The chromium-allergic patients were also patch tested with serial dilutions of potassium dichromate. Positive...

  8. Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques. (paper)

  9. Chromium base high performance materials: Where and how do they come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Kap

    1996-08-01

    The origin of chromium base performance materials (CBPM) is described. CBPM may include (1) trivalent chromium chemicals such as chromic acetate, chromic chloride, chromic bromide, chromic fluoride, chromic iodide, chromic phosphate, and chromic sulfate; (2) hexavalent chromium chemicals such as chromic acid, lithium chromate, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, and potassium dichromate; (3) oxide forms of chromium such as black chrome, chromium dioxide, chromium oxide, and chromium hydroxide; and (4) other chromium compounds such as chromium aluminide, chromium boride, chromium carbide, chromium molybdate, chromium nitride, chromium silicide, chromium tungstate and lanthanum chromite. Extensive reviews of production processes, properties, and applications/end uses of CBPM are made.

  10. Light microscopical demonstration and zonal distribution of parasinusoidal cells (Ito cells) in normal human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Junge, Jette; Nielsen, O

    1988-01-01

    The parasinusoidal cells of the liver (Ito cells) were demonstrated light microscopically in autopsy specimens fixed in formalin and stained with Oil red O after dichromate treatment. The method allows examination of large samples containing numerous acini. Quantitative assessment showed a zonal...

  11. Nitration of phenolic compounds and oxidation of hydroquinones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we have reported a mild, efficient and selective method for the mononitration of phenolic compounds using sodium nitrite in the presence of tetrabutylammonium dichromate (TBAD) and oxidation of hydroquinones to quinones with TBAD in CH2Cl2. Using this method, high yields of nitrophenols and ...

  12. combined effect of polyaniline emeraldine salt for removal of Cr(VI)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cr(VI) ion is one of the major industrial wastes as dichromate and chromate ions are ... more [9–12]. For the toxic nature of Cr(VI) in aqueous medium, it becomes a ... techniques such as adsorption [13–15], chemical reduction. [16], reverse ...

  13. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the diet of white leghorn layers. ... Evaluation was based on egg yolk colour intensity measured based on Roche colour fan scores, potassium dichromate grades and consumer preference scores on raw, boiled and fried egg samples. Egg production, feed ...

  14. Heavy metal ion uptake properties of polystyrene-supported ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    concentration on the uptake of metal ions have been studied. The uptake ... employed for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial waste water. ... nitrate, mercuric chloride, cadmium nitrate and potassium dichromate salts. ... polymer resin was determined by reacting 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm of metal.

  15. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-06-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10 chromium-allergic patients, and 5 patients without chromium allergy. All were patch tested with potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, nickel sulfate, and nine different metallic discs. The chromium-allergic patients were also patch tested with serial dilutions of potassium dichromate. Positive/weaker reactions were observed to disc B (1 of 10), disc C (1 of 10), and disc D, disc E, and disc I (4 of 10 each). As no controls reacted to any of the discs, the weak reactions indicate allergic reactions. Positive patch test reactions to 1770 ppm chromium(VI) in the serial dilutions of potassium dichromate were observed in 7 of 10 patients. When the case group was narrowed down to include only the patients with a current positive patch test reaction to potassium dichromate, elicitation of dermatitis by both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) discs was observed in 4 of 7 of patients. Many of the patients reacted to both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) surfaces. Our results indicate that both chromium(VI) and chromium(III) pose a risk to chromium-allergic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  17. Procedure for calibrating the Technicon Colorimeter I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J C; Furman, W B

    1975-05-01

    We describe a rapid method for calibrating the Technicon AutoAnalyzer colorimeter I. Test solutions of bromphenol blue are recommended for the calibration, in preference to solutions of potassium dichromate, based on considerations of the instrument's working range and of the stray light characteristics of the associated filters.

  18. Multipurpose Corrosion Inhibitors for Aerospace Materials in Naval Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-04

    Figure 1. The (da/dN i vs. AK plot is typica: of tr " curves obtained. The abbreviations MA. CTM and DNBM stand for moist air. dichromate - tellurate ...plastic deformation which occurs by the movement of dislocations to the surface (19) is the precursor of the cracking process in metals. Since

  19. Light microscopical demonstration and zonal distribution of parasinusoidal cells (Ito cells) in normal human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Junge, Jette; Nielsen, O

    1988-01-01

    The parasinusoidal cells of the liver (Ito cells) were demonstrated light microscopically in autopsy specimens fixed in formalin and stained with Oil red O after dichromate treatment. The method allows examination of large samples containing numerous acini. Quantitative assessment showed a zonal ...

  20. Induction of cytokine (interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and chemokine (CCL20, CCL27, and CXCL8) alarm signals after allergen and irritant exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekstra, S.W.; Toebak, M.J.; Sampat-Sardjoepersad, S.; van Beek, P.J; Boorsma, D.M.; Stoof, T.J.; von Blomberg, B.M.; Scheper, R.J.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Rustemeyer, T.; Gibbs, S.

    2005-01-01

    The immune system is called into action by alarm signals generate from injured tissues. We examined the nature of these alarm signals after exposure of skin residential cells to contact allergens (nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate) and a contact irritant [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)]. Nickel

  1. The use of radio-release methods for the determination of some water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Klehr, E.H.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from the problem of water pollutant determination the use of 85 Kr for determining the pH value and pollutants such as oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, and hydrochloric acid is described in detail. Various types of apparatuses for carrying out the analyses are presented

  2. The use of cerium(IV) phosphate for the gravimetric determination and separation of cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masin, V.; Dolezal, J.

    1978-01-01

    A method for the gravimetric determination of cerium as Ce 3 (PO 4 ) 4 is described. Cerium can be separated from many metals in this form, as well as from permanganate and dichromate; the cerium separated can then be titrated with iron(II) solution. The method was verified for the determination of cerium in a rare earth concentrate. (Auth.)

  3. Kinetics and correlation analysis of reactivity in the oxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation of a number of monosubstituted aryl methyl, alkyl phenyl, dialkyl, and diphenyl sulfides by butyltriphenylphosphonium dichromate (BTPPD), to the corresponding sulfoxides, is first order with respect to BTPPD and is second order with respect to sulfide. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ions and the ...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11412 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leak detection system means a system that is capable of continuously monitoring relative particulate... leak detection system includes, but is not limited to, an instrument that operates on triboelectric... oxide means Cr2O3. In the production of chromic oxide, ammonium sulfate and sodium dichromate that have...

  5. Ni(III) - a new oxidant for the potentiometric determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, N.; Rama Rao, G.A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ni(III) was employed as an oxidant for the quantitative oxidation of plutonium to its hexavalent state and this makes possible to determine plutonium concentrations potentiometrically by the Fe(II)-dichromate redox titration method. The unreacted oxidant is completely reduced by sulphamic acid prior to the determination of plutonium. (author)

  6. The adrenal gland of the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer: a light and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-02-13

    Feb 13, 1992 ... AU the animals were brain shot Approximately 30 min elapsed between the time of ... dichromate adjusted 10 pH 6,8 wiLh poLassium hydroxide .... contains a large Golgi complex, mitochondria with tubulo- .... (Ed.) O. Eranko.

  7. CONCURRENT CONTACT SENSITIZATION TO METALS IN DENTAL EXPOSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Sensitization to metals is a significant problem for both dental patients treated with dental materials and for dental professionals in occupational exposures. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of concurrent contact sensitization to relevant for dental practice metals among students of dental medicine, students from dental technician school, dental professionals and patients. Material and Methods: A total of 128 participants were included in the study. All of them were patch-tested with nickel, cobalt, copper, potassium dichromate, palladium, aluminium, gold and tin. The results were subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: For the whole studied population, potassium dichromate exhibited concomitant reactivity most often; copper and tin also often manifested co-reactivity. For the groups, exposed in dental practice, potassium dichromate and tin were outlined as the most often co-reacting metal allergens, but statistical significance concerning the co-sensitization to copper and the other metals was established only for aluminium. An increased incidence and OR for concomitant sensitization to cobalt and nickel was established in the group of dental students; to copper and nickel - in the control group; to palladium and nickel - in the group of dental professionals, the group of students of dental medicine and in the control group; to potassium dichromate and cobalt - in the group of dental students; to copper and palladium - in the control group of dental patients; to potassium dichromate and copper - in the group of dental professionals; to copper and aluminum - in the groups of students from dental technician school and of dental professionals; to copper and gold - in the groups of dental professionals and in the group of dental patients; to potassium dichromate and aluminum - in the group of dental professionals; to potassium dichromate and gold - in the group of dental professionals, and to

  8. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Conceição, F C; Borges, P P; Gomes, J F S

    2016-01-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K_2Cr_2O_7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses. (paper)

  9. Field screening for hexavalent chromium in soil: A fast-turnaround field method based on water extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, R.G.; Baechler, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium dichromate has been identified as a contaminant of concern at several waste sites on the Hanford Site. Although chromium standards for soil are typically stated in terms of total chrome, much of the toxicity and carcinogenicity are attributed to the hexavalent state, which typically exists as a relatively mobile anion. Investigation and removal of crushed drums potentially containing residual sodium dichromate required a field test for hexavalent chromium to support characterization and remediation activities. Previous experience with a commercially available field test kit had been unsuccessful. This stimulated an effort to determine potential sources of error in the field test and led to a number of modifications that significantly improved the reliability of the test

  10. Site specific health and safety plan, 100-HR-3 pump and treat. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.H.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-HR-3 Pump and Treat system is a groundwater remedial action to remove Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) from the groundwater underlying the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. This plan covers operation, maintenance, repairs, resin exchange and equipment removal/installation. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit addresses groundwater underlying the 100-D Area. The primary groundwater contaminant is Chromium +6. The chromium contamination resulted from the use of sodium dichromate during past reactor operations. Sodium dichromate was used to treat reactor coolant water during reactor operations. The purpose of this Pump and Treat system is to pump contaminated groundwater through above ground ion exchange resin and then return treated water to aquifer. Chromium levels extracted from the wells are anticipated to range in the low parts per billion (∼50 ppb) which is the drinking water limit for Cr+6

  11. Separation of uranyl ion using polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayshree Ramkumar; Chandramouleeswaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Polyaniline (Pani) was synthesized by the chemical oxidation of aniline. The use of persulphate instead of dichromate was desired in order to avoid the incorporation of chromium in the polymer matrix. The presence of chromium in the matrix, when dichromate was used as an oxidant, was confirmed by various techniques. The batch mode experiments showed that Pani could be used for separation of different metal ions. These ions were converted into their anionic complexes using suitable complexing agents. It was found that EDTA was used as a suitable reagent for the separation of Cu 2+ from Zn 2+ whereas the uranyl ion uptake could be increased to about 95 % when carbonate was used instead of EDTA as complexing agent. A possible application of the above exchange system to preconcentration of uranyl ion from seawater has also been examined. (author)

  12. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: Inorganic chromium compounds. Draft report (Second)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Information profiles are presented for the following inorganic chromium compounds: chromic(VI) acid, chromic(III) hydroxide, chromic(III) oxide, chromic(III) sulfate, chromic(III) sulfate (basic), chromium dioxide, potassium dichromate(VI), lead chromate, sodium-chromate(VI), sodium-dichromate(VI), and zinc-yellow-chromate(VI). Biological effects of hexavalent chromium in humans included skin ulceration, dermatitis, nasal membrane irritation and ulceration, nasal septal perforation, rhinitis, nosebleed, nephritis, liver damage, epigastric pain, pulmonary congestion and edema, and erosion and discoloration of teeth. Chromium(VI) compounds caused mutations in a variety of systems. Exposure to trivalent chromium in the work place has caused contact dermatitis and chrome ulcers. Epidemiological studies indicated respiratory carcinogenicity among workers occupationally exposed during chromate production.

  13. The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 aluminum by a polyurethane-sealed anodized coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 anodized aluminum afforded by a newly patented polyurethane seal was studied using the ac impedance technique. Values of the average corrosion rates over a 27-day exposure period in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions at pH 5.2 and pH 9.5 compared very favorably for Lockheed-prepared polyurethane-sealed and dichromate-sealed coats of the same thickness. Average corrosion rates for both specimens over the first 7 days of exposure compared well with those for a hard anodized, dichromate-sealed coat, but rose well above those for the hard anodized coat over the entire 27-day period. This is attributed both to the greater thickness of the hard anodized coat, and possibly to its inherently better corrosion protective capability.

  14. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorantes-GarcIa, V; Olivares-Perez, A; Ordonez-Padilla, M J; Mejias-Brizuela, N Y, E-mail: valdoga@Hotmail.com, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Coordinacion de Optica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro N0 1, Santa Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  15. [Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in Basalt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen

    2015-08-01

    Basalt is the raw material of basalt fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of basalt fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in basalt. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively.

  16. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 2. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with cerium(IV) and ISO 7097-1 uses a titration with potassium dichromate

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Intercalated Graphite Bisulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, Marcella; Carotenuto, Gianfranco; De Nicola, Sergio; Camerlingo, Carlo; Ambrogi, Veronica; Carfagna, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    Different chemical formulations for the synthesis of highly intercalated graphite bisulfate have been tested. In particular, nitric acid, potassium nitrate, potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate, sodium periodate, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide have been used in this synthesis scheme as the auxiliary reagent (oxidizing agent). In order to evaluate the presence of delamination, and pre-expansion phenomena, and the achieved intercalation degree in the prepared samples, the obtain...

  18. Status of Electron and Gamma Dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1985-01-01

    Several dosimetric systems have gained acceptance mainly for use in radiation sterilization or in plastic processing. They include: Perspex, radiochromic dye films, cellulose triacetate films, ceric-cerous liquid ampules, ethanol-chlorobenzene liquid ampules, ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) liquid ampules...... of light upon dissolution of amino acids and sugars, measurement of optical density of polyethylene film, and measurement of optical density in potassium dichromate solution....

  19. Mixed response in bacterial and biochemical variables to simulated sand mining in placer-rich beach sediments, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Nath, B.N.; Faria, D.G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    (Davies 1972). The long stressful abiotic factors such as the winds and waves make these beaches highly dynamic and ecologically sensitive (Brown and McLachlan 1990; Knox 2001). This stress is further compounded by human activities such as tourism... to improve the extraction, followed by extraction in chloroform methanol mixture. Extractant was dried under vacuum (Bligh et al. 1959) and oxidized with 0.15% acid dichromate (Parsons et al. 1984). Stearic acid was used as a standard and absorbance...

  20. Microbiology and biochemistry of placer rich beach sediment: Short-term response to small scale simulated mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Faria, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    mediators of biogeochemical processes (Montagna, 1984; Cowan, 1996; Plante, 2003). In the recent years with the increase in construction activities and use of placer deposits as mineral ores, mining in today’s realm has included the sandy beaches... in chlorform methanol mixture. Extractant was dried under vacuum (Bligh et al., 1959). This was followed by oxidation with 0.15% acid dichromate (Parsons et al., 1984). RESULT AND DISCUSSION: Bacterial biomass was estimated in terms of total counts...

  1. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of 1-(4-Phenylphenacyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium N-Ylide with Activated Alkynes and Alkenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Badoiu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The 3 2 cycloaddition reaction of 1-(4-phenylphenacyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium ylide with activated alkynes gave pyrrolo[1,2- 4a][1,10]phenanthrolines 6a-d. The "one pot" synthesis of 6a,b,d from 4, activatedalkenes, Et3N and tetrakis-pyridine cobalt (II dichromate (TPCD is described. Thehelical chirality of pyrrolophenanthrolines 6b-d was put in evidence by NMRspectroscopy.

  2. Results of applications of DISKOT system and of RIA determination of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Milk for progesterone determination was taken from cows picked out for insemination, cows following insemination and cows with reproduction disorders. The samples were taken in test tubes containing potassium dichromate. Progesterone was determined by RIA of skimmed milk and the results were transmitted to the DISKOT system in the data processing centre. The use of the DISKOT system output and the monitoring of progesterone in milk by the RIA laboratory improved reproduction indexes of the herd under study. (E.J.). 2 tabs

  3. Metal Residue Deposition from Military Pyrotechnic Devices and Field Sampling Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official...include boron, carbon, silicon, sulfur, or phosphorous. The oxidizers are salts of chlorates, chromates , dichromates, halocarbons, iodates, nitrates...assessment are barium, lead, and manganese. The highest concentration of any COPC is lead chromate , although the total mass is less than ½ gram per

  4. The Colour Characteristics of Wool Dyed with Plants of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernava, Aina

    2014-01-01

    Dyeing with natural dyes from plant and other organic sources is known since the prehistoric times. In Latvia, natural dyes have been used for the colouring of natural fibres, such as flax, wool, cotton, silk and leather. Plants for the dyeing were collected in autumn in Latvia, used fresh or dried. Mordant ferrous sulphate, copper sulphate pentahydrate, potassium hydroxide, potassium dichromate and acetic acid were used before, during and after dyeing. The quality of dye...

  5. Phase recording for formation of holographic optical elements on silver-halide photographic emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzherli, Nina M.; Gulyaev, Sergey N.; Maurer, Irina A.; Chernykh, Dmitrii F.

    2009-05-01

    Holographic fabrication methods of regular and nonregular relief-phase structures on silver-halide photographic emulsions are considered. Methods of gelatin photodestruction under short-wave ultra-violet radiation and chemical hardening with the help of dichromated solutions were used as a technique for surface relief formation. The developed techniques permitted us to study specimens of holographic diffusers and microlens rasters with small absorption and high light efficiency.

  6. Pattern transition between periodic Liesegang pattern and crystal growth regime in reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzi, István; Ueyama, Daishin

    2009-01-01

    The pattern transition between periodic precipitation pattern formation (Liesegang phenomenon) and pure crystal growth regimes is investigated in silver nitrate and potassium dichromate system in mixed agarose-gelatin gel. Morphologically different patterns were found depending on the quality of the gel, and transition between these typical patterns can be controlled by the concentration of gelatin in mixed gel. Effect of temperature and hydrodynamic force on precipitation pattern structure was also investigated.

  7. Semi-automatic version of the potentiometric titration method for characterization of uranium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Bárbara F G; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, José Wanderley S; de Barros, Pedro D; de Araújo, Radier M S; Dias, Fábio C; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2012-09-01

    The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied in intercomparison programs. The method is applied with traceability assured using a potassium dichromate primary standard. A semi-automatic version was developed to reduce the analysis time and the operator variation. The standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization and compatible with those obtained by manual techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complexation Key to a pH Locked Redox Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Dangat, Yuvraj; Shams, Tahir; Khan, Khaliquz Zaman

    2016-01-01

    An unfavorable pH can block a feasible electron transfer for a pH dependent redox reaction. In this experiment, a series of potentiometric titrations demonstrate the sequential loss in feasibility of iron(II) dichromate redox reaction over a pH range of 0-4. The pH at which this reaction failed to occur was termed as a pH locked reaction. The…

  9. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals; Entwicklung einer thermodynamischen Datenbasis fuer ausgewaehlte Schwermetalle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  10. Site specific health and safety plan, 100-HR-3 pump and treat. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit encompasses groundwater contamination underlying the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminate is chromium VI. The sources of chromium contamination resulted from the use of sodium dichromate during past reactor operations. The purpose of the 100-HR-3 Pump-and-Treat system is to pump contaminated groundwater through aboveground ion exchange resin and then return the treated waster to the aquifer. This plan covers operation, maintenance, repairs, and pump removal/installation

  11. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  12. THE CONSEQUENCES ON BLOOD GSH DYNAMICS ON WISTAR FEMALE RATS AT AD LIBITUM CHROMIUM (VI ADMINISTRATION DURING THE GESTATION AFTER THE WEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI is a widely used industrial chemical, extensively used in paints, metal finishes, steel including stainless steel manufacturing, alloy cast irons, chrome, and wood treatment. In nature chromium occurs in divalent, trivalent and hexavalent forms. Hexavalent chromium predominates over the trivalent form in natural waters. We have studied the influence of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 on blood GSH values in rats. This study was carried out on 28 Wistar adult female rats, divided in 3 experimental groups (E and one control group (C. The rats were feed with 25ppm (LOAEL, 50ppm and 75ppm potassium dichromate, ad libitum, in drinking water, during the gestation. The control batch received tap water. Reduced glutathione (GSH was measured quantitatively after the wean using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer, through Beutler et al. method, at 412nm. This study reports that potassium dichromate exposure induced the depletion of blood GSH because Cr(VI can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS. It can induce oxidative stress and toxicity.

  13. Holographic diffraction gratings as laser radiation protection filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, D.; Pantelic, G.

    2006-01-01

    Holographic volume diffraction gratings are used as attenuation filters, due to their selective spectral transmission. They can be tailored to reflect or transmit narrow spectral ranges by adjusting spatial frequency of Bragg grating in carefully chosen photosensitive materials, like silver-halide emulsion or di-chromated gelatin layers. If properly recorded and chemically processed, resulting gratings can significantly attenuate light at wavelengths corresponding to various laser spectral lines. Thus, they can be used as filters in laser protection goggles. We analyze the characteristics of Bragg gratings necessary to obtain high attenuation coefficients. Also, their angular selectivity is taken into account and corresponding experimental conditions are investigated. Although di-chromated gelatin seems to be almost ideal material, due to its almost 100% diffraction efficiency, environmental stability is poor (degradation under humid environment), thus making its practical usage difficult. Thus, we have analyzed alternative materials like di-chromated pullulan, which is stable under normal environmental conditions (without drop in diffraction efficiency after prolonged exposure to humidity). Pullulan is polymer (polysaccharide) of biologic origin produced by certain bacteria. If doped with chromium ions it becomes photosensitive, enabling recording of diffraction gratings with spatial frequency of more than 3000 lines/mm. Material is chemically processed by mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water. Both thick and thin layers can be produced by gravity settling. Spectral properties of resulting gratings are analyzed, showing that they can significantly attenuate laser light of particular wavelength, depending of grating period and its slant angle. (authors)

  14. Volumetric determination of methanol in ammonium uranil carbonate of nuclear purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzatto, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The method developed allows to determine methanol in ammonium uranil carbonate (AUC) from a concentration of 0.01 % with great accuracy. The ammonium uranil carbonate is dissolved in pre-established volumes of a potassium dichromate and concentrated sulfuric acid standardized solution. Instantaneously, the methanol presents oxidates at formic acid, reducing an equivalent amount of dichromate. The remaining dichromate still present, is reduced by adding in excess a standardized solution of ferrous sulphate. The titration of this excess with a standardized solution of potassium permanganate, using ferrous o- phenanthroline as indicator, will give a net and sensitive final point which allows to obtain by a simple estimate the percentage of methanol in the analyzed sample with great precision. Besides, essays are included which were carried out with the aim of proving and putting into evidence in a practical way that the high volatility of the methanol contained in an ammonium uranil carbonate will be the main disadvantage causing errors in defect. Observations for those requesting these analyses and for analysts performing them are mentioned in order to minimize the error factor abovementioned. (Author) [es

  15. Modified APHA closed-tube reflux colorimetric method for TOC determination in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Simon Olonkwoh; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu

    2018-05-30

    The analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) by the American Public Health Association (APHA) closed-tube reflux colorimetric method requires potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ), silver sulfate (AgSO 4 ), and mercury (HgSO 4 ) sulfate in addition to large volumes of both reagents and samples. The method relies on the release of oxygen from dichromate on heating which is consumed by carbon associated with organic compounds. The method risks environmental pollution by discharging large amounts of chromium (VI) and silver and mercury sulfates. The present method used potassium monochromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) to generate the K 2 Cr 2 O 7 on demand in the first phase. In addition, miniaturizing the procedure to semi microanalysis decreased the consumption of reagents and samples. In the second phase, mercury sulfate was eliminated as part of the digestion mixture through the introduction of sodium bismuthate (NaBiO 3 ) for the removal of chlorides from the sample. The modified method, the potassium monochromate closed-tube colorimetry with sodium bismuthate chloride removal (KMCC-Bi), generates the potassium dichromate on demand and eliminates mercury sulfate. The semi microanalysis procedure leads to a 60% reduction in sample volume and ≈ 33.33 and 60% reduction in monochromate and silver sulfate consumption respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 10.17 and 33.90 mg L -1 for APHA, and 4.95 and 16.95 mg L -1 for KMCC-Bi. Recovery was between 83 to 98% APHA and 92 to 104% KMCC-Bi, while the RSD (%) ranged between 0.8 to 5.0% APHA and 0.00 to 0.62% KMCC-Bi. The method was applied for the UV-Vis spectrometry determination of COD in water and wastewater. Statistics was done by MINITAB 17 or MS Excel 2016. ᅟ Graphical abstract.

  16. Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on survival of Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Falis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential risk of pesticides is an important part of registration procedures in many countries. However, risk assessment of several pesticides used during the growing season has not been carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pesticides (azoxystrobin and glyphosate, heavy metals (cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, zinc disulphate and their combinations on lethality to Artemia franciscana. In total, 1,250 freshly hatched nauplii of A. franciscana were used in the study. They were placed in 125 Petri dishes (10 nauplii in one Petri dish containing 10 ml of azoxystrobin, glyphosate, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate and zinc sulphate separately, or their combinations; the control dish contained only sea water. Each experimental set consisted of 50 nauplii which were divided into five replicates of 10 nauplii per replicate. Live A. franciscana were counted after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and the numbers were compared with the control group. A significant (P after exposure to azoxystrobin in combination with glyphosate after 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure, in combination with glyphosate and potassium dichromate after 48 h of exposure, and in combination with glyphosate and zinc disulphate after 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. The results of this study provide information about the combined toxicity of pesticides used during the growing season and some heavy metals as major pollutants of the rural environment. A study of this kind has not been conducted yet. Further research for investigation of the combined toxicity of pollutants and pesticides is required.

  17. Evaluation of charge storage ability of chrome doped Mn2O3 nanostructures derived by cathodic electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Darjazi; Saied Saeed Hosseiny Davarani; Hamid Reza Moazami; Taher Yousefi; Farideh Tabatabaei

    2016-01-01

    A facile synthetic route has been proposed to prepare cauliflower-like nanostructures of Cr doped Mn2O3. The synthesis was carried out by constant current cathodic electrodeposition from Mn2+ nitrate solutions containing minor amounts of dichromate. It was found that the presence of Cr mediates the formation of cathodic MnO2 which then reacts with the excess Mn2+ species to form Mn2O3 nanostructures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Thermal Analysis...

  18. Mass attenuation coefficient of chromium and manganese compounds around absorption edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanabasappa; Kaginelli, S B; Kerur, B R; Anilkumar, S; Hanumaiah, B

    2009-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficient for Potassium dichromate, Potassium chromate and Manganese acetate compounds are measured at different photon energies 5.895, 6.404, 6.490, 7.058, 8.041 and 14.390 keV using Fe-55, Co-57 and 241Am source with Copper target, radioactive sources. The photon intensity is analyzed using a high resolution HPGe detector system coupled to MCA under good geometrical arrangement. The obtained values of mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with theoretical values. This study suggests that measured mass attenuation coefficient values at and near absorption edges differ from the theoretical value by about 5-28%.

  19. Model of the contribution of the compton generated radiation to the dose rate for an experiment in a semi industrial irradiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    The model of the build up contribution to the absorbed dose rate in a semi industrial irradiation plant is presented. A static irradiation of a lucite phantom with and without water is modeled. The absorbed dose was measured with silver and potassium dichromate dosemeters. Two approximations are used, the first one is a global adjustment of the attenuation coefficient and the second one consists in a detailed description of the Compton scattering. A specific numerical model is developed for each approximation and the absorbed dose rates calculated are compared with the experimental measurements. The achievements and limitations of both models are discussed. (author) [es

  20. Gamma irradiator dose mapping simulation using the MCNP code and benchmarking with dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabpour, M.; Hassanzadeh, M.; Shahriari, M.; Sharifzadeh, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Monte Carlo transport code, MCNP, has been applied in simulating dose rate distribution in the IR-136 gamma irradiator system. Isodose curves, cumulative dose values, and system design data such as throughputs, over-dose-ratios, and efficiencies have been simulated as functions of product density. Simulated isodose curves, and cumulative dose values were compared with dosimetry values obtained using polymethyle-methacrylate, Fricke, ethanol-chlorobenzene, and potassium dichromate dosimeters. The produced system design data were also found to agree quite favorably with those of the system manufacturer's data. MCNP has thus been found to be an effective transport code for handling of various dose mapping excercises for gamma irradiators

  1. Titrimetric determination of uranium in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobkowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The titrimetric method involving the reduction of U(VI) to uranium(IV) by iron(II) in phosphoric acid, selective oxidation of the excess of iron(II) and potentiometric titration with dichromate was directly used for the determination of uranium in tributyl phosphate mixtures. The procedure was applied to solutions containing more than 2 mg of uranium in the sample but the highest precision and accuracy were obtained in the range from 20 to 200 mg of uranium. Dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate as well as the other radiolysis products of TBP had no influence on the results of determinations. (author)

  2. Method of semi-automatic high precision potentiometric titration for characterization of uranium compounds; Metodo de titulacao potenciometrica de alta precisao semi-automatizado para a caracterizacao de compostos de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G.; Dias, Fabio C.; Barros, Pedro D. de; Araujo, Radier Mario S. de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da, E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: pedrodio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: radier@ird.gov.b, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.b, E-mail: wanderley@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    The method of high precision potentiometric titration is widely used in the certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis and diminish the influence if the annalist, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed at the safeguards laboratory of the CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The method was applied with traceability guaranteed by use of primary standard of potassium dichromate. The standard uncertainty combined in the determination of concentration of total uranium was of the order of 0.01%, which is better related to traditionally methods used by the nuclear installations which is of the order of 0.1%

  3. Flexible design of band gaps in the biopolymer photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić-Šević, S

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional photonic crystals (PC) are fabricated in dichromate-sensitized biopolymer as volume holograms. The flexibility of the PC band gap (BG) parameters was investigated. The spectral position of a BG can be varied by changing the exposure for two concentrations of sensitizer during the fabrication process. The spectral measurements show that the BG centre shifts towards longer wavelengths with decreasing exposure and concentration of the sensitizer. A tuning of the position of the BG for about 120 nm was obtained.

  4. Liesegang bands versus random crystallites in Ag2Cr2O7 - Single and mixed gelled media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Huria; El-Rassy, Houssam; Sultan, Rabih

    2018-02-01

    Liesegang patterns of silver dichromate (Ag2Cr2O7) are studied in two different gel media: agar and gelatin, based on the work of Lagzi and Ueyama (2009). Whereas in gelatin, standard Liesegang bands are obtained as a result of the interdiffusion of Ag+ and Cr2 O72-, random crystallites with dendritic ramifications are observed in agar. We revisit this phenomenon and demonstrate the proposed mechanism, wherein dense heterogeneous nucleation in gelatin leads to Liesegang bands, as opposed to surface nucleation in agar yielding crystallites. We use viscosity, pH measurements, and notably scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in this endeavor.

  5. Micronuclei induced by municipal landfill leachate in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangke; Sang Nan; Zhao Youcai

    2004-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of mouse bone marrow by municipal landfill leachate was studied in vivo. Results showed that mouse exposure via drinking water containing various concentrations of leachate caused a significant increase of MN frequencies in a concentration (Chemical oxygen demand measured with potassium dichromate oxidation, COD Cr )-dependent manner. MN induction in female and male mice was different at higher concentrations. This implies that leachate is a genotoxic agent in mammalian cells and that exposure to leachate in an aquatic environment may pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings

  6. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, B F G; Delgado, J U; da Silva, J W S; de Barros, P D; de Araújo, R M S; Lopes, R T

    2012-07-01

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accurate and precise determination of 2-25mg amounts of uranium by means of a special automatic potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, J.; Bakker, F.; Groen, A.J.P.; Lingerak, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    A precise and accurate potentiometric titration of 2-25 mg of uranium is described. The uranium is reduced to U(IV) according to the method of Eberle et al. [3], and titrated with 0.05 N potassium dichromate, using a platinum indicator electrode. During the sample preparation the walls of the titration vessel are cleaned by centrifugation. To avoid overshoot of the set point a special differentiator is described, that interrupts the titration until equilibrium is reached. The precision of the method is 0.02%, the accuracy is better than 0.04% rel. Each titration takes 5 min. (orig.) [de

  8. Patch testing with Indian standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  9. Influence of oxidation state on the absorption of plutonium from the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Ryan, J.L.; Gorham, L.S.; McFadden, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Rats and guinea pigs treated intragastrically with either IV- or VI-valent 238 Pu showed no appreciable difference in absorption. Nitric acid solutions of 239 Pu (pH 2) were also administered to fasted and fed rats. When an oxidant (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) was present in the solution gavaged to fasted rats, absorption increased 34-fold. However, when 239 Pu VI was administered to fed rats in the absence of dichromate, there was no appreciable difference between the absorption of 239 Pu VI and 239 Pu IV

  10. Evaluation of chromite ore and the optimum methods for industrial extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Bakheit Mustafa Mohamed

    1999-10-01

    Samples of chromite ore, collected from Gam and Cheikay mining area (Ingaessana Hills) in east Sudan, were analysed to assess the chromium content. Analysis were carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to estimate the contents of chromium, iron, calcium and magnesium. X-ray florescence (XRF) was used to evaluate the levels of chromium, iron and calcium in the ore. Volumetric analysis was performed to assess chromium and iron, whilest gravimetric analysis was employed to measure the amounts of calcium, magnesium, aluminum and silicon present in the ore. The results are in a good agreement except iron oxide, which displayed a significantly different value when measured by x-ray fluorescence. The data obtained exhibited similarity in almost all cases, when compared with local and global researches, reports and literature. The study has revealed the average contents of Cr 2 O 3 , FeO, CaO, MgO, Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 as 40.66, 11.96, 11.94, 0.36, 16.94, 11.45% respectively. MnO and NiO were detected in trace amounts, the corresponding levels in the ore being 72 and 27 ppm. The average chromium content in extracted potassium dichromate measured by using AAS, XRF, and volumetric methods was found to be 31.7%. The highest grade reached by individual technique being 33.10%. The extraction with sodium peroxide is the optimum method for preparation of potassium dichromate. X-ray diffraction analysis, has showed that the d spaces and intensities of prepared potassium dichromate are isostructural with the corresponding ones of standard potassium dichromate. This suggests that the composition of the two samples is identical. Chromite samples were analysed using gamma ray spectroscopy in order to estimate the levels of radioactive elements present. It was found that the concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K range from 7.62 to 10.98 Bq/kg and 47.38 to 56.28 Bq/kg respectively

  11. [DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSISINFECTION IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez T , Oscar; Alvarez Ch , Rubén; Gonzales S , Napoleón; Neme D , Gonzalo A.; Romero C , Raúl; Valencia R , Silvia; Gomez A, Valente; Martinez B, Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    The study was made to determine the clinical profile and laboratory of 10 paediatric patients whose diagnosis of cyclosporiosis was established by identifying the parasite in fecal matter, through a smear with modified Zehl-Nielsen and incubation in dichromate of potassium. We obtained clinical data form these patients correlating them with absorption tests (digestive activity, sugar reducers and fats in feces.)After treatment with trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole and nitazoxanide patients were controlled by laboratory exams to determine the existence of the parasite and its viability.

  12. Structure and function of the liver in conditions of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection of rats after applying of sorbex

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Burmas; L. S. Fira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the activity of marker enzymes of the liver and its biliary formation function in conditions of the affection of animals by hexavalent chromium compounds, isoniazid and rifampicin, after applying of sorbex. The experimental affection of rats of different age was carried in the conditions of combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg), isoniazid (0.05 g/kg) and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg) during the 7th and 1...

  13. Method of semi-automatic high precision potentiometric titration for characterization of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G.; Dias, Fabio C.; Barros, Pedro D. de; Araujo, Radier Mario S. de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The method of high precision potentiometric titration is widely used in the certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis and diminish the influence if the annalist, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed at the safeguards laboratory of the CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The method was applied with traceability guaranteed by use of primary standard of potassium dichromate. The standard uncertainty combined in the determination of concentration of total uranium was of the order of 0.01%, which is better related to traditionally methods used by the nuclear installations which is of the order of 0.1%

  14. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  15. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of In{sub 2.77}S{sub 4} nanosheets with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiang-feng; Li, Hui; Sun, Yang; Wang, Yi-jin; Zhang, Chen-xu; Gong, Xiao-dong; Wang, Yu-duan; Liu, Yu; Yang, Xin-yue [Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Traffic Engineering Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang (China)

    2017-06-15

    In{sub 2.77}S{sub 4} nanosheets with the band gap energy of 1.75 eV were fast prepared via a hydrothermal process. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. Rhodamine B, methyl orange and potassium dichromate solution were used to evaluate the degradation efficiency of the as-prepared samples under the visible light, respectively. Experimental results showed that the molar ratio of thioacetamide to indium nitrate hydrate significantly influenced the structure and properties of the as-prepared products. With increasing the molar ratio, the degradation efficiency of rhodamine B solution was firstly increased and then decreased. When the molar ratio was 4:1, the degradation efficiency of the as-prepared sample reached to 96% in 3 min and 100% in 9 min. Moreover, this semiconductor could degrade 88% of methyl orange solution in 30 min and 87% of potassium dichromate solution in 60 min, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Polyaniline: Aniline oxidation with strong and weak oxidants under various acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bláha, Michal, E-mail: blaha@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Jan [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    Aniline was oxidized with three strong inorganic oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate, cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium dichromate), two weak inorganic oxidants (iron(III) chloride, silver nitrate), and one organic oxidant (p-benzoquinone) in aqueous solutions of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) of various concentration. Whereas oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate yielded high-molecular-weight conducting polyaniline (PANI) in the whole acidity range, the oxidation with cerium(IV) sulfate led also to a single product close to PANI with considerably lower molecular weight and lower conductivity. Potassium dichromate gave PANI only at high concentration of MSA. The use of iron(III) chloride yielded composite mixtures of PANI and low-molecular-weight aniline oligomers. The oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate led to composites of silver and an organic part, which was constituted either by aniline oligomers or conducting polyaniline or both. p-Benzoquinone as oxidant produced mainly aniline oligomers with poor conductivity and 2,5-dianilino-p-benzoquinone-like structure detected in FTIR and Raman spectra when oxidation proceeded with weak oxidants. A general model of oxidation with strong and weak oxidants was formulated. - Highlights: • Comparison of aniline oxidation with oxidants of different redox potential. • UV–vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies combined with size-exclusion chromatography. • The contents of polymer and oligomers were analyzed and discussed. • General model of aniline oxidation with strong and weak oxidants was formulated.

  17. Investigations into co-transport phenomena in PUREX relevant solutions by use of an analytical ultracentrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, R.; Marx, G.

    1991-01-01

    The diffusion of the elements uranium, neodymium, chromium, iron, ruthenium was studied in aqueous and aqueous nitric acid solutions. The diffusion of these elements was measured not only under a concentration gradient but also with respect to simultanious nitric and diffusion. Measurements with schlierenoptics and with uv/vis.-optic were carried out at the same time. Besides the diffusion of metal nitrates and potassium dichromate also nitric acid diffusion was investigated. Also in this case apparent diffusion coefficients were determined under concentration gradients and under the influence of superposing element gradients. The diffusion of the elements uranium, neodymium, ruthenium, neptunium and plutonium was also determined in organic systems. At first the transport of the elements was measured under an element gradient, in presence of various amounts of water and nitric acid. These experiments were followed by those on simultanious diffusion of water of nitric acid and elements in TBP/dodecane mixture. Furthermore TBP/dodecane solutions were oxidized with potassium dichromate. This oxidation was measured using a gaschromatograph. From the obtained results the formation rate for the oxidation products could be calculated which proved that higher nitric acid concentrations increased the rate. (orig.) With 16 refs., 100 tabs., 120 figs [de

  18. Analytical applications of condensed phosphoric acid-I Determination of ferrous and total iron in iron ores after decomposition with condensed phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, T; Ishii, H

    1978-06-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of ferrous and total iron in iron ores. Iron ores are dissolved by condensed phosphoric acid (CPA) very rapidly without any tedious and time-consuming manipulations such as elimination of silica and filtration. Under the proposed conditions (amount of sample 100 mg, amount of CPA added 10 g, heating temperature 290 degrees , heating time 30 min), magnetite, limonite and hematite are completely dissolved. The iron content can be determined in the presence of condensed phosphoric acid by titration with dichromate solution, if a slight modification is made. The total iron in iron ores, determined by the present method, is in agreement with that found by the JIS method. The ferrous iron in iron ores can be determined by dissolving the samples with CPA in a nitrogen atmosphere and titrating with dichromate solution. Chelatometric titration of iron after solvent extraction with MIBK from solutions prepared by use of CPA is found to be accurate for samples such as pyrite cinder. The ability of CPA to dissolve various materials has been investigated.

  19. Production of basic chromium sulfate by using recovered chromium from ashes of thermally treated leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Aline; Nunes, Keila Guerra Pacheco; Gutterres, Mariliz; Marcílio, Nilson Romeu

    2010-04-15

    Leather wastes tanned with chromium are generated during the production process of leather, hence the wastes from hand crafted goods and footwear industries are a serious environmental problem. The thermal treatment of leather wastes can be one of the treatment options because the wastes are rich in chromium and can be used as a raw material for sodium chromate production and further to obtain several chromium compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize the chromium from leather wastes via basic chromium sulfate production to be subsequently applied in a hide tanning. The obtained results have shown that this is the first successful attempt to achieve desired base properties of the product. The result was achieved when the following conditions were applied: a molar ratio between sodium sulfite and sodium dichromate equal to 6; reaction time equal to 5 min before addition of sulfuric acid; pH of sodium dichromate solution equal to 2. Summarizing, there is an opportunity to utilize the dangerous wastes and reused them in the production scheme by minimizing or annulling the environmental impact and to attend a sustainable process development concept. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Proper Particle Size Range for Resistance to Chemical Oxidation: A Perspective on the Recalcitrance of Beanpod Biochar for Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua GUO; Dongyun ZHANG

    2017-01-01

    The effect of particle size on the recalcitrance of biochar against oxidation has been regarded as one of the most important factors influencing its stability and transportation in soils. Little is known about the peculiar stability of different particle sizes under chemical oxidation conditions. In this study, several sizes of biochar particles derived from beanpod were produced,and their stabilities were tested by using acid dichromate and hydrogen peroxide. We discovered that the 60-100 mesh size of particles produced at 400 and 500 ℃ showed the least carbon loss under the oxidation of both dichromate and hydrogen peroxide.In addition, this particle size also shows great stability at 600 and 700 ℃, but this stability was not observed below 300 °C for all temperature-dependent biochars. Medium-sized particles composed of exclusively heterogeneous components produced a biochar at temperatures over 400 ℃ with comparatively stronger chemical anti-oxidation characteristics. The chemical recalcitrance of biochar should be reevaluated based on particle size before soil application.

  1. Clinico-allergological pattern of allergic contact dermatitis among 70 Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization, westernization of lifestyles, poor quality of objects available and extremely relaxed vigilance on adherence to ′product safety guidelines′ make any developing country like India highly susceptible to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD even in children. There has been no previous attempts to assess the magnitude of childhood ACD in India. Aims: To assess the clinico-allergological profile of ACD in Indian children. Methods: All consecutive children up to 15 completed years of age who were patch tested over the last 3 years were analyzed from the records. Results: A total of 70 children were studied (average age of disease onset 8.39±3.59 years [SD], range 1-15 years and average age of presentation 10.8 ± 2.99 years [SD], range 5-15 years. Relevant allergy was noted in 48.6% of the patients. Age and sex had no significant role on the prevalence of ACD. Common allergens were paraben (43%, potassium dichromate (27% and fragrance mix (26%. Most relevant allergens were potassium dichromate, paraben and fragrance. Foot was the most commonly involved site (25.7% of patients. Atopy was present in 18 patients (25.7%. A total of 22 irritant reactions were noted in 13 patients. Conclusion: This study reflects the current status of childhood ACD of this region.

  2. Standard Methods of Analysis of Sulfochromate Etch Solution Used in Surface Preparation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2012-01-01

    1.1 These methods offer a means for controlling the effectiveness of the etchant which is normally used for preparing the surface of aluminum alloys for subsequent adhesive bonding. As the etchant reacts with the aluminum, hexavalent chromium is converted to trivalent chromium; a measure of the two and the difference can be used to determine the amount of dichromate used. 1.2 The sulfochromate solution can be replenished by restoring the sodium dichromate and the sulfuric acid to the original formulation levels. The lower limit of usefulness will vary depending upon solution storage, adhesives used, critical nature of bond capability, variety of metals processed, etc. and should be determined. Replenishment will be limited to the number of times the chemical ingredients can be restored and maintained to the required levels and should be determined by the user. Sludge collecting in the bottom of a tank should be minimized by periodic removal of sludge. For some applications, the hexavalent chromium should not ...

  3. Contact Dermatitis Due to Plants in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vinod Sharma

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and seven patients (151 males and 56 females were patch tested with a battery of plants, potassium dichromate and formaldehyde. Sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus. Nerium indicum, Calotropis procera, Eucalyptus sp and Mangifera indica was found in 60.87, 23.64, 15.46 andl2.08% patients respectively. One hundred and twenty six patients (92 males and 34 females including five teenage girls and one 13 years old child had parthenium dermatitis. Majority (74.60% were between 30 to 59 years of age. Dermatitis involving face especially eyelids, neck, cubital and popliteal fossae was the common (82.54% mode of presentation. Photosensitive pattern was seen in 9.51% and chronic lichenification of extremities in the remaining 7.97% patients Parthenium dermatitis was seen more frequently in city dwellers, while farmers constituted only 20.7% of all cases. There was frequent patch test positivity to potassium dichromate (24.i5% and formaline (28.02% in the present patients.

  4. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers: results from a multicentre study from the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K; Funding, Anne T; Avnstorp, Christian; Østerballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Sommerlund, Mette; Danielsen, Anne; Andersen, Bo L; Thormann, Jens; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. A retrospective analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. Contact allergy is a major problem among blue-collar workers. The data indicate a healthy worker effect among blue-collar workers diagnosed with dermatitis, as blue-collar workers were diagnosed significantly less often with atopic dermatitis than were controls. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinical profile and quality of life of patients with occupational contact dermatitis from New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod K; Ramam, M; Sethuraman, Gomathy; Yadav, Chander P

    2015-09-01

    Data regarding occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and its effect on quality of life (QOL) in India are limited. To evaluate patients with OCD and record the outcome of treatment. All patients with OCD were evaluated for severity of disease (by the use of physician global assessment) and its effect on QOL (by use of the Dermatology Life Quality Index) questionnaire) at the first visit and after 3 months of treatment. Among 117 patients with OCD, hand eczema was present in 81.2%. Positive patch test reactions were found in 76%. The most common allergens were Parthenium hysterophorus and potassium dichromate. The most frequent diagnosis was occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) (57%), caused by farming and construction work, followed by occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) (24%), caused by wet work. Severe psychosocial distress was recorded in 62.5% of patients. After 3 months of treatment, 83% improved significantly, and 54% had improvement in QOL. Farmers were most frequently affected, followed by construction workers and housewives. OACD was found at a higher frequency than OICD. The most frequent allergens were Parthenium hysterophorus in farmers, potassium dichromate in construction workers, and vegetables in housewives. OCD has a significant impact on QOL. Patch testing, in addition to standard treatment, improves the outcome considerably. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Depassivation and repassivation of austenitic stainless steels. Consequences on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, M.; Desjardins, D.; Puiggali, M.; Petit, M.C.

    1983-06-01

    The influence of strain rate and solution temperature on depassivation and repassivation processes, and the consequences on stress corrosion cracking phenomenon are presented. The tests are performed in concentrated magnesium chloride solutions at various boiling temperatures (160 0 C, 153 0 C, 140 0 C, 130 0 C, 125 0 C, 110 0 C, 102 0 C) to which potassium dichromate is added in some cases. The depassivation and repassivation of the tested wires are analysed in term of current-time curves at fixed potential. The wire is placed into a ''corrosion cell'' with the boiling chloride solution on a tensile testing machine. Tests at 153 0 C on 304L and 309L stainless steels show that competition between passivation and depassivation depends on applied strain rate: at low strain rates rupture is mainly due to mechanical stress, at high strain rates the wire shows track of corrosion and the rupture is ductile. Between the two, stress corrosion cracking presents a maximum and in this case the rupture is mainly brittle. Influence of temperature shows the existence of a transitional temperature 130 0 C for a 304L. The cracking velocity is 100 times higher above 130 0 C than below and the cracking mode is transgranular and mainly intergranular below 130 0 C. Addition of potassium dichromate modifies both electrochemical and mechanical properties; it is more difficult to obtain a frank depassivation and the repassivation rate is higher

  7. APLIKASI PENGOLAHAN POLUTAN ANION KHROM(VI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN AGEN PENUKAR ION HYDROTALCIT ZN-AI-SO4 (Synthesis of and its Application to Treat Chrom(VI Pollutant Using Hydrotalcite Zn-Al_SO4 as Anion Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roto Roto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Keberadaan logam khrom di dalam sistem perairan bersifat polutan yang harus ditangani dengan baik, dan untuk khrom (Vl yang sering dijumpai dalam bentuk anion dapat diolah dengan menggunakan mekanisme pertukaran ion. Suatu agen penukar anion telah dibuat berupa senyawa hidrotalsit Zn-Al-SOa melalui proses sintesis, karakterisasi serta dilakukan pula pengujian aplikasinya untuk pengurangan polutant anion khrom (VI dalam bentuk ion dikromat. Sintesis hidrotalsit Zn-Al-SOa dilakukan dengan metode stoikiometri pada pH 8 dan perlakuan hidrotermal. Aplikasi pertukaran dikromat dengan anion sulfat dalam antar lapis hidrotalsit serta uji regenerasi bahan diamati dengan bantuan analisis struktur dan analisis kinetika reaksi pertukaran. Produk pertukaran ion dikarakterisasi dengan XRD, spektrofotometri IR dan spektrometri serapan atom. Rumus kimia hidrotalsit produk diketahui adalah Zn0,74Al0,26(OH1,74(SO40,13.0,52H2O. Anion dikromat dapat menukar sulfat dalam antarlapis hidrotalsit yang ditunjukkan dalam spektra IR dan pola XRD. Kapasitas pertukaran anion untuk dikromat diketahui 216,84 mek/100 g, sedangkan kinetika reaksi pertukaran ion mengikuti orde dua dengan k = 3 x 10-8 ppm-1.detik-1. Hasil menunjukkan Zn-Al-Cr2O7 dapat mudah diregenerasi.    ABSTRACT  Chrom as pollutant in aquatics system usually establishes as crom (VI and should be worked with special treatment and as an example is ion exchanger. Material Zn-Al-SO4 hydrotalcite product have been synthesized and its application as anion exchanger for dichromate have been studied. Synthesis of Zn-Al-SO4 hydrotalcite was carried out by stoichiometric method at pH 8 and hydrothermal treatment. Sulphate in hydrotalcite interlayer was exchanged by dichromate. Kinetics of ion exchange was also investigated. The product of ion exchange was characterized by XRD, IR spectrophotometry and atomic adsorption  spectrometry. The chemical formula of the  hydrotalcite is Zn0.74Al0.26(OH1.74(SO4 0

  8. Plutonium estimation in the process solutions and oxide dissolved audit samplers by potentiometry using memo titrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraguru, K.; Shukla, Y.D.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Potentiometric method is employed by using memotitrator coupled with combined electrode for the estimation of plutonium. The estimations are carried out on the process samples and the acid dissolved samples for auditing, in the concentration range of 5 g/l to 20 g/l. The chemical procedure is: i)oxidising plutonium to higher oxidation state by silver oxide, ii)reducing the same by adding excess ferrous, and iii)titrating potassium dichromate against the unreacted ferrous. The plutonium content is computed from ferrous consumed in the reaction. The average percentage error of the method is +/-0.27. The values obtained are in close agreement with those obtained by coulometry. (author)

  9. Development of treatment method for stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic substances and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the study into the laws that govern the process of treating by oxidation the stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic compounds and transuranium elements with the use of hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and subsequent ultra-filtration. The optimum oxidisation regime has been defined on the basis of this study to ensure that the initial dichromate oxidability of LRW's stillage residues decreases from 6,000-9,500 to 500-1,000 mg O/I, whereas the TUE activity associated with the key isotopes is reduced by 74-87 % for 238,239,240 Pu, by 94-95 % for 241 Am, and by 90-95 % for 244 Cm. The concentration of uranium decreases by 94-99 %. It is proposed to implement this method at the Chernobyl NPP site.

  10. Changes in the pattern of sensitization to common contact allergens in denmark between 1985-86 and 1997-98, with a special view to the effect of preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J d; Menné, T; Christophersen, J

    2000-01-01

    sensitization during that period, and particular areas of concern are identified. Members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group collected patch-test results from consecutive eczema patients as well as information about exposures and demographic variables over a 6-month period in 1985-86. The investigation......The objective of the present study is to describe any changes in the prevalence of sensitization to common contact allergens in patch-tested patients over a 12-year period. Attention is given to possible effects of preventive strategies introduced in Denmark regarding nickel and chromate...... was repeated in 1997-98 in the same clinics, at the same time of year, using identical methods and patch-test substances, including nickel sulphate 5%, potassium dichromate 0.5% and fragrance mix 8%. Nickel was the most common contact allergen in both study periods, followed by the fragrance mix. In children 0...

  11. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant...... was threefold. (1) To evaluate the correlation between HD-OCT features and clinical scores of allergic and irritant patch test reactions. (2) To explore the potential of HD-OCT in optimizing the visual patch test scoring. (3) To assess in vivo the cytological and 3-D micro-architectural differences in skin...... reaction types between doubtful positive ACD and ICD. Twenty-two volunteers were patch tested using potassium(VI)dichromate, cobalt(II)chloride, nickel(II) sulfate and palladium(II)chloride. Visual patch test scoring and HD-OCT assisted patch test scoring were performed at 48 and 96 h after patch test...

  12. Analytical procedure for the titrimetric determination of uranium in concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florence, T.M.; Pakalns, P.

    1989-01-01

    In 1964 Davis and gray published a titrimetric method for uranium which does not require column reductors, electronic instruments or inert atmospheres, and is sufficiently selective to enable uranium to be determined without prior separation. The method involves reduction of uranium (VI) to (IV) by ferrous sulphate in concentrated phosphoric acid medium. The excess ion (II) is then selectively oxidised by nitric acid using molybdenum catalyst. After addition of sulphuric acid and dilution with water, the uranium (IV) is titrated with standard potassium dichromate, using barium diphenylamine sulphonate indicator. This method has been found to be simple, precise and reliable, and applicable to a wide range of uranium-containing materials. The method given here for determining uranium in concentrates is essentially that of Davies and Gray. Its applications, apparatus, reagents, procedures and accuracy and precision are discussed. 10 refs

  13. Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. fruit peel oil on mutagenicity of two alkylating agents and two metals in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Kocaoğlu, Serap; Cetin, Huseyin; Kaya, Bülent

    2009-07-01

    Antigenotoxic effects of Citrus aurentium L. (Rutaceae) fruit peel oil (CPO) in combination with mutagenic metals and alkylating agents were studied using the wing spot test of D. melanogaster. The four reference mutagens, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) were clearly genotoxic. CPO alone at doses from 0.1 to 0.5% in Tween 80 was not mutagenic and did not enhance the mutagenic effect of the reference mutagens. However, antigenotoxic effects of CPO were clearly demonstrated in chronic cotreatments with mutagens and oil, by a significant decrease in wing spots induced by all four mutagens. The D. melanogaster wing spot test was found to be a suitable assay for detecting antigenotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. A set of dosimetry systems for electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Lin Jingwen; Chen Yundong; Li Huazhi; Xiao Zhenhong; Gao Juncheng

    1999-01-01

    To follow the rapid development of radiation processing with electron beams, it is urgent to set up a set of dosimetric standards to provide Quality Assurance (QA) of electron beam irradiation and unify the values of the quality of the absorbed dose measurements for electron beams. This report introduces a set of dosimetry systems established in Radiometrology Center of China Institute of Atomic Energy (RCCIAE), which have been or will be used as dosimetric standards in the Nuclear Industry System (NIS) in China. For instance, the potassium (silver) dichromate and ceric-cerous sulfate dosimetry systems will be used as standard dosimeters, while alanine-ESR dosimetry system as a transfer dosimeter, and FJL-01 CTA as a routine dosimeter. (author)

  15. The Determination of Uranium and Trace Metal Impurities in Yellow Cake Sample by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    1999-01-01

    The purity of uranium cake is very critical in nuclear-grade uranium (UO 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production. The major element in yellow cake is uranium and trace metal impurities. The objective of this study is to determine uranium and 25 trace metal impurities; Aluminum, Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Potassium, Iithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Niobium, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Tin, Strontium, Titanium, Vanadium, Zinc and Zirconium, Uranium is determined by Potassium dichromate titration, after solvent extraction with Cupferon in Chloroform, Trace metal impurities are determined by solvent extraction with Tributyl Phosphate in Carbon-tetrachloride ( for first 23 elements) and N-Benzoyl-N-Phenylhydroxylamine in Chloroform ( for last 2 elements), then analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) compared with Inductively Couple Plasma Spectrophotometers (ICP). The accuracy and precision are studied with standard uranium octaoxide

  16. A heterogeneous Pd-Bi/C catalyst in the synthesis of L-lyxose and L-ribose from naturally occurring D-sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ao; Jaenicke, Stephan; Chuah, Gaik-Khuan

    2011-10-26

    A critical step in the synthesis of the rare sugars, L-lyxose and L-ribose, from the corresponding D-sugars is the oxidation to the lactone. Instead of conventional oxidizing agents like bromine or pyridinium dichromate, it was found that a heterogeneous catalyst, Pd-Bi/C, could be used for the direct oxidation with molecular oxygen. The composition of the catalyst was optimized and the best results were obtained with 5 : 1 atomic ratio of Pd : Bi. The overall yields of the five-step procedure to L-ribose and L-lyxose were 47% and 50%, respectively. The synthetic procedure is advantageous from the viewpoint of overall yield, reduced number of steps, and mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, the heterogeneous oxidation catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and reused with no loss of activity.

  17. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug...... dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...

  18. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug...... dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed...

  19. Contributions to the analysis of nuclear raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkisch, J.; Abascal, F.; Hernandez, A.; Araico, E.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure to determine mg amounts of uranium in sodium diuranate samples was described. In this method the sample is dissolved in mineral acids and the uranium then determined titrimetrically after its reduction by means of ferrous sulfate in phosphoric acid solution. The titration was performed with standard potassium dichromate solution in the presence of barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicator. This titration procedure is also very suitable for determination of uranium after its separation by means of anion exchange in a mixed aqueous-organic solvent system of 50 vol % tetrahydrofuran, 40 vol % methylglycol and 10 vol % 6 M hydrochloric acid. The method was used to determine the uranium in numerous yellow-cake samples from Mexico, uranium contents between 57 % and 71 % U 3 O 8 were found. (author)

  20. Determination of uranium by an amperometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Mary; Venkataramana, P.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An amperometric method has been standardised for the determination of uranium. Uranium is reduced to its quadrivalent state in concentrated phosphoric acid medium with ferrous iron. The excess iron is destroyed with nitric acid in presence of Mo(VI). The medium is diluted and U(IV) is titrated with standard potassium dichromate to an amperometric end point using a pair of identical plantinum wires as electrodes. The reagent volumes and uranium quantities have been scaled down to 30 ml. and 2-5 mg of uranium in the present work with a view to minimising the problems associated with recovery of plutonium. The results are quantitative with an R.S.D. of 0.2% in the present version of weight based titrations. (author)

  1. New titrimetric method for oxygen to metal ratio in uranium oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Vinod Kumar; Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    O/U ratio is of high importance to both U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powders for different reasons. In UO 2 powder it is a guiding parameter for sintering process where as for U 3 O 8 , it indicates efficiency of ammonium di-uranate (ADU) to U 3 O 8 conversion process. In the present method for O/U determination, UO 2 and U 3 O 8 powders are dissolved in 4.5 M sulphuric acid and little HF by heating on hot plate. Subsequently, optimized quantity of phosphoric acid is added on cooling, for getting sharp end point. The resultant solution is titrated with standard potassium dichromate using barium diphenylamine sulphonate (BDS) as an indicator. The expanded uncertainties calculated for UO 2 and U 3 O 8 powders are ±0.004 and ±0.006 O/U ratio units respectively at 95 % confidence level. (author)

  2. Association between cobalt allergy and dermatitis caused by leather articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen. Recent studies have recognized exposure to leather articles as a potential cause of cobalt allergy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between contact allergy to cobalt and a history of dermatitis resulting from...... exposure to leather. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study was performed: the case group consisted of 183 dermatitis patients with a positive patch test reaction to cobalt chloride and a negative patch test reaction to potassium dichromate; the control group consisted of 621 dermatitis patients who...... did not react to either cobalt or chromium in patch testing. Comparisons were made by use of a χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact, and the Mann-Whitney test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations while taking confounding factors into consideration. RESULTS: Leather was observed...

  3. Characteristics of chromium-allergic dermatitis patients prior to regulatory intervention for chromium in leather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium-tanned leather articles currently constitute the most important cause of contact allergy to chromium in Denmark. A regulation on the content of hexavalent chromium in leather was adopted in November 2013 by the EU member states. OBJECTIVES: To characterize patients...... with chromium allergy and their disease, to serve as a baseline for future studies on the potential effect of the new regulation on chromium in leather. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study was performed on 155 dermatitis patients with positive patch test reactions to potassium dichromate and a matched...... control group of 621 dermatitis patients. Comparisons were made by use of a χ(2) -test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: Sixty-six per cent of chromium-allergic patients had a positive history of contact dermatitis caused by leather...

  4. Quantitative method study on easily oxidized part of biochar during its degradation%生物质炭降解过程中易氧化部分的定量方法∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旻; 王英惠; 胡林潮; 史明; 刘玮晶; 高晓荔; 唐伟; 郭悦; 代静玉

    2013-01-01

    The determination of organic soil matter, in which potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate is used as oxidant, was employed to quantify the easily oxidized part of biochar during its degradation. The results showed that antioxidant activity of biochar was uneven. It might be due to the generation of small molecules via pyrolysis during preparation of biochar or the easily oxidized part in the degradation of biochar. Potassium dichromate was further used to determine the oxidation condition, and oxidized biochar was incubated in different ways. The oxidation results of original biochar and degraded biochar displayed the occurrence of easily oxidized part during degradation. It was found that the degree of degradation of natural biochar was relatively high, and active organics could indicate the degradation of biochar. Thus, the oxidization with potassium dichromate could be used to quantify the easily oxidized part of biochar. It is suggested that the easily oxidized part could be formed during the degradation of biochar, and natural degradation could produce oxidized part more easily than laboratory incubation; Quantitative detection of easily oxidized part by potassium dichromate can be used to determine the degree of degradation of biochar. It should be noted that oxidization conditions should be paid attention when the method is applied to different kinds of biochar.%  研究将土壤有机质测定方法( KMnO4和 K2 Cr2 O7氧化法)运用到生物质炭上,探讨了生物质炭(Biochar,BC)降解过程中易氧化部分的定量方法。研究结果显示,生物质炭抗氧化性存在不均一性,既可能是生物质炭制备过程产生的热解小分子物质,也可能是生物质炭降解产生的易氧化部分;进一步选定重铬酸钾作为氧化剂,确定氧化条件,氧化降解前后生物质炭,得出生物质炭降解确实产生易氧化部分。本文研究建立的生物质炭易氧化部分定量法可以作为生物质炭的降

  5. A rapid and specific titrimetric method for the precise determination of plutonium using redox indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.T.; Dubey, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of plutonium in plutonium nitrate solution and its application to the purex process solutions is discussed. The method involves the oxidation of plutonium to Pu(VI) with the help of argentic oxide followed by the destruction of the excess argentic oxide by means of sulphamic acid. The determination of plutonium is completed by adding ferrous ammonium sulphate solution which reduces Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) and titrating the excess ferrous with standard potassium dichromate solution using sodium diphenylamine sulphonate as the internal indicator. The effect of the various reagents add during the oxidation and reduction of plutonium, on the final titration has been investigated. The method works satisfactorily for the analysis of plutonium in the range of 0.5 to 5 mg. The precision of the method is found to be within 0.1%. (author)

  6. Use of the Crustacean Artemia franciscana for Alternative Biotests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the crustacean Artemia franciscana for alternative biotests of the second generation was studied, and possible experimental design and applications of such tests outlined. In addition to the classical use in ecotoxicology, the test can be used in pharmacology as well, or to monitor the effects of ionizing radiation in co-exposure with some chemical compounds. The synergistic effect of co-exposure of PCB (DELOR 103, cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate with beta 89Sr irradiation was shown. We also demonstrated the anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative effects of the ascorbic acid in dependence on its concentration. Use of the pharmaco-toxicological screening in search for the novel inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases was demonstrated as well, showing that Artemia franciscana may be used as a suitable biosensor instead of the expensive tests on higher vertebrates.

  7. Permaflood, formation in situ of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapo, G

    1972-01-01

    The present paper described a new process to produce surfactants in situ in which advantage is taken of the chemical reaction of oxidation in the liquid phase. This process consists of injecting a front of oxidizing agents and reaction compounds, in order to avoid the precipitation of the reaction products and to avoid the interaction between the surfactants produced and the calcium and magnesium in the connate water. Many different types of oxidizing agents as sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium hypochlorite, etc., are used. Also, there is considered the use of catalyzers with these oxidizing agents and the variation of the pH of the oxidizing front (permanaganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory). The process is called Permaflood, so named because potassium permanganate was the first oxidant used to check the technical and economic possibilities of this process in the laboratory.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and optical band gap of Pirochromite (MgCr2O4 Nanoparticles by Stearic Acid Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Jafarnejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pirochromite (MgCr2O4 nanoparticles were successfully prepared in this study. During synthesis of the pirochromite nanoparticles, a sol-gel was prepared by using magnesium acetate and potassium dichromate as magnesium and chromium sources and by using stearic acid as the network. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX were used for the elemental analysis, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM were used in order to identify, provide a fuzzy diagnosis, and determine the size and morphology of the particles, as well as to analyze the optical and magnetic properties of the particles. The particle size of MgCr2O4 nanoparticles was observed to fall within a range of 39 nm–71 nm.

  9. Curcumin attenuates Cr(VI)-induced ascites and changes in the activity of aconitase and F(1)F(0) ATPase and the ATP content in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Zazueta, Cecilia; Tapia, Edilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2014-11-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), a hexavalent chromium compound, can result in liver damage associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w.) on the K2Cr2O7-induced injury, with special emphasis on ascitic fluid accumulation and oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrial enzymes and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in isolated mitochondria from livers of rats treated with K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.). Thus, curcumin attenuated the ascites generation, prevented the decrease in the activities of aconitase and F1F0 ATPase, and maintained the ATP levels. The activity of complex II was not completely reestablished by curcumin, whereas complexes III and IV activities were unchanged. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation standardisation and use of plutonium nitrate reference solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Drummond, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    A procedure is described for the purification of a plutonium nitrate solution in nitric acid for use as a plutonium master standard. Anion exchange chromatography followed by oxalate precipitation is used to purify the plutonium and the residual cationic impurities are analysed by emission spectroscopy. The plutonium content is accurately and precisely measured by two independent methods, namely by gravimetry as PuO 2 at 1250 0 C and by ceric oxidation, ferrous reduction and dichromate titration. Full details of the purification procedure are given, with recommended methods for storing and using the standard solution. It is concluded that such a solution is the most satisfactory reference material, available for plutonium analysis for reprocessing plants, and is adequately related to other, internationally accepted, standard reference materials. (author)

  12. Determination of uranium by a gravimetric-volumetric titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.

    1998-01-01

    A volumetric-gravimetric modification of a method for the determination of uranium based on the reduction of uranium to U (IV) in a phosphoric acid medium and titration with a standard potassium dichromate solution is described. More than 99% of the stoichiometric amount of the titrating solution is weighed and the remainder is added volumetrically by using the Mettler DL 40 RC Memotitrator. Computer interconnected with analytical balances collects continually the data on the analyzed samples and evaluates the results of determination. The method allows to determine uranium in samples of uranium metal, alloys, oxides, and ammonium diuranate by using aliquot portions containing 30 - 100 mg of uranium with the error of determination, expressed as the relative standard deviation, of 0.02 - 0.05%. (author)

  13. Selective adsorption and ion exchange of metal cations and anions with silico-titanates and layered titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, R.G.; Philip, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Metal ions may be removed from aqueous wastes from metal processing plants and from refineries. They may also be used in concentrating radioactive elements found in dilute, aqueous, nuclear wastes. A new series of silico-titanates and alkali titanates are shown to have specific selectivity for cations of lead, mercury, and cadmium and the dichromate anion in solutions with low and high pH. Furthermore, one particular silico-titanate, TAM-5, was found to be highly selective for Cs + and Sr 2+ in solutions of 5.7 M Na + and 0.6 M Oh - . A high potential exists for these materials for removing Cs + and Sr 2+ from radioactive aqueous wastes containing high concentrations of Na + at high and low pH

  14. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part I. Transmission Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Kim, Sun Il; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2001-02-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOE s). The drawback of DCG is its low sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-high-resolution silver halide emulsions. An optimized processing technique for transmission HOE s recorded in these materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained for transmissive diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOE s.

  15. Corrosion properties of chromia based eco - friendly coatings on mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brozek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic nanocrystalline coatings of chromium oxide (III on steel S235JRH-1.0038 (EN 10025-1 were prepared using the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS method from ammonia dichromate (VI. Their structure and anti – corrosion properties were compared to the standard chromium oxide (III coating prepared by thermal spraying. The newly prepared coatings had very high adhesion and minimal porosity. Anticorrosion properties were characterized by the means of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, measuring the charge transfer resistance Rct and capacitance of electrical double layer CPEdl in the 0,5 mol/l NaCl. Coatings of Cr2 O3 prepared by the LPPS method showed unambiguously improved anti - corrosion properties.

  16. Analytical method used for intermediate products in continuous distillation of furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.L.; Jia, M.; Wang, L.J.; Deng, Y.X.

    1981-01-01

    During distillation of furfural, analysis of main components in the crude furfural condensate and intermediate products is very important. Since furfural and methylfurfural are homologous and both furfural and acetone contain a carbonyl group, components in the sample must be separated before analysis. An improved analytical method has been studied, the accuracy and precision of which would meet the requirement of industrial standards. The analytical procedure was provided as follows: to determine the furfural content with gravimetric method of barbituric acid; to determine the methanol content with dichromate method after precipitating furfural and acetone, and distilling the liquid for analysis; and to determine the methylfurfural content with bromide-bromate method, which can be used only in the sample containing higher content of methylfurfural. For the sample in low content, the gas-liquid chromatographic method can be used. 7 references.

  17. Design and optimization of a volume-phase holographic grating for simultaneous use with red, green, and blue light using unpolarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum H; Narducci, Frank A; Schwiegerling, James

    2016-03-01

    Volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology, such as optical communication, optical imaging, and astronomy. In this paper, the design of a volume-phase holographic grating, simultaneously optimized to operate in the red, green, and blue wavelengths, is presented along with a study of its fabrication tolerances. The grating is optimized to produce 98% efficiency at λ=532  nm and at least 75% efficiency in the region between 400 and 700 nm, when the incident light is unpolarized. The optimization is done for recording in dichromated gelatin with a thickness of 12 μm, an average refractive index of 1.5, and a refractive index modulation of 0.022.

  18. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blue-collar workers have a high risk of occupational contact dermatitis, but epidemiological studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate allergic contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers with dermatitis registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: A retrospective...... analysis of patch test data from 1471 blue-collar workers and 1471 matched controls tested between 2003 and 2012 was performed. A logistic regression was used to test for associations. RESULTS: The blue-collar workers often had occupational hand dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly......, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy...

  19. Semi-automatic version of the potentiometric titration method for characterization of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Bárbara F.G.; Delgado, José Ubiratan; Wanderley S da Silva, José; Barros, Pedro D. de; Araújo, Radier M.S. de; Dias, Fábio C.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-01-01

    The potentiometric titration method was used for characterization of uranium compounds to be applied in intercomparison programs. The method is applied with traceability assured using a potassium dichromate primary standard. A semi-automatic version was developed to reduce the analysis time and the operator variation. The standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization and compatible with those obtained by manual techniques. - Highlights: ► A semi-automatic potentiometric titration method was developed for U charaterization. ► K 2 Cr 2 O 7 was the only certified reference material used. ► Values obtained for U 3 O 8 samples were consistent with certified. ► Uncertainty of 0.01% was useful for characterization and intercomparison program.

  20. AZ91C magnesium alloy modified by Cd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabadi, R.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of Cd on the microstructure, mechanical properties and general corrosion behaviour of AZ91C alloys was investigated. Addition of Cd was found not to be efficient in modifying/refining the microstructure or β-phase. A morphology change in β-phase from fine continuous...... precipitates to discontinuous β-phase upon the addition of Cd was observed. A marginal increment in mechanical properties was observed. General corrosion behaviour was followed with weight loss measurements, potentiostatic polarisation studies and surface studies in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and 3.......5% sodium chloride with 2% potassium dichromate solution. Cd addition deteriorated the corrosion behaviour of AZ91C. This behaviour was attributed to the formation of chunks of β-phase upon the addition of Cd. AZ91C with refined β-phase distribution, performed rather better in the NaCl solutions....

  1. Grafted wood pulp containing quaternary ammonium group and its application in the removal of different anions from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Network wood pulp based on acrylonitrile has been chemically modified through different reactions to obtain group capable of anion exchange. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto wood pulp was carried out by using gamma-radiation 60 Co. Factors affecting the grafting process e.g radiation dose and monomer concentration were investigated.The chemical modification of cyano groups were carried out by reaction with ethanol amine producing oxazoline group followed by quaternization of tertiary amine by reaction with benzyl chloride producing quaternary ammonium salt. The grafted and modified wood pulp were characterized by FTIR, SEM and TGA.Qualitative experiments of adsorption were conducted to evaluate the modified wood pulp on fixing sulfate, phosphate,nitrate and dichromate from aqueous solution using batch extractions. Based on the results obtained, it may be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically wood pulp containing cyano groups by different routes for its usage as anion exchanger

  2. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Baer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014 with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648.

  3. Radioactive kryptonates in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''radioactive Kryptonates'' is used for substances into which atoms or ions of the radioactive nuclide 85 Kr are incorporated. The basis of the use of radioactive Kryptonates in analytical chemistry is that during a chemical reaction the crystalline lattice of the kryptonated carrier is destroyed, the carrier consumed, and the radioactive krypton released (radio-release method). Analysis can be made with a calibration curve or by comparison with a standard. Radio-release methods with the aid of radioactive Kryptonates as analytical reagents are very useful for the analysis of environmental samples, e.g. for the determination of air pollutants (ozone, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, mercury); and water pollutants (oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide). (author)

  4. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Duanwen; Bai, Mingfeng; Tang, Rui; Xu, Baogang; Ju, Xiaoming; Pestell, Richard G; Achilefu, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) dye that fluoresces at two different wavelengths (dichromic fluorescence, DCF), we discovered a new fluorescent substrate for Akt, also known as protein kinase B, and a method to quantitatively report this enzyme's activity in real time. Upon insulin activation of cellular Akt, the enzyme multi-phosphorylated a single serine residue of a diserine DCF substrate in a time-dependent manner, culminating in monophospho- to triphospho-serine products. The NIR DCF probe was highly selective for the Akt1 isoform, which was demonstrated using Akt1 knockout cells derived from MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice. The DCF mechanism provides unparalleled potential to assess the stimulation, sustainability, and reversibility of Akt activation longitudinally. Importantly, NIR fluorescence provides a pathway to translate findings from cells to living organisms, a condition that could eventually facilitate the use of these probes in humans.

  5. Design, construction and testing of holographic PV concentrator modules and construction of a pilot plant for serial production of the holographic optical concentrator system on flexible foils. Follow-up project: Completion of the production process for mass production of large format holographic optical elements on flexible foils for solar technology. Final report; Auslegung, Konstruktion und Test von holographischen PV-Konzentratormodulen und Aufbau einer Pilotanlage zur Serienfertigung der holographischen Konzentratoroptik auf flexiblen Folien. Anschlussvorhaben: Vervollstaendigung der Produktionsverfahren fuer die Serienfertigung von grossformatigen holographischen optischen Elementen auf flexiblen Folien fuer die Solartechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanoff, C.G.; Froehlich, K.; Froening, P.; Schulat, J.; Schuette, H.; Wagemann, E.U.

    1997-06-30

    The aim of the research project is the development of a technique for value for money mass-production of large area holographic focussers made of dichromate gelatine for photo-electrics. The holograms act simultaneously as spectrally dispersing and focussing optical elements, which focus the sunlight in discrete bands on the spectrally matched solar cells. The three marked characteristics of the holographic focussers are the diffraction efficiency, the spectral bandwidth and the central working wavelength. The optimum values of these parameters depend on the variation of the layer thickness and the index of refraction over the aperture of the hologram, and on the ability of the DCG layer to provide great modulation of the index of refraction. Mass-production of large format holographic lenses (transmission holograms) and mirrors (reflection holograms) demands precise coating of the supporting substrate (glass or PET foil) with dichromate gelatine. Mass-production of the holographic lenses requires a matrix hologram with 50% diffraction efficiency and is done with two copier plants developed in the project. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung einer Technologie fuer die preiswerte serielle Herstellung von grossflaechigen holographischen Konzentratoren in Dichromatgelatine fuer die Photovoltaik. Die Hologramme wirken gleichzeitig als spektral dispergierende und fokussierende optische Elemente, die das Sonnenlicht in diskreten Baendern auf spektral angepasste Solarzellen konzentrieren. Die drei kennzeichnenden Charakteristiken der holographischen Konzentratoren sind die Beugungseffizienz, die spektrale Bandbreite und die zentrale Arbeitswellenlaenge. Die optimalen Werte dieser Parameter sind durch die Variation der Schichtdicke und des Brechnungsindexes ueber die Apertur des Hologramms, sowie durch die Faehigkeit der DCG-Schicht grosse Brechungsindexmodulation zu ermoeglichen, eindeutig bedingt. Die serielle Fertigung der

  6. Patch tests in children: a review of 13 years of experience in comparison with previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milingou, Maria; Tagka, Anna; Armenaka, Melina; Kimpouri, Konstantina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The true prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the results of patch tests in children with suspected ACD between two different periods of time and identify possible changes in emerging allergens. We compared contact allergens, gender, age distribution, and personal history of atopic dermatitis (AD), in correlation with the positivity of patch tests, between two equal periods of time (232 children tested during 1980-1993, period A, and 255 children during 1994-2007, period B) in the same region and in the same institution. Patch test positivity was 47.8% in period A, and 60% in period B (p = 0.083). The most common allergens in period A were: nickel sulfate (16.3%), cobalt chloride (8.6%), fragrance mix (7.3%), potassium dichromate (4.3%), and thimerosal only (1.7%). In period B, the allergen distribution was as follows: nickel sulfate (21.56%), thimerosal (18.03%), cobalt chloride (12.9%), potassium dichromate (9.4%), and fragrance mix (4.7%). Girls were more likely to have a positive patch test compared with boys, with reactions in 53% of girls and 39% of boys in period A (p = 0.003), and 61% of girls and 58% of boys in period B (p = 0.691). Twenty-nine per cent of patients with positive results had a personal history of AD in period A and 44% in period B (p = 0.015). Differences in the positivity of allergens between different time periods reflect changes in habits, of allergens exposure or preventive measures.

  7. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  8. ENZYME MARKERS ACTIVITY AND BILE FORMATION FUNCTION OF LIVER IN CASES OF TUBERCULOSTATICS AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS AFFECTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Burmas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, the growing incidence of toxic lesions of the liver is associated with industrial chemicalization and uncontrolled use of hepatotoxic drugs in everyday life. There are about one thousand drugs with high or low hepatotoxicity, such as anti-TB drugs. Objective. In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin affection and chromium (potassium dichromate intoxication. Methods. The experimental affection of rats of different ages was performed by combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (a solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg, isoniazid (0.05 g/kg and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg. On the 7th and 14th days the rats were injected with enterosorbent Sorbex (150 mg/kg. Enzyme markers activity of the liver was evaluated due to alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP rates. Bile formation function of the liver was evaluated by total bilirubin and bile acids content in blood. Results. The disorders in hepatocytes plasma membranes permeability were defined by the increased rates of ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase in blood serum which were decreased in the liver. It was determined that total bilirubin and bile acids content in blood serum of the affected animals increased. It influenced hepatocytes excretion in bile capillaries and caused cholestasis and revenues decrease in bile. Conclusions. The most significant metabolic disorders in cases of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection were defined in immature and senior animals in comparison with mature animals.

  9. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Samuel, Jawahar B.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Aruldhas, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 μM (IC 50 ) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17β-HSD-1, 17β-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ERα and ERβ. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity

  10. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  11. Manual or automated measuring of antipsychotics' chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sarah A P; Costa, Susana P F; Cunha, Edite; Passos, Marieta L C; Araújo, André R S T; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2018-05-15

    Antipsychotic (AP) drugs are becoming accumulated in terrestrial and aqueous resources due to their actual consumption. Thus, the search of methods for assessing the contamination load of these drugs is mandatory. The COD is a key parameter used for monitoring water quality upon the assessment of the effect of polluting agents on the oxygen level. Thus, the present work aims to assess the chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels of several typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs in order to obtain structure-activity relationships. It was implemented the titrimetric method with potassium dichromate as oxidant and a digestion step of 2h, followed by the measurement of remained unreduced dichromate by titration. After that, an automated sequential injection analysis (SIA) method was, also, used aiming to overcome some drawbacks of the titrimetric method. The results obtained showed a relationship between the chemical structures of antipsychotic drugs and their COD values, where the presence of aromatic rings and oxidable groups give higher COD values. It was obtained a good compliance between the results of the reference batch procedure and the SIA system, and the APs were clustered in two groups, with the values ratio between the methodologies, of 2 or 4, in the case of lower or higher COD values, respectively. The SIA methodology is capable of operating as a screening method, in any stage of a synthetic process, being also more environmentally friendly, and cost-effective. Besides, the studies presented open promising perspectives for the improvement of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical removal from the waste effluents, by assessing COD values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dose intercomparison studies for standardization of high-dose dosimetry in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Hoang Hoa; Duong Nguyen Dinh; Kojima, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (IC-VAEC) is planning to establish a traceability system for high-dose dosimetry and to provide high-dose standards as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) level in Vietnam. For countries which do not have a standard dosimetry laboratory, the participation in the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the most common means to verify own dosimetry performance with a certain uncertainty. This is, however, only one-direction dose intercomparison with evaluation by IAEA including unknown parameter at participant laboratories. The SSDL level laboratory should have traceability as well as compatibility, ability to evaluate uncertainties of its own dosimetry performance by itself In the present paper, we reviewed our dosimetry performance through two-way dose intercomparison studies and self-evaluation of uncertainty in our dosimetry procedure. The performance of silver dichromate dosimeter as reference transfer dosimeter in IC-VAEC was studied through two-way blind dose intercomparison experiments between the IC-VAEC and JAERI. As another channel of dose intercomparison with IAEA, alanine dosimeters issued by IDAS were simultaneously irradiated with the IC-VAEC dichromate dosimeters at IC-VAEC and analyzed by IAEA. Dose intercomparison between IC-VAEC and JAERI results into a good agreement (better than ±2.5%), and IDAS results also show similar agreement within ±3.0%. The uncertainty was self-estimated on the basis of the JAERI alanine dosimetry, and a preliminary value of about 1.86% at a 68% confidence level is established. The results from these intercomparisons and our estimation of the uncertainty are consistent. We hope that our experience is valuable to other countries which do not have dosimetry standard laboratories and/or are planning to establish them. (author)

  13. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; Kovarik, Libor; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals and organic matter are two important components in natural environments that influence hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction. Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe2+ and pyrite. However, the effects of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in clays are not well understood. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated under near neutral pH condition (pH=6). Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in NAu-2. The decreased reaction rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and polyanionic dichromate (Cr2O7- ), because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of citrate was likely because citrate provided additional reducing power through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe 3+ derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was the possible form of reduced chromium when citrate was present. In contrast, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction by reduced NAu-2 without citrate. Our study highlights the importance of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-bearing clay minerals are applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic matter rich environments.

  14. Survey of analysis results from preservation tests on condensation water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Bjoern (Bjoern Hall, Miljoe och Foerbraenningskemi, Onsala (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    samples preserved in nitric acid and dichromate was small. The results for lead and plant 2 it could be coincidental since the value divergence is so small. The big divergence regarding plant 4 is difficult to evaluate and needs to be analyzed further. Since dichromate is a very unsafe chemical from both working environment perspective and environmental perspective, the gain from using it for mercury analysis do not seem to overweigh the disadvantages. So, from the results of this study, it looks as if it would be possible to phase out dichromate and instead use nitric acid exclusively for mercury as well. There are clear indications of nitric acid being unnecessary at several plants. However, it could be that it is necessary sometimes for certain metals and water. For this reason, further studies could be necessary before nitric acid may be removed completely. An interesting observation from the study is the vast variation in levels between the different plants. In some cases a simple neutralisation with lye to pH 9, followed by thorough filtration to a size of 0.45 mum, can be enough to meet the requirements for most metals. In other cases this is not at all sufficient, and levels turn out very high. This is interesting information when choosing between different process solutions and in the dimensioning of water purifications

  15. [Epidemiology of contact dermatitis: prevalence of sensitization to different allergens and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel-Gómez, Ma T; Miranda-Romero, A; Castrodeza-Sanz, J

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, contact dermatitis is a relatively common skin complaint, whose prevalence has increased in recent years. Study by patch testing is essential for diagnosis of contact sensitization. To study the prevalence of sensitization to different allergens in a standard battery and observe the influence of different epidemiological and clinical variables on contact sensitization. A large number of allergens were included in our battery in order to detect new sensitizations whose prevalence might justify further study. This was a retrospective, observational, epidemiological study of 1092 patients, conducted in our skin allergy unit between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005. All patients were studied with a battery of 51 allergens. We assessed the following variables: sex, age, type of referral, occupation, site and course of skin lesions, personal and family history of atopy, positive patch tests, clinical significance, diagnosis, source of sensitization, and occupational relationship. At least 1 positive result was found in 55% of the patients, and 55.7% presented atopic dermatitis in one of its clinical variants: allergic contact dermatitis (28.2%), irritant contact dermatitis (20.1%), photoallergic contact dermatitis (2.2%), and phototoxic contact dermatitis (1.2%). The most prevalent allergens were nickel sulfate (29.3%), palladium chloride (11.7%), cobalt chloride (10.8%), potassium dichromate (7.5%), fragrance blends (6.3%), and p-phenylenediamine (6.1%). A positive occupational relationship was found in 41.1%, and 21.3% of the patients studied were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis. Metal workers, construction workers, and professional hairdressers were the most strongly represented groups. The most common source of sensitization was contact with metallic objects, followed by drugs, cosmetics, and rubber items. Female sex was the only independent variable that had a significant influence on the risk of contact sensitization in

  16. Quantitative image of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Tsuguhisa

    1990-01-01

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiographing system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within ±4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within ±11 mg/cm 2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of ±10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease. (author)

  17. [Quantitative image of bone mineral content--dual energy subtraction in a single exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T

    1990-09-25

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiography system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within +/- 4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within +/- 11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of +/- 10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease.

  18. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher

  19. Phyto chemical and bio activities research on Tinospora crispa (Patawali)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakirah Abdul Shukor

    2010-01-01

    The usage of traditional therapeutic medicine is gaining attention as consumption to modern therapeutic medicine can affect health and also causing death. Because of this resurgence of interest, the research on medicinal plant is growing phenomenally in Malaysia as Tinospora crispa is one of the potential candidates and this plant is been use since long time ago as medicine. Solvent extraction method run on Tinospora crispa's stem had resulted 5 extracts which were hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol. Phyto chemical screening of hexane extract showed existence of alkaloid, flavonon, polyphenol substances and steroid type saponins. Chloroform extract consists alkaloid and triterpenoid type saponins while alkaloid, flavon and polyphenol substances found in butanol extract. Aqueous extract consist free acid and steroid type saponins whereas alkaloid, tannin and triterpenoid type saponins were found in methanol extract. Hexane, chloroform, and butanol extracts shows inhibition zone for bacteria gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus where each extracts give inhibitory zone diameter of 1.5 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.2 cm. There is no inhibitory zone for methanol and aqueous extract. As observation for bacteria gram-negative, Escherichia coli shows negative result for inhibitory zone. The LC50 acute for hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts are 3162.28 ppm, 7813.71 ppm, 380.72 ppm, 662.87 ppm, dan 1847.85 ppm respectively. LC50 chronic for hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts are 273.84 ppm, 259.29 ppm, 17.78 ppm, 12.02 ppm, dan 15.44 ppm respectively. Butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts gives higher relative toxicity compared to potassium dichromate. Overall, Tinospora crispas extracts are toxic compared with relative toxicity of potassium dichromate. The solvent system of toulene, acetone and chloroform with the proportion of 8: 2: 5 for hexane extract indicated 9 substances where chloroform extract yielded 6 substance

  20. Repository for high level wastes in Brazil: the Leitz HS 1350 platinum employed for helping the geological characterization of the candidate areas; Repositorio de rejeito de alto nivel (RANR) no Brasil: o emprego da platina Leitz HS 1350 no auxilio para caracterizacao geologica de areas candidatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Tatiana A. Fernandes de; Oliveira, Elizabeth Kerpe de; Rios, Francisco Javier [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: tafl@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    One of the preliminary stages for the choice of the appropriated local is the geological study. The granitic rocks are the best choice for construction of high level radioactive wastes repository. In the minerals associated to the rock there are small quantities of imprisoned fluids denominated fluid inclusions (FI), were heating coming from the waste radioactive decays can cause crackling of the wastes and migration of the fluids to the heat source. These studies require to be in routine a ultra heating platin (up to 1350 degree C) calibrated, coupled to the petrographic microscope (microthermometry). The tests performed viewed the calibration and placing into routine the platin, by using analytical standards such as fusion temperature covering the heating range (the substances potassium dichromate, barium nitrate, lithium fluorate copper and other two standards of Chaixmeca platin). The Leitz Heating Stage 1350 platin is presently installed and operating at Laboratory of Fluid Inclusions and Metallogenesis of the CDTN/Brazil, for using of this technique. (author)

  1. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm

  2. Research of the absorbance detection and fluorescence detection for multifunctional nutrition analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhengyuan; Yan, Huimin; Ni, Xuxiang; Zhang, Xiuda

    2017-10-01

    The research of the multifunctional analyzer which integrates absorbance detection, fluorescence detection, time-resolved fluorescence detection, biochemical luminescence detection methods, can make efficient detection and analysis for a variety of human body nutrients. This article focuses on the absorbance detection and fluorescence detection system. The two systems are modular in design and controlled by embedded system, to achieve automatic measurement according to user settings. In the optical path design, the application of confocal design can improve the optical signal acquisition capability, and reduce the interference. A photon counter is used for detection, and a high performance counter module is designed to measure the output of photon counter. In the experiment, we use neutral density filters and potassium dichromate solution to test the absorbance detection system, and use fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC for fluorescence detection system performance test. The experimental results show that the absorbance detection system has a detection range of 0 4OD, and has good linearity in the detection range, while the fluorescence detection system has a high sensitivity of 1pmol/L concentration.

  3. Investigation on high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Stockman, Y.; Georges, Marc; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.

    2017-11-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  4. Overview of Chromium Remediation Technology Evaluations At The Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J. G.; Hanson, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    This paper will present an overview of the different technologies and the results to date for optimizing and improving the remediation of Cr+6 in the soil and groundwater at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site, par of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)nuclear weapons complex, encompasses approximately 586 square miles in southeast Washington State. The Columbia River flows through the site (Hanford Reach.) Reactors were located along the Hanford Reach as part of the production process. Sodium dichromate was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the cooling water for the reactors. As a result chromium (Cr+6) is present in the soil and groundwater. Since the mid 90's interim groundwater pump and treat systems have been in place to try and contain or mitigate the migration of contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River. The primary concern being the protection of aquatic spawning habitat for salmon and other species. In order to improve the effectiveness of the remedial actions a number of different technologies have been evaluated and/or deployed. These include, permeable reactive barriers, in-situ bio-stimulation, in-situ chemical reduction, zero-valent iron injection and evaluation of improved above ground treatment technologies. An overview of the technologies and results to date are presented.

  5. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Ashish K.; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-01-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  6. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration-...... days to 2 days (minitest as well as larger volume tests) in order to avoid excessive biomass growth. Shortening tests to 2 days appears necessary if light intensity and temperature are near the upper limits of the intervals stated in the ISO standard.......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  7. Rediscovering Ducos du Hauron's Color Photography through a Review of His Three-Color Printing Processes and Synchrotron Microanalysis of His Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Marine; Fabris, Tiphaine; Langlois, Juliette; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Ploye, Françoise; Coural, Natalie; Boust, Clotilde; Gandolfo, Jean-Paul; Galifot, Thomas; Susini, Jean

    2018-06-18

    Louis Ducos du Huron (1837-1920) dedicated his entire life to the elaboration of physical-chemical processes for color photography. This study aimed at highlighting his unique contribution to three-color printing through 1) an in-depth review of the many protocols he published and 2) the synchrotron-based IR and X-ray microanalysis of fragments sampled in three artworks. Ducos du Hauron's method relied on the preparation and assembly of three monochromes (red, blue, yellow). This study brings to light complex multistep recipes based on photochemistry (carbon print), organic, and inorganic chemistry. The various ingredients involved (e.g., pigments, dichromate gelatin, collodion, resin) were identified and localized through their spectroscopic signature, confirming the relevance of synchrotron spectromicroscopy for the characterization of historical photographs. The impressive correlation between texts and chemical analyses calls for a wider application to the history of photography. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of a carbon paste electrode modified with Strontium substituted bismuth and titanium oxide nanoparticles in the toxic metal chromium (VI determination potentiometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Badri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Strontium substituted bismuth and titanium oxide nanoparticles with aurivillius morphology synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and were characterized using XRD. The nanopartcles were used in the composition of the carbon paste to improve conductivity and transduction of chemical signal to electrical signal. A procedure for the determination of chromium is described based on pre-concentration of the dichromate anion at a carbon paste electrode modified. A novel potentiometric Cr6+carbon paste electrode incorporating Strontium substituted bismuth and titanium oxide nanoparticles (SSBTO. Ina acetate buffer solution of pH 5, the sensor displays a rapid and linear response for Cr6+ over the concentration range 1.0×10-5 to 1.0×10-1mol L-1 M with an anionic slope of 54.8± 0.2 mV decade ’ and a detection limit of the order of0.002 /µg ml ‘. The sensor is used for determination of Cr6+ by direct monitoring of Cr6+.The average recoveries of Cr6+at concentration levels of 0.5~40 pg/ml ’is 98.3. The electrode has a short response time (<6s and can be used for at least twenty days without any considerable divergence in potentials and the working pH range was 4.5-6.5. The proposed electrode was successfully used as an indicator for potentiometric determination of Cr6+in water sample.

  9. Semi-automated uranium analysis by a modified Davies--Gray procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    To rapidly and reliably determine uranium in fuel materials a semi-automated implementation of the Davies-Gray uranium titration was developed. The Davies-Gray method is essentially a three step procedure. First uranium is reduced quantitatively from +6 valence to +4 valence by excess of iron (II) in strong phosphoric acid in the absence of nitrite. Prior to the uranium reduction nitrite is destroyed by addition of sulfamic acid. In the second step iron (II) is selectively oxidized to iron (III) by nitric acid in the presence of Mo (VI) catalyst. Finally after dilution to reduce phosphate concentration, the uranium is titrated to U (VI) by standard dichromate. The original sluggish colorimetric endpoint determination used by Davies and Gray is seldom used since New Brunswick Laboratory discovered that addition of vanadium (IV) just prior to titration sufficiently improves reaction rate to allow a potentiometric endpoint determination. One of the advantages of the Davies-Gray uranium titration is that it is quite specific for uranium, most common impurity elements do not interfere with the analysis, and specifically high levels of Pu, Th, and Fe are tolerated

  10. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-07-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  11. Development of cultures of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve for genotoxicity assessment using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpiri, Rachael U; Konya, Roseline S; Hodges, Nikolas J

    2017-12-01

    Sponges are a potential alternative model species to bivalves in pollution biomonitoring and environmental risk assessment in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, a novel in vivo exposure sponge culture model was developed from field-collected and cryopreserved sponge (Hymeniacidon perleve) cells to investigate the genotoxic effects of environmentally relevant metals in the laboratory. Sponge cell aggregates were cultured and exposed to noncytotoxic concentrations (0-0.4 mg/L) of cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, and sodium dichromate as quantified by the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and DNA-strand breaks assessed by the comet assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate in sponge cell aggregates exposed to the same concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni. There was a statistically significant (p sponge cells and demonstrated that exposure to noncytotoxic concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni for 12 h results in a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage and levels of ROS production. In conclusion, we have developed a novel in vivo model based on culture of cryopreserved sponge cells that is compatible with the alkaline comet assay. Genotoxicity in marine sponges measured by the comet assay technique may be a useful tool for biomonitoring research and risk assessment in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3314-3323. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  12. Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H

    1975-01-01

    Environmental contaminations by certain metal compounds are bringing about serious problems to human health, including genetic hazards. It has been reported that some compounds of iron, manganese and mercury induce point mutations in microorganisms. Also it has been observed that those of aluminum, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead and tellurium cause chromosome aberrations in plants, insects and cultured human cells. The mechanism of mutation induction by these metals remains, however, still obscure. For screening of chemical mutagens, Kada et al, recently developed a simple and efficient method named rec-assay by observing differential growth sensitivities to drugs in wild and recombination-deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis. When a chemical is more inhibitory for Rec/sup -/ than for Rec/sup +/ cells, it is reasonable to suspect mutagenicity based on its DNA-damaging capacity. In the present report, 56 metal compounds were tested by the rec-assay. Compounds showing positive results in the assay such as potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/), ammonium molybdate ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 6/Mo/sub 7/O/sub 24/) and sodium arsenite (NaAsO/sub 2/) were then examined as to their capacities to induce reversions in E. coli Trp/sup -/ strains possessing different DNA repair pathways. 11 references, 3 tables.

  13. Critical assessment of the formation of hydrogen peroxide in dough by fermenting yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of bread dough leads to strengthening of the dough matrix. This effect has previously been ascribed to the action of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by yeast in dough. In this study, we re-evaluate the production of H2O2 by yeast in dough and aqueous fermentation broth. Results show that the previously reported high levels of H2O2 in fermenting dough were most probably due to the lack of specificity of the potassium dichromate/acetic acid-based method used. Using the chemiluminescent HyPerBlu assay, no yeast H2O2 production could be detected in fermented dough or broth. Even though the formation of low levels of H2O2 cannot be ruled out due to the presence of catalase in flour and the fast reaction of H2O2 with gluten proteins, our results suggest that the changes in dough matrix rheological properties upon fermentation are not due to production of H2O2 by yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corrosion of high Ni-Cr alloys and Type 304L stainless steel in HNO3-HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; McLaughlin, B.D.

    1980-04-01

    Nineteen alloys were evaluated as possible materials of construction for steam heating coils, the dissolver vessel, and the off-gas system of proposed facilities to process thorium and uranium fuels. Commercially available alloys were found that are satisfactory for all applications. With thorium fuel, which requires HNO 3 -HF for dissolution, the best alloy for service at 130 0 C when complexing agents for fluoride are used is Inconel 690; with no complexing agents at 130 0 C, Inconel 671 is best. At 95 0 C, six other alloys tested would be adequate: Haynes 25, Ferralium, Inconel 625, Type 304L stainless steel, Incoloy 825, and Haynes 20 (in order of decreasing preference); based on composition, six untested alloys would also be adequate. The ions most effective in reducing fluoride corrosion were the complexing agents Zr 4+ and Th 4+ ; Al 3+ was less effective. With uranium fuel, modestly priced Type 304L stainless steel is adequate. Corrosion will be most severe in HNO 3 -HF used occasionally for flushing and in solutions of HNO 3 and corrosion products (ferric and dichromate ions). HF corrosion can be minimized by complexing the fluoride ion and by passivation of the steel with strong nitric acid. Corrosion caused by corrosion products can be minimized by operating at lower temperatures

  15. The role of contact allergens in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hession, Meghan T; Scheinman, Pamela L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether contact allergens play a role in chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). We conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 23 patients with CIU. Patients were patch tested to a modified North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard, fragrance, and cosmetic series; other series were tested as warranted by relevant history and physical examination. Readings were performed at 48 and 72 hours. Patients were counseled to avoid proven contact allergens and were followed up 2 to 9 months after testing. Twenty-one of 23 patients were female. The mean age was 46 years. The mean duration of urticaria was 32 months. Of the 23 patients, 8 (35%) experienced improvement of their symptoms with allergen avoidance. Four (17%) experienced a complete remission, and 4 (17%) experienced partial improvement. Two of the complete responders challenged themselves to proven contact allergens and developed urticaria, which resolved upon allergen avoidance. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (n = 9), nickel sulfate (n = 7), Myroxylon pereirae (n = 6), cobalt chloride, neomycin, p-phenylenediamine (n = 5); fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II (n = 4); cinnamic aldehyde (n = 3); and formaldehyde (n = 2). Patch testing may be helpful in the evaluation of CIU patients for whom previous workup has failed to reveal an etiology.

  16. Clinical-epidemiological features of contact dermatitis in rural and urban communities in northern Ethiopia: correlation with environmental or occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Aldo; Bordignon, Valentina; Barnabas, Gebre Ab; Dassoni, Federica; Latini, Ottavio; Padovese, Valeska; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The widespread diffusion of low-quality products as well as the local cultural habits could be a relevant cause of allergic diseases in developing countries. In the present observational study, we explored the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis in both rural and urban settings in northern Ethiopia, where skin diseases represent a frequent cause of morbidity. Clinical features and specific reactivities in association with environmental or occupational exposure were investigated. We patch tested 480 consecutive patients, visited at the Mekele IDC, exhibiting symptoms of contact dermatitis. A detailed medical history of each patient was collected. A positive patch-test response was observed in 50% of subjects; nickel was the most frequent sensitizer (26.2%), followed by p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin (10%), fragrance mix (7.1%), potassium dichromate (5.4%), cobalt chloride (4.6%), disperse blue (2.3%), and p-phenylenediamine (1.7%). Gender-related differences were analyzed for single allergen. Eczema represented the most common manifestation, affecting the head and neck as primary skin areas. While reactivity to nickel interested almost all the occupational categories, sensitization to other allergens could be ascribed to working habits or environmental exposure. The results gathered from this study, the first one conducted within the Tigray region in Ethiopia, confirm the need to take appropriate measures to limit the nickel rate in metal objects and may be useful to design allergenic series suitable for patch testing in those geographical settings. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. A retrospective study of 2585 patients patch tested with the European standard series in Hong Kong (1995-99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sun; Chan, Loi Yuen; Ho, Stanley Ching Kong; Chong, Lai Yin; So, Win Han; Wong, Tze Wai

    2008-02-01

    Data on patch test findings in Hong Kong are scarce, with the last survey performed more than 10 years ago. A retrospective analysis of results from all patch tests performed on patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis from January 1995 to December 1999 in the Social Hygiene Service, which provides a public dermatology service in Hong Kong, was undertaken. We aimed to explore the demographic data associated with positive reactions and the profile of contact sensitizing allergens in Hong Kong. A total of 2585 patients were patch tested with the European standard series during the period. Most were Chinese, with a female-to-male ratio of 3 : 2. One or more positive responses were noted in 1415 patients (54.7%). The most common allergen was nickel sulfate (24.4%), followed by fragrance mix (13.7%), cobalt chloride (8.7%), p-phenylenediamine (6.0%), and balsam of Peru (5.7%). Nickel sensitivity was more common in female patients, and dichromate sensitivity was more common in male patients (P history were significant risk factors for nickel sensitivity. This study provides a profile of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the public dermatology service in Hong Kong. A prospective study, using a larger panel of allergens, involving patients from both the private and public sectors, would provide a more comprehensive profile of contact allergens in Hong Kong and contribute to the establishment of a local standard series.

  18. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  19. Rosacea and contact allergy to cosmetics and topical medicaments--retrospective analysis of multicentre surveillance data 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappe, U; Schnuch, A; Uter, W

    2005-02-01

    The role of contact allergy in rosacea has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective study, 361 out of 76,697 patients tested and documented by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology between 1995 and 2002 had rosacea. Patch tests included standard series and constituents of cosmetics and topical medicaments. 118/361 had additionally been patch tested with their own cosmetics/medicaments. Positive reactions occurred to nickel (II) sulfate in 9.3%, fragrance mix in 8.8%, thimerosal in 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae resin in 5.9%, potassium dichromate in 4.6% and propolis in 2.8%. Whereas rosacea patients had a significantly higher risk of contact allergy to propolis compared to the remaining patients, in an age- and sex-adjusted analysis, contact allergy to nickel was significantly less frequent in this group. For Lyral, the risk was elevated, albeit not significantly. Only 2/329 patients were positive to neomycin sulfate and 1/100 to gentamicin sulfate, among the panel of (topical) antibiotics tested. Among 118 patients tested with their own products, 3 were tested to metronidazole, 1 reacting positively. Irritant or doubtful patch test reactions were provoked by various substances (vehicles, oxidants and preservatives of various creams), which might also be clinically important, considering the heightened sensitivity of rosaceous skin.

  20. Evaluation of Aliphatic and Aromatic Compounds Degradation by Indigenous Bacteria Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Petroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Gilavand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The major of this study was to isolate oil-degrading bacteria from soil contaminated with petroleum and examining the removal of hydrocarbons by these bacteria. Methods: Oil-degrading colonies were purified from the samples obtained of around Ahvaz oil wells. Organic matter degradation was investigated with 1 g of crude oil in basal salt medium (BSM as sole carbon source. The growth rate was determined through total protein assay and hydrocarbon consuming was measured through organic carbon oxidation and titration by dichromate as oxidizing agent. Results: Two potential isolates named S1 and S2 strains were screened and identified as Planococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As results for S1 and S2 could degrade 80.86 and 65.6% of olive oil, 59.6 and 35.33 of crude oil, while 32 and 26.15 % of coal tar were consumed during 14 days incubation. Conclusion: The results of this investigation showed these indigenous strains high capability to biodegradation at short time and are desirable alternatives for treatment of oil pollutants.

  1. [Determination of inorganic ions in explosive residues by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junhe; Guo, Baoyuan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hong; Sun, Yuyou; Liu, Yao; Quan, Yangke; Lu, Xiaoming

    2008-11-01

    Five anions (chlorate, perchlorate, nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate) and two cations (ammonium and potassium) in explosive residues have been separated and determined by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect ultraviolet detection. The electrolyte buffer for the cation separation was 10 mmol/L pyridine (pH 4.5) -3 mmol/L 18-crown-6-ether. Ammonium and potassium ions were baseline separated in less than 2.6 min with the detection limits of 0.10 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L (S/N = 3), respectively. The electrolyte buffer for the anion separation consisted of 40 mmol/L boric acid-1.8 mmol/L potassium dichromate-2 mmol/L sodium tetraborate (pH 8.6), and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier. All five anions were well separated in less than 4.6 min with the detection limit range of 0.10 - 1.85 mg/L (S/N = 3). The method was successfully used in real sample investigations to confirm the type of explosives.

  2. Use of Cu+1 dopant and it's doping effects on polyaniline conducting system in water and tetrahydrofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Vazid; Kaur, Raminder; Kamal, Neel; Singh, Sukhmehar; Jain, S. C.; Kang, H. P. S.; Zulfequar, M.; Husain, M.

    2006-04-01

    The structural modification and properties of polymeric materials are of utmost importance in deciding their applications. In the present study, the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) has been carried out via chemical oxidation in acidic medium by potassium-dichromate and the yield of synthesized polyaniline was found to be 75 80%. The copper per chlorate tetrabenzonitrile salt (CuClO4·4BN) used for chemical doping in synthesized polyaniline is stable in organic solvent like acetonitrile (AN) and benzonitrile (BN). The effect of Cu+1 oxidation state (dopant) in polyaniline has been characterized by FTIR. Electrical and dielectric measurements show the decrease in the intensity of the Cu+1 salt signal and the appearance of a radical signal due to the formation of oxidative coupled in polymeric species. Electrical and dielectric properties of doped polyaniline samples show significant changes due to the effect of dopant (CuClO4·4BN). It is observed that the conductivity is contributing both by formation of ionic complex and particularly dominated by electronic due to the mobility of charge carriers along the polyaniline chain.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Intercalated Graphite Bisulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Marcella; Carotenuto, Gianfranco; De Nicola, Sergio; Camerlingo, Carlo; Ambrogi, Veronica; Carfagna, Cosimo

    2017-03-01

    Different chemical formulations for the synthesis of highly intercalated graphite bisulfate have been tested. In particular, nitric acid, potassium nitrate, potassium dichromate, potassium permanganate, sodium periodate, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide have been used in this synthesis scheme as the auxiliary reagent (oxidizing agent). In order to evaluate the presence of delamination, and pre-expansion phenomena, and the achieved intercalation degree in the prepared samples, the obtained graphite intercalation compounds have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy ( μ-RS), and thermal analysis (TGA). Delamination and pre-expansion phenomena were observed only for nitric acid, sodium chlorate, and hydrogen peroxide, while the presence of strong oxidizers (KMnO4, K2Cr2O7) led to stable graphite intercalation compounds. The largest content of intercalated bisulfate is achieved in the intercalated compounds obtained from NaIO4 and NaClO3.

  4. Wavelength properties of DCG holograms under the conditions of different temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujie; Li, Wenqiang; Ding, Quanxin; Yan, Zhanjun

    2014-12-01

    Holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) are usually sealed with a glass plate cemented with an epoxy glue to protect the holograms from moisture in the environment. An investigation of the wavelength properties of sealed DCG holograms had been carried out paying attention to holograms which were exposed to different temperature and humidity environment in this work. The investigation had revealed that (a) exposing the sealed DCG holograms to high relative humidity (RH=98%) environment or immersing them in room-temperature water for 20 hours can not affect the holograms; (b) the sealed DCG holograms can be used at temperature below 50°C without showing undue detrimental effects regarding their optical properties; (c) the peak wavelength of sealed DCG holograms can cause blue shift of several nanometers at 70°C~85°C and the velocity of blue shift is proportional to the environmental temperature; (d) the holograms can be destroyed at 100° or above. The experimental results above will be analyzed and discussed in this paper. A method to improve the stability of sealed DCG holograms is proposed: baking the sealed DCG holograms at proper temperature (e.g., 85°C in this study).

  5. Effect of postreatment on the corrosion behaviour of tartaric-sulphuric anodic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rubio, M. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain); Lara, M.P. de [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ocon, P. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pilar.ocon@uam.es; Diekhoff, S. [Fraunhofer-IFAM, Lesumer Heerstrasse 36, 28717 Bremen (Germany); Beneke, M. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Deutschland, GmbH Hunefeldstr. 1-5, 28199 Bremen (Germany); Lavia, A.; Garcia, I. [Department of Surface Technologies, Engineering of Materials and Processes, Airbus Spain, Av. John Lennon s/n 28906 Getafe (Spain)

    2009-08-30

    Unclad and clad AA2024 T3 specimens were anodised in a chromium-free tartaric-sulphuric acid bath (TSA) and subsequently postreated by different processes including impregnation in a cold, concentrated chromate solution, Cr-free hot-water sealing, and dichromate hot-water sealing. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the classical postreatments used in the aircraft industry on the TSA-anodic films and their corrosion resistance behaviour. TSA-anodic films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their thicknesses were measured by SEM and the eddy current method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterise the barrier and porous layers, and jointly with potentiodynamic polarisation allowed the evaluation of corrosion resistance parameters with immersion time in NaCl solution for anodised and postreated specimens. In all cases the postreatments increased the resistance of the barrier layer against degradation. However, the NaCl electrolyte easily penetrated TSA-anodised porous layers when they were not postreated, while penetration was slightly more difficult in cold-postreated specimens. The effective pore plugging was observed in the sealed TSA specimens resulting in an improved corrosion resistance. On the other hand, unsealed clad AA2024 specimens showed a self-sealing process of the TSA-anodic layer, which was slower for the cold chromate solution-postreated specimens.

  6. Effect of postreatment on the corrosion behaviour of tartaric-sulphuric anodic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rubio, M.; Lara, M.P. de; Ocon, P.; Diekhoff, S.; Beneke, M.; Lavia, A.; Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    Unclad and clad AA2024 T3 specimens were anodised in a chromium-free tartaric-sulphuric acid bath (TSA) and subsequently postreated by different processes including impregnation in a cold, concentrated chromate solution, Cr-free hot-water sealing, and dichromate hot-water sealing. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the classical postreatments used in the aircraft industry on the TSA-anodic films and their corrosion resistance behaviour. TSA-anodic films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their thicknesses were measured by SEM and the eddy current method. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterise the barrier and porous layers, and jointly with potentiodynamic polarisation allowed the evaluation of corrosion resistance parameters with immersion time in NaCl solution for anodised and postreated specimens. In all cases the postreatments increased the resistance of the barrier layer against degradation. However, the NaCl electrolyte easily penetrated TSA-anodised porous layers when they were not postreated, while penetration was slightly more difficult in cold-postreated specimens. The effective pore plugging was observed in the sealed TSA specimens resulting in an improved corrosion resistance. On the other hand, unsealed clad AA2024 specimens showed a self-sealing process of the TSA-anodic layer, which was slower for the cold chromate solution-postreated specimens.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to measure quantitatively soil carbon with emphasis on soil organic carbon. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Giorgio S; Senesi, Nicola

    2016-09-28

    Soil organic carbon (OC) measurement is a crucial factor for quantifying soil C pools and inventories and monitoring the inherent temporal and spatial heterogeneity and changes of soil OC content. These are relevant issues in addressing sustainable management of terrestrial OC aiming to enhance C sequestration in soil, thus mitigating the impact of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and related effects on global climate change. Nowadays, dry combustion by an elemental analyzer or wet combustion by dichromate oxidation of the soil sample are the most recommended and commonly used methods for quantitative soil OC determination. However, the unanimously recognized uncertainties and limitations of these classical laboursome methods have prompted research efforts focusing on the development and application of more advanced and appealing techniques and methods for the measurement of soil OC in the laboratory and possibly in situ in the field. Among these laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has raised the highest interest for its unique advantages. After an introduction and a highlight of the LIBS basic principles, instrumentation, methodologies and supporting chemometric methods, the main body of this review provides an historical and critical overview of the developments and results obtained up-to-now by the application of LIBS to the quantitative measurement of soil C and especially OC content. A brief critical summary of LIBS advantages and limitations/drawbacks including some final remarks and future perspectives concludes this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of surface markers on the human monocytic leukaemia cell line, THP-1, as indicators for the sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Susun; Kim, Seoyoung; Huh, Yong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Han-Kon; Park, Kui-Lea; Eun, Hee Chul

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and topical drugs. Recently, evaluation of changes in surface marker expression induced in dendritic cells (DC) or DC surrogate cell lines following exposure to chemicals represents one approach for in vitro test methods. The study aimed to test the change of expression patterns of surface markers on THP-1 cells by chemicals as a predictive in vitro method for contact sensitization. We investigated the expression of CD54, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CD40 after a 1-day exposure to sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene; benzocaine; 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; hexyl cinnamic aldehyde; eugenol; nickel sulfate hexahydrate; potassium dichromate; cobalt sulfate; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate) and non-sensitizers (sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, salicylic acid, isopropanol, and dimethyl sulphoxide). The test concentrations were 0.1x, 0.5x, and 1x of the 50% inhibitory concentration, and the relative fluorescence intensity was used as an expression indicator. By evaluating the expression patterns of CD54, CD86, and CD40, we could classify the chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers, but CD80 and CD83 showed non-specific patterns of expression. These data suggest that the THP-1 cells are good model for screening contact sensitizers and CD40 could be a useful marker complementary to CD54 and CD86.

  9. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  10. Use of thin layer chromatography and x-ray fluorescence analysis to evaluation of Leng 3 mobility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Furlan, Gilberto R.; Regitano, Jussara B.; Costa, Maria A.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio L.; Navarro, Angela A.; Simabuco, Silvana M.

    1996-01-01

    'Leng 3' is a product used for wood preservation and its formulation contain a water solution of copper sulfate, boric acid, sulfuric acid and sodium dichromate. The 'Leng 3' mobility in soil was evaluated using TLC coated with soil film and eluted with distilled water. Three different soils of Sao Paulo state, a Sandy Soil (AQ), a Dark red Latossol (LE) and a Latossol Roxo (LR) were evaluated ed. The products were applied on TLC-soil plates then eluted, dried at room temperature, divide in 10 parts of 1.0 cm wide from the application point to the top scratching the soil out to analysis. The determination of chrome and copper were done by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (ED-XRF) with 238 Pu radioisotopic excitation (3,61 GBq). Boron was determine by conventional chemical method (hot water extraction) of analysis. The results shown that the three elements chrome, copper and boron were mobile in all soils. Copper had the least mobility in the three soils, but boron and chrome showed a high mobility in all soils. The chrome front rate (Rf) in the soil AQ, LE and LR were 0.85, 0.95 while o.85, 0.35, 0.45 for copper. The element boron had a Rf 1.0 for all soils. (author)

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction of chromium (VI) from sulfuric acid solutions using tri-n-dodecylamine/kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of chromium (VI) from sulfuric acid solutions with tri-n-dodecylamine containing octanol-1 as a modifier in kerosene was investigated. All parameters influencing the extraction of chromium (VI) (time of agitation, concentrations of chromium (VI), sulfuric acid, tri-n-dodecylamine and temperature) were studied. Forst of all, tri-n-dodecylamine reacts with sulfuric acid to form tri-n-dodecylamine sulfate and bisulfate salts, then, dichromate ions is extracted by amine bisulfate. The mathematical treatment of the obtained date enabled us to calculate the formation of equilibrium constant of (TDAH) 2 SO 4 TDAHHSO 4 and (TDAH) 2 Cγ 2 O 7 at 25 Centigrade and have been found to be K 1 =10 9.642 (14/mol 4 ), K 2 = 10 -0.899 (L/mol) and K ex 10 10.55 respectively. Stripping of more than 99% of chromium (VI) from the organic phase of tri-n-dodecylamine/kerosene can be easily achieved in two stages using 0.05 M sodium carbonate solution. The synergistic effect of tri-n-butylphosphate and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide on the extraction of chromium (VI) were also studied. (author)

  12. Investigations on chemical-physical conditioning of ashes from the incineration of sewage sludge to deposit on surface landfill site; Untersuchungen zur Chemisch-Physikalischen Behandlung von Klaerschlammverbrennungsasche zur Ablagerung auf oberirdischen Deponien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, O.; Becker, A. [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Fachgebiet Bodenmechanik und Grundbau; Scherer, G. [TERRAG Service und Vertrieb GmbH, Homburg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Depositing of ashes from the incineration of sewage sludge on landfill is possible after conditioning or within appropriate boxes. The partial high content of chromate- and dichromate- (chrome VI) concentration in the eluate of these slags can cause some difficulties. Presently, disposal of such slags is accomplished in underground spaces. Taking into account the provisions of national laws, possibility is limited. Therefore investigations on deposing of conditioned slags on surface landfills are of growing importance. The binders added to condition the incineration slags were chosen to assess the chemical change of hexavalent chrome (chrome VI) to indissoluble chrome (chrome III). Cement, SAV-residues as well as fly ash were taken as binders. The investigations presented refer to results on mechanical behaviour of conditioned slags. Emphasis is placed on the time-dependent behaviour of strength as well as on water permeability. Several cylindrical samples made by different compounds were tested within a period of about 112 days. Requirements with respect to strength were met within a few days. Demands on the eluate-criteria need additional investigations. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Cr-Vi on skeletal muscles of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeel, H.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium plays an important role in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as it's an essential trace element in human nutrition. It was found that patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without chromium developed glucose intolerance, weight loss and peripheral neuropathy Chromium is present in a normal diet at trace (but essential) levels. Occupational exposure is related to the industrial uses of chrome compounds in production and use of steels, pigments, leather tanning and wood preservation solutions, plating chemicals, and cement. Toxicity is predominantly associated with industrial exposures. Its trivalent form is the most stable form and can't cross the cell membrane. Hexavalent chromium crosses the cell membrane and is reduced to Cr- V, Cr-IV and Cr-111. Once in trivalent form it can combine with nuclear proteins and nucleic acids causing adverse effects and derangements. Hexavalent chromium compounds appear to have severe toxicity and almost all tissues of body are affected. To evaluate the effects on skeletal muscles, present study was carried out. The mice of experimental group (2wks, 4wks, 6wks and 8wks) were injected Potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/ Cr/sub 2/0/sub 7/) intraperitoneally according to experimental design. The drug caused slight to marked inflammation of skeletal muscle fibers and vaculations of nuclei was also observed indicating degenerative changes. (author)

  14. Automated uranium titration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kato, Y.

    1983-01-01

    An automated titration system based on the Davies-Gray method has been developed for accurate determination of uranium. The system consists of a potentiometric titrator with precise burettes, a sample changer, an electronic balance and a desk-top computer with a printer. Fifty-five titration vessels are loaded in the sample changer. The first three contain the standard solution for standardizing potassium dichromate titrant, and the next two and the last two contain the control samples for data quality assurance. The other forty-eight measurements are carried out for sixteen unknown samples. Sample solution containing about 100 mg uranium is taken in a titration vessel. At the pretreatment position, uranium (VI) is reduced to uranium (IV) by iron (II). After the valency adjustment, the vessel is transferred to the titration position. The rate of titrant addition is automatically controlled to be slower near the end-point. The last figure (0.01 mL) of the equivalent titrant volume for uranium is calculated from the potential change. The results obtained with this system on 100 mg uranium gave a precision of 0.2% (RSD,n=3) and an accuracy of better than 0.1%. Fifty-five titrations are accomplished in 10 hours. (author)

  15. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  16. NBL-Davies-Gray weight titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, C.

    1981-01-01

    The titration method for uranium consists of the following basic steps: reduction of U +6 to U +4 by Fe +2 ; selective oxidation of excess Fe +2 by HNO 3 with Mo +6 catalyst, all in strong phosphoric acid solution; and titration of the U +4 with standard dichromate after dilution. In this paper, detailed procedure of the NBL method, its modification to a gravimetric system or weight titration technique, and miniaturization of the NBL titrimetric method are discussed. Improved precisions and accuracy (2 to 3 times), of the gravimetric titrant delivery has made it possible to reduce the amount of uranium taken for each analysis. At present, using gravimetric delivery, most samples are titrated in the 30 to 50 mg range. Improved precision has led to investigating the possibility of a scaled-down version of the basic method so as to reduce the volume of phosphoric acid waste generated. Because all reactions are carried out in the same vessel, this method can be automated. Analysts at NBL have been able to restrict error to 0.05% or better in the 30 to 100 mg range using the basic procedure

  17. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  18. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535, heifer (641 and adult (1163 cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (3 years cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%, followed by monsoon (15%, winter (9.44%, and pre-monsoon (7.49% season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season.

  19. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badparva, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azami, Mehdi; Badparva, Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren't any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds' species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether concentration technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Culture in RPMI 1640 medium, sporulation with potassium dichromate and Trichrome and Giemsa staining. Out of 451 birds' species, 157 (34.8 %), were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. We identified two nematode, two cestoda species and five protozoan parasites species. No trematodes were found in the samples studied. The parasites identified among birds involved Raillietina spp. (4.2 %) and Eimeria spp. (7.1 %) were the most common helminthes and protozoa respectively. From total of birds study, 12 (2.7 %) and 6 (1.3 %) have two and three mixed infections respectively. Intestinal parasitic infections are common in birds in west Iran. The future studies are needed in order to determine to which extent the infections influence mortality and performance of the birds.

  20. Further improvement of genetic and cytogenetic test pattern with increased relevance predicting carcinogenic and pharmacological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, D.

    1982-08-01

    Testing of chemicals for their genetic activity by applying only one method has the disadvantage, that the results are of limited value. However, a combination of several test systems in such a manner that the apparent difference between the results allows additional conclusions about the pharmacokinetic properties of the substances tested, the correlation between molecular mutations and cytogenetic effects and the possible carcinogenic activity. Three nitrofuran derivatives (nitrofurantoin, carofur and FANFT) tested in six different in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity tests partly showed strong genetic activity without metabolic activation and weak cytogenetic effects. However, polycyclic hydrocarbons needed mammalian metabolism to display their mutagenicity: Dimethylbenzoanthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be activated by liver microsomes and showed also cytogenetic effects, but phenanthrene was only active in the SCE-test. Out of nine heavy metal salts potassium chromate, potassium dichromate, calcium chromate and cis-dichloro diammine-Pt(II) were effective in at least one genetic and one cytogenetic test. The correlation between mutagenic and the known carcinogenic activity of all test substances was good in the case of the hydrocarbons and the nitrofuran derivatives; the heavy metal salts, however, are of low relevance for the carcinogenicity of the metals itself.

  1. Chromium containing silica: effect of ultrasonic and purification methods on color products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, M.A.U.; Jafelicci Junior, M.; Davolos, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium containing silica has numerous applications, such as: fiber-optics, luminescent materials, catalysts and pigments. In paint and ceramic pigments, chromate and dichromate ions, and silica are largely used. In this paper, it has been investigated the effect of pH, heating methods, and ultrasonic stirring on chromium oxidation states coprecipitated with silica. The material has been obtained from the coprecipitation of an aqueous diluted sodium silicate solution and acid chromium nitrate solution, purified by extractions and dialysis, and dried with microwave oven. Products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy and nitrogem adsorption isotherm (BET). Coprecipitates are non cristalline and the specific surface area value for sample obtained by conventional heating is smaller than the one for sample obtained by ultrasonic method. It is possible to obtain silica with different colors from blue due to the Cr(III), to yellow due to the Cr (VI), depending on the precipitation, purification and drying methods. (author) [pt

  2. Microscopic changes induced by Cr-VI in smooth muscles of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chromium is believed to be an essential trace element in human nutrition. Evidence suggests that it plays an important role in normal carbohydrate metabolism. It was found that patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without chromium developed glucose intolerance, weight loss and peripheral neuropathy Chromium is present in a normal diet at trace (but essential) levels. Occupational exposure is related to the industrial uses of chrome compounds in production and use of steels, pigments, leather tanning and wood preservation solutions, plating chemicals, and cement. Toxicity is predominantly associated with industrial exposures. Hexavalent chromium compounds appear to have greatest toxicity and almost all tissues of body are affected. To evaluate the effects on smooth muscles, present study was carried out. The mice of experimental group (2wks, 4wks, 6wks ,and 8wks) were injected Potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) intraperitoneally according to experimental design. The drug caused slight to marked inflammation of smooth muscle fibers and vaculations of nuclei was also observed indicating degenerative changes. (author)

  3. Clinical examinations to validate self-completion questionnaires: dermatitis in the UK printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, E J; Rushton, L; English, J S C; Williams, H C

    2002-07-01

    A self-completion questionnaire sent to 2600 Nottinghamshire members of the Graphical Paper and Media Union elicited a 62% response. Forty one per cent of respondents reported suffering a skin complaint at some time and 11% had a current skin problem on the hand. This paper reports the validation stage of the study. Samples of 45 'cases' of self-reported dermatitis and 60 'controls', who reported they had never suffered a skin complaint, were clinically examined. All 45 self-reported cases were clinically confirmed as dermatitis. Occupationally related irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) was diagnosed in 20 (44%); 26 (58%) complaints were thought to be induced or exacerbated by occupation. Of the controls, 21 (35%) were also diagnosed with a skin complaint, the majority being mild, with an occupational association in 17, the majority (15) being ICD. Sixteen ICD cases were patch tested resulting in positive reactions to colophony, neomycin, nickel and potassium dichromate (2 of each). Two cases of basal cell carcinoma on the face were also identified, of which the participants were unaware. Although there was no false positive self-reporting there was a considerable number of false negatives, demonstrating the importance of clinical validation of questionnaires relating to industrial skin disease. This study has highlighted the need for improvement in skin care provision in the printing industry.

  4. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from horse meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaapan, R M; Ghazy, A A

    2007-01-01

    Portions of heart, liver, skeletal and diaphragmatic muscles obtained from 150 slaughtered horses at Giza-Zoo abattoir were used for bioassays in mice and cats. T. gondii tachyzoites were isolated successfully from the peritoneal exudates of the inoculated mice 6-8 days post inoculation with pooled horse tissues. Whereas, T. gondii tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were detected in the impression smears of mice brain on the 45th days or more post infection. The oocysts were detected in feces of cats 3-6 days post feeding on horse tissues containing tissue cysts. The oocysts became sporulated within 3-5 days in 2.5% Potassium dichromate. A total of 79 out of 150 horse meat samples were found to be infected with an incidence rate of 52.6 %. This is the first trial for isolation of T. gondii infective stages from horses in Egypt. Moreover, this study pointed out to the high infection rate of T. gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic materials to be employees as adsorbents of toxic metals; Sintesis y caracterizacion de materiales inorganicos para ser empleados como adsorbentes de metales toxicos y de interes nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J., E-mail: francisco.granados@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In this chapter is described the development of the studies realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) by researchers of the Chemistry Department in the area of water decontamination. The study of the metals separation in aqueous solution through inorganic adsorbents, was initiated in the Chemistry Department, using zeolites for to adsorb metal cations like the cobalt and cadmium. In the year 1995, the separation studies of Co and Cd were realized using zeolite X. On the other hand, the adsorption capacity of the natural clinoptilolite to retain to the cobalt was also studied. With the natural evolution of these works, it began to study the effect of the organic compounds presence in the metals adsorption in zeolites. Apart from the Co and Cd the removal of Ni, Cd and Zn of the water has been investigated using clinoptilolite, heulandite and Hg, also using zeolites like adsorbent material. In the last years, they have been carried out studies on the separation of Cr in form of chromate (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) as of dichromate ions (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2-}), using pouzzolane modified with Fe and tricalcic phosphate. In these works were found that both materials are highly efficient to separate the chromium of aqueous solutions. (Author)

  6. The corrosion protection of aluminum by various anodizing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion protection to 6061-T6 aluminum, afforded by both teflon-impregnated anodized coats (Polylube and Tufram) and hard-anodized coats (water sealed and dichromate sealed), was studied at both pH 5.5 and pH 9.5, with an exposure period of 28 days in 3.5 percent NaCl solution (25 C) for each specimen. In general, corrosion protection for all specimens was better at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5. Protection by a Tufram coat proved superior to that afforded by Polylube at each pH, with corrosion protection by the hard-anodized, water-sealed coat at pH 9.5 providing the best protection. Electrochemical work in each case was corroborated by microscopic examination of the coats after exposure. Corrosion protection by Tufram at pH 9.5 was most comparable to that of the hard-anodized samples, although pitting and some cracking of the coat did occur.

  7. Using thermal analysis to evaluate the fire effects on organic matter content of Andisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Neris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic compounds play a relevant role in aggregate stability and thus, in the susceptibility of soils to erosion. Thermal analysis (N2 and air and chemical oxidation techniques (dichromate and permanganate oxidation were used to evaluate the effects of a forest fire on the organic matter of Andisols. Both thermal analysis and chemical methods showed a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds in the burned zones. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in the thermal stability of the organic compounds of fire-affected soils and a lower content of both labile and recalcitrant pools as a consequence of the fire. However, this decrease was relatively higher in the labile pool and lower in the recalcitrant one, indicative of an increase in the recalcitrance of the remaining organic compounds. Apparently, black carbon did not burn under our experimental conditions. Under N2, the results showed a lower labile and a higher recalcitrant and refractory contents in burned and some unburned soils, possibly due to the lower decomposition rate under N2 flux. Thermal analysis using O2 and the chemical techniques showed a positive relation, but noticeable differences in the total amount of the labile pool. Thermal analysis methods provide direct quantitative information useful to characterize the soil organic matter quality and to evaluate the effects of fire on soils.

  8. Toward the complete utilization of rice straw: Methane fermentation and lignin recovery by a combinational process involving mechanical milling, supporting material and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Yota; Fujino, Ayami; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Fumio; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw was mechanically milled using a process consuming 1.9MJ/kg-biomass, and 10g/L of unmilled or milled rice straw was used as the carbon source for methane fermentation in a digester containing carbon fiber textile as the supporting material. Milling increased methane production from 226 to 419mL/L/day at an organic loading rate of 2180mg-dichromate chemical oxygen demand/L/day, corresponding to 260mLCH4/gVS. Storage of the fermentation effluent at room temperature decreased the weight of the milled rice straw residue from 3.81 to 1.00g/L. The supernatant of the effluent was subjected to nanofiltration. The black concentrates deposited on the nanofiltration membranes contained 53.0-57.9% lignin. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance showed that lignin aromatic components such as p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) were retained primarily, and major lignin interunit structures such as the β-O-4-H/G unit were absent. This combinational process will aid the complete utilization of rice straw. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Proposed plan for the 100-IU-1, 100-IU-3, 100-IU-4, AND 100-IU-5 Operable Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This proposed plan identifies the preferred alternative for the Riverland Rad Yard, the Wahluke Slope, the Sodium Dichromate Baffel Landfill, and the, White Bluffs Pickling Acid Cribs, located at the Hanford Site. These areas are known respectively as the 100-IU-1, 100-IU-3, 100-IU-4, and 100-IU-5 Operable Units. Between 1992 and 1994, each of the four operable units was the subject of an expedited response action that addressed removal of site contaminants in soil. Waste sites in the 100-IU-2 (White Bluffs Townsite) and 100-IU-6 (Hanford Townsite) Operable Units will be addressed in future proposed plans. A proposed plan is intended to be a fact sheet for public review that summarizes the information relied upon to recommend the preferred alternative. As presented in this proposed plan, no further action is the preferred alternative for the final resolution of the 100-IU-1, 100-IU-3, 100-IU-4, and 100-IU-5 Operable Units. The preferred alternative is recommended because all suspect hazardous substances above cleanup levels have been removed from the waste sites, and the sites are unlikely to pose any significant risk to human health or the environment

  10. Colour Fastness and Tensile Strength of Cotton Fabric Dyed with Natural Extracts of Alkanna tinctoria by Continuous Dyeing Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S. P.; Rafique, S.; Inayat, F.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    A natural dye extracted from the roots of alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) was applied on cotton fabric by pad-steam dyeing technique. The study was designed to evaluate the colour fastness and tensile properties of dyed cotton after using various mordants, cationizing agents, UV absorbers and crosslinkers with this natural dye. Metallic mordants included aluminium sulphate, copper sulphate, ferric chloride, potassium dichromate and hydrated potassium aluminum sulphate or alum. Alkanet root extract produced variety of green shades with different dyeing auxiliaries. Better wash, light, crocking fastness; good colour coordinates such as chroma, hue, colour strength and increase in tensile strength was accomplished with post-mordanting of CuSO/sub 4/. Cationization of cotton with quaternary ammonium compound (both pre-treatment and post-treatment) and post-finishing with soft polyurethane emulsion has enhanced the fastness properties, tensile strength as well as relative colour strength (K/S) , whereas, reactive UV absorber based on oxalanilide and heterocyclic compound as UV absorber greatly increased the light fastness of alkanet dyed cotton. Crosslinkers applied with alkanet dye on cotton (methylolation product based on glyoxalmonourein, modified dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea, modified dihydroxy ethylene urea) also improved the fastness but could not bring further development in the shade and K/S value of the dyed sample. (author)

  11. DYEING OF WOOL YARNS WITH LAURUS NOBILIS L. BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN Gökhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural dyes have been attracted by many researchers and firms due to demands on sustainable and nontoxic products. In this study the mature berries of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. were collected from trees located Kuşadası Turkey. The berries dried at 25oC and % 20-25 relative humidity. Dried berries milled and extracted with ethanol. Extracted dye was used. Three mordanting procedure (pre, meta and post mordanting and two concentrations were applied to wool yarns. Cupric sulfate, ferric sulfate, potassium dichromate and alum was used as mordant Color strength and colorimetric values were measured by Konica-Minolta 3600D spectrophotometer. Fastness to washing, perspiration and light were applied according to ISO 105C06 (A1S, ISO 105E04 and ISO 105B02 (method 2 respectively. The highest color strength (K/S value was 16.6405 and was obtained in the case of premordanting with cupric sulfate at 2 gr/L concentration. If the a* and b* values were examined, the conditions at highest color strength, the yarns had yellow color with a reddish hue. Generally, the fastness properties were moderate and good results were obtained in the case of premordanting procedure. The results show us ethanol extract of bay laurel berries can be used for dyeing of woolen products.

  12. Staining human lymphocytes and onion root cell nuclei with madder root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cücer, N; Guler, N; Demirtas, H; Imamoğlu, N

    2005-01-01

    We performed staining experiments on cells using natural dyes and different mordants using techniques that are used for wool and silk dyeing. The natural dye sources were madder root, daisy, corn cockle and yellow weed. Ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate, potassium tartrate, urea, potassium aluminum sulfate and potassium dichromate were used as mordants. Distilled water, distilled water plus ethanol, heptane, and distilled water plus methanol were used as solvents. All dye-mordant-solvent combinations were studied at pH 2.4, 3.2 and 4.2. The generic staining procedure was to boil 5-10 onion roots or stimulated human lymphocyte (SHL) preparations in a dye bath on a hot plate. Cells were examined at every half hour. For multicolor staining, madder-dyed lymphocytes were decolorized, then stained with Giemsa. The AgNOR technique was performed following the decolorization of Giemsa stained lymphocytes. Good results were obtained for both onion root cells and lymphocytes that were boiled for 3 h in a dye bath that included 4 g madder root, 4 g ferrous sulfate as mordant in 50 ml of 1:1 (v/v) methanol:distilled water. The pH was adjusted to 4.2 with 6 ml acetic acid. We conclude that madder root has potential as an alternative dye for staining biological materials.

  13. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry

  14. Observation of a physical matrix effect during cold vapour generation measurement of mercury in emissions samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.C., E-mail: richard.brown@npl.co.uk; Webb, William R.; Goddard, Sharon L.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A matrix effect for CV-AFS measurement of mercury in emissions samples is reported. • This results from the different efficiencies of liberation of reduced mercury. • There is a good correlation between solution density and the size of the effect. • Several methods to overcome the bias are presented and discussed. - Abstract: The observation of a physical matrix effect during the cold vapour generation–atomic fluorescence measurement of mercury in emissions samples is reported. The effect is as a result of the different efficiencies of liberation of reduced mercury from solution as the matrix of the solution under test varies. The result of this is that peak area to peak height ratios decease as matrix concentration increases, passing through a minimum, before the ratio then increases as matrix concentration further increases. In the test matrices examined – acidified potassium dichromate and sodium chloride solutions – the possible biases caused by differences between the calibration standard matrix and the test sample matrix were as large as 2.8% (relative) representing peak area to peak height ratios for calibration standards and matrix samples of 45 and 43.75, respectively. For the system considered there is a good correlation between the density of the matrix and point of optimum liberation of dissolved mercury for both matrix types. Several methods employing matrix matching and mathematical correction to overcome the bias are presented and their relative merits discussed; the most promising being the use of peak area, rather than peak height, for quantification.

  15. Design and optimization of cascaded DCG based holographic elements for spectrum-splitting PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Pelaez, Silvana Ayala; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the technique of designing and optimizing broadband volume transmission holograms using dichromate gelatin (DCG) is summarized for solar spectrum-splitting application. Spectrum splitting photovoltaic system uses a series of single bandgap PV cells that have different spectral conversion efficiency properties to more fully utilize the solar spectrum. In such a system, one or more high performance optical filters are usually required to split the solar spectrum and efficiently send them to the corresponding PV cells. An ideal spectral filter should have a rectangular shape with sharp transition wavelengths. DCG is a near ideal holographic material for solar applications as it can achieve high refractive index modulation, low absorption and scattering properties and long-term stability to solar exposure after sealing. In this research, a methodology of designing and modeling a transmission DCG hologram using coupled wave analysis for different PV bandgap combinations is described. To achieve a broad diffraction bandwidth and sharp cut-off wavelength, a cascaded structure of multiple thick holograms is described. A search algorithm is also developed to optimize both single and two-layer cascaded holographic spectrum splitters for the best bandgap combinations of two- and three-junction SSPV systems illuminated under the AM1.5 solar spectrum. The power conversion efficiencies of the optimized systems under the AM1.5 solar spectrum are then calculated using the detailed balance method, and shows an improvement compared with tandem structure.

  16. Biological reduction of hexavalent chromium and mechanism analysis of detoxification by enterobacter sp. HT1 isolated from tannery effluents, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Marjangul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sp. HT1, Cr (VI resistant bacterial strain was isolated from the wastewater sample of the tannery in Mongolia. Batch experiments on hexavalent chromium removal was carried out at 10, 20, and 30 mg/L of Cr (VI added as potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, at pH 7 and temperature of 30 °C using pure culture of Enterobacter sp. HT1 as inoculum.  The isolated HT1 is capable of reduction nearly 100% of Cr (VI resulting in the decrease of Cr (VI from 10 to 0.2 mg/L within 20 hours. When the concentration of Cr (VI increased to 20 and 30mg/L, almost complete reduction of Cr (VI could achieve after 72 and 96 hours, respectively.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.322 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p47-52

  17. Carbo-cyclohexadienes vs. carbo-benzenes: structure and conjugative properties† †The investigations presented in this report have been performed within the framework of the French-Ukrainian GDRI “Groupement Franco-Ukrainien en Chimie Moléculaire” funded by the CNRS. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, spectroscopic and crystallographic data. CCDC 1003439, 951896 and 951897. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02742f Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Arnaud; Baglai, Iaroslav; Barthes, Cécile; Saffon-Merceron, Nathalie; Saquet, Alix; Voitenko, Zoia; Volovenko, Yulian

    2015-01-01

    Ideally C s-/C 2v-symmetric chromophores, constituted by two electro-active groups conjugated through the carbo-mer of the cyclohexa-1,3-diene core, are selectively prepared by the SnCl2-mediated reduction of tailored hexaoxy-[6]pericyclynes: in the latter substrates, one of the 1,4-dioxybut-2-yne edges is “chemically locked” by two CF3 substituents preventing complete reduction to the corresponding aromatic carbo-benzenic core, which is expected to be more “π-insulating” between the electro-active ends. The bis-trifluoromethylated carbo-cyclohexadiene products are also shown to be significantly stabilized with respect to their bis-phenylated analogues. Their structural (crystal X-ray diffraction analyses), spectroscopical (NMR and UV-vis spectra), physio-optical (dichromism in solution) and electrochemical (cyclic voltammograms) properties are compared on the basis of the electron-donating/electron-withdrawing nature of the substituents. These properties are also compared with those of their aromatic carbo-benzene and flexible carbo-n-butadiene counterparts. PMID:29560201

  18. Amphipod and Sea Urchin tests to assess the toxicity of Mediterranean sediments: the case of Portmán Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cesar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The sediment formed by the tailings of an abandoned mine, which discharged into Portmán Bay, Murcia, SE-Spain, was tested to establish a possible gradient of heavy metals. The results were compared with tolerance limits of what was calculated from control sites. Whole sediment toxicity tests were performed on two amphipod species, Gammarus aequicauda and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, while sediment-water interface and porewater toxicity tests were performed on three sea urchins species, Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of these marine organisms was evaluated by exposure tests using the reference substances: ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. The concentration of heavy metals decreased along the pollution gradient. Amphipod 10 day acute toxicity tests clearly demonstrated the gradient of toxicity. The sediment-water interface tests conducted with sea urchins also pointed to a pollution gradient and were more sensitive than the tests involving amphipods.

  19. Quantum chemical studies on the some inorganic corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some quantum chemical parameters are important to determine inhibition efficiency. •Quantum chemical calculations were performed on six inorganic inhibitors. •Five experimental reports were used to explain the theoretical results. •Atomic charges and %contributions were used to determine the atom at protonation process. •For inorganic inhibitors, the best method and basis set were investigated. -- Abstract: Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated by using Hartree–Fock (HF) approximation, Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) and Møller Plesset perturbation theory (MP3) methods at LANL2DZ, LANL2MB and SDD levels in gas phase and water for dichromate (Cr 2 O 7 2- ), chromate (CrO 4 2- ), tungstate (WO 4 2- ), molybdate (MoO 4 2- ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) which are used as inorganic corrosion inhibitors. All theoretical results and experimental inhibition efficiencies of inhibitors were subjected to correlation analyses. In a summary, MP3/SDD level in water was found as the best level. In this level, the inhibition efficiency ranking was found as CrO 4 2- >WO 4 2- >MoO 4 2- >Cr 2 O 7 2- >NO 2 - ≈NO 3 -

  20. Replication of cultured lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, D.; Bienkowski, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the conditions necessary to support replication of lung type 2 epithelial cells in culture. Cells were isolated from mature fetal rabbit lungs (29d gestation) and cultured on feeder layers of mitotically inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts. The epithelial nature of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining for keratin and by polyacid dichrome stain. Ultrastructural examination during the first week showed that the cells contained myofilaments, microvilli and lamellar bodies (markers for type 2 cells). The following changes were observed after the first week: increase in cell size; loss of lamellar bodies and appearance of multivesicular bodies; increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi; increase in tonafilaments and well-defined junctions. General cell morphology was good for up to 10 wk. Cells cultured on plastic surface degenerated after 1 wk. Cell replication was assayed by autoradiography of cultures exposed to ( 3 H)-thymidine and by direct cell counts. The cells did not replicate during the first week; however, between 2-10 wk the cells incorporated the label and went through approximately 6 population doublings. They have demonstrated that lung alveolar epithelial cells can replicate in culture if they are maintained on an appropriate substrate. The coincidence of ability to replicate and loss of markers for differentiation may reflect the dichotomy between growth and differentiation commonly observed in developing systems

  1. Determination of uranium in uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranyl nitrate solutions by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, H.L.; McElhaney, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple, fast method for the determination of uranium in uranium metal, uranium oxides, and uranyl nitrate solutions has been adapted from the Davies-Gray volumetric method to meet the needs of Y-12. One-gram duplicate aliquots of uranium metal or uranium oxide are dissolved in 1:1 HNO 3 and concentrated H 2 SO 4 to sulfur trioxide fumes, and then diluted to 100-mL volume. Duplicate aliquots are then weighed for analysis. For uranyl nitrate samples, duplicate aliquots containing between 50 and 150 mg of U are weighed and analyzed directly. The weighed aliquot is transferred to a Berzelius beaker; 1.5 M sulfamic acid is added, followed in order by concentrated phosphoric acid, 1 M ferrous sulfate, and (after a 30-second interval) the oxidizing reagent. After a timed 3-minute waiting period, 100 mL of the 0.1% vanadyl sulfate-sulfuric acid mixture is added. The sample is then titrated past its endpoint with standard potassium dichromate, and the endpoint is determined by second derivative techniques on a mV/weight basis

  2. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  3. Antibacterial Dyeing of Wool with Natural Cationic Dye Using Metal Mordants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminoddin HAJI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Berberine colorant extracted from berberis vulgaris root was applied on wool fiber using alum (aluminum potassium sulfate, copper sulfate and potassium dichromate as mordant. The effect of treatment variables such as amount of mordant, time and temperature on the color strength of dyed fibers was examined. The fastness properties of dyed wool against washing, light and wet rubbing were evaluated. the use of metal mordants increased the color strength of the dyed goods. Increase in dyeing time and temperature caused deeper shades. All mordants, increased the rub fastness and wash fastness of dyed samples, but the light fastness was increased except in case of alum. Berberine is a cationic dye and because of it's quaternary ammonium structure can act as an antibacterial agent. So, dyed samples were tested for antibacterial activity using AATCC test method 100-2004. The dyed wool represented a high level of antibacterial activity. The extract of the berberis vulgaris can be considered as a natural dye of acceptable fastness properties together with excellent antibacterial activity for woolen textiles.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2437

  4. Kinetic Studies on the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohols in Organic Medium under Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijudas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and substituted benzyl alcohols in benzene as the reaction medium have been studied by using potassium dichromate under phase transfer catalysis (PTC. The phase transfer catalysts (PT catalysts used were tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB.  Benzyl alcohols were selectively oxidised to corresponding benzaldehydes in good yield (above 90%.  The order of reactivity among the studied benzyl alcohols is p - OCH3 > p - CH3 > - H > p - Cl.  Plots of log k2 versus Hammett's substituent constant (s has been found to be curve shaped and this suggests that there should be a continuous change in transition state with changes in substituent present in the substrate from electron donating to electron withdrawing. A suitable mechanism has been suggested in which the rate determining step involves both C - H bond cleavage and C - O bond formations in concerted manner. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 16th March 2014; Revised: 18th May 2014; Accepted: 18th May 2014[How to Cite: Bijudas, K., Bashpa, P., Nair, T.D.R. (2014. Kinetic Studies on the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol and Substituted Benzyl Alcohols in Organic Medium under Phase Transfer Catalysis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 142-147. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6476.142-147][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6476.142-147] 

  5. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part 2. Reflection Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Choi, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2002-03-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

  6. Volume phase holographic grating used for beams combination of RGB primary colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xizhao; Tang, Minxue

    2013-12-01

    Volume phase holographic grating (VPHG) has the characteristics of high diffraction efficiency, high signal to noise ratio, high wavelength and angular selectivity, low scattering , low absorption and low cost. It has been widely used in high resolution spectrometer, wavelength division multiplexing and pulse compression technique. In this paper, a novel kind of RGB primary colors beams combiner which is consisted of a transmission VPHG and a reflection VPHG as core components is proposed. The design idea of the element is described in detail. Based on the principle of VPHG, the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and Kogelnik's coupled wave theory, diffraction properties of the transmission and reflection VPHG are studied theoretically. As an example, three primary colors at wavelengths of 632.8nm, 532nm and 476.5nm are taken into account. Dichromated gelatin (DCG) is used as the holographic recording material. The grating parameters are determined by the Bragg conditions. The TE and TM wave diffraction efficiency, the wavelength selectivity and the angular selectivity of the transmission and reflection VPHG are calculated and optimized by setting the amplitude of the index modulation (Δn) and the thickness of the gelatin layer (d) by applying Kogelnik's coupled wave theory and G-solver software, respectively. The theoretical calculating results give guidance for further manufacture of the element.

  7. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae in Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius.Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117, M. musculus (n=63 and C. migratorius (n=24 were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively.Results: About 121(59.3% of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%, Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%, Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%, Giardia muris 19(9.3%, Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%, Isospora spp. 4(2% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5% were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31% out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method.Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans.

  8. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  9. Occupational Contact Dermatitis: Workers' Compensation Patch Test Results of Portland, Oregon, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Garrett; Zinsmeister, Chris; Norris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Workers are exposed to potential irritants and allergens with constant introduction of new industrial chemicals in the workplace. Characterize the final diagnoses, demographics, occupations, exposures, clinical presentations, patch test results, dermatologic histories, and risk factors of workers evaluated for suspected work-related allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A retrospective chart review of 310 workers' compensation independent medical examinations evaluated for suspected work-related ACD was performed. Workers were seen in a community dermatology clinic in Portland, Oregon, from 2005 to 2014. Evaluation included history, physical examination, patch testing, and further diagnostic workup when indicated. Hand dermatitis was the most common presentation (n = 148, 47.7%). Prevalent occupations included health care workers (n = 51, 16.5%), custodial staff (n = 41, 13.2%), and machinists (n = 36, 11.6%). Allergic contact dermatitis (47.5%) was more common than irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (38.9%) in those diagnosed as having occupational skin disease (n = 185). The highest-frequency work-related allergens were thiuram mix (21 of 88, 23.9%), carba mix (20 of 88, 22.7%), potassium dichromate (9 of 88, 10.2%), and epoxy resin (9 of 88, 10.2%). Allergic contact dermatitis and ICD are common occupational skin disorders. In this population of workers' compensation referrals, ACD was more common, with 73.3% of those cases work related, compared with 86.7% of ICD. Blue collar work and wet work were risk factors for the development of ACD and ICD.

  10. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51% patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11% showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis.

  11. Patch testing in Israeli children with suspected allergic contact dermatitis: A retrospective study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, Yaron; Trattner, Akiva; Hodak, Emmillia; Eldar, Oren; Lapidoth, Moshe; Ben Amitai, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Childhood allergic contact dermatitis is recognized as a significant clinical problem. The objective was to evaluate the rate of positive patch tests in Israeli children with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis, identify possible sex and age differences, compare results with those in Israeli adults, and review pediatric studies in the literature. The study sample included 343 children and adolescents (197 female, 146 male; 1-18 years of age, mean age 11.8 years) with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis who underwent patch testing with a standard pediatric series of 23 allergens at a tertiary medical center from 1999 to 2012. Data on clinical characteristics and test results were collected retrospectively from the medical files. Ninety-eight subjects (28.6%) (75 girls [38.1%], 23 boys [15.8%]) had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent reactions were to nickel sulfate, followed by potassium dichromate and cobalt chloride. Nickel sulfate sensitivity was more common in girls, especially those younger than 3 years and older than 12 years. The prevalence of contact sensitization was similar in subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (50% and 51%, respectively). Nickel is the most common allergen in Israeli children, especially girls. Patch testing should be performed in children with clinically suspected allergic contact dermatitis regardless of atopic background. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Separation and concentration of uranium by extraction chromatography : U(VI) - H3PO4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobre, J.S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using the extraction chromatographic technique as a way to recover uranium from phosphatic rocks evaluated. The behaviour of uranium from raw phsophoric acid solutions in chromatographic systems using the mixture di(2-ethylhexyl) orthophosphoric acid (D2EHPA) - tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the stationary phase was studied. Materials as alumina, activated carbon and the macroporous resins XAD-4 and XAD-7 were used as supports for organic stationary phase. The best results were obtained with poliacrilic polymer XAD-7, due to its excellent chromatographic properties and efficient organic phase retention. Uranium was quantitatively retained by D2EHPA-TBP-XAD-7 columns from synthetic phosphoric acid solutions with typical composition of phosphatic acid liquors. The elution of uranium from this system was also studied, and the best results were obtained with phosphoric acid solutions. This chromatographic column presented a high stability, not changing their properties even after more than twenty cycles, including the conditioning, sorption, wasking and elution steps. Uranium determinations were perfpormed by indirect titration with potassium dichromate and by molecular absorption spectrophotometry with hydrogen peroxide- carbonate. A new and more sensitive method for uranium determination in phosphoric medium, which might be applied to acid liquors of phosphatic ores, was developed. An extraction-photometric method was used, with Arsenazo III (1,8-dihydroxynaphtalene-3,6-disulphonic acid-2,7-bis(azo-2)-phenylarsonic acid) as the reagent for uranium. (Author) [pt

  13. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  14. Contribution to the study of wastes stabilization by sulfo-aluminate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, S.

    2005-02-01

    Calcium sulfo-aluminate cement is mainly composed of yeelimite known to be a precursor of ettringite formation. Ettringite is able to incorporate several heavy metals by isomorphous substitutions without altering its crystalline structure. The design of a binder required for immobilizing heavy metals was undertaken. The hydration study of clinker, and cement containing 4 amounts of gypsum has been carried out by means of XRD, DTA and IR spectrometry. It was pointed out that the addition of gypsum enhances hydration. Two binders were selected: 80/20 and 70/30. The immobilisation of 7 pollutants was very successful. Nevertheless, damages appeared with the binder 70/30 containing sodium chromate and dichromate: sodium caused activation of yeelimite reactivity and important dissolution of gypsum leading to important ettringite production. With a great amount of gypsum (30 %), dissolution led to secondary ettringite formation which damaged the hardened paste. Adding polyol enhances the retention of sodium chromate. On the other hand, the immobilisation of two types of weakly radioactive wastes supplied by CEA has been made. Results obtained in terms of setting time, compressive strength and leaching were excellent. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the performance of a metrohm titrator titrando-836 in potentiometric analysis of uranium for safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes; Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Barros, Pedro Dionisio de; Araujo, Radier Mario S. de

    2009-01-01

    To achieve the requirements of the Brazilian State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials - SSAC the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, LASAL, has been applying the 'Davies and Gray/NBL' method for Potentiometric determination of total uranium concentration in several forms of nuclear materials since 1984. To improve the accuracy and the repeatability the method uses as titrant, standard reference potassium dichromate NIST SRM 136e and the results are also corrected for bias with NBL CRM 112A uranium metal assay standard. This work describes the assays performed for validation of a Metrohm 836 potentiometric titrator acquired by LASAL in order to improve the analytical methodology of the laboratory. The titrator is attached to a Pt:Rh (90:10) as indicator electrode and a mercurous sulfate as the reference electrode. The evaluation of accuracy and repeatability were made by comparison, the results provided by the titrator with the certified value of standards and also by the participation in round robin program sponsored by New Brunswick Laboratory - NBL. The validation was done by a comparison of the performance between the Metrohm 836 and a Mettler - DL67 titrator which has currently been used by the laboratory. It included evaluation of the results of both equipment, the repeatability of the measurement, any systematic contributions and its uncertainties. (author)

  16. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, B.F.G., E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U.; Silva, J.W.S. da; Barros, P.D. de; Araujo, R.M.S. de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear (PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, PO Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a semi-automatic version of potentiometric titration method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The traceability of the method was assured by a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} primary standard. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} reference material analyzed was consistent with certified value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uncertainty obtained, near 0.01%, is useful for characterization purposes.

  17. A computer controlled potentiometric titrator for quantitative determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdingh, V.; Michiels, A.

    1988-01-01

    The modified Davies and Gray methods is frequently used for the potentiometric titration of uranium. It is based upon the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) with a reductant (e.g. Fe ++ ) followed by a selective oxidation of the excess of reductant and subsequent titration of U(IV) with potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ). Interference from other elements is low, but the method is rather cumbersome due to the number of reactants to be added before the titration is started. The timing of these additions also plays a role. In order to render the titration less dependent on human factors and with the aim of reaching high reproducibility, a computer controlled system has been designed and set-up. Reagents are added by five computer controlled burettes. A program allows the choice of volumes and waiting times, and commands the start of the final titration which is followed by the microprocessor of the automatic potentiometric titrator. In this way a routine uranium titration can be completed in about twelve minutes. Reproducibilities of the order of ±15% are achievable in routine operation. For high precision work, the titrator is used as an end-point detector. Titrant is added manually by mass, so as to react with > 99% of the uranium. The residual uranium is then titrated automatically by colume with diluted titrant. The precision can be improved by a factor of approximately ten. (orig.)

  18. Study on the uranium-cerium extraction and his application to the treatment of irradiated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, Afonso dos Santos Tome

    1979-01-01

    It was made a study on the behavior of uranium and cerium(IV) extraction, using the latter element as a plutonium simulator in a flowsheet of the treatment of irradiated uranium. Cerium(IV) was used under the same conditions as a plutonium in the Purex process because the admitted similar properties. An experimental work was initiated to determine the equilibrium curves of uranium, under the following conditions: concentration of 1 to 20 g U/1 and acidity varying from 1 to 5M in HNO 3 . Other parameters studied were the volumetric ratio of the phases and the influence of the concentration of TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate). To guarantee the cerium(IV) extraction, the diluent (varsol) was previously treated with 10% potassium dichromate in perchloric acid, potassium permanganate in 1M sulphuric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid at 70 deg to eliminate reducing compounds. The results obtained for cerium extraction, allowed a better understanding of its behavior in solution. The results permitted to conclude that the decontamination for cerium are very high in the first Purex extraction cycle. The easy as cerium(IV) is reduced to the trivalent state contributes a great deal to its decontamination. (author)

  19. Biomarkers as a tool to assess effects of chromium (VI): comparison of responses in zebrafish early life stages and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Inês; Oliveira, Rhaul; Lourenço, Joana; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Mendo, Sónia; Soares, A M V M

    2010-09-01

    The present work aims to compare the sensitivity of embryos and adult zebrafish to chromium (VI) (as potassium dichromate) focusing on biomarkers (cholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase) as endpoints. Zebrafish eggs showed less sensitivity to Cr (VI) (96 h-LC50=145.7 mg/L) than adults (96 h-LC50=39.4 mg/L) probably due to the protective action of the chorion. However, biomarkers were much more responsive in larvae than in adults and gave clear indications about Cr (VI) mode of action: it seems to be neurotoxic (inhibited cholinesterase), to inhibit glutathione S-transferase activity and to interfere with cellular metabolic activity (changes in lactate dehydrogenase activity) in larvae. In adults, only glutathione S-transferase was responsive, showing a clear inhibition. The responsiveness of the analyzed biomarkers in larvae reinforces the idea of the usefulness of early life stage assays in the assessment of chemicals effects. Moreover, early life stage assays also contributed with relevant information regarding anomalies in larvae development and behavior. Further research should focus on the use of biomarkers to assess long term effects which are ecologically more relevant. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation and concentration of uranium by extraction chromatography : U(VI) - H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, J S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using the extraction chromatographic technique as a way to recover uranium from phosphatic rocks is evaluated. The behaviour of uranium from raw phsophoric acid solutions in chromatographic systems using the mixture di(2-ethylhexyl) orthophosphoric acid (D2EHPA) - tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the stationary phase was studied. Materials as alumina, activated carbon and the macroporous resins XAD-4 and XAD-7 were used as supports for organic stationary phase. The best results were obtained with poliacrilic polymer XAD-7, due to its excellent chromatographic properties and efficient organic phase retention. Uranium was quantitatively retained by D2EHPA-TBP-XAD-7 columns from synthetic phosphoric acid solutions with typical composition of phosphatic acid liquors. The elution of uranium from this system was also studied, and the best results were obtained with phosphoric acid solutions. This chromatographic column presented a high stability, not changing their properties even after more than twenty cycles, including the conditioning, sorption, washing and elution steps. Uranium determinations were perfpormed by indirect titration with potassium dichromate and by molecular absorption spectrophotometry with hydrogen peroxide- carbonate. A new and more sensitive method for uranium determination in phosphoric medium, which might be applied to acid liquors of phosphatic ores, was developed. An extraction-photometric method was used, with Arsenazo III (1,8-dihydroxynaphtalene-3,6-disulphonic acid-2,7-bis(azo-2)-phenylarsonic acid) as the reagent for uranium.

  1. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  2. Antidotal impact of extra virgin olive oil against genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity induced by hexavalent chromium in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Khalil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo study was carried out to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO has the potential to modulate alterations resulted from exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrVI as potassium dichromate in rats. For this purpose, CrVI was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg bw/day, EVOO was given orally at a dose of 300 μl daily either a lone or co-treated with CrVI at the same doses, routes and duration (26 days. At the end of the experiment, blood and spleen samples were collected. Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity biomarkers induced by CrVI were evaluated. Also, histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of spleen tissue were conducted. A significant increase in genotoxicity and cytotoxicity biomarkers (micronucleus frequency, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine level and lactate dehydrogenase activity were recorded in CrVI treated rats. In addition, the immunotoxicity biomarkers showed a significant decrease in phagocytic%, stimulated nitric oxide production and decrease in the serum lysozyme activity. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies support the cytotoxicity study. Oral administration of EVOO can ameliorate those effects but not restored to control level. Thus, authors recommend that regular consumption of this oil in the diet provides a constant supply of potential antioxidants that could reduce these alterations.

  3. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  4. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  5. Evaluation of charge storage ability of chrome doped Mn2O3 nanostructures derived by cathodic electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Darjazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A facile synthetic route has been proposed to prepare cauliflower-like nanostructures of Cr doped Mn2O3. The synthesis was carried out by constant current cathodic electrodeposition from Mn2+ nitrate solutions containing minor amounts of dichromate. It was found that the presence of Cr mediates the formation of cathodic MnO2 which then reacts with the excess Mn2+ species to form Mn2O3 nanostructures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA were used to characterize the nanostructures. The storage ability of the obtained nanostructures was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV in 0.5 M Na2SO4 solution. The results indicated that the Cr doped manganese oxide material shows better performance than the non-doped one, and the charge capacity (SC of doped manganese oxide (218 F/g was higher than pure manganese oxide (208 F/g.

  6. Response and Bioaccumulation Potential of Boerhavia diffusa L. Towards Different Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam A.K.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different concentrations of heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury and Leadwas studied by cultivating rooted propagules of Boerhavia diffusafor a period of twenty days in Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with known concentration of those heavy metal ions. Concentrations of the metals selected to impart visible symptoms of growth retardation and to permit survival for prolonged period are 30µM cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 400 µM potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, 10 µM mercuric chloride (HgCl2, and 600 µM lead acetate (CH3-COO2Pb. More or less uniform growth performance was shown by the plants irrespective of the differences of concentration of the heavy metals. However, parameters such as root - and stem length, stomatal - and tolerance index varied among the treatments. Significant differences were observed in the heavy metal accumulation potential among metals and between plant parts such as root, stem and leaf and the pattern was dependent on growth period.

  7. Effect of Chromium(VI Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punesh Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg chromium(VI kg−1 soil in the form of potassium dichromate on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI levels from 0 to 2.0 mg chromium(VI kg−1 soil and 4.0 mg chromium(VI kg−1 soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage.

  8. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr 2 O 3 matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr 2 O 3 /RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr 2 O 3 matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr 2 O 3 matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr 2 O 3 matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation

  9. Preparation of explosive nanoparticles in a porous chromium(III) oxide matrix: a first attempt to control the reactivity of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M; Siegert, B; Pichot, V; Gibot, P; Spitzer, D [Laboratoire ISL/CNRS ' Nanomateriaux pour les Systemes Sous Sollicitations Extremes' (NS3E), FRE 3026, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), 5 rue du General Cassagnou, 68301 Saint-Louis (France)], E-mail: comet@isl.tm.fr

    2008-07-16

    This paper reports the first attempt to control the combustion and the detonation properties of a high explosive through its structure. A porous chromium(III) oxide matrix produced by the combustion of ammonium dichromate was infiltrated by hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The structure of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was studied by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RDX nanocomposites were characterized by nitrogen adsorption. A mathematical model based on these techniques was used to demonstrate that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix encloses and stabilizes RDX particles at the nanoscale. The decomposition process of the nanocomposites was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The reactivity and sensitivity of the nanocomposites were studied by impact and friction tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), time-resolved cinematography and detonation experiments, and were correlated with their structure. The size of RDX nanoparticles and their distribution in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix have an important influence on their reactivity. The reactive properties of nanostructured RDX differ significantly from those of classical micron-sized RDX. For instance, the melting point disappears and the decomposition temperature is significantly lowered. The quantization of the explosive particles in the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix decreases the sensitivity to mechanical stress and allows controlling the decomposition mode-i.e. combustion versus detonation.

  10. NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the

  11. RESULTS FROM RECENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS TARGETING CHROMIUM IN THE 100D AREA HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; THOMPSON KM; TONKIN MJ

    2009-12-03

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km{sup 2} of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 {micro}g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of {le}20 {micro}g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to

  12. Results From Recent Science And Technology Investigations Targeting Chromium In The 100D Area, Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.; Thompson, K.M.; Tonkin, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km 2 of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 (micro)g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of (le)20 (micro)g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to treat Cr

  13. Influence of Particle Size on Properties of Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurajica, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite has been applied widely in thermal insulation, adsorption, vibration damping, gasketing, electromagnetic interference shielding etc. It is made by intercalation of natural flake graphite followed by thermal expansion. Intercalation is a process whereby an intercalant material is inserted between the graphene layers of a graphite crystal. Exfoliation, a huge unidirectional expansion of the starting intercalated flakes, occurs when the graphene layers are forced apart by the sudden decomposition and vaporization of the intercalated species by thermal shock. Along with production methodologies, such as the intercalation process and heat treatment, the raw material characteristics, especially particle size, strongly influence the properties of the final product.This report evaluates the influence of the particle size of the raw material on the intercalation and expansion processes and consequently the properties of the exfoliated graphite. Natural crystalline flake graphite with wide particle diameter distribution (between dp = 80 and 425 µm was divided into four size-range portions by sieving. Graphite was intercalated via perchloric acid, glacial acetic acid and potassium dichromate oxidation and intercalation procedure. 5.0 g of graphite, 7.0 g of perchloric acid, 4.0 g of glacial acetic acid and 2.0 g of potassium dichromate were placed in glass reactor. The mixture was stirred with n = 200 min–1 at temperature of 45 °C during 60 min. Then it was filtered and washed with distilled water until pH~6 and dried at 60 °C during 24 h. Expansion was accomplished by thermal shock at 1000 °C for 1 min. The prepared samples were characterized by means of exfoliation volume measurements, simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo-gravimetry (DTA/TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, BET measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.X-ray diffraction indicated a change of distance

  14. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  15. HUMAN CYCLOSPORIASIS DIAGNOSIS: REPORT OF A CASE IN SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Otaviani Di Pietro Fernandes

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of the human cyclosporiasis is reported in São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis has been identified in the feces of a patient by a modified Kinyoun staining method, with later sporulation in a solution of 2.5% potassium dichromate. The probability that this parasite is the eventual cause of gastrointestinal disturbances in the country was stimulated by this finding, which was arrived at by a simple technique. It had been kept in mind that the disease was expressing itself mainly among immunocompromised patients, whose number is increasing; especially in those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV.É relatado o diagnóstico de ciclosporíase humana em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis foi encontrada nas fezes de um indivíduo através de exame pelo método de coloração de Kinyoun modificado, com posterior esporulação em dicromato de potássio a 2,5%. Esta verificação deve estimular a necessidade de considerar a ciclosporíase como eventual causa de distúrbios gastrointestinais no país, podendo ela ser reconhecida até mesmo por meio de técnica razoavelmente simples. Foi ainda lembrado que esta parasitose vem adquirindo expressividade sobretudo pelo fato de não raramente acometer imunodeprimidos, agora cada vez mais numerosos em especial como decorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, que causa a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS.

  16. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Stephen, Sam D.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in follicular development at the secondary follicular stage. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were treated with 10 μM potassium dichromate (CrVI) for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment for 24 h. The effects of CrVI on intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s) were investigated. Our data indicated that CrVI: (i) induced DNA fragmentation and increased apoptosis, (ii) increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK and p-JNK, and selectively translocated p-ERK to the mitochondria and nucleus, (vi) activated caspase-3 and PARP, and (vii) increased phosphorylation of p53 at ser-6, ser-9, ser-15, ser-20, ser-37, ser-46 and ser-392, increased p53 transcriptional activation, and downregulated MDM-2. Vitamin C pre-treatment mitigated CrVI effects on apoptosis and related pathways. Our study, for the first time provides a clear insight into the effect of CrVI on multiple pathways that lead to apoptosis of granulosa cells which could be mitigated by vitamin C.

  17. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  18. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream number-sign 1, Stream number-sign 3, Stream number-sign 6, and Stream number-sign 7. Stream number-sign 1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream number-sign 3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream number-sign 6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft 3 wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream number-sign 7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network's mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable limits

  19. Photoelectrochemical cell for simultaneous electricity generation and heavy metals recovery from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dawei [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xi Kang Road #1, Nanjing 210098 (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: envly@hhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xi Kang Road #1, Nanjing 210098 (China); Li Puma, Gianluca, E-mail: g.lipuma@lboro.ac.uk [Environmental Nanocatalysis & Photoreaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Lianos, Panagiotis [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Xi Kang Road #1, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Polymer capped TiO{sub 2} photoanode consumes photogenerated holes. • Heavy metals reduce on the cathode according to their reduction potentials. • Simultaneous recovery of heavy metals and production of electricity. • Industrial wastewater treatment and production of renewable energy. - Abstract: The feasibility of simultaneous recovery of heavy metals from wastewater (e.g., acid mining and electroplating) and production of electricity is demonstrated in a novel photoelectrochemical cell (PEC). The photoanode of the cell bears a nanoparticulate titania (TiO{sub 2}) film capped with the block copolymer [poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)] hole scavenger, which consumed photogenerated holes, while the photogenerated electrons transferred to a copper cathode reducing dissolved metal ions and produced electricity. Dissolved silver Ag{sup +}, copper Cu{sup 2+}, hexavalent chromium as dichromate Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} and lead Pb{sup 2+} ions in a mixture (0.2 mM each) were removed at different rates, according to their reduction potentials. Reduced Ag{sup +}, Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions produced metal deposits on the cathode electrode which were mechanically recovered, while Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} reduced to the less toxic Cr{sup 3+} in solution. The cell produced a current density J{sub sc} of 0.23 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open circuit voltage V{sub oc} of 0.63 V and a maximum power density of 0.084 mW/cm{sup 2}. A satisfactory performance of this PEC for the treatment of lead-acid battery wastewater was observed. The cathodic reduction of heavy metals was limited by the rate of electron-hole generation at the photoanode. The PEC performance decreased by 30% after 9 consecutive runs, caused by the photoanode progressive degradation.

  20. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Huang, Liping, E-mail: lipinghuang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Pan, Yuzhen [College of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li Puma, Gianluca, E-mail: g.lipuma@lboro.ac.uk [Environmental Nanocatalysis & Photoreaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Fe(III) shuttles electrons for enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs. • The coulombic efficiency increases by 1.6 fold in the presence of Fe(III). • The reduction of Cr(VI) occurs via an indirect Fe(III) mediation mechanism. • Fe(III) decreases the diffusional resistances and the cathode overpotentials. - Abstract: The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO{sub 4}{sup −}) and dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−}) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  1. Thin combiner optics utilizing volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hansen, Sven; Manecke, Christel; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther

    2017-06-01

    The main function of any augmented reality system is to seamlessly merge the real world perception of a viewer with computer generated images and information. Besides real-time head-tracking and room-scanning capabilities the combiner optics, which optically merge the natural with the artificial visual information, represent a key component for those systems. Various types of combiner optics are known to the industry, all with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Beside the well-established solutions based on refractive optics or surface gratings, volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) are a very attractive alternative in this field. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin, flat and invisible in Off Bragg conditions - make them perfectly suitable for their use in integrated and compact combiners. For any consumer application it is paramount to build unobtrusive and lightweight augmented reality displays, for which those volume holographic combiners are ideally suited. Due to processing challenges of (historic) holographic recording materials mass production of vHOE holographic combiners was not possible. Therefore vHOE based combiners found use in military applications only by now. The new Bayfol® HX instant developing holographic photopolymer film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Bayfol® HX provides full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency as well as an unprecedented optical clarity when compared to classical holographic recording materials like silver halide emulsions (AgHX) or dichromated gelatin (DCG). Bayfol® HX film is available in industrial scale and quality. Its properties can be tailored for various diffractive performances and integration methods. Bayfol® HX film is easy to process without any need for chemical or thermal development steps, offering simplified contact-copy mass production

  2. Acute renal failure in acute poisoning: prospective study from a tertiary care centre of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweni, Shah; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Sakthirajan, R; Rajendiran, Chinnasamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2012-03-01

    Cases of people presenting with poisoning are likely to develop acute renal failure (ARF), which may be due to multiple mechanisms/aetiologies. These cases need careful observation and appropriate treatment. To find the risk of ARF among acute poisoning cases, identify the underlying causes and to analyse the outcome. In this prospective study with nested case control, 1,250 cases admitted to the Poison Control, Training and Research Centre of Government General Hospital, Madras Medical College were monitored and evaluated for development of ARF. Patients with history of diabetes/hypertension, known chronic kidney disease, chronic NSAID therapy, those on drugs that increase serum creatinine by inhibiting creatinine secretion and other co-morbid illnesses were excluded. Data were interpreted after subjecting them to bivariate logistic regression and then step wise multivariate analysis. Thirty-two cases developed ARF. Twenty-four were due to snake bite, the rest due to chemical poisons. Chances of developing ARF were greater (6.15%) among the poisoning due to bites and stings than chemical poisoning (0.9%). Five in the former and seven in the latter expired. Among cases bitten by snakes, only 22 (7%) cases bitten by Russell Viper Daboia russelii developed renal failure. Copper sulphate and rat killer poisonings were the commonest causes of chemical induced ARF, dichromate, indigenous medicines and vasmol 33 (paraphenelyne diamine) were the least causes for ARF. None of the patients with organophosphate developed ARF nor did any of the 150 admitted for overdose of medicines developed ARF. The risk of ARF among the cases of poisoning was 2.5%. The outcome of ARF among bites and stings was better than chemical poisoning, and the difference was highly significant (p= 0.005, OR = 0.04-1.0, 95% CI = 0.004-0.38). Early recognition and appropriate measures reduce the occurrence of ARF. © 2011 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care

  3. Electrochemically induced dual reactive barriers for transformation of TCE and mixture of contaminants in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuhui; Yuan, Songhu; Fallahpour, Noushin; Ciblak, Ali; Howard, Joniqua; Padilla, Ingrid; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-11-06

    A novel reactive electrochemical flow system consisting of an iron anode and a porous cathode is proposed for the remediation of mixture of contaminants in groundwater. The system consists of a series of sequentially arranged electrodes, a perforated iron anode, a porous copper cathode followed by a mesh-type mixed metal oxide anode. The iron anode generates ferrous species and a chemically reducing environment, the porous cathode provides a reactive electrochemically reducing barrier, and the inert anode provides protons and oxygen to neutralize the system. The redox conditions of the electrolyte flowing through this system can be regulated by controlling the distribution of the electric current. Column experiments are conducted to evaluate the process and study the variables. The electrochemical reduction on a copper foam cathode produced an electrode-based reductive potential capable of reducing TCE and nitrate. Rational electrodes arrangement, longer residence time of electrolytes and higher surface area of the foam electrode improve the reductive transformation of TCE. More than 82.2% TCE removal efficiency is achieved for the case of low influent concentration (45 mA). The ferrous species produced from the iron anode not only enhance the transformation of TCE on the cathode, but also facilitates transformation of other contaminants including dichromate, selenate and arsenite. Removal efficiencies greater than 80% are achieved for these contaminants in flowing contaminated water. The overall system, comprising the electrode-based and electrolyte-based barriers, can be engineered as a versatile and integrated remedial method for a relatively wide spectrum of contaminants and their mixtures.

  4. Occupational hand dermatitis in a tertiary referral dermatology clinic in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C C; Guo, Y L; Lin, R S

    1995-12-01

    Occupational skin disease is one of the most common occupational diseases. The hand is the most frequent site of involvement in occupational skin disease. We interviewed and examined patients seen in the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the National Taiwan University Medical Center, a tertiary referral center in Taipei City. For patients suspected of having allergic skin diseases, patch testing was carried out using the European standard series and suspected allergens. Occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) was diagnosed according to medical history, work exposure, physical examination, and patch test findings. 36% of patients seen were diagnosed as having OHD. Electronics, hairdressing, medical, chemical, and construction were the most important industries causing OHD. In the 164 patients with OHD, 58.5% had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and 41.5% allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Dorsal fingers, nail folds, and dorsal hands were most frequently involved in patients with ACD; dorsal fingers, volar fingers and fingertips were most frequently involved in those with ICD. Using logistic regression analysis, we were able to identify the most important clinical presentations that predicted the types of OHD, ACD versus ICD. Patients with atopic history and palm involvement were more likely to have ICD, and those with nail fold involvement more likely to have ACD. In patients with ACD, the most important allergens were dichromate, nickel, cobalt, fragrance mix, epoxy resin, thiuram mix, and p-phenylenediamine. In this study, we identified the important industries and causal agents for OHD. Future preventive measures focused on these industries and agents to reduce OHD will be warranted.

  5. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of protein with deep eutectic solvent immobilized magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Ding, Xueqin; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2016-01-01

    As a new type of green solvent, four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized, and then a core-shell structure magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4-NH2@GO) nanoparticles have been prepared and coated with the ChCl-based DESs. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of proteins. The characteristic results of vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicated the successful preparation of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES. The concentrations of proteins in studies were determined by a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The advantages of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@DES in protein extraction were compared with Fe3O4-NH2@GO and Fe3O4-NH2, and Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. The influence factors of the extraction process such as the pH value, the temperature, the extraction time, the concentration of protein and the amount of Fe3O4-NH2@GO@ChCl-glycerol were evaluated. Desorption experimental result showed 98.73% of BSA could be eluted from the solid extractant with 0.1 mol/L Na2HPO4 solution contained 1 mol/L NaCl. Besides, the conformation of BSA was not changed during the elution by the investigation of circular dichromism (CD) spectra. Furthermore, the analysis of real sample demonstrated that the prepared magnetic nanoparticles did have extraction ability on proteins in bovine whole blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in Yozgat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen Özel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Patch testing is valuable in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD as well as in determining the causative agent and thus is helpful in prevention of the disease and also provides information for the patient Material and Method: Hundred and sixty-eight patients (94 female and 74 male with ACD were patch tested with European standard series. Patch test result were assessed according to suggestion of International Contact Dermatitis Research Group at 48 and 72 hours after initial application. Results: Of the patients, 64.3% were between 16-45 years of age and majority of the lesions (57.1% were localized on the hands. A total of 86 (51.1% patients had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate (20.2% followed by potassium dichromate (8.3%, cobalt chloride (7.1%, fragrance mix (7.1%, paraphenylendiamine base (6%, paraben mix 3.6%, N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (3.6%, wool alcohols (3.6%, formaldehyde (3.6%, quaternium-15 (3.6%. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were more common among women, especially those in younger group. Frequency of contact allergy to neomycin sulfate, epoxy resin, 4-tert-butylphenolformaldehyde resin, sesquiterpenelactone mix, primin, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-1, budesonide, lyral were relatively low (1.2%, while no positive reaction was obtained to clioquinol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in any case. Conclusion: Since no similar study has been previously performed in our area, this study provides information about contact allergen profile in patients underwent skin patch test with a diagnosis of AKD at Yozgat. The most frequent allergens detected with ASS and frequency rates may vary among different facilities at various cities of Turkey. A standard series for our country may be created after assessment of regional variability by new studies conducted in same time zone.

  7. Contact allergy in patients with rosacea: a clinic-based, prospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappe, U; Schäfer, T; Schnuch, A; Uter, W

    2008-11-01

    Rosacea is a relatively common inflammatory skin disease of unknown prevalence. The proportion of contact allergy complicating rosacea and its therapy, respectively, is largely unknown. To estimate the prevalence of specific contact allergy in rosacea patients and to compare this with the prevalence observed in the general population and in general patch test patients. In this prospective monocentre study, 78 patients with rosacea were investigated for contact sensitizations via patch testing the standard series, constituents of topical formulations, preservatives, fragrances, topically applied drugs and, if available, patient's own products. Positive reactions occurred to nickel (II) sulphate (12 of 78, 15.4%), fragrance mix I (4 of 77, 5.2%), balsam of Peru (8 of 77, 10.4%; significantly elevated prevalence compared to that observed in the population-based KORA study), potassium dichromate (4 of 78, 5.1%) and Lyral (3 of 78, 3.8%). Regarding topical antibiotics, only 1 of 78 (1.3%) patients was positive to neomycin sulphate, and none to metronidazole; however, 6 of 75 (8%) patients were positive to gentamicin sulphate, and 4 of 76 (5.3%) patients were positive to framycetin sulphate. No allergic but irritant patch test reactions, instead, were provoked by various patients' own products as well as by the irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) even in low concentrations. Despite the limited power of the study, a strikingly high prevalence of contact allergy to gentamicin sulphate was observed, which is probably due to antibiotic treatment of rosacea-associated eye symptoms. The reactions to the irritant SLS probably mirror the extreme skin sensitivity in rosacea.

  8. Partitioning and recovery of neptunium from high level waste streams of PUREX origin using 30% TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Balarama Krishna, M.V.; Iyer, R.H.; Chitnis, R.R.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    237 Np is one of the longest-lived nuclides among the actinides present in the high level waste solutions of reprocessing origin. Its separation, recovery and transmutation can reduce the problem of long term storage of the vitrified waste to a great extent. With this objective, the present work was initiated to study the extraction of neptunium into TBP under the conditions relevant to high level waste, along with uranium and plutonium by oxidising it to hexavalent state using potassium dichromate and subsequently recovering it by selective stripping. Three types of simulated HLW solutions namely sulphate bearing (SB), with an acidity of ∼ 0.3 M and non-sulphate wastes originating from the reprocessing of fuels from pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) with acidities of 3.0 M HNO 3 were employed in these studies. The extraction of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) was very high for PHWR- and FBR-HLW solutions, whereas for the SB-HLW solution, these values were less but reasonably high. Quantitative recovery of neptunium and plutonium was achieved using a stripping solution containing 0.1 M H 2 O 2 and 0.01 M ascorbic acid at an acidity of 2.0 M. Since, cerium present in the waste solutions is expected to undergo oxidation in presence of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , its extraction behaviour was also studied under similar conditions. Based on the results, a scheme was formulated for the recovery of neptunium along with plutonium and was successfully applied to actual high level waste solution originating from the reprocessing of research reactor fuels. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  9. Optimization of Davies and Gray/NBL method used for determination of total uranium concentration in the safeguards destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Barros, Pedro Dionisio de; Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G., E-mail: wanderley@ird.gov.br, E-mail: agonzalez@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pedrodio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One important activity conducted by the Brazilian State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials - SSAC is to verify inventories of the nuclear facilities by nondestructive analysis and destructive analysis. For destructive analysis, the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - LASAL/CNEN has been applying the 'Davies and Gray/NBL' method in samples taken during inspections at nuclear facilities since 1984 in Brazil and Argentina. This method consists of the determination of total uranium concentration by potentiometric titration of uranium (IV) with a standard solution of potassium dichromate as oxidizing agent. This solution is prepared using a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} SRM 136e standard reference material (99.984 ±0.010) wt% certified by National Institute of Standard and Technology - NIST. The procedure also includes the calibration with primary uranium standards reference material (NBL CRM 112A). In order to reduce the consumption of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the other reagent involved in the procedure, without any loss in the performance of the method, a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} solution with half the regular concentration was prepared and used to test the uranium concentration in several aliquots with a content between 30 mg to 40 mg of uranium per gram of solution. After optimizing the parameters and procedure, it was possible to get the same performance as well. As a consequence, decreasing of the cost, the amount of waste and also a reduction in the titration time of each aliquot was achieved. Thus, this work describes all details in this research as well as the results and its evaluation. (author)

  10. Low cost chemical oxygen demand sensor based on electrodeposited nano-copper film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy H. Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available copper electrical cable and pure Cu disk were used as substrates for the electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles (nano-Cu. The surface morphology of the prepared nano-Cu/Cu electrodes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX. The bare copper substrates and the nano-copper modified electrodes were utilized and optimized for electrochemical assay of chemical oxygen demand (COD using glycine as a standard. A comparison was made among the four electrodes (i.e., bare and nano-Cu coated copper cable and pure copper disk as potential COD sensors. The oxidation behavior of glycine was investigated on the surface of the prepared sensors using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The results indicate significant enhancement of the electrochemical oxidation of glycine by the deposited nano-Cu. The effects of different deposition parameters, such as Cu2+ concentration, deposition potential, deposition time, pH, and scan rate on the response of the prepared sensors were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the optimal nano-Cu based COD sensor exhibited a linear range of 2–595 mg/L, lower limit of detection (LOD as low as 1.07 mg/L (S/N = 3. The developed method exhibited high tolerance level to Cl− ion where 1.0 M Cl− exhibited minimal influence. The sensor was utilized for the detection of COD in different real water samples. The results obtained were validated using the standard dichromate method.

  11. North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results: 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Erin M; Belsito, Donald V; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for determination of substances responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. This study reports the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch testing results from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a screening series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends were analyzed using χ2 statistics. A total of 4308 patients were tested. Of these, 2614 (60.7%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2284 (46.3%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Four hundred twenty-seven (9.9%) patients had occupationally related skin disease. There were 6855 positive allergic reactions. As compared with the previous reporting period (2007-2008), the positive reaction rates statistically decreased for 20 allergens (nickel, neomycin, Myroxylon pereirae, cobalt, formaldehyde, quaternium 15, methydibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol, methylchlorisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, potassium dichromate, diazolidinyl urea, propolis, dimethylol dimethylhydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, glyceryl thioglycolate, dibucaine, amidoamine, clobetasol, and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea; P < 0.05) and statistically increased for 4 allergens (fragrance mix II, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, propylene glycol, and benzocaine; P < 0.05). Approximately one quarter of tested patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. Hypothetically, approximately one quarter of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been missed by TRUE TEST (SmartPractice Denmark, Hillerød, Denmark). These results affirm the value of patch testing with many allergens.

  12. Investigation of the Mode of Action Underlying the Tumorigenic Response Induced in B6C3F1 Mice Exposed Orally to Hexavalent Chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Haws, Laurie C.; Hébert, Charles D.; Grimes, Sheila D.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Kopec, Anna K.; Hixon, J.Gregory; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Harris, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ingestion of high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water induces intestinal tumors in mice. To investigate the mode of action (MOA) underlying these tumors, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted using similar exposure conditions as in a previous cancer bioassay, as well as lower (heretofore unexamined) drinking water concentrations. Tissue samples were collected in mice exposed for 7 or 90 days and subjected to histopathological, biochemical, toxicogenomic, and toxicokinetic analyses. Described herein are the results of toxicokinetic, biochemical, and pathological findings. Following 90 days of exposure to 0.3–520 mg/l of sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), total chromium concentrations in the duodenum were significantly elevated at ≥ 14 mg/l. At these concentrations, significant decreases in the reduced-to-oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) were observed. Beginning at 60 mg/l, intestinal lesions were observed including villous cytoplasmic vacuolization. Atrophy, apoptosis, and crypt hyperplasia were evident at ≥ 170 mg/l. Protein carbonyls were elevated at concentrations ≥ 4 mg/l SDD, whereas oxidative DNA damage, as assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, was not increased in any treatment group. Significant decreases in the GSH/GSSG ratio and similar histopathological lesions as observed in the duodenum were also observed in the jejunum following 90 days of exposure. Cytokine levels (e.g., interleukin-1β) were generally depressed or unaltered at the termination of the study. Overall, the data suggest that Cr(VI) in drinking water can induce oxidative stress, villous cytotoxicity, and crypt hyperplasia in the mouse intestine and may underlie the MOA of intestinal carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:21712504

  13. Identifying a novel role for X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2 in CrVI-induced adverse effects on germ cell nest breakdown and follicle development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Sakhila K; Stanley, Jone A; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Arosh, Joe A; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC widely used in more than 50 industries, including chrome plating, welding, wood processing, and tanneries. Recent data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicate increased levels of Cr in drinking water from several American cities, which potentially predispose residents to various health problems. Recently, we demonstrated that gestational exposure to CrVI caused POF in F1 offspring. The current study was performed to identify the molecular mechanism behind CrVI-induced POF. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm of potassium dichromate from Gestational Day (GD) 9.5 to GD 14.5 through drinking water, and the fetuses were exposed to CrVI through transplacental transfer. Ovaries were removed from the fetuses or pups on Embryonic Day (ED) 15.5, ED 17.5, Postnatal Day (PND) 1, PND 4, or PND 25, and various analyses were performed. Results showed that gestational exposure to CrVI: 1) increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis and advanced germ cell nest (GCN) breakdown; 2) increased X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2, a POF marker in humans, during GCN breakdown; 3) decreased Xpnpep2 during postnatal follicle development; and 4) increased colocalization of Xpnpep2 with Col3 and Col4. We also found that Xpnpep2 inversely regulated the expression of Col1, Col3, and Col4 in all the developmental stages studied. Thus, CrVI advanced GCN breakdown and increased follicle atresia in F1 female progeny by targeting Xpnpep2. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  14. Prenatal exposure to chromium induces early reproductive senescence by increasing germ cell apoptosis and advancing germ cell cyst breakdown in the F1 offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Kirthiram K; Stanley, Jone A; Arosh, Joe A; Pepling, Melissa E; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2014-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries such as chrome plating, welding, wood processing and tanneries. As one of the world's leading producers of chromium compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against multiple adverse effects of CrVI. CrVI is rapidly converted to CrIII intracellularly, and can induce apoptosis through different mechanisms. Our previous studies demonstrated postnatal exposure to CrVI results in a delay or arrest in follicle development and puberty. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from gestational day (GD) 9.5 to 14.5 through drinking water, placentae were removed on GD 20, and total Cr was estimated in the placentae; ovaries were removed from the F1 offspring on postnatal day (PND)-1 and various analyses were performed. Our results show that gestational exposure to CrVI resulted in (i) increased Cr concentration in the placenta, (ii) increased germ cell apoptosis by up-regulating p53/p27-Bax-caspase-3 proteins and by increasing p53-SOD-2 co-localization; (iii) accelerated germ cell cyst (GCC) breakdown; (iv) advanced primordial follicle assembly and primary follicle transition and (v) down regulation of p-AKT, p-ERK and XIAP. As a result of the above events, CrVI induced early reproductive senescence and decrease in litter size in F1 female progeny. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [History of studies of alcohol toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The early history of forensic alcohology was presented, based on writings from the beginning of the 20th century and numerous forensic medical protocols from autopsies performed in Institute of Forensic Medicine in Cracow in the 19th and 20th century. Ethanol has not been considered a poison for a long time. Suspicion of its toxic effect resulted from cases of deaths as a results of people betting who can drink more alcohol. In case of alcohol poisoning, autopsy does not show any typical changes, so the poisonings have not been recognized for many years. At the beginning of the 20th century, the first chemical tests appeared. They were able to detect the presence of alcohol in tissues. A method for measuring the amount of alcohol in blood was also developed. The majority of methods were based on distillation of blood and inspection of the resultant distillate by physical methods (interferometry, colorimetry, refractometry, gravimetry, measuring thermal expansion and electrical conduction) or chemical methods using different reactions (oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid, reducing potassium dichromate by alcohol, alkylation of iodine by alcohol) and marking the amount of products of reaction by titration. Distillation of blood samples required complicated chemical devices and was very time consuming. Erik Widmark suggested a certain method in 1920, in which distillation of a blood sample took place in the same container, in which titration was performed earlier--the so-called Widmark's Flask. It allowed for distilling many samples in an incubator at the same time and dramatically shortened the time of research. Widmark's method was applied to testing drivers and people who committed crimes and was used in the whole world for many following years.

  16. Nuclear energy - Uranium dioxide powder and sintered pellets - Determination of oxygen/uranium atomic ratio by the amperometric method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies an analytical method for the determination of the oxygen/uranium atomic ratio in uranium dioxide powder and sintered pellets. The method is applicable to reactor grade samples of hyper-stoichiometric uranium dioxide powder and pellets. The presence of reducing agents or residual organic additives invalidates the procedure. The test sample is dissolved in orthophosphoric acid, which does not oxidize the uranium(IV) from UO 2 molecules. Thus, the uranium(VI) that is present in the dissolved solution is from UO 3 and/or U 3 O 8 molecules only, and is proportional to the excess oxygen in these molecules. The uranium(VI) content of the solution is determined by titration with a previously standardized solution of ammonium iron(II) sulfate hexahydrate in orthophosphoric acid. The end-point of the titration is determined amperometrically using a pair of polarized platinum electrodes. The oxygen/uranium ratio is calculated from the uranium(VI) content. A portion, weighing about 1 g, of the test sample is dissolved in orthophosphoric acid. The dissolution is performed in an atmosphere of nitrogen or carbon dioxide when sintered material is being analysed. When highly sintered material is being analysed, the dissolution is performed at a higher temperature in purified phosphoric acid from which the water has been partly removed. The cooled solution is titrated with an orthophosphoric acid solution of ammonium iron(II) sulfate, which has previously been standardized against potassium dichromate. The end-point of the titration is detected by the sudden increase of current between a pair of polarized platinum electrodes on the addition of an excess of ammonium iron(II) sulfate solution. The paper provides information about scope, principle, reactions, reagents, apparatus, preparation of test sample, procedure (uranium dioxide powder, sintered pellets of uranium dioxide, highly sintered pellets of uranium dioxide and determination

  17. An optimised protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria from chickens☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Moftah, Abdalgader; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Chaudhry, Abdul S.; Sparagano, Olivier; Banerjee, Partha S.; Kundu, Krishnendu; Tomley, Fiona M.; Blake, Damer P.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular approaches supporting identification of Eimeria parasites infecting chickens have been available for more than 20 years, although they have largely failed to replace traditional measures such as microscopy and pathology. Limitations of microscopy-led diagnostics, including a requirement for specialist parasitological expertise and low sample throughput, are yet to be outweighed by the difficulties associated with accessing genomic DNA from environmental Eimeria samples. A key step towards the use of Eimeria species-specific PCR as a sensitive and reproducible discriminatory tool for use in the field is the production of a standardised protocol that includes sample collection and DNA template preparation, as well as primer selection from the numerous PCR assays now published. Such a protocol will facilitate development of valuable epidemiological datasets which may be easily compared between studies and laboratories. The outcome of an optimisation process undertaken in laboratories in India and the UK is described here, identifying four steps. First, samples were collected into a 2% (w/v) potassium dichromate solution. Second, oocysts were enriched by flotation in saturated saline. Third, genomic DNA was extracted using a QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit protocol including a mechanical homogenisation step. Finally, nested PCR was carried out using previously published primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1). Alternative methods tested included sample processing in the presence of faecal material, DNA extraction using a traditional phenol/chloroform protocol, the use of SCAR multiplex PCR (one tube and two tube versions) and speciation using the morphometric tool COCCIMORPH for the first time with field samples. PMID:24138724

  18. Determination of thermal properties of Cs2Cr2O7(s,l) by high temperature Calvet calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.; Agarwal, R.; Roy, K.N.; Iyer, V.S.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Enthalpy increments have been determined for caesium dichromate in the temperature range 335 to 826 K using a high temperature Calvet micro calorimeter. A solid-solid transition has been observed at (620.5±1.5 K) and the melting temperature was found to be (657.0±1.0) K. The corresponding enthalpy values are 15.6±0.2) kJ/mol and 17.0±0.22) kJ/mol. The results thus obtained are utilised for the evaluation of molar heat capacities, standard entropies and free energy functions for Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 (s,l). The enthalpy increment values were fitted to a polynomial and can be presented by eqs. (1) to (3), respectivley: (1) (H T 0 -H 0 298.15 )(Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,s) (J/mol)=-6.410x10 4 +1.939x10 2 T(K)+7.441x10 -2 T(K) 2 (335 to 620.5 K), (2) (H T 0 -H 0 298.15 )(Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,s) (J/mol)=1.313x10 6 -4.137x10 3 T(K)+3.517T(K) 2 (620.5 to 656 K), (3) (H T 0 -H 0 298.15 )(Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,l) (J/mol)=-1.218x10 5 +3.890x10 2 T(K) (657 to 826 K). (orig.)

  19. Potentiometric determination of hexavalent uranium in uranium silicide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlegui, Oscar

    1999-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear Materials has among its projects the production of fuels elements for nuclear reactors, and, therefore, the Chemical Analysis Laboratory must have a rapid and reliable method for uranium analysis, to control the uranium concentration during each stage of the production process. For this reason the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Chemical Analysis Laboratory has validated a potentiometric method, which is a modification of the Davies and Gray method proposed by A.R. Eberle. This method uses the Potentiometric Titration Technique and is based on the direct and rapid reduction of uranium (VI) to Uranium (IV), in a concentrated phosphoric acid medium, with excess iron (II) used as a reducing agent. In this medium the excess iron (II) selectively oxidizes to iron (III) with nitric acid, using molybdenum (IV) as a catalyzer, the nitrous acid that is produced is eliminated by adding amidosulfuric acid. The solution is diluted with 1M sulfuric acid and the uranium (IV) obtained is titrated potentiometrically with potassium dichromate in the presence of vanadilic sulfate to obtain a better defined final titration point. The samples were softened with hydrochloric acid and nitric acid and later 50 ml were estimated in a 20% sulfuric acid medium. The analytical method was validated by comparing it with Certified Reference Material (C.R.M.) from the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), Metallic Uranium, CRM 112-A. The F Test and the T Test show that the value calculated is less than the tabulated value so the result is traceable to the reference material. The quantification limit, sensitivity, precision and accuracy were quantified for the method

  20. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  1. Boric/sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum alloys 2024 and 7075: Film growth and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.E.; Zhang, L.; Smith, C.J.E.; Skeldon, P.

    1999-11-01

    The influence of boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) additions to sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were examined for the anodizing of Al 2024-T3 (UNS A92024) and Al 7075-T6 (UNS A97075) alloys at constant voltage. Alloys were pretreated by electropolishing, by sodium dichromate (Na{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7})/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (CSA) etching, or by alkaline etching. Current-time responses revealed insignificant dependence on the concentration of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} to 50 g/L. Pretreatments affected the initial film development prior to the establishment of the steady-state morphology of the porous film, which was related to the different compositions and morphologies of pretreated surfaces. More detailed studies of the Al 7075-T6 alloy indicated negligible effects of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} on the coating weight, morphology of the anodic film, and thickening rate of the film, or corrosion resistance provided by the film. In salt spray tests, unsealed films formed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or mixed acid yielded similar poor corrosion resistances, which were inferior to that provided by anodizing in chromic acid (H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}). Sealing of films in deionized water, or preferably in chromate solution, improved corrosion resistance, although not matching the far superior performance provided by H{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} anodizing and sealing.

  2. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) using silicon nanowire arrays under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellahi, Ouarda [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré—BP 70478, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l' Energétique-CRTSE 02, Bd Frantz Fanon, BP. 140, Alger 7 Merveilles (Algeria); Barras, Alexandre [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré—BP 70478, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Pan, Guo-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Dong Nanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China); Coffinier, Yannick [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré—BP 70478, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Hadjersi, Toufik [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l' Energétique-CRTSE 02, Bd Frantz Fanon, BP. 140, Alger 7 Merveilles (Algeria); Maamache, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systèmes Dynamiques, Département de Physique, Université de Sétif, Sétif 19000 (Algeria); Szunerits, Sabine [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré—BP 70478, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); and others

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) using silicon nanowires decorated with Cu nanoparticles. • The reduction takes place at room temperature and neutral pH under visible light. • The photocatalytic reduction was enhanced by addition of adipic or citric acid. - Abstract: We report an efficient visible light-induced reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) to trivalent Cr(III) by direct illumination of an aqueous solution of potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) in the presence of hydrogenated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) or silicon nanowires decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs-SiNWs) as photocatalyst. The SiNW arrays investigated in this study were prepared by chemical etching of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution. The Cu NPs were deposited on SiNW arrays via electroless deposition technique. Visible light irradiation of an aqueous solution of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (10{sup −4} M) in presence of H-SiNWs showed that these substrates were not efficient for Cr(VI) reduction. The reduction efficiency achieved was less than 10% after 120 min irradiation at λ > 420 nm. Addition of organic acids such as citric or adipic acid in the solution accelerated Cr(VI) reduction in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, Cu NPs-SiNWs was found to be a very efficient interface for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in absence of organic acids. Almost a full reduction of Cr(VI) was achieved by direct visible light irradiation for 140 min using this photocatalyst.

  3. Electrochemical membrane reactor: In situ separation and recovery of chromic acid and metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jeeshan; Tripathi, Bijay P.; Saxena, Arunima; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane reactor with three compartments (anolyte, catholyte and central compartment) based on in-house-prepared cation- and anion-exchange membrane was developed to achieve in situ separation and recovery of chromic acid and metal ions. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the ion-exchange membrane under standard operating conditions reveal its suitability for the proposed reactor. Experiments using synthetic solutions of chromate and dichromate of different concentrations were carried out to study the feasibility of the process. Electrochemical reactions occurring at the cathode and anode under operating conditions are proposed. It was observed that metal ion migrated through the cation-exchange membrane from central compartment to catholyte and OH - formation at the cathode leads to the formation of metal hydroxide. Simultaneously, chromate ion migrated through the anion-exchange membrane from central compartment to the anolyte and formed chromic acid by combining H + produced their by oxidative water splitting. Thus a continuous decay in the concentration of chromate and metal ion was observed in the central compartment, which was recovered separately in the anolyte and catholyte, respectively, from their mixed solution. This process was completely optimized in terms of operating conditions such as initial concentration of chromate and metal ions in the central compartment, the applied cell voltage, chromate and metal ion flux, recovery percentage, energy consumption, and current efficiency. It was concluded that chromic acid and metal ions can be recovered efficiently from their mixed solution leaving behind the uncharged organics and can be reused as their corresponding acid and base apart from the purifying water for further applications

  4. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  5. Exploiting gas diffusion for non-invasive sampling in flow analysis: determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vicente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A tubular gas diffusion PTFE membrane is exploited for non-invasive sampling in flow analysis, aiming to develop an improved spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. The probe is immersed into the sample, allowing ethanol to diffuse through the membrane. It is collected into the acceptor stream (acidic dichromate solution, leading to formation of Cr(III, monitored at 600 nm. The analytical curve is linear up to 50% (v/v ethanol, baseline drift is Uma membrana tubular de PTFE permeável a espécies gasosas foi empregada como sonda em sistemas de análises em fluxo visando a proposta de uma estratégia de amostragem não invasiva. Como aplicação, foi selecionada a determinação espectrofotométrica de etanol em bebidas alcoólicas. A sonda é imersa na amostra, permitindo que o analito se difunda através desta e seja coletado pelo fluxo aceptor (solução ácida de dicromato, levando à formação de Cr(III, o qual é monitorado a 600 nm. Linearidade da curva analítica é verificada até 50,0% (v/v de etanol (r > 0,998; n = 8, derivas de linha base são menores do que 0,005 absorbância durante períodos de 4 horas de operação e a velocidade analítica é de 30 h-1 o que corresponde a 0.6 mmol K2Cr2O7 por determinação. Os resultados são precisos (d.p.r. < 2% e concordantes com aqueles obtidos por um método oficial.

  6. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD, SITE WASHINGTON, USA - 11507

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, J.L.; Biebesheimer, F.H.; Eluskie, J.A.; Spiliotopoulos, A.; Tonkin, M.J.; Simpkin, T.

    2011-01-01

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km 2 (2.7 mi 2 ) with concentrations greater than 20 (micro)g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 (micro)g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 (micro)g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 (micro)g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  7. C-14 measurements in organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagner, Irina; Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, Ioan; Faurescu, Ionut; Bogdan, Diana; Faurescu, Denisa; Cuna, Stela

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The CO 2 direct absorption method of preparing samples for radiocarbon analysis by liquid scintillation counting has been successfully applied in many laboratories primarily for 'dating' the groundwater. Even if the method follows the similar principle as by the benzene synthesis method, time less consuming by the direct absorption method is a strong motivation enhancing the type of samples that can be prepared by this method. The samples used to settle the procedure were various types of soil and slurry from the bottom sediments in rivers and lakes. The carbon occurring in those samples can be inorganic or organic carbon. Inorganic carbon can be analyzed by direct absorption method rather easy by sample acidification and CO 2 capture. In this work it has been investigated a hybrid method that connects the wet oxidation of organic carbon with direct absorption method. The wet oxidation with potassium dichromate 1N solution, in presence of concentrated sulphuric acid and silver sulphate was applied to samples, prior acidification to release inorganic carbon as CO 2 . To overcome the concern of incomplete digestion of organic matter, the procedure was conducted by extensive heating of the sample during wet oxidation process. Possibilities of occurrence of isotopic fractionation during CO 2 production from raw material were investigated by measuring δ 13 C from sample and the CO 2 obtained. Special attention was paid to sample preparation technique and the 'direct absorption method' has been used with few 'home-made' improvements in order to increase the reproducibility and accuracy of this simple and less-time consuming method. (authors)

  8. Preparation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles for superthermites by the detonation of an explosive nanocomposite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, Marc, E-mail: marc.comet@isl.eu; Pichot, Vincent; Siegert, Benny; Fousson, Eric [NS3E, UMR 3208 ISL/CNRS, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) (France); Mory, Julien; Moitrier, Florence [French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) (France); Spitzer, Denis [NS3E, UMR 3208 ISL/CNRS, French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) (France)

    2011-05-15

    This article reports on the preparation of chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles by detonation. For this purpose, a high explosive-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-has been solidified from a solution infiltrated into the macro- and mesoporosity of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder obtained by the combustion of ammonium dichromate. The resulting Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RDX nanocomposite material was embedded in a cylindrical charge of pure explosive and detonated in order to fragment the metallic oxide into nanoparticles. The resulting soot contains Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, amorphous carbon species and inorganic particles resulting from the erosion by the blast of the detonation tank wall. The purification process consists in (i) removing the carbonaceous species by an oxidative treatment at 500 Degree-Sign C and (ii) dissolving the mineral particles by a chemical treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Contrary to what could be expected, the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles formed during the detonation are twice larger than those of initial Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The detonation causes the fragmentation of the porous oxide and the melting of resulting particles. Nanometric droplets of molten Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} are ejected and quenched by the water in which the charge is fired. Despite their larger size, the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles prepared by detonation were found to be less aggregated than those of the initial oxide used as precursor. Finally, the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} synthesized by detonation was used to prepare a superthermite with aluminium nanoparticles. This material possesses a lower sensitivity and a more regular combustion compared to the one made of initial Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. Development of modified flyash as a permeable reactive barrier medium for a former manufactured gas plant site, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, R.; Phillips, D. H.; McGeough, K. L.; Walsh, K. P.; Kalin, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    A sequential biological permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was determined to be the best option for remediating groundwater that has become contaminated with a wide range of organic contaminants (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (i.e., lead and arsenic), and cyanide at a former manufactured gas plant after 150 years of operation in Portadown, Northern Ireland. The objective of this study was to develop a modified flyash that could be used in the initial cell within a sequential biological PRB to filter complex contaminated groundwater containing ammonium. Flyash modified with lime (CaOH) and alum was subjected to a series of batch tests which investigated the modified cation exchange capacity (CEC) and rate of removal of anions and cations from the solution. These tests showed that a high flyash composition medium (80%) could remove 8.65 mol of ammonium contaminant for every kilogram of medium. The modified CEC procedure ruled out the possibility of cation exchange as the major removal mechanism. The medium could also adsorb anions as well as cations (i.e., Pb and Cr), but not with the same capacity. The initial mechanism for Pb and Cr removal is probably precipitation. This is followed by sorption, which is possibly the only mechanism for the removal of dichromate anions. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed very small (productive zeolite formation. Surface area measurements showed that biofilm growth on the medium could be a major factor in the comparative reduction of surface area between real and synthetic contaminant groundwaters. The modified flyash was found to be a highly sorptive granular material that did not inhibit microbiological activity, however, leaching tests revealed that the medium would fail as a long-term barrier material.

  10. Interlaboratory validation of 1% pluronic l92 surfactant as a suitable, aqueous vehicle for testing pesticide formulations using the murine local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Wiescinski, Connie M; Botham, Phil; Lees, David; Debruyne, Eric; Repetto-Larsay, Marina; Ladics, Gregory; Hoban, Denise; Gamer, Armin; Remmele, Marina; Wang-Fan, Weizheng; Ullmann, Ludwig G; Mehta, Jyotigna; Billington, Richard; Woolhiser, Michael R

    2008-09-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has become the preferred test for evaluating the dermal sensitization potential of chemicals and requirements are now emerging for its use in the evaluation of their formulated products, especially in the European Union. However, despite its widespread use and extensive validation, the use of this assay for directly testing mixtures and formulated products has been questioned, which could lead to repeat testing using multiple animal models. As pesticide formulations are typically a specific complex blend of chemicals for use as aqueous-based dilutions, traditional vehicles prescribed for the LLNA may change the properties of these formulations leading to inaccurate test results and hazard identification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an aqueous solution of Pluronic L92 block copolymer surfactant (L92) as a vehicle in the mouse LLNA across five laboratories. Three chemicals with known sensitization potential and four pesticide formulations for which the sensitization potential in guinea pigs and/or humans had previously been assessed were used. Identical LLNA protocols and test materials were used in the evaluation. Assessment of the positive control chemicals, hexylcinnamaldehyde, formaldehyde, and potassium dichromate revealed positive results when using 1% aqueous L92 as the vehicle. Furthermore, results for these chemicals were reproducible among the five laboratories and demonstrated consistent relative potency determinations. The four pesticide formulations diluted in 1% aqueous L92 also demonstrated reproducible results in the LLNA among the five laboratories. Results for these test materials were also consistent with those generated previously using guinea pigs or from human experience. These data support testing aqueous compatible chemicals or pesticide formulations using the mouse LLNA, and provide additional support for the use of 1% aqueous L92 as a suitable, aqueous-based vehicle.

  11. Epidemiology of Eimeria species in selected broiler farms of Khoy suburb, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is an economically-important disease of poultry production industry worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different Eimeria species in the farmed broilers of Khoy city, West Azarbaijan, North West Iran. A total of 26 broiler farms of different production capacities were arbitrarily selected and examined in 2013. In each of the farms, Litters of two broilers farms were randomly sampled twice a week and examined. The intensity of infection with each of the Eimeria species was assessed on the basis of number of oocysts per gram of litter using Clayton-Lane and McMaster methods. Eimeria species diversity was determined by using oocyst sporulation technique in 2% potassium dichromate solution. Results indicated that 23.08% (6/26 of the broiler farms were infected with Eimeria oocysts. The maximum litter infection rate (7.5×103 was observed in fifth week of the rearing period. The litter infection rate was significantly correlated with kinds of water dispenser, feeder, ventilation, and density. The litters were infected with five Eimeria species; E. maxima (32.67% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. mitis (24% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. acervulina (18% in 5 farms (19.23%, E. tenella (14.67% in 4 farms (15.38%, and E. necatrix (10.67% in 3 farms (11.58%. Results of this study uncovered high rates of litter infection with various Eimeria species in the studied farms, suggesting the establishment of firm health management strategies in the region.

  12. Mechanistic insight into chromium(VI) reduction by oxalic acid in the presence of manganese(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, Katarzyna; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez Ibarra, Alan Alexander; Mendez Garcia, Manuel; Yanez Barrientos, Eunice; Wrobel, Kazimierz, E-mail: kazimier@ugto.mx

    2015-12-30

    Over the past few decades, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been studied in many physicochemical contexts. In this research, we reveal the mechanism underlying the favorable effect of Mn(II) observed during Cr(VI) reduction by oxalic acid using liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric diode array detector (HPLC–DAD), nitrogen microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC–MP-AES), and high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI–QTOFMS). Both reaction mixtures contained potassium dichromate (0.67 mM Cr(VI)) and oxalic acid (13.3 mM), pH 3, one reaction mixture contained manganese sulfate (0.33 mM Mn(II)). In the absence of Mn(II) only trace amounts of reaction intermediates were generated, most likely in the following pathways: (1) Cr(VI) → Cr(IV) and (2) Cr(VI) + Cr(IV) → 2Cr(V). In the presence of Mn(II), the active reducing species appeared to be Mn(II) bis-oxalato complex (J); the proposed reaction mechanism involves a one-electron transfer from J to any chromium compound containing Cr=O bond, which is reduced to Cr−OH, and the generation of Mn(III) bis-oxalato complex (K). Conversion of K to J was observed, confirming the catalytic role of Mn(II). Since no additional acidification was required, the results obtained in this study may be helpful in designing a new, environmentally friendly strategy for the remediation of environments contaminated with Cr(VI).

  13. Photopolymer holographic recording material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. R.; O'Neill, F. T.; Sheridan, J. T.

    Photopolymers are promising materials for use in holography. They have many advantages, such as ease of preparation, and are capable of efficiencies of up to 100%. A disadvantage of these materials is their inability to record high spatial frequency gratings when compared to other materials such as dichromated gelatin and silver halide photographic emulsion. Until recently, the drop off at high spatial frequencies of the material response was not predicted by any of the diffusion based models available. It has recently been proposed that this effect is due to polymer chains growing away from their initiation point and causing a smeared profile to be recorded. This is termed a non-local material response. Simple analytic expressions have been derived using this model and fits to experimental data have allowed values to be estimated for material parameters such as the diffusion coefficient of monomer, the ratio of polymerisation rate to diffusion rate and the distance that the polymer chains spread during holographic recording. The model predicts that the spatial frequency response might be improved by decreasing the mean polymer chain lengths and/or by increasing the mobility of the molecules used in the material. The experimental work carried out to investigate these predictions is reported here. This work involved (a) the changing of the molecular weights of chemical components within the material (dyes and binders) and (b) the addition of a chemical retarder in order to shorten the polymer chains, thereby decreasing the extent of the non-local effect. Although no significant improvement in spatial frequency response was observed the model appears to offer an improved understanding of the operation of the material.

  14. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with occupational contact dermatitis: A 3-year single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD is responsible for 80-90% of the occupational dermatoses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical features of patients with OCD admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: The records of patients, who were admitted to our hospital with OCD between December 2009 and January 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred fifty-nine patients, who were diagnosed with OCD according to the Mathias criteria, were included in the study. Age, sex, location of the lesions, atopic status, glove use, occupational exposure time and total IgE levels of the patients were assessed. Patients with positive allergic reaction with "European Standard Series Skin Patch Test" were identified as allergic OCD and patients with negative test results as "irritant OCD". The clinical features and patch results of patients are evaluated. Results: One hundred fifty-nine patients with a mean age of 39±7.9 years consisted of 151 men and 8 women. The hands were the most common site of OCD; the palms were the most common affected areas of hand eczema. Eighty-one patients (50.1% were identified to have allergic OCD and 78 (49.9% as irritant OCD. Irritant OCD was most commonly seen in dental technicians, whereas allergic OCD was most commonly seen in tailors. The top 3 most frequent allergens were potassium dichromate (15.1%, nickel sulfate (9.11% and cobalt chloride (10.7%. Conclusion: In our country, there has been no comprehensive study presenting the clinical and descriptive characteristics of OCD. For preventing OCD and reducing sick leave we need to have data that belong to our country. Consequently, multicenter studies should be performed for establishing our own database on OCD.

  15. Pediatric Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Clinical and Epidemiological Study in a Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Salvador, J M; Esteve Martínez, A; Subiabre Ferrer, D; Victoria Martínez, A M; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, J; Zaragoza Ninet, V

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis in children. Underdiagnosis has been observed in some studies, with many cases in which the condition is not suspected clinically and patch tests are not performed. However, the prevalence of pediatric sensitization to allergens has been reported to be as high as 20%, and the diagnosis should therefore be contemplated as a possibility in this age group. We performed a retrospective analysis of the skin allergy database of the Dermatology Department of Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia. Children between 0 and 16 years of age diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis in the previous 15 years (between 2000 and 2015) were included in the analysis. Epidemiological (age, sex, history of atopy) and clinical (site of the lesions, allergen series applied, positive reactions, and their relevance) variables were gathered. Patch tests had been performed on 4,593 patients during the study period. Of these, 265 (6%) were children aged between 0 and 16 years. A positive reaction to at least one of the allergens tested was observed in 144 (54.3%) patients in that group. The allergens most frequently identified were the following (in decreasing order of frequency): thiomersal, cobalt chloride, colophony, paraphenylenediamine, potassium dichromate, mercury, and nickel. The sensitization was considered relevant in 177 (61.3%) cases. More than half of the children studied showed sensitization to 1 or more allergens, with a high percentage of relevant sensitizations. All children with a clinical suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis should be referred for patch testing. As no standardized test series have been developed for this age group, a high level of clinical suspicion and knowledge of the allergens most commonly involved are required when selecting the allergens to be tested. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis: Three years retrospective results in Tekirdağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Erfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to allergens in individuals who were sensitized with same allergens before. The causative allergens may change in time as well as vary among geographical and population based differences. Materials and Methods: The characteristics of 169 patients-107 (63.3% male, 62 (36.7% female, who patch tested between 2011- 2014 with allergic contact dermatitis diagnosis and test results were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of all patients who had the most frequent occupation as service sector/house wife (26.6% were 41.06 years and the mean disease duration of all patients was 19.5 months. The most frequent localization of disease was hands (n: 105,%73 and %50.3 of patients had positivity with at least one allergen. The most frequent seven allergens with positivity were nickel sulfate (n: 50, %29.6, cobalt chloride (n: 23, %13.6, potassium dichromate (n: 22, %13, sesquiterpene lactone mix (n: 18, %10.7, thiuram (n: 10, %5.9, clioquinol mix (n: 10, %5.9 and 4-tert-butilfenol formaldehyde resin (n: 10, %5.9, respectively. On the other hand in all patients there were no positivity with N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, epoxy resin, balsam of peru, formaldehyde, quaternium-15, primin, tixocortol-21-pivalate, fragrance mix-2. Conclusion: In comparison of this study which first reports patch test results of patients in Tekirdağ-a city in Trakya region and other studies that report patch test results of different regions of our country; the mean age of patients of present study were older and there were similar results for occupations and localization of disease in between eastern region and present study. We believe that further studies are needed to specify allergen characteristics of Trakya region using multicenter studies, which include other cities as well.

  17. Hand eczema: Correlation of morphologic patterns, atopy, contact sensitization and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand eczema is a common distressing condition aggravated by a number of endogenous and exogenous factors. Various morphological forms of hand eczema have been described, but categorization into one of them is not always possible. Aims: To study the morphological patterns of hand eczema, relationship of atopy with hand eczema, and the implications of contact sensitization with respect to severity and diagnosis of hand eczema. Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of hand eczema attending the contact dermatitis clinic of the institute were recruited over a two year period from 2004-05. Objective assessment was done using hand eczema severity index (HECSI and all the patients were patch tested using Indian standard series. Results: Unspecified type of hand eczema with no definite morphologic picture was seen in 62% followed by pompholyx in 14%. Hand eczema severity was not found to be statistically associated with age, sex, and atopic status of the patient. Positive patch test to one or more allergen was present in 65% of patients. The most common allergens were potassium dichromate (25%, fragrance mix (16%, nickel sulphate (14%, and PPD (13%. There was no significant correlation between patch test positivity and hand eczema severity or atopic status of the patient. Among the morphological patterns pompholyx was strongly associated with an atopic status (P=0.004. Conclusions: Hand eczema was seen twice more commonly in men. Atopic and non-atopic patients of hand eczema had no difference in the severity of disease. Contact sensitivity to different allergens did not correlate with increased eczema severity.

  18. Redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis of metallic arsenic for antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Tomihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroe; Suzuki, Junsuke; Shibata, Yasue.

    1979-01-01

    In 1 M HCl solution Sb(III) reacts with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) to form a complex extractable into chloroform while the extraction of Sb(V) is negligible. The redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis based on this reaction was applied to the determination of antimony in metallic arsenic. After the dissolution of metallic arsenic, Sb(V) was separated from As(V) by a tribenzylamine extraction from 8 M HCl solution and the extracted Sb(V) was stripped into 0.5 M NaOH solution. Thereafter, all the Sb(V) were completely reduced to Sb(III) by bubbling SO 2 gas through 3 M HCl solution. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by a substoichiometric amount of potassium dichromate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BPHA extraction of Sb(III). The substoichiometric oxidation of Sb(III) was found to be quantitative over HCl concentration range from 0.8 to 1.2 M. The amount of antimony was determined by isotope dilution analysis using the method of carrier amount variation. By the present method the determination of as small as 0.36 μg antimony was accomplished with a good accuracy (relative error; 5.6%) and also the method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in arsenic samples containing known amounts of Sb(III) and in metallic arsenic. The present method gives reliable results with the good accuracy and precision. (author)

  19. Optimization of Davies and Gray/NBL method used for determination of total uranium concentration in the safeguards destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Barros, Pedro Dionisio de; Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G.

    2013-01-01

    One important activity conducted by the Brazilian State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials - SSAC is to verify inventories of the nuclear facilities by nondestructive analysis and destructive analysis. For destructive analysis, the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - LASAL/CNEN has been applying the 'Davies and Gray/NBL' method in samples taken during inspections at nuclear facilities since 1984 in Brazil and Argentina. This method consists of the determination of total uranium concentration by potentiometric titration of uranium (IV) with a standard solution of potassium dichromate as oxidizing agent. This solution is prepared using a K 2 Cr 2 O 7 SRM 136e standard reference material (99.984 ±0.010) wt% certified by National Institute of Standard and Technology - NIST. The procedure also includes the calibration with primary uranium standards reference material (NBL CRM 112A). In order to reduce the consumption of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and the other reagent involved in the procedure, without any loss in the performance of the method, a K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution with half the regular concentration was prepared and used to test the uranium concentration in several aliquots with a content between 30 mg to 40 mg of uranium per gram of solution. After optimizing the parameters and procedure, it was possible to get the same performance as well. As a consequence, decreasing of the cost, the amount of waste and also a reduction in the titration time of each aliquot was achieved. Thus, this work describes all details in this research as well as the results and its evaluation. (author)

  20. Potentiometric titrations of molybdenum and vanadium in aqueous and mixed so lvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Dhaneshwar, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Potentiometric titration method was developed for molybdenum, employing different electrode systems. Molybdenum(VI) is reduced to molybdenum(V) by ferrous solution in presence of phosphoric acid and then titrated with potassium dichromate. It was found that ferrous concentration should be five times more than molybdenum and phosphoric acid should be 1.0 ml for 0.1N titration and 0.5 ml for lower concentration titrations. The method is also applicable to vanadium titrations. Employing Au/SCE and Pt/SCE systems, it was observed that generally curve heights obtained for platinum electrode are higher than those for gold electrode. Also for both the electrode systems, the curve heights for vanadium titrations were found to be more than those for molybdenum. Lower limits of titrations for Au/SCE system are 0.01N for molybdenum and 0.0001N for vanadium, whereas for Pt/SCE system, the lower limits obtained were 0.01N for both molybdenum and vanadium titrations. In order to improve the sensitivities of the method, the bimetallic electrode systems Au/Pt and Pt/Au were employed. Au/Pt system was found to give better results than Pt/Au systems. Addition of organic solvent was found to have beneficial effects for titrations of 0.001N and below. Methanol was found to be a better solvent than ethanol. Molybdenum titrations, at 0.0001N level could be performed in methanol with Au/Pt system, which is to b e generally preferred than Pt/Au system. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Determination of uranium and plutonium by sequential potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The determination of uranium and plutonium in mixed oxide fuels has been developed by sequential potentiometric titration. A weighed sample of uranium and plutonium oxides is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the solution is fumed with sulfuric acid. After the reduction of uranium and plutonium to uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) by chromium(II) sulfate, 5 ml of buffer solution (KCl-HCl, pH 1.0) is added to the solution. Then the solution is diluted to 30 ml with water and the pH of the solution is adjusted to 1.0 -- 1.5 with 1 M sodium hydroxide. The solution is stirred until the oxidation of the excess of chromium(II) by air is completed. After the removal of dissolved oxygen by bubbling nitrogen through the solution for 10 minutes, uranium (IV) is titrated with 0.1 N cerium(IV) sulfate. Then, plutonium is titrated by 0.02 N cerium(IV) sulfate. When a mixture of uranium and plutonium is titrated with 0.1 N potassium dichromate potentiometrically, the potential change at the end point of plutonium is very small and the end point of uranium is also unclear when 0.1 N potassium permanganate is used as a titrant. In the present method, nitrate, fluoride and copper(II) interfere with the determination of plutonium and uranium. Iron interferes quantitatively with the determination of plutonium but not of uranium. Results obtained in applying the proposed method to 50 mg of mixtures of plutonium and uranium ((7.5 -- 50))% Pu were accurate to within 0.15 mg of each element. (auth.)

  2. Chromate adsorption on selected soil minerals: Surface complexation modeling coupled with spectroscopic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselská, Veronika, E-mail: veselskav@fzp.czu.cz [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcka 129, CZ-16521, Prague (Czech Republic); Fajgar, Radek [Department of Analytical and Material Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the CAS, v.v.i., Rozvojová 135/1, CZ-16502, Prague (Czech Republic); Číhalová, Sylva [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcka 129, CZ-16521, Prague (Czech Republic); Bolanz, Ralph M. [Institute of Geosciences, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 10, DE-07745, Jena (Germany); Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph [ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, DE-76344, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Siddique, Jamal A.; Komárek, Michael [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcka 129, CZ-16521, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Study of Cr(VI) adsorption on soil minerals over a large range of conditions. • Combined surface complexation modeling and spectroscopic techniques. • Diffuse-layer and triple-layer models used to obtain fits to experimental data. • Speciation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was assessed. - Abstract: This study investigates the mechanisms of Cr(VI) adsorption on natural clay (illite and kaolinite) and synthetic (birnessite and ferrihydrite) minerals, including its speciation changes, and combining quantitative thermodynamically based mechanistic surface complexation models (SCMs) with spectroscopic measurements. Series of adsorption experiments have been performed at different pH values (3–10), ionic strengths (0.001–0.1 M KNO{sub 3}), sorbate concentrations (10{sup −4}, 10{sup −5}, and 10{sup −6} M Cr(VI)), and sorbate/sorbent ratios (50–500). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the surface complexes, including surface reactions. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is strongly ionic strength dependent. For ferrihydrite at pH <7, a simple diffuse-layer model provides a reasonable prediction of adsorption. For birnessite, bidentate inner-sphere complexes of chromate and dichromate resulted in a better diffuse-layer model fit. For kaolinite, outer-sphere complexation prevails mainly at lower Cr(VI) loadings. Dissolution of solid phases needs to be considered for better SCMs fits. The coupled SCM and spectroscopic approach is thus useful for investigating individual minerals responsible for Cr(VI) retention in soils, and improving the handling and remediation processes.

  3. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Alka [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ballal, Anand, E-mail: aballal@barc.gov.in [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 40085 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with {sup 51}Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  4. Effects of mineral additives on biochar formation: carbon retention, stability, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiyue; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Jianfei; Ding, Zhenliang

    2014-10-07

    Biochar is being recognized as a promising tool for long-term carbon sequestration, and biochar with high carbon retention and strong stability is supposed to be explored for that purpose. In this study, three minerals, including kaolin, calcite (CaCO3), and calcium dihydrogen phosphate [Ca(H2PO4)2], were added to rice straw feedstock at the ratio of 20% (w/w) for biochar formation through pyrolysis treatment, aiming to improve carbon retention and stabilization in biochar. Kaolin and CaCO3 had little effect on the carbon retention, whereas Ca(H2PO4)2 increased the carbon retention by up to 29% compared to untreated biochar. Although the carbon loss from the kaolin-modified biochar with hydrogen peroxide oxidation was enhanced, CaCO3 and Ca(H2PO4)2 modification reduced the carbon loss by 18.6 and 58.5%, respectively. Moreover, all three minerals reduced carbon loss of biochar with potassium dichromate oxidation from 0.3 to 38.8%. The microbial mineralization as CO2 emission in all three modified biochars was reduced by 22.2-88.7% under aerobic incubation and 5-61% under anaerobic incubation. Enhanced carbon retention and stability of biochar with mineral treatment might be caused by the enhanced formation of aromatic C, which was evidenced by cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicated that the three minerals, especially Ca(H2PO4)2, were effective in increasing carbon retention and strengthening biochar stabilization, which provided a novel idea that people could explore and produce the designated biochar with high carbon sequestration capacity and stability.

  5. Marked seasonality of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections: ten-year observation of hospital cases, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Lagos, Javier; Raudales Santos, Gabriela; Urrutia, Samuel

    2016-02-04

    Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras. Retrospective non interventional hospital-based study analyzed laboratory results from the period 2002 to 2011 of fresh and Ziehl-Nielsen carbolfuchsin stained routine stool samples received for parasitologic examination. Sporadically a sample with numerous oocysts was allowed to sporulate in 2.5 % potassium dichromate confirming the presence of bi-cystic bi-zoic oocysts. A total of 35,157 fecal samples were examined during a ten-year span, of which a third (28.4 %) was stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin method diagnosing a total of 125 (1.3 %) C.cayetanensis infections. A statistically significant apparent seasonality was observed most years during May to August (range p < 0.036-0.001), with 83.3 % of 125 cases occurring in those rainy months. All C. cayetanensis cases came from urban poor neighborhoods; male/female relation was 1:1 except in 2006, when all patients were females (p = 0.05; r(2) = 22,448). Forty four point eight percent of the stool samples were diarrheic or liquid and 65.6 % infections were identified in children 10 years old or less. Enteric helminths and protozoa co-infected Cyclospora positive patients in 52 instances.: 8 % Ascaris lumbricoides, 8 % Giardia duodenalis, 23.2 % Blastocystis spp. and less frequently Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura. Results suggest a seasonal pattern for Cyclospora infections diagnosed in a clinical setting during the rainy months in Tegucigalpa and surrounding areas. Community studies should be conducted to support or dispute these observations.

  6. Impact of Fe(III) as an effective electron-shuttle mediator for enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells: Reduction of diffusional resistances and cathode overpotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Quan, Xie; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe(III) shuttles electrons for enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs. • The coulombic efficiency increases by 1.6 fold in the presence of Fe(III). • The reduction of Cr(VI) occurs via an indirect Fe(III) mediation mechanism. • Fe(III) decreases the diffusional resistances and the cathode overpotentials. - Abstract: The role of Fe(III) was investigated as an electron-shuttle mediator to enhance the reduction rate of the toxic heavy metal hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in wastewaters, using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The direct reduction of chromate (CrO_4"−) and dichromate (Cr_2O_7"2"−) anions in MFCs was hampered by the electrical repulsion between the negatively charged cathode and Cr(VI) functional groups. In contrast, in the presence of Fe(III), the conversion of Cr(VI) and the cathodic coulombic efficiency in the MFCs were 65.6% and 81.7%, respectively, 1.6 times and 1.4 folds as those recorded in the absence of Fe(III). Multiple analytical approaches, including linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and kinetic calculations demonstrated that the complete reduction of Cr(VI) occurred through an indirect mechanism mediated by Fe(III). The direct reduction of Cr(VI) with cathode electrons in the presence of Fe(III) was insignificant. Fe(III) played a critical role in decreasing both the diffusional resistance of Cr(VI) species and the overpotential for Cr(VI) reduction. This study demonstrated that the reduction of Cr(VI) in MFCs was effective in the presence of Fe(III), providing an alternative and environmentally benign approach for efficient remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated sites with simultaneous production of renewable energy.

  7. Chromium-Induced Ultrastructural Changes and Oxidative Stress in Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios P. Eleftheriou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (Cr is an abundant heavy metal in nature, toxic to living organisms. As it is widely used in industry and leather tanning, it may accumulate locally at high concentrations, raising concerns for human health hazards. Though Cr effects have extensively been investigated in animals and mammals, in plants they are poorly understood. The present study was then undertaken to determine the ultrastructural malformations induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI], the most toxic form provided as 100 μM potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, in the root tip cells of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A concentration-dependent decrease of root growth and a time-dependent increase of dead cells, callose deposition, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production and peroxidase activity were found in Cr(VI-treated seedlings, mostly at the transition root zone. In the same zone, nuclei remained ultrastructurally unaffected, but in the meristematic zone some nuclei displayed bulbous outgrowths or contained tubular structures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER was less affected under Cr(VI stress, but Golgi bodies appeared severely disintegrated. Moreover, mitochondria and plastids became spherical and displayed translucent stroma with diminished internal membranes, but noteworthy is that their double-membrane envelopes remained structurally intact. Starch grains and electron dense deposits occurred in the plastids. Amorphous material was also deposited in the cell walls, the middle lamella and the vacuoles. Some vacuoles were collapsed, but the tonoplast appeared integral. The plasma membrane was structurally unaffected and the cytoplasm contained opaque lipid droplets and dense electron deposits. All electron dense deposits presumably consisted of Cr that is sequestered from sensitive sites, thus contributing to metal tolerance. It is concluded that the ultrastructural changes are reactive oxygen species (ROS-correlated and the malformations observed are organelle specific.

  8. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  10. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Resins are prepared by chemically bonding N,N-dialkylamides and polyamine functional groups to Amberlite XAD-4. These resins are applied to the concentration of metal ions from dilute aqueous solution and the rapid separation of metal ions by high-speed liquid chromatography with continuous on-line detection of the eluent stream. A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from seawater. A triethylenetetramine resin is used for the separation of copper(II) from equal molar amounts and large excesses of nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), iron(III) and aluminum(III). Copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and cadmium(II) are determined in the presence of large excesses of calcium(II) and magnesium(II). The resin was found to be selective for silver(I) and mercury(II) at low pH values and a rapid separation of equal molar amounts of copper(II) and silver(I) was performed. The resin was also found to have an affinity for anionic metal complexes such as iron(III)-tartrate when the resin is in the hydrogen form. A study of the retention of the anions chromium(III)-tartrate and dichromate at various pH values was performed to better understand the anion exchange properties of the resin. Triethylenetetramine resins were also prepared from polystyrene gel to make a resin with higher capacities for copper

  11. Turbidimetric determination of polyacrylamide in aqueous solutions with the use of oxidizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpyuk, A.D.; Kolyada, N.S.; Pshenichnikova, E.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is widely used in industry. For example, one of the methods for obtaining microspheres of metal oxides, particularly a mixed nuclear fuel, is based on a process involving the ammoniacal precipitation of hydroxides from aqueous solutions of metal nitrates in the presence of polyacrylamide (PAA), which promotes the formation of spheres in the initial stages of the process. Monitoring the industrial process, the course of the treatment of the production waste products, and the composition of the waste water calls for determination of the content of PAA in industrial solutions. The existing methods for determining PAA are based on its chemical properties, which are specified by the presence of amide groupings in its molecule. The use of the classical methods of analysis, which are based on the reactions of PAA with formaldehyde, sulfuric acid, etc. and the hydrolysis of PAA, do not provide reliable results, since PAA is partially or completely hydrolyzed in industrial solutions. In addition, industrial solutions contain various modifiers, including urea and urotropin, and the method of determining PAA from the amount of ammonia evolved is consequently unacceptable. Turbidimetric methods of analysis, in which the content of PAA is evaluated from the turbidity caused by the formation of suspension during hydrolysis or upon the introduction of NaClO 4 or diisotubylphenoxyethoxyethyldimethylbenzyl chloride, are known. The purpose of the present work was to develop a simple quick method for determining polymers in solutions, including solutions from the production and treatment of nuclear fuel. The following reagents were proposed for the turbidimetric determination of PAA: cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium dichromate, and potassium permanganate. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  13. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by

  14. Aberration of mitosis by hexavalent chromium in some Fabaceae members is mediated by species-specific microtubule disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P; Michalopoulou, Vasiliki A; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S

    2015-05-01

    Because the detrimental effects of chromium (Cr) to higher plants have been poorly investigated, the present study was undertaken to verify the toxic attributes of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to plant mitotic microtubules (MTs), to determine any differential disruption of MTs during mitosis of taxonomically related species and to clarify the relationship between the visualized chromosomal aberrations and the Cr(VI)-induced MT disturbance. For this purpose, 5-day-old uniform seedlings of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis and Vigna angularis, all belonging to the Fabaceae family, were exposed to 250 μM Cr(VI) supplied as potassium dichromate (K₂Cr₂O₇) for 24, 72 and 120 h and others in distilled water serving as controls. Root tip samples were processed for tubulin immunolabelling (for MT visualization) and DNA fluorescent staining (for chromosomal visualization). Microscopic preparations of cell squashes were then examined and photographed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cr(VI) halted seedling growth turning roots brown and necrotic. Severe chromosomal abnormalities and differential disturbance of the corresponding MT arrays were found in all mitotic phases. In particular, in V. faba MTs were primarily depolymerized and replaced by atypical tubulin conformations, whereas in P. sativum, V. sinensis and V. angularis they became bundled in a time-dependent manner. In P. sativum, the effects were milder compared to those of the other species, but in all cases MT disturbance adversely affected the proper aggregation of chromosomes on the metaphase plate, their segregation at anaphase and organization of the new nuclei at telophase. Cr(VI) is very toxic to seedling growth. The particular effect depends on the exact stage the cell is found at the time of Cr(VI) entrance and is species-specific. Mitotic MT arrays are differentially deranged by Cr(VI) in the different species examined, even if they are taxonomically related, while their

  15. Relationship between soil oxidizable carbon and physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of umbric ferralsols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Adriano Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Umbric Ferralsols with thick umbric epipedons (> 100 cm thickness in humid Tropical and Subtropical areas is a paradox since the processes of organic matter decomposition in these environments are very efficient. Nevertheless, this soil type has been reported in areas in the Southeast and South of Brazil, and at some places in the Northeast. Aspects of the genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of these Ferralsols still need a better understanding. The processes that made the umbric horizons so thick and dark and contributed to the preservation of organic carbon (OC at considerable depths in these soils are of special interest. In this study, eight Ferralsols with a thick umbric horizon (UF under different vegetation types were sampled (tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest and savanna woodland and their macromorphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties studied to detect soil characteristics that could explain the preservation of high carbon amounts at considerable depths. The studied UF are clayey to very clayey, strongly acidic, dystrophic, and Al-saturated and charcoal fragments are often scattered in the soil matrix. Kaolinites are the main clay minerals in the A and B horizons, followed by abundant gibbsite and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The latter was only found in UFs derived from basalt rock in the South of the country. Total carbon (TC ranged from 5 to 101 g kg-1 in the umbric epipedon. Dichromate-oxidizable organic carbon represented nearly 75 % of TC in the thick A horizons, while non-oxidizable C, which includes recalcitrant C (e.g., charcoal, contributed to the remaining 25 % of TC. Carbon contents were not related to most of the inorganic soil variables studied, except for oxalate-extractable Al, which individually explained 69 % (P < 0.001 of the variability of TC in the umbric epipedon. Clay content was not suited as predictor of TC or of the other studied C forms. Bulk

  16. Study of the oxidation process of disperse Fe-C containing waste in order to obtain graphite intercalation compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович Маслов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Graphite processing into intercalation compounds followed by thermoshock heating is known in literature. The result is an ultra-light dispersed graphite (thermographenit used in lots of industries. Graphite intercalation compounds are formed as a result of the introduction of atomic and molecular layers of different chemical particles between the layers of graphite plates. The object of this work is to obtain a new material by intercalation of graphite followed by thermoshock heating, which could be used for products protecting biological and technical facilities from electromagnetic and thermal radiation. In the present work the parameters of oxidation and of graphite thermoshock expansion in order to obtain graphite intercalation compounds and thermographenit were investigated. The experiments were performed under laboratory non-isothermal conditions. Graphite GAK-2 obtained from metallurgical wastes was used. First the fraction of +0,16 mm with the ash content of 0,3% was extracted by scattering. The oxidation of graphite was carried out by potassium bichromate dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid. The original sample of graphite was mixed with finely grounded potassium bichromate. Then this mass was poured over with 98% concentrated sulphuric acid when being actively stirred and kept. Then the capacitance for oxidation was filled with distilled water. Decantation was carried out until pH=7 in the waste water was got. Separation of the oxidized graphite from the main mass of water was carried out by means of a suction filter until pH=7 was got. Experiments were performed at different ratios of potassium bichromate, sulphuric acid and graphite. The optimum ratio of the components (sulphuric acid : (dichromate of potash : (graphite = 2,8 : 0,15 : 1 was found. The oxidation time was 4–5 minutes. The oxidized graphite turned into thermographenit with bulk density of 2,7–9,5 kg/m3.upon subsequent heating up to 1000oC within the regime of

  17. A comparative analysis of preservation techniques for the optimal molecular detection of hookworm DNA in a human fecal specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Baumer, Ben; Grant, Jessica; Asbjornsdottir, Kristjana; Schaer, Fabian; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi; Walson, Judd; Williams, Steven A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Proper collection and storage of fecal samples is necessary to guarantee the subsequent reliability of DNA-based soil-transmitted helminth diagnostic procedures. Previous research has examined various methods to preserve fecal samples for subsequent microscopic analysis or for subsequent determination of overall DNA yields obtained following DNA extraction. However, only limited research has focused on the preservation of soil-transmitted helminth DNA in stool samples stored at ambient temperature or maintained in a cold chain for extended periods of time. Methodology Quantitative real-time PCR was used in this study as a measure of the effectiveness of seven commercially available products to preserve hookworm DNA over time and at different temperatures. Results were compared against “no preservative” controls and the “gold standard” of rapidly freezing samples at -20°C. The preservation methods were compared at both 4°C and at simulated tropical ambient temperature (32°C) over a period of 60 days. Evaluation of the effectiveness of each preservative was based on quantitative real-time PCR detection of target hookworm DNA. Conclusions At 4°C there were no significant differences in DNA amplification efficiency (as measured by Cq values) regardless of the preservation method utilized over the 60-day period. At 32°C, preservation with FTA cards, potassium dichromate, and a silica bead two-step desiccation process proved most advantageous for minimizing Cq value increases, while RNA later, 95% ethanol and Paxgene also demonstrate some protective effect. These results suggest that fecal samples spiked with known concentrations of hookworm-derived egg material can remain at 4°C for 60 days in the absence of preservative, without significant degradation of the DNA target. Likewise, a variety of preservation methods can provide a measure of protection in the absence of a cold chain. As a result, other factors, such as preservative toxicity

  18. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of olive cultivation techniques in Greece has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. A LIFE+ project was initiated (oLIVE-CLIMA; LIFE 11/ENV/000942) aiming to introduce new management practices in olive tree crops that lead to increased carbon dioxide uptake by plants as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere and reverse the trend of soil organic matter decline, erosion and desertification. This paper presents data on soil organic matter and microbial activity from a soil campaign in a pilot region in Greece, and particularly in the area of Chora, prefecture of Messinia, South west Peloponnese. The soil campaign took place during the period December 2012-February 2013. Twelve soil parcels of olive groves were selected (6 irrigated and 6 rainfed) and in each soil parcel six composite soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm depth at equal intervals along a straight line of the trunk of the tree to the middle of the distance from the nearest tree of the next tree series. The first three samples were under olive tree canopy. An additional composite sample was taken at depth of 10-40 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study results for total organic carbon (TOC), soil basal microbial respiration (BR), microbial biomass C (MB-C) from the region of Messinia, are presented. Organic matter was determined by dichromate oxidation. The microbial activity was measured by the amount of CO2 evolution, while microbial biomass C was determined by substrate-induced respiration, after the addition of glucose. The results showed considerable differences in TOC, BR and MB-C associated with the sampling position and soil depth. The higher TOC, BR and MB-C values, in most cases, were determined in samples taken from points under the canopy, but not close to the tree trunk compared to the sampling points outside the canopy. This indicates the positive effect of

  19. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2–8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5–20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. - Highlights: • CrVI (0.1 ppm, a regulatory dose) increased germ cell apoptosis of fetal ovaries. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased pro-apoptotic proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) decreased cyclins and CDK1 and cell survival proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased oxidative stress during fetal ovarian development. • We propose fetal ovarian culture model for high

  20. [Use of THP-1 for allergens identification method validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezheng; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Dai, Yufei

    2014-05-01

    Look for an in vitro test method to evaluate sensitization using THP-1 cells by the changes of the expression of cytokines to provide more reliable markers of the identification of sensitization. The monocyte-like THP-1 cells were induced and differentiated into THP-1-macrophages with PMA (0.1 microg/ml). The changes of expression of cytokines at different time points after the cells being treated with five known allergens, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), phenylene diamine (PPDA) potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and two non-allergens sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and isopropanol (IPA) at various concentrations were evaluated. The IL-6 and TNF-alpha production was measured by ELISA. The secretion of IL-1beta and IL-8 was analyzed by Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). The section of the IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 were the highest when THP-1 cells were exposed to NiSO4, DNCB and K2Cr2O7 for 6h, PPDA and TDI for 12h. The production of IL-6 were approximately 40, 25, 20, 50 and 50 times for five kinds chemical allergens NiSO4, DNCB, K2Cr2O7, PPDA and TDI respectively at the optimum time points and the optimal concentration compared to the control group. The expression of TNF-alpha were 20, 12, 20, 8 and 5 times more than the control group respectively. IL-1beta secretion were 30, 60, 25, 30 and 45 times respectively compared to the control group. The production of IL-8 were approximately 15, 12, 15, 12 and 7 times respectively compared to the control group. Both non-allergens SDS and IPA significantly induced IL-6 secretion in a dose-dependent manner however SDS cause a higher production levels, approximately 20 times of the control. Therefore IL-6 may not be a reliable marker for identification of allergens. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 expressions did not change significantly after exposed to the two non-allergens. The test method using THP-1 cells by detecting the productions of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and

  1. Environmental biochemistry of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losi, M E; Amrhein, C; Frankenberger, W T

    1994-01-01

    Chromium is a d-block transitional element with many industrial uses. It occurs naturally in various crustal materials and is discharged to the environment as industrial waste. Although it can occur in a number of oxidation states, only 3+ and 6+ are found in environmental systems. The environmental behavior of Cr is largely a function of its oxidation state. Hexavalent Cr compounds (mainly chromates and dichromates) are considered toxic to a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and are mobile in soil/water systems, much more so than trivalent Cr compounds. This is largely because of differing chemical properties: Hexavalent Cr compounds are strong oxidizers and highly soluble, while trivalent Cr compounds tend to form relatively inert precipitates at near-neutral pH. The trivalent state is generally considered to be the stable form in equilibrium with most soil/water systems. A diagram of the Cr cycle in soils and water is given in Fig. 6 (Bartlett 1991). This illustration provides a summary of environmentally relevant reactions. Beginning with hexavalent Cr that is released into the environment as industrial waste, there are a number of possible fates, including pollution of soil and surface water and leaching into groundwater, where it may remain stable and, in turn, can be taken up by plants or animals, and adsorption/precipitation, involving soil colloids and/or organic matter. Herein lies much of the environmental concern associated with the hexavalent form. A portion of the Cr(VI) will be reduced to the trivalent form by inorganic electron donors, such as Fe2+ and S2-, or by bioprocesses involving organic matter. Following this conversion, Cr3+ can be expected to precipitate as oxides and hydroxides or to form complexes with numerous ligands. This fraction includes a vast majority of global Cr reserves. Soluble Cr3+ complexes, such as those formed with citrate, can undergo oxidation when they come in contact with manganese dioxide, thus reforming

  2. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E 2 ) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E 2 , increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E 2 levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E 2 . This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of estradiol in the

  3. Nitrogen availability from residues-based biochar at two pyrolisis temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscione, Aline Renee; Silveira Bibar, Maria Paula; de Andrade, Cristiano Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Biochar has been studied for several applications, such as soil quality improvement, heavy metals remediation and N2O mitigation. Considering the soil quality improvement aspect it is desirable to evaluate if the nitrogen content in biochar samples obtained from several residues used as the biomass sources could be available for plants. Samples of sewage sludge (SS), coffee grounds (CG), chicken manure (CM) and fungi mycelia (FM) were pyrolyzed at two temperatures, 400 and 700 oC (indicated by the number 4 and 7 in this abstract, respectively), in order to obtain the biochar samples. The Kjeldahl nitrogen of biochar was (% m/m): 3.0 (CM4, CG7, FM7 and CG4); 2.0 (CM7 e SS4); 3.4 (FM7); 1.4 (SS7), with organic carbon (potassium dichromate method) ranging from 2.0 to 3.0% for all but CG4 (6%). The C/N ratio of biochar samples was: 9 (CM4, SS4 and CG7); 11 (CM7); 15 (SS7); 7 (FM4 and FM7); 21 (CG4). The eight soil + biochar resulting mixtures, prepared using the equivalent to 60 t/ha of biochar (about 3% w/w), and one additional control treatment (no biochar added) were incubated for 90 days, with four replications of each treatment per time evaluated. Inorganic nitrogen and soil pH measurements were performed for all treatments at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of incubation. Soil moisture was kept at 40% soil water holding capacity, by weighting, during the experiment. The data was submitted to ANOVA with Tukey's average comparison test (p organic residues with C/N ratios lower than 20 applied to the soil a fast degradation, with the corresponding increase in inorganic nitrogen availability is expect. Although all the biochar samples tested had C/N ratios below that cutting point, just 2 of 8 presented inorganic nitrogen available in the soil+biochar mixtures. These results show that soil incubation tests are ultimate for the evaluation of the nitrogen potential release to the soil. Low temperature SS based biochar may offer additional nitrogen release to soil besides

  4. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70 °C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to 1.9 μM h-1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature subsurface radioactive waste disposal

  5. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Qureshi, Naureen Aziz; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Iltaf, Imran; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-09-01

    The problem of water pollution acquires greater relevance in the context of a developing agrarian economy like Pakistan. Even though, the leather industry is a leading economic sector in Pakistan, there is an increasing environmental concern regarding tanneries because they produce large amounts of potentially toxic wastewater containing both trivalent and hexavalent chromium, which are equally hazardous for human population, aquaculture and agricultural activities in the area. Therefore, we defined the scope of the present study as to employ different bioassays to determine the eco-toxic potential of tannery effluent wastewater (TW) and its chromium based components, i.e., potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and chromium sulfate Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of TW was carried out to determine the concentration of chromium in TW and then equal concentrations of hexavalent (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and trivalent chromium Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) were obtained for this study. Cytotoxicity assay, artemia bioassay and phytotoxicity assay was utilized to investigate the eco-toxicological potential of different concentrations of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3). All the dilutions of TW, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and Cr(2)(SO(4))(3) presented concentration dependent cytotoxic effects in these assays. The data clearly represents that among all three tested materials, different dilutions of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) caused significantly more damage (P<0.001) to vero cell, brine shrimp and germination of maize seeds. Interestingly, the overall toxicity effects of TW treated groups were subsequent to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treated group. Based on biological evidences presented in this article, it is concluded that hexavalent chromium (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) and TW has got significant eco-damaging potential clearly elaborating that environmental burden in district Kasur is numerous and high levels of chromium is posing a considerable risk to the human population, aquaculture and agricultural

  6. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  7. Process for the radiation cross-linking of a tetra fluoroetylene-propylene copolymer. [electrons and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Y; Kojima, G

    1971-12-30

    A tetrafluoroethylene copolymer useful as a heat resistant rubber is cross-linked by a relatively low dose irradiation. The process comprises irradiating the copolymer with ionizing radiations in the presence of a radical initiator, for example peroxides and azo-compounds, or in the presence of an active oxygen-releasable oxidizing agent such as potassium dichromate. The gel content can be controlled between 10% and 50% or more. The molecular weight of the copolymer is preferred to be more than 20,000 for the purpose of making the rubber cross-linked. The quantity or promoter added may be 0.1 to 20%, preferably 0.2 to 10% by weight. The absorption dose may be 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 8/ rad at a dose rate of 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 9/ roentgen/hr, preferably 10/sup 3/ to 5 x 10/sup 7/ roentgen/hr. In examples, tetrafluoroethylene-propylene copolymer of molecular weight 30,000 and a molecular ratio of C/sub 2/F/sub 4/:C/sub 3/H/sub 6/=52:48 was mixed with the following promoters at 60/sup 0/C: BPO (benzoil peroxide), K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, percumyl D, azo-bisbutyl nitrile and potassium permanganate. The mixture was hot rolled to form a sheet 1 mm thick. The sheets were exposed to electron beams from a 1.5 MV electron accelerator at a flux density of 0.48 uZ/cm/sup 2/. The test results with 6 Mrad were, for 0.2% BPO a gel content ratio of 22%, breaking strength of 65 kg/cm/sup 2/ and elongation 900%; for K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/, the gel content ratio was 42%, the breaking strength 85 kg/cm/sup 2/ and the elongation 600%; for 5% percumyl D, the gel content ratio was 45%, the breaking strength 95 kg/cm/sup 2/ and the elongation 500%.

  8. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЗАИМОСВЯЗИ БИХРОМАТНОЙ И ПЕРМАНГАНАТНОЙ ОКИСЛЯЕМОСТИ ВОД ДНЕСТРА И ЕГО ПРИТОКОВ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly GOREACEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Представлены результаты статистической обработки показателей окисляемости вод Днестра и его притоков; выявлена корреляционная зависимость бихроматной и перманганатной окисляемости; определена форма уравнений связи; была установлена надежность уровня коэффициента определения.STUDIUL CORELĂRII OXIDABILITĂŢII BICROMATICE ŞI PERMANGANATICE A APELOR NISTRULUI ŞI AFLUENŢILOR SĂISunt prezentate rezultatele prelucrării statistice a indicilor oxidabilităţii bicromatice şi permanganatice a apelor Nistrului şi afluenţilor săi. A fost stabilită corelarea dintre oxidabilitatea bicromatică şi oxidabilitatea permanganatică, obţinută relaţia matematică a acesteia şi determinată dispersia şi abaterea standard.INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERACTION OF BICHROOM AND PERMANGANATE OXIDITY OF THE WATER OF THE DNESTER AND THEIR TRIBUTARYS The work contains the results of statistical processing of indicators of the oxidizability of waters of theDniesterand tributaries. The revealed correlation dependence of dichromate oxidizability on the permanganate one is presented, the tightness of the bond, the form of the coupling equations, the level reliability of coefficient of determination.

  9. Correction of algocenosis by the preparation of komplezim in experimental ponds of fish-farm Nyvka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim", which is recommended for the prevention of mass reproduction of blue-green algae through algocoenosis correction, water cleaning and sanitary regime restoration, for the biological balance and self-purification of natural and farmed fish ponds of all sizes exposed to artificial or natural pollution. Methodology. The studies were carried out during 30 days in a 0.01 hectare pond with a depth of 1.0–1.5 m. The doses of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim" in the form of a solution were applied over the water surface of the experimental pond. The conventional techniques of hydrochemistry and hydrobiology were used to perform hydroecological studies. Findings. The study results showed that after the exposure of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim", pH level of water and oxidation rates were within the acceptable limits. Permanganate and dichromate oxidation decreased in the same manner in the middle and end of the experiment compared to initial values. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfate levels were lower compared to control values. This effect can be explained by the fact that bacteria from the “Komplezim” composition in aquatic medium started intensive metabolizing the products of organic decomposition enriched in calcium, magnesium and sulfates. The consequence of the application of "Komplezim" was an increase in the concentration of organic chlorides simultaneously with nitrites. The obtained results indicate that bacteria strains included in the “Komplezim” composition inhibit the processes of cyanobacteria reproduction by algocenosis correction and contributes to the optimization of hydrochemical conditions for pond fish rearing. Originality. The effect of the bacterial preparation "Komplezim" on the reproduction of blue-green algae and hydro-chemical composition of the water has been investigated for the first time. Practical value. Application of the

  10. Experiments on accumulation of phosphorus in the plants Myosotis palustris, Glyceria maxima and Nasturtium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of availability of quality water is highly relevant today, so the technologies of prediction and prevention of water pollution and purification are very important. Biological methods of cleaning, in paticular cleaning water by the so-called method of biosorption, have been increasingly used in the last decade. This method means the removal of dangerous substances and improvement of water condition by using aquatic organisms, in particular plants. Therefore, in view of the rich experience of research conducted in the biosorption sphere, we decided to predict the effectiveness of this method by using the cumulative ability of higher water plants to absorb phosphorus compounds. For this purpose, we selected water and plant samples (Glyceria maxima (C. Hartm. Holmb., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Myosotis palustris (L. L. from the river Seret (Ternopil, Ukraine. The plants were placed into sterilized glass jars filled with 3 liters of water from the river Seret (control samples and still tap water with addition of sodium phosphate with phosphorus concentration of 3.5 mg/dm³ (research sample, which were cultured in laboratory conditions for four months. We determined the content of phosphates, permanganate and dichromate oxidation in the water and the total content of phosphorus in the plants. We traced the dynamic of organic substances and the content of phosphates in the water, the accumulation of phosphorus in plants and the rate of accumulation of phosphorus in the plants and in the water. We calculated correlation coefficients to detect the dependence between phosphorus indicators in the aquatic plants and the concentration of phosphate ions in the water. We found that M. palustris had the greatest capacity to accumulate phosphorus and the highest rate of phosphorus accumulation from water, which allows us to consider it the most effective aquatic plant for absorption of elements and decreasing water pollution. We also established

  11. Assessment of metal sensitizer potency with the reconstructed human epidermis IL-18 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susan; Kosten, Ilona; Veldhuizen, Rosalien; Spiekstra, Sander; Corsini, Emanuela; Roggen, Erwin; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert J; Kleverlaan, Cees J

    2018-01-15

    According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet common safety concerns regarding such products. Metal alloys are extensively used in dentistry and medicine (e.g. orthopedic surgery and cardiology) even though clinical experience suggests that many metals are sensitizers. The aim of this study was to further test the applicability domain of the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) IL-18 assay developed to identify contact allergens and in doing so: i) determine whether different metal salts, representing leachables from metal alloys used in medical devices, could be correctly labelled and classified; and ii) assess the ability of different salts for the same metal to penetrate the skin stratum corneum. Twenty eight chemicals including 15 metal salts were topically exposed to RhE. Nickel, chrome, gold, palladium were each tested in two different salt forms, and titanium in 4 different salt forms. Metal salts were labelled (YES/NO) as sensitizer if a threshold of more than 5 fold IL18 release was reached. The in vitro estimation of expected sensitization induction level (potency) was assessed by interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 with LLNA EC3 and human NOEL values from standard reference curves generated using DNCB (extreme) and benzocaine (weak). Metal salts, in contrast to other chemical sensitizers and with the exception of potassium dichromate (VI) and cobalt (II) chloride, were not identified as contact allergens since they only induced a small or no increase in IL-18 production. This finding was not related to a lack of stratum corneum skin penetration since EC50 values (decrease in metabolic activity; MTT assay) were obtained after topical RhE exposure to 8 of the 15 metal salts. For nickel, gold and palladium salts, differences in EC50 values between two salts for the same metal could not be

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Hou, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Ye [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Min, E-mail: mliu@geo.ecnu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv [School of Geographical Sciences, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BC{sub Cr}) and thermal oxidation (BC{sub CTO}). The concentrations of BC{sub Cr} in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32 mg g{sup −1}, while BC{sub CTO} ranged between 0.57 and 4.76 mg g{sup −1}. Spatial variations of δ{sup 13}C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from − 21.13‰ to − 24.87‰ and from − 23.53‰ to − 16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2 ng g{sup −1} in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5 ng g{sup −1} in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. - Highlights: • River runoffs were responsible for the high PAH pollution levels in the study area. • BC and PAHs derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels. • BC was associated

  13. Application of electrochemical methods in corrosion and battery research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoli

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied in the development of corrosion protection methods for ammonia/water absorption heat pumps and the evaluation of the stability of metallic materials in Li-ion battery electrolyte. Rare earth metal salts (REMSs) and organic inhibitors have been evaluated for corrosion protection of mild steel in the baseline solution of 5 wt% NH 3 + 0.2 wt% NaOH to replace the conventionally used toxic chromate salt inhibitors. Cerium nitrate provided at least comparable corrosion inhibition efficiency as dichromate in the baseline solution at 100°C. The cerium (IV) oxide formed on mild steel through the cerating process exhibited increasing corrosion protection for mild steel with prolonged exposure time in the hot baseline solution. The optimum cerating process was found to be first cerating in a solution of 2.3 g/L CeCl3 + 4.4 wt% H2O2 + appropriate additives for 20 minutes at pH 2.2 at room temperature with 30 minutes solution aging prior to use, then sealing in 10% sodium (meta) silicate or sodium molybdate at 50°C for 30 minutes. Yttrium salts provided less corrosion protection for mild steel in the baseline solution than cerium salts. Glycerophosphate was found to be a promising chromate-free organic inhibitor for mild steel; however, its thermostability in hot ammonia/water solutions has not been confirmed yet. The stability of six metallic materials used in Li-ion batteries has been evaluated in 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in a 1:1 volume mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate at 37°C in a dry-box. Aluminum is the most stable material, while Copper is active under anodic potentials and susceptible to localized corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The higher the concentration of the alloying elements Al and/or V in a titanium alloy, the higher was the stability of the titanium alloy in the battery electrolyte. 90Pt-10Ir can cause decomposition of the electrolyte resulting in a low stable

  14. Effect of different oxidants on polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes composites synthesized via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gull, Nafisa, E-mail: gullchemist@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Khan, Shahzad Maqsood, E-mail: shahzadkhan81@hotmail.com [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Islam, Atif; Zia, Saba; Shafiq, Muhammad; Sabir, Aneela; Munawar, Muhammad Azeem [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Butt, Muhammad Taqi Zahid [College of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Jamil, Tahir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the effect of different oxidants on properties of polyaniline/single walled carbon nanotubes (PANI/SWCNT) composites and scrutinizing a suitable oxidant to improve the properties of composites. PANI/SWCNT composites were fabricated via ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization technique using four different oxidants; hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), ammonium peroxidisulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}), potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and potassium iodate (KIO{sub 3}). Percent yield (97%), molecular weight (45532 g mol{sup −1}) and electrical conductivity (0.835 S cm{sup −1}) were found maximum for composite prepared in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Structural confirmation of PANI and charge transfer complex formation between PANI and SWCNT were confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis verified that the PANI/SWCNT composite synthesized using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had maximum thermal stability with least thermal degradation (∼28%). Minimal thermal transitions of the composite were also observed for same composite by differential scanning calorimetry. Scanning electron microscopic images of PANI/SWCNT composites revealed that SWCNT were properly dispersed in PANI matrix when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was used. Above results provide the valuable suggestion that; H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a promising oxidant to enhance structural, thermal, electrical and microscopic properties of composites. - Highlights: • Ultrasonically initiated in-situ chemical polymerization protocol was devised for synthesis of PANI/SWCNT composites. • SEM micrographs of PANI/SWCNT-1 showed uniform dispersed structure. • Better thermal stability and conductivity was evidenced for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based PANI/SWCNT composite. • π–π interaction between PANI and SWCNT is confirmed by FTIR and UV

  15. Estudio y caracterización de nuevas emulsiones de haluro de plata como materiales de registro holográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neipp, C.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting techniques for the production of holographic optical elements is silver halide sensitised gelatin (SHSG. It combines the high sensitivity of photographic emulsions with the well-known low scattering and high diffraction efficiencies corresponding to dichromated gelatin. In this work we made a comparative study on SHSG holograms recorded on three different red sensitive emulsions: Agfa 8E75 HD, Slavich PFG-01 and BB-640 . The influence of the degree of hardening of the gelatin and the size and concentration of silver halide grains in the SHSG proccess is studied. And we will show that real high diffraction efficiencies can be obtained when using BB-640 and Slavich PFG-01 plates for recording phase transmission holograms (as high as 93% for PFG-01 and 90% for BB-640, allowing for reflections. Our investigations reveal that PFG-01 and BB-640 emulsions are not only a substitution to Agfa material, but may offer better results at a moment in which Agfa has stopped its production of holographic material.

    Una de las técnicas más interesantes para la obtención de elementos ópticos holográficos es la gelatina sensibilizada de haluro de plata (GSHP. Esta técnica combina la alta sensibilidad de las emulsiones fotográficas con los conocidos altos rendimientos en difracción y bajos niveles de scattering correspondientes a la gelatina dicromatada. En este trabajo se ha hecho un estudio comparativo sobre hologramas en gelatina sensibilizada de haluro de plata registrados en tres emulsiones diferentes sensibles al rojo: Agfa 8E75 HD, Slavich PFG-01 y BB-640. En dicho estudio se ha analizado la influencia del grado de endurecido de la gelatina y la concentración y el tamaño de los granos de haluro de plata en el procesado GHSP. Se obtuvieron rendimientos en difracción realmente altos cuando se utilizaron las placas BB-640 y Slavich PFG-01 para el registro de hologramas de fase por transmisión (tan altos como el 93

  16. Patch Test Results of 775 Patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Ada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis vary among countries and even between different geographical regions within the same country over time. It is of great importance to perform the patch test at certain intervals, to evaluate the results in different centers and to compare them afterwards. Our aim was to evaluate the patch test results in our patients with allergic contact dermatitis.Material and Method: The records of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, who had been patch tested between May 1997 and March 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic features such as age and sex, localization of the contact dermatitis, and the patch test results were recorded. Results: Of the 775 patients, 581 (75.2% were females and 194 (25% males. Of all patients, 735 were patch tested with the European Standard Series, 318 - with both the European Standard Series and cosmetic series, and 40-with cosmetic series alone. Of the patients tested with the European Standard Series, 255 (34.7% had at least one positive reaction. The most frequent allergen in the European Standard Series was nickel sulfate (17.3%, followed by cobalt chloride (7.2%, potassium dichromate (3%, fragrance mix (2.9%, and p-phenylenediamine base (2.6%. Of the 358 patients tested with cosmetic series, 82 (22.9% had at least one positive reaction. The 5 most frequently observed cosmetic series allergens were octyl gallate (3.9%, thimerosal (2.2%, sorbitan sesquioleate (2%, Euxyl K 400 (2% and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.4%. Conclusion: Our study shows the contact allergen profile of our center over 12 years. The most common allergens and their frequency differ between centers in various cities in Turkey. Those geographical differences should be re-evaluated by further studies performed in the certain time period. The high frequency of reactions to octyl gallate is an important finding in patients suspected of cosmetic allergy

  17. Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Registry Data on Contact Allergy in Children With Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; McGowan, Maria; Silverberg, Nanette B; Pelletier, Janice L; Fonacier, Luz; Mousdicas, Nico; Powell, Doug; Scheman, Andrew; Goldenberg, Alina

    2017-08-01

    to have lower frequency of reaction to methylisothiazolinone, cobalt, and potassium dichromate. Children with AD showed significant reaction patterns to allergens notable for their use in skin care preparations. This study adds to the current understanding of AD in ACD, and the continued need to investigate the interplay between these disease processes to optimize care for pediatric patients with these conditions.

  18. Application of small RNA sequencing to identify microRNAs in acute kidney injury and fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Kathryn L. [Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gerlach, Cory V. [Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Laboratory of Systems Pharmacology, Harvard Program in Therapeutic Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Craciun, Florin L.; Ramachandran, Krithika [Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bijol, Vanesa [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kissick, Haydn T. [Department of Surgery, Urology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Vaidya, Vishal S., E-mail: vvaidya@bwh.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Laboratory of Systems Pharmacology, Harvard Program in Therapeutic Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Establishing a microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in affected tissues provides an important foundation for the discovery of miRNAs involved in the development or progression of pathologic conditions. We conducted small RNA sequencing to generate a temporal profile of miRNA expression in the kidneys using a mouse model of folic acid-induced (250 mg/kg i.p.) kidney injury and fibrosis. From the 103 miRNAs that were differentially expressed over the time course (> 2-fold, p < 0.05), we chose to further investigate miR-18a-5p, which is expressed during the acute stage of the injury; miR-132-3p, which is upregulated during transition between acute and fibrotic injury; and miR-146b-5p, which is highly expressed at the peak of fibrosis. Using qRT-PCR, we confirmed the increased expression of these candidate miRNAs in the folic acid model as well as in other established mouse models of acute injury (ischemia/reperfusion injury) and fibrosis (unilateral ureteral obstruction). In situ hybridization confirmed high expression of miR-18a-5p, miR-132-3p and miR-146b-5p throughout the kidney cortex in mice and humans with severe kidney injury or fibrosis. When primary human proximal tubular epithelial cells were treated with model nephrotoxicants such as cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), arsenic trioxide, aristolochic acid (AA), potassium dichromate (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and cisplatin, miRNA-132-3p was upregulated 4.3-fold after AA treatment and 1.5-fold after K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CdCl{sub 2} treatment. These results demonstrate the application of temporal small RNA sequencing to identify miR-18a, miR-132 and miR-146b as differentially expressed miRNAs during distinct phases of kidney injury and fibrosis progression. - Highlights: • We used small RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in kidney. • Distinct patterns were found for acute injury and fibrotic stages in the kidney. • Upregulation of miR-18a, -132 and -146b was confirmed in mice

  19. Time-response characteristic and potential biomarker identification of heavy metal induced toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Wang, Ai-Ping; Li, Wan-Fang; Shi, Rui; Jin, Hong-Tao; Wei, Jin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    The present work aims to explore the time-response (from 24 h to 96 h) characteristic and identify early potential sensitive biomarkers of copper (Cu) (as copper chloride dihydrate), cadmium (Cd) (as cadmium acetate), lead (Pb) (as lead nitrate) and chromium (Cr) (as potassium dichromate) exposure in adult zebrafish, focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS), SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and gene expression related to oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Furthermore, the survival rate decreased apparently by a concentration-dependent manner after Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb exposure, and we selected non-lethal concentrations 0.05 mg/L for Cu, 15 mg/L for Cr, 3 mg/L for Cd and 93.75μg/L for Pb to test the effect on the following biological indicators. Under non-lethal concentration, the four heavy metals have no apparent histological change in adult zebrafish gills. Similar trends in ROS production, MDA level and SOD activity were up-regulated by the four heavy metals, while MDA level responded more sensitive to Pb by time-dependent manner than the other three heavy metals. In addition, mRNA levels related to antioxidant system (SOD1, SOD2 and Nrf2) were up-regulated by non-lethal concentration Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb exposure. MDA level and SOD1 gene have a more delayed response to heavy metals. Genes related to immunotoxicity were increased significantly after heavy metals exposure at non-lethal concentrations. TNF-α and IL-1β gene have similar sensibility to the four heavy metals, while IL-8 gene was more responsive to Cr, Cd and Pb exposure at 48 h groups and IFN-γ gene showed more sensitivity to Cu at 48 h groups than the other heavy metals. In conclusion, the present works have suggested that the IFN-γ gene may applied as early sensitive biomarker to identify Cu-induced toxicity, while MDA content and IL-8 gene may use as early sensitive biomarkers for evaluating the risk of Pb exposure. Moreover, IL-8 and IFN-γ gene were more responsive to heavy

  20. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K., E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu

    2015-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2–8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5–20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. - Highlights: • CrVI (0.1 ppm, a regulatory dose) increased germ cell apoptosis of fetal ovaries. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased pro-apoptotic proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) decreased cyclins and CDK1 and cell survival proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased oxidative stress during fetal ovarian development. • We propose fetal ovarian culture model for high

  1. Renoprotective Effect of Lactoferrin against Chromium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Rats: Involvement of IL-18 and IGF-1 Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab Hegazy

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium (CrVI is a heavy metal widely used in more than 50 industries. Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse effect of chromium poisoning. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin (Lf against potassium dichromate (PDC-induced acute kidney injury (AKI in rats. Beside, because previous studies suggest that interlukin-18 (IL-18 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 play important roles in promoting kidney damage, the present work aimed to evaluate the involvement of these two cytokines in PDC model of AKI and in the potential renoprotective effect of lactoferrin. Adult male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with Lf (200 mg/kg/day, p.o. or (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.; the doses that are usually used in the experiment studies, for 14 days followed by a single dose of PDC (15 mg/kg, s.c.. PDC caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, and total protein levels. This was accompanied with decreased renal glutathione content, and increased renal malondialdehyde, IL-18, IL-4, nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB, IGF-1, and the phosphorylated form of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 levels. Moreover, normal expression IFN-γ mRNA and enhanced expression of TNF-α mRNA was demonstrated in renal tissues. Histopathological investigations provoked deleterious changes in the renal tissues. Tubular epithelial hyperplasia and apoptosis were demonstrated immunohistochemically by positive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Bax, and Caspase-3 expression, respectively. Pretreatment of rats with Lf in both doses significantly corrected all previously mentioned PDC-induced changes with no significant difference between both doses. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, tubular hyperplasia and apoptosis in PDC-induced AKI. It suggested a role of IL-18 through stimulation of IL-4-induced inflammatory pathway, and IGF-1 through

  2. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Sakhila K., E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-07-15

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E{sub 2}) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E{sub 2}, increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E{sub 2} levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E{sub 2}. This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of

  3. The applications of populus fiber in removal of Cr{sup (VI)} from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Miaomiao; Gong, Yumei, E-mail: ymgong@dlpu.edu.cn; Lyu, Aichao; Liu, Yuanfa, E-mail: morning309@126.com; Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhang_hong1234@sina.com

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A sorbent for heavy metal ions based on populus fibers is prepared by a green way. • The chromium adsorption on the sorbent accords with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. • The proposed adsorption involves static attraction and chelation by the sorbent on chromium. • The sorbent is expected to be applied in universal conditions. - Abstract: The surface modification of natural materials to be applied in removal of Cr{sup (VI)} from aqueous solutions has attracted much attention. A natural sorbent for Cr{sup (VI)} based on natural populus fibers (PF) is prepared by transforming the cyano groups (AN) in polyacrylonitriles (PAN) grafted from PF into amidoxime groups (AO), which has strong ability to attract and chelate heavy metal ions. The prepared sorbent is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). As potassium dichromate solution (K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) is used as a target solution for detecting adsorption capacity of the sorbent, the adsorption kinetics of the sorbent for chromiun is consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model by analyzing the adsorption amount as a function of the sorbent dispersed duration in solution at pH = 2. The expected adsorption mechanism is that the Cr{sup (VI)} in anionic ions Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} and HCrO{sub 4}{sup −} are adsorbed through electrostatic attraction but when Cr{sup (VI)} is reduced to Cr{sup (III)} by AO, the electronegative nitrogen and oxygen in AO chelate it through coordination bond. The as-prepared PF derivant with high adsorption efficiency of chromium 180.5 mg/g (3.47 mmol/g), low cost, reusability and greenly preparation process suggests that the development of natural PF as a sorbent in removal of Cr{sup (VI)} from aqueous solutions is a destined significant approach.

  4. Beneficiation Of Chromium Waste By Means Of Magnetic And Gravitational Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brożek M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of chromium recovery from the Cr waste mud, originating in the production of sodium dichromate. The differentiation of physical properties of particles of different contents of chromium and magnesium compounds is a premise for the use of physical separation methods. The investigations were performed on 2 waste samples, taken by random from the waste dump. The investigations of magnetic and gravity concentration for sample I and II were made, respectively. The results of screen and float and sink analyses of sample II indicate that it is possible to obtain Cr- and Mg-enriched products by means of a combined method of separation, i.e. hydraulic classification and, next, gravitational concentration on the shaking table. The concept of gravity concentration of the tested chromium waste was verified in the technical scale on multiboard shaking tables. The advantage of these fittings in relation to laboratory conditions is the possibility of separation of discussed waste without previous classification. The longer time of separation on the industrial shaking table as well as the respective amount of water directed to the process together with feed enabled an exact separation of initial material. The obtained concentrate in such conditions contains from 25 to 35% Cr2O3, depending on the chromium content in the initial waste material. It results from the fractional magnetic analysis of sample I that by means of the magnetic separation it is possible to obtain the magnetic concentrate of Cr2O3 content minimum 20% and, simultaneously, to obtain the non-magnetic product of increased MgO content. The optimum separation conditions regarding the yield and content of Cr2O3 were determined. The highest value of criterion K for the grade of the concentrate containing over 20% of Cr2O3 is obtained when the 10 mm diameter balls and the 1150 kA/m magnetic field intensity are applied. The yield of the concentrate

  5. Assessment of immunotoxicity in female Fischer 344/N and Sprague Dawley rats and female B6C3F1 mice exposed to hexavalent chromium via the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Kelly A; Sheth, Christopher M; Smith, Matthew J; Hooth, Michelle J; White, Kimber L; Germolec, Dori R

    2017-12-01

    Sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), an inorganic compound containing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), is a common environmental contaminant of groundwater sources due to widespread industrial use. There are indications in the literature that Cr(VI) may induce immunotoxic effects following dermal exposure, including acting as both an irritant and a sensitizer; however, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Cr(VI) following oral exposure are relatively unknown. Following the detection of Cr(VI) in drinking water sources, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted extensive evaluations of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SDD following drinking water exposure, including studies to assess the potential for Cr(VI) to modulate immune function. For the immunotoxicity assessments, female Fischer 344/N (F344/N) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and female B 6 C 3 F 1 mice were exposed to SDD in drinking water for 28 consecutive days and evaluated for alterations in cellular and humoral immune function as well as innate immunity. Rats were exposed to concentrations of 0, 14.3, 57.3, 172, or 516 ppm SDD while mice were exposed to concentrations of 0, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm SDD. Final mean body weight and body weight gain were decreased relative to controls in 250 ppm B 6 C 3 F 1 mice and 516 ppm SD rats. Water consumption was significantly decreased in F344/N and SD rats exposed to 172 and 516 ppm SDD; this was attributed to poor palatability of the SDD drinking water solutions. Several red blood cell-specific parameters were significantly (5-7%) decreased in 250 ppm mice; however, these parameters were unaffected in rats. Sporadic increases in the spleen IgM antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were observed, however, these increases were not dose-dependent and were not reproducible. No significant effects were observed in the other immunological parameters evaluated. Overall, exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water had limited effects on

  6. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persoone G.

    2009-08-01

    “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium. These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of performance of the assays. One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes. The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter. The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs. Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay. Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail. The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that : (1 Virtually all results from assays performed with

  7. Hanford's 100-HX Pump and Treat Project - a Successful Blend of Science, Technology, Construction, and Project Management - 12412

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, Kenneth A.; Bachand, Marie T.; Biebesheimer, Fred H.; Neshem, Dean O.; Smoot, John L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) recently completed construction and start-up of the $25 million 100-HX Groundwater Pump and Treat Project for the Department of Energy (DOE) at its Hanford Reservation site in Washington State. From the onset, the 100-HX Project Leadership Team was able to successfully blend the science and technology of a state-of-the-art groundwater pump and treat system with the principles, tools, and techniques of traditional industrial-type construction and project management. From the 1940's through most of the 1980's, the United States used the Hanford Site to produce nuclear material for national defense at reactor sites located along the Columbia River. While the reactors were operational, large volumes of river water were treated with sodium dichromate (to inhibit corrosion of the reactor piping) and used as a coolant for the reactors. After a single pass through the reactor and before being discharged back to the river, the coolant water was sent to unlined retention basins to cool and to allow the short-lived radioactive contaminants to decay. As a result of these operations, hexavalent chromium was introduced to the vadose zone, and ultimately into the groundwater aquifer and the adjacent Columbia River. In addition, numerous leaks and spills of concentrated sodium dichromate stock solution over the lifetime of reactor operations led to higher concentrations of chromate in the vadose zone and groundwater in localized areas. As a result, the 100 Area was included in the National Priorities List sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The mission of the 100-HX Project is to significantly reduce the concentration of hexavalent chromium in the groundwater by treating up to 3.8 billion gallons (14,300 mega-liters) of contaminated water over its first nine years of operations. In order to accomplish this mission, groundwater scientists and geologists using

  8. Características físico-químicas de fontes proteicas e suas interações sobre a degradação ruminal e a taxa de passagem Physical-chemical characteristics of protein sources and their interactions on ruminal degradation and passage rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Adriano Ávila Queiroz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de características físicas (densidade, solubilidade, tamanho médio de partículas e capacidade de retenção de água sobre a fração efetivamente degradada in situ da matéria seca dos farelos de soja, canola, amendoim e algodão. Avaliou-se também a taxa de passagem de sólidos utilizando-se quatro ovinos castrados da raça Santa Inês canulados no rúmen. Amostras de 100 g de cada farelo proteico marcado com dicromato de sódio foram introduzidas no rúmen, e mantidas durante seis tempos de incubação (0, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas. Os tempos de colheita de fezes foram de 0, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 e 96 horas. Os parâmetros de solubilidade e capacidade de retenção de água modificaram a fração efetivamente degradada. A menor densidade e a maior proporção de parede celular do farelo de canola proporcionaram menor taxa de passagem dessa fonte proteica. Somente a capacidade de retenção de água influenciou a taxa de passagem de sólidos dos ingredientes avaliados. A solubilidade, a capacidade de retenção de água, o tamanho médio de partículas e a densidade devem ser utilizados na avaliação de alimentos para estudos de degradação e cinética ruminal. A introdução de novas características físicas na biblioteca de ingredientes de sistemas de avaliação de alimentos pode auxiliar na interpretação e na predição de parâmetros metabólicos.It was aimed to evaluate in this work the effects of physical characteristics (density, solubility, average particle size and water holding capacity on in situ effective degraded fraction of the dry matter of soybean meal, canola meal, peanut meal, and cottonseed meal. It was also evaluated the passage rate of solids using four Santa Ines castrated wethers cannulated in the rumen. Samples with 100 g of each protein meal marked with sodium dichromate were put in the rumen and kept in there during six times of incubation (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Fecal

  9. Structure and function of the liver in conditions of chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection of rats after applying of sorbex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Burmas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the activity of marker enzymes of the liver and its biliary formation function in conditions of the affection of animals by hexavalent chromium compounds, isoniazid and rifampicin, after applying of sorbex. The experimental affection of rats of different age was carried in the conditions of combined injection of hexavalent chromium compounds (solution of potassium dichromate, 3 mg/kg, isoniazid (0.05 g/kg and rifampicin (0.25 g/kg during the 7th and 14th days, and sorbex enterosorbent was introduced in quantity of 150 mg/kg. The activity of marker enzymes of the liver was evaluated by the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The state of biliary formation function of the liver was evaluated by the content of total bilirubin (TB and bile acids (BA in blood. The most significant changes in ALT activity were observed in the liver of old animals by the combined effects of the abovementioned xenobiotics – the activity of ALT was decreased by the end of the experiment by 58% compared with the animals of intact control. Using of sorbex led to decreasing in blood serum and increasing in the liver of affected animals of the different age of ALT activity throughout the experiment. AST activity in blood serum increased, and it was the highest in old animals upon chrome-isoniazid-rifampicin affection on the 14th day of the research. With the use of sorbex, there was a tendency to normalization of this index in blood serum and liver of affected animals on the 7th day from the beginning of the experiment. It was found that the largest increase in ALP took place in blood serum of immature animals by the combined effects of toxicants. In the liver of affected animals the activity of ALP decreased throughout the experiment in all age groups of animals. Maximum corrective effect on the activity of ALP was shown by the enterosorbent in the liver of mature animals on

  10. Result interpretation of experimental calibration for milk citric acid determination via infra-red spectroscopy (MIR-FT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid (KC in milk is indicator of cow energy metabolism. Milk laboratories set up KC determination. A method can be infra-red analyse (MIR-FT. The goal was to develop a relevant method for reference sample preparation for MIR-FT (indirect method, Lactoscope FTIR and MilkoScan FT 6000 calibration. As reference was used a photometric method (c; 428 nm. KC was added (n = 3 into some re­fe­ren­ce milk samples (n = 10, bulk milk. Mean value was 9.220 ± 3.094 mmol . l−1 with variation range from 6.206 to 15.975 mmol . l−1. Recovery c was from 100.8 to 120.2 %. Correlation between c and ­MIR-FT were from 0.979 to 0.992 (P < 0.001. These were lower in the set of native milk samples (n = 7, from 0.751 (Lactoscope FTIR; P < 0.05 to 0.947 (MilkoScan FT 6000; P < 0.001 in comparison to original va­lues from 0.981 to 0.992 (n = 10; P < 0.001. Correlations between calibrated MIR-FT instruments were from 0.958 to 1.0 (P < 0.001. Average recovery for instruments (n = 12 was 101.6 ± 18.1 %. The mean differences between c method and MIR-FT after calibration (n = 4 moved from −0.001 across zero to 0.037 %. Standard deviation of differences was from 0.0074 to 0.0187 % at MilkoScan FT 6000 and from 0.0105 to 0.0117 % for Lactoscope FTIR. Relative variability of differences (MIR-F (filter technology and FT for major components fat (T, proteins (B and lactose (L in total and minor components KC and free fatty acids (VMK was estimated to 1.0 and 7.2 and 34.4 %. The KC result is inferior than T, B and L superior than VMK. Autocorrelation (0.042; P > 0.05 of results demonstrated the in­de­pen­den­ce of consecutive measurements. Milk preservation effect amounted 0.2323 (P < 0.001 with bronopol and 0.0339 (P > 0.05 mmol . l−1 with dichromate. It was (3.0 and 0.44 % practically negligible, redeemable via relevant calibration. The results of proficiency testing in post-calibration period and evaluation of double

  11. Infecção per os de gatos com formas vegetativas de Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 sem produção de oocistos Oral infections of domestic cats with vegetative forms of Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 without oocyst production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe Nery-Guimarães

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de 6 gatos (24 gatos recém-nascidos e desmamados receberam "per os", respectivamente, suspensões de toxoplasmas de camundongos com 3-4 dias de infecção, de 4 amostras de T. gondii. Cada grupo teve um gato testemunha. Nenhum dos gatos de experiência eliminou oocistos atribuíveis a T. gondii, em períodos de observação de 6 a 20 dias; e suas fezes, conservadas 2-4 dais em bicromato de potássio a 2,5% e ministradas "per os" a camundongos, não induziram toxoplasmose nesses roedores. Com exceção dos que eram portadores de Isospora, os gatos não mostraram formas evolutivas de coccídios no epitélio intestinal. Em todos os grupos a infecção toxoplásmica foi comprovada pela positividade da reação de Sabin & Feldman (1:16 a 1:1024; e pelo isolamento de toxoplasmas pela inoculação de triturados dos seus principais órgãos em camundongos indicadores. De um modo geral, os gatos mais crescidos não mostraram sinais de doença, porém os outros, e principalmente os recém-nascidos adoeceram e vários morreram de toxoplasmose sistêmica: esplenite, hepatite, enterite, penumonia e, mais raramente, miocardite e encefalite. Os toxoplasmas foram encontrados em todos esses órgãos e, tamém, nos rins e supra-renais.Vegetative forms of 4 strains of Toxoplasma from peritoneal fluid of mice with 3-4 days of acute infection were orally administered to 4 groups of 6 newborn and wealing kittens respectivelly. Each group had a control kitten. All kittens were observed for eriods of 6-20 days ans never passed in their faeces oocysts attributabel to T. gondii. On the other hand, their faces after 2-4 days in potassium dichromate at 2.5% inoculated orally in mice didn't produce Toxoplasma infection in these animals; and with exception of the cats that have had spontaneous isosporosis (I. felis and/or I. rivolta we didn´t see evolutive forms of Coccidia in the intestinal wall of the cats. In all cat groups the toxoplasmic infection was

  12. Elevada prevalencia de Cyclospora cayetanensis en indígenas del estado Bolívar, Venezuela High prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among indigenous people in Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Devera

    2005-12-01

    dichromate 2.5% and examined by the formalin-ether concentration method and Kinyoun staining. Of the 160 indigenous people examined, 92.5% (148 cases were infected. Entamoeba coli (58.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (38.8%, and Giardia lamblia (18.8% were the most prevalent intestinal parasites. Coccidiosis prevalence was 13.1%, and cyclosporiasis was the most prevalent with 11.9% (19 cases. One subject with C. parvum oocysts and another with I. belli oocysts were diagnosed. There was no difference according to sex (p > 0.05 and age (chi2 = 5.6; f.g. = 6 among individuals infected with C. cayetanensis. Of these, two cases had only diarrhea. In conclusion, a high prevalence of intestinal coccidiosis infection was found among indigenous people from this community, with C. cayetanensis as the most prevalent infection.

  13. Redução e substituição do ácido crômico na etapa de condicionamento de ABS para metalização Reduction and replacement of chromic acid in step-conditioning of ABS for metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kurek

    2009-01-01

    acid, phosphoric acid and potassium dichromate, varying concentration, etching time and temperature. The morphology and structure of the samples surface were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, roughness and infrared spectroscopy (FITR/ATR and the adhesion quality of the metallized samples was evaluated by visual inspection, adhesion test and corrosion by a salt spray. The results show that chemical conditioning causes removal of ABS components of the samples surface, causing changes such as increased roughness and formation of pores and microcavities, which influenced the metallic adhesion and were dependent on the solution and the conditions employed. Chromic acid can be used in concentration smaller than 400 g.L-1 and less aggressive solutions were effective in changing the surface and promoting metallic adhesion.

  14. Current status of zooplankton in reservoir R-3 of the 'Mayak' production association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, O.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    One of the commonly used objects for the study of human influence on aquatic ecosystems is zooplankton. Zooplankton community is a sensitive component of biota in reservoir which can change their functional parameters and species composition in response to exposure to different factors. The role of zooplankton in the transformation of energy and in the biotic cycling of the substance is very important. The study of the responses of this element in the water ecosystem with anthropogenic influences, including radioactive contamination, is an important task. The object of the study was the zooplankton in the reservoir R-3, Chelyabinsk region, Russia. R-3 is located in the buffer zone of the 'Mayak' PA and is the storage for low-level radioactive waste. In addition to the high content of radionuclides (the average specific activity of {sup 90}Sr in water was 2.8 kBq/l, {sup 137}Cs - 0.7 kBq/l), this reservoir is characterized by high values of dichromate oxidizability and phosphate contamination. Previously, the study of the zooplankton of this reservoir was conducted in 1952, regular observations were not organized. Assessment of the current status of the community, more than half a century residing in the conditions of radioactive and chemical contamination, seems highly interesting. Sampling was carried out in 2011-2012 at three stations: in the upper, middle, and near the dam of the reservoir by the method of weighted average of samples with bathometer. Analysis of samples showed that the zooplankton community consists of the following major groups: rotifers and cladocerans and copepods crustaceans. In total in R-3 27 species of zooplankton, including 19 species of rotifers, 3 species of copepod and 3 species of cladocerans, as well as two species of ciliates were discovered. Zooplankton abundance in 2011 was 9±9 million individuals/m{sup 3} (given the mean and standard deviation), in 2012 - 26.0±0.9 million individuals/m{sup 3}. The main contribution

  15. Chernozems microbial community under anthropogenic impact (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Sushko, Sofia; Vasenev, Viacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Chernozems is important natural resource, which in the last decade under intense influence as a result of plowing and urbanization. The parameters of soil microbial community functioning might be identify some soil deterioration under the impacts. Our research was focused on assessment of microbial community status in different soil layers of virgin steppe, bare fallow and urban ecosystems (Kursk region). In each ecosystem, we chose randomly 3-5 spatially distributed sites, where soil samples were collected by auguring up to 0.5 m depth (each layer 10 cm thickness) and up to 1.5 m depth (0-10, 10-50, 50-100, 100-150 cm layers), totally 127 samples. The bulk density was measured for these soil layers. In all soil samples the microbial biomass carbon content (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) method and basal respiration (BR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. The fungi-to-bacteria ratio (selective inhibition technique with antibiotics) was determined and portion of Cmic in soil organic carbon (Corg) content was calculated in topsoil (0-10 cm). The Corg (dichromate oxidation) and pHw (potentiometry) values were measured. The Cmic and BR profile pools were calculated using bulk density and thickness of studied layers. The Cmic (0-10 cm) was varied from 84 to 1954 µg C g-1 soil, in steppe it was on average 3-4 times higher than those in bare fallow and urban. The BR rate was amounted from 0.20 to 1.57 µg CO2-C g-1 soil h-1, however no significant difference between studied ecosystems was found. It was shown the relationship between Cmic, BR and Corg (the linear regression, R2=0.92 and 0.75, respectively, pecosystems row: virgin steppe>bare fallow>urban, and it was on average 6.0, 5.2 and 1.8, respectively. The Cmic profile pool (0.5 m) of steppe was reached up on average 206 g C m-2, and it was 2.0 and 2.5 times higher those bare fallow and urban, respectively. The BR profile pool (0.5 m) in steppe and bare fallow was reached up 5.9 and 5

  16. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells

  17. Geochemical Characterization of Chromate Contamination in the 100 Area Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P. Evan; Qafoku, Nikolla; McKinley, James P.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Ilton, Eugene S.; Phillips, J. L.

    2008-07-16

    The major objectives of the proposed study were to: 1.) determine the leaching characteristics of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from contaminated sediments collected from 100 Area spill sites; 2.) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford Site 100 Areas through the use of i.) macroscopic leaching studies and ii.) microscale characterization of contaminated sediments; and 3.) provide information to construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 Area vadose zone. In addressing these objectives, additional benefits accrued were: (1) a fuller understanding of Cr(VI) entrained in the vadose zone that will that can be utilized in modeling potential Cr(VI) source terms, and (2) accelerating the Columbia River 100 Area corridor cleanup by providing valuable information to develop remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry. A series of macroscopic column experiments were conducted with contaminated and uncontaminated sediments to study Cr(VI) desorption patterns in aged and freshly contaminated sediments, evaluate the transport characteristics of dichromate liquid retrieved from old pipelines of the 100 Area; and estimate the effect of strongly reducing liquid on the reduction and transport of Cr(VI). Column experiments used the < 2 mm fraction of the sediment samples and simulated Hanford groundwater solution. Periodic stop-flow events were applied to evaluate the change in elemental concentration during time periods of no flow and greater fluid residence time. The results were fit using a two-site, one dimensional reactive transport model. Sediments were characterized for the spatial and mineralogical associations of the contamination using an array of microscale techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDS, XPS, XMP, and XANES. The following are important conclusions and implications. Results from column experiments indicated that most

  18. Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat. A missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, A. [Lab. for Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Jakl, T. [Chemicals Policy Unit, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays. Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting the main trophic levels (algae, Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely between microflora and earthworms. Protozoa are an ideal missing link as they were shown to be the most prominent faunal contributors to nutrient cycling in soil ecosystems and as they represent the lacking first level consumers as well as the highly diverse microfauna. As protozoa inhabit the soil pore water, they can serve as direct indicators for the solved and thus bioavailable portion of xenobiotics. In order to widen the spectrum of available toxicity tests for a meaningful effect assessment for the soil compartment, a test with the soil ciliate Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Protozoa), introduced by Pratt et al. (1997), was improved. Methods. The novel improvements comprise a substantially refined inoculation and counting procedure, as well as the adaptation to yeast as a nutritional source. The test was designed to be rapid and easy to perform, in order to have both a higher degree of standardisation and reproducibility, as well as to be in compliance with international test guidelines. Results and Discussion. Five test substances, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, acetone, atrazine, and metolachlor, were used in single-compound, static, short-term exposure (24 h, 48 h) tests to examine the effect on the population growth of C. inflata. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.17 to 0.26 mg/l for Cd, 34 to 63 mg/l for Cr, >3000 mg/l for acetone, 91-112 mg/l for atrazine and 83-119 mg/l for metolachlor. The equilibrium partitioning approach was used to extrapolate the results to total soil exposure and thus enable a sensitivity comparison to

  19. Hexavalent chromium removal by chitosan modified-bioreduced nontronite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Rengasamy, Karthikeyan

    2017-08-01

    Recent efforts have focused on structural Fe(II) in chemically or biologically reduced clay minerals to immobilize Cr(VI) from aqueous solution, but the coulombic repulsion between the negatively charged clay surface and the polyanionic form of Cr(VI), e.g., dichromate, can hinder the effectiveness of this process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency and mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by a charge-reversed nontronite (NAu-2), an Fe-rich smectite. Chitosan, a linear polysaccharide derived from chitin found in soil and groundwater, was used to reverse the charge of NAu-2. Intercalation of chitosan into NAu-2 interlayer increased the basal d-spacing of NAu-2 from 1.23 nm to 1.83 nm and zeta potential from -27.17 to +34.13 mV, with the amount of increase depending on chitosan/NAu-2 ratio. Structural Fe(III) in chitosan-exchanged NAu-2 was then biologically reduced by an iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 in bicarbonate buffer with lactate as the sole electron donor, with and without electron shuttle, AQDS. Without AQDS, the extent of Fe(III) reduction increased from the lowest (∼9%) for the chitosan-free NAu-2 to the highest (∼12%) for the highest chitosan loaded NAu-2 (3:1 ratio). This enhancement of Fe(III) reduction was likely due to the attachment of negatively charged bacterial cells to charge-reversed (e.g., positively charged) NAu-2 surfaces, facilitating the electron transfer between cells and structural Fe(III). With AQDS, Fe(III) reduction extent doubled relative to those without AQDS, but the enhancement effect was similar across all chitosan loadings, suggesting that AQDS was more important than chitosan in enhancing Fe(III) bioreduction. Chitosan-exchanged, biologically reduced NAu-2 was then utilized for removing Cr(VI) in batch experiments with three consecutive spikes of 50 μM Cr. With the first Cr spike, the rate of Cr(VI) removal by charged-reversed NAu-2 that was bioreduced without and with AQDS was ∼1

  20. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Persoone

    2009-08-01

    performance of the assays.One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes.The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter.The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs.Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay.Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail.The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that :(1 Virtually all results from assays performed with Daphnias taken from lab cultures or with Daphnia microbiotests are within the acceptability range set by ISO standard 6341 for the reference chemical potassium dichromate.(2 The mean 24 h EC50s of the Daphnia microbiotests performed in different laboratories are within the range of the mean EC50s of the assays based on lab cultures, and the variation coefficients (20 to 30% are similar.(3 The precision – in terms of the long term in house variability – of the quality control Daphnia

  1. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    composited in proportion to milk yield, preserved with potassium dichromate, stored at 4°C, and analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and total solids using an infrared analyzer (MilkoScan 134 BN; Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark. At the end of each experimental period, rumen samples were obtained at 4 h after the morning feeding using the stomach tube technique. Rumen pH was determined immediately after the samples were collected using a mobile pH meter (HI 8314 membrane pH meter, Hanna Instruments, Villafranca, Italy. Rumen fluid samples were acidified by sulfuric acid and analyzed for volatile fatty acid by gas chromatography (model no. CP-9002 Vulcanusweg 259 a.m., Chrompack, Delft, the Netherlands. Two fecal grab samples per cow were taken from the rectum twice daily across day 19 to 23 of each period and frozen at −20°C until analyzed. Acid detergent insoluble ash was used as an internal marker to determine apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. Data were composited within period and analyzed with the MIXED MODEL procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, 2003 to account for effects of square, period within square, cow within square, treatments (grain source and oil supplement, and the interaction between grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (fish oil vs. soybean oil. Results and Discussion Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter (P = 0.05 and ether extract (P < 0.01 were greater in the corn- vs. barley-based diets. Fish oil tended (P = 0.07 to decrease and decreased (P = 0.03 apparent total-tract digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract as compared to soybean oil, respectively. An interaction of main treatment effects tended to occur for molar concentration of propionate (P = 0.09. Barley-based diets increased molar concentration of propionate compared to corn-based diets for cows fed soybean oil, but not for cows fed fish oil. Dry matter intake tended (P = 0.09 to be greater for barley- vs. corn-based diets, but was reduced for

  2. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  3. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on carbon retention and stability of biochar%热解温度对生物质炭碳保留量及稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞跃; 汪建飞; 谢越; 李贺; 李孝良; 李粉茹

    2015-01-01

    ) analysis and its chemical stability determined by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) oxidation methods, were all analyzed. The results showed that the carbon (C) content of biochar increased with the rise of the pyrolysis temperature from 54.0% at 200℃ to 83.7%at 700℃, on the contrary, thehydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) contents decreased with the rise of the temperature from 6.31% to 2.22% for H content and 45.1% to 10.6% for O content, respectively. Moreover, the H/C and O/C, usually used as two indexes to estimate carbon aromaticity for biochar, also decreased with the rise of the pyrolysis temperature from 1.25 to 0.32 for H/C and 0.54 to 0.09 for O/C, respectively, which indicated the carbon aromaticity of biochar was strengthened with the rise of the pyrolysis temperature, which is beneficial for the improvement of biochar stability. After the pyrolysis of walnut shell, especially when pyrolysis temperature was above 200℃,compared to the feedstock, the -C-O and O-CH3 groups did not exist and the aliphatic-CH gradually disappeared while more aromatization were shown by new aromatic compounds with the increasing of pyrolysis temperature based on FTIR analysis. Biochar yield decreased with the rise of the pyrolysis temperature from 79.1% at 200℃ to 19.4%at 700℃. The carbon retention, defined as the proportion of the original carbon, which was from plant photosynthesis and sequestrated the CO2 in feedstock from atmosphere, was retained in the biochar after the pyrolysis, and also decreased with the rise of the pyrolysis temperature from 69.4% to 11.0%, all of which indicated that high pyrolysis temperature aggravated carbon loss. However, high pyrolysis temperature strengthened the carbon stability, and especially for biochar derived from 500℃, the carbon loss of biocharoxidated by K2Cr2O7and KMnO4 were 10.4% and 1.66%, respectively, which were smaller than the other biochars derived from other pyrolysis temperatures. There was

  4. Investigation on the pollution of road rainwater runoff in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjun GUAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To protect groundwater and urban ecological environment, much more sponge cities have been built in China. The sponge road is an important part of a sponge city. In recent years, Shijiazhuang Municipal Design Institute proposes a new sponge road structure, namely planting soil and crushed stone green belt, and it has been extensively used in Shijiazhuang City. In the design of the road structure, it is a key issue whether the infiltration rainwater quality pollutes the groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the pollution of road rainwater runoff in Shijiazhuang City for the design of sponge road and the construction of sponge city. To obtain the characteristics of rainwater runoff pollution in Shijiazhuang City, four investigation points are chosen at the intersection of the Nanerhuan Road and Yuxiang Street, the east gate of Hebei University of Science and Technology, the site under the Xierhuan Road and Zhongshan Road overpass, and the catch-basin along the roadside in Shijiazhuang City. The investigating points are located in the main road of Shijiazhuang urban area, which covers Shijiazhuang City, and can represent the pollution characteristics of road runoff in Shijiazhuang City. Six rainfalls are collected from March to June in 2017. The rainfall on 3, May is viewed as typical middle and light one which is studied in this paper. The concentration of COD, TP, TN, NH3-N and SS in road runoff is tested by potassium dichromate method, ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry, potassium persulfate digestion-UV spectrophotometry and Nessler’s reagent spectrophotometry and filter paper filtration, respectively. The concentrations of Zn ions and Pb ions are tested by inductively coupled plasma method. According to the test results, the concentration evolutions of COD, TP, TN, NH3-N, SS, Zn and Pb ion in runoff during rainfall are studied. The results show that the contaminant concentration approximately decreases during the rainfall

  5. The Effect of the Ammonium Group on the Different Annealing Processes; Role du Groupe Ammonium dans les Differents Processus de Recuit; 042d 0424 0424 0415 041a 0422 0410 041c 041c 041e 041d 0418 0415 0412 041e 0419 0413 0420 0423 041f 041f 042b 041d 0410 0420 0410 0417 041b 0418 0427 041d 042b 0415 041f 0420 041e 0426 0415 0421 0421 042b 041e 0422 0416 0418 0413 0410 ; Efecto del Grupo Amonio en Diferentes Procesos de Recocido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, N. [Institute Of Chemistry, Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    1965-04-15

    The ammonium group can play an essential role in the different annealing processes of neutron-irradiated ammonium compounds. Some details of this effect were investigated. To give a more complete picture of this subject first some typical results, already published, are briefly discussed, concerning the thermal, radiation, photochemical and ultra-sonic annealing of ammonium and potassium sulphate as well as of ammonium and potassium dichromate. Afterwards new experimental data are reported showing the influence of the ammonium group on the thermal, radiation and ultra-sonic annealing of mono-, di- and triammonium phosphates. It was established that under the conditions of neutron irradiation in the pile the ammonium group in a compound can be transformed into certain metastabile recoil fragments, which can lead to the formation of reducing substances, e. g. hydrazine. The yield of hydrazine increases by the subsequent treatment of the neutron-irradiated solid samples with gamma-rays, ultra sound etc. Simultaneously with the increase in the hydrazine yield a strong change of the retention occurs. (author) [French] Le groupe ammonium peut jouer un role essentiel dans les differents processus de recuit des composes d'ammonium exposes aux neutrons. L'auteur a etudie certains aspects des effets de ce groupe. Pour donner un tableau plus complet de la question, il commence par exposer succinctement certains resultats typiques deja publies et qui ont trait au recuit thermique, au radiorecuit, au recuit photochimique et au recuit ultrasonique du sulfate d'ammonium et de potassium ainsi que du bichromate d'ammonium et de potassium. Ensuite il rend compte de donnees experimentales nouvelles qui montrent l'influence du groupe ammonium sur le recuit thermique, le radiorecuit et le recuit ultrasonique des phosphates mono-, bi- et triammoniques. Il a determine que dans les conditions d'irradiation neutronique en pile, le groupe ammonium dans un compose peut etre transforme en

  6. Effects of Long-term and Continius Horticatural Practices on Distribution of Potassium Forms and their Adsorption Properties in Urmia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra amirpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple biological and physiological processes in the plant, including carbohydrates and proteins formation, activation of 50 enzymes for energy transmission as well as reducing water losses from leaf pores, are mostly affected by the presence of potassium in the plant. In order to test this hypothesis, five soil subgroups (TypicCalcixerepts, FluventicHaploxerepts, TypicEndoaquepts, TypicHalaquepts and VerticEndoaquepts belonging 15 series of gardened and adjoining virgin soils were described and sampled. The studied soils had been influenced under horticultural practices for over five decades. Materials and Methods: The soil samples were analyzed for different K forms, K adsorption and physico- chemical properties after air drying and grinding to pass through a 2 mm-sieve. The particle-size distribution was determined by the hydrometer method (Bouyoucos, 1962. The total carbonate in the soil expressed as the calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE was determined by a rapid titration method (Nelson, 1982. Organic matter (OM was measuredby the Walkley and Black (1934 dichromate oxidation method. The pH of the soil was analyzed in 2:1 CaCl2/soil suspension using glass electrode pH meter (Crockford and Norwell, 1956 and EC was detected in a saturated extract. The cation exchange capacity (CEC was measured using sodium acetate (1 M NaOAc at pH 8.2 (Chapman, 1965. Water soluble K was extracted with deionized water (1: 5 w/v after shaking for 30 minutes on a mechanical shaker and later contents were centrifuged to separate clear extract (Jackson 1973. Exchangeable K was determined by extracting the soil with neutral normal ammonium acetate, Non-exchangeable K was estimated as the difference between boiling 1N HNO3 –K and neutral normal ammonium acetate K (Thomas 1982. Results and Discussion: The result showed that for most of the studied soils, long-terms horticultural practices decreased the amount of different K forms as a result of

  7. Efeito da solução de separação densimétrica na quantidade e qualidade da matéria orgânica leve e na quantificação do carbono orgânico da fração pesada The effect of density fractionation solutions on the amount and quality of light-fraction organic matter and the content of heavy-fraction organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sales Moreira Demolinari

    2008-04-01

    .85 times greater than that extracted with water, and the variation among soils was high. With regard to HF, the C concentration determined by wet oxidation was similar to that separated with water, but 1.5 times larger than when determined by dry combustion if separated with NaI. These results indicate that the C content was overestimated, possibly due to the interference of NaI. This finding was confirmed by the linear increase in the consumption of Cr2O7-2 during organic C determination in the presence of increasing NaI concentration of organic-C free solutions. Therefore, the NaI extraction of LF recovers a larger amount of LF, which differs however in quality from that extracted with water. Additionally, any potential NaI remaining after the separation, especially in the HF, may interfere with the organic C quantification if wet oxidation with dichromate as oxidant agent is the chosen method. Results of a complementary study indicate that each mol of I- consumes approximately 1 mol of Cr2O7-2.