WorldWideScience

Sample records for dicalcium-bis2-nitrobenzoate building block

  1. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  2. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  3. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  4. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  5. Building blocks of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, E.; O'Connor, C.; Cooper, A.

    1990-01-01

    COSI [Ohio's Center for Science and Industry], a well established science center, and SciTech, an emerging one, have formed a collaboration to develop a group of original interactive exhibits conveying to a wide audience the nature of the most fundamental features of the Universe, as revealed in the fascinating world of nuclear and particle science. These new exhibits will add to, and be supported by, the basic science exhibits which have already attracted large numbers of visitors to both centers. The new project, called Building Blocks of the Universe, aims to foster an appreciation of the way all features of the Universe arise from simple, basic rules and to lead the visitor from the perceived complexities of our surroundings, to the unperceived, but simpler features of the sub-nuclear world. It has already become apparent from individual prototypes that these simple but immensely far-reaching ideas can indeed be conveyed by hands-on exhibits. These exhibits will be linked and enhanced by an effective museum environment, using pictorial diagrams, accurate non-technical text, and artistic displays to create an atmosphere in which visitors can learn about phenomena beyond the range of direct perception. This paper describes the goals, content and organization of the exhibition. The authors also outline their experience with prototype exhibits, and thereby invite additional input into the development process

  6. Building Blocks of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This article presents possibilities to impart knowledge of and enthusiasm for particle physics to essentially all non-expert target audiences by the use of LEGO bricks and models of particle physics experiments built from these. Methods of using LEGO models, both as a passive exhibit and as part of interactive outreach events, are presented, along with a historical review of the “Build Your Own Particle Detector” programme and the corresponding idea of hosting competitions in building detector models in LEGO pieces as a perfect setting to grasp people’s attention, get them involved and ultimately convey knowledge in particle physics to them.

  7. Identification of critical technology building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    on competition, the challenge is to know how to identify and prioritize the development tasks. If possible, an effective strategy can be defined. This article suggests a framework for identification and analysis of a product portfolio, with special emphasis on identifying critical technology building blocks...... development steps. The framework is based on methods and theories in literature. The analysis of the portfolio is carried out through the framework in three steps: by creating an overview of the portfolio encompassing product and technology, assessing the elements in the overview with assessment metrics......, and using property chains to identify critical technology building blocks....

  8. Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B

    1996-12-31

    The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system. 4 figs.

  9. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  10. Single molecule magnets from magnetic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, W.; Paretzki, A.; Cervetti, C.; Hohloch, S.; Rauschenbach, S.; Kern, K.; Dressel, M.; Bogani, L.; M&üLler, P.

    2013-03-01

    We provide a basic set of magnetic building blocks that can be rationally assembled, similar to magnetic LEGO bricks, in order to create a huge variety of magnetic behavior. Using rare-earth centers and multipyridine ligands, fine-tuning of intra and intermolecular exchange interaction is demonstrated. We have investigated a series of molecules with monomeric, dimeric and trimeric lanthanide centers using SQUID susceptometry and Hall bar magnetometry. A home-made micro-Hall-probe magnetometer was used to measure magnetic hysteresis loops at mK temperatures and fields up to 17 T. All compounds show hysteresis below blocking temperatures of 3 to 4 K. The correlation of the assembly of the building blocks with the magnetic properties will be discussed.

  11. Essential Building Blocks of Human Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Ulrich J; Willführ, Kai P

    2011-01-01

    To understand why we humans are as we are, it is necessary to look at the essential building blocks that comprise our nature. The foundations of this structure are our evolutionary origins as primates and our social roots. Upon these rest features such as our emotions, language and aesthetic preferences, with our self-perceptions, self-deceptions and thirst for knowledge right at the top. The unifying force holding these blocks together is evolutionary theory. Evolution provides a deeper understanding of human nature and, in particular, of the common roots of these different perspectives. To build a reliable and coherent model of man, leading authors from fields as diverse as primatology, anthropology, neurobiology and philosophy have joined forces to present essays  each describing their own expert perspective. Together they provide a convincing and complete picture of our own human nature.

  12. Preons - yet smaller building blocks of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Schrempp, F.

    1985-01-01

    Are quarks and leptons the elementary building blocks of matter or do they have again a substructure in the form of common constituents, the preons. Is the force which is responsible for the binding of preons in quarks and leptons, arranged in our consisting picture of forces or is a revision required. The background of such questions and possible answers are presented. Two specific preon models serve for the illustration of characteristic signals for substructure which can possibly already soon be detected in the experiment. (orig.) [de

  13. Functional polymers as nanoscopic building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Lopez, J.L.; Bauer, R.E.; Chang, W.-S.; Glasser, G.; Grebel-Koehler, D.; Klapper, M.; Kreiter, M.; Leclaire, J.; Majoral, J.-P.; Mittler, S.; Muellen, K.; Vasilev, K.; Weil, T.; Wu, J.; Zhu, T.; Knoll, W.

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenylene dendrimers are introduced as polymeric building blocks--with a strictly monodisperse particle size distribution within the nanometer range--for the construction of nanostructured materials and devices. The possibility for the introduction of different functionalities in the core, the scaffold or the periphery of the dendrimers offer their use as interesting modules for photonic, electronic or bioactive structures and supramolecular functional assemblies. Thus, dendrimers complement the available set of nanoscopic building blocks made from metals, e.g., Au nanoclusters and semiconductors, e.g., luminescent quantum dots. In a first set of experiments, we describe the fabrication of multilayer architectures using dendrimers with chargeable groups at the surface. This way, the polyelectrolyte deposition technique can be applied for the construction of hybrid layered assemblies with a control of the internal supramolecular structure at the nanometer level. Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy is used to monitor the luminescent properties of dendrimers with a phthalocyanine core integrated into such a multilayer assembly. AFM and SEM micrographs demonstrate the use of surface-functionalized dendrimers (exposing sulfur groups at the periphery) in combination with Au nanoparticles for the controlled assembly of hybrid aggregates as nanoscopic functional devices

  14. Modeling the building blocks of biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Networks of single interaction types, such as plant-pollinator mutualisms, are biodiversity's "building blocks". Yet, the structure of mutualistic and antagonistic networks differs, leaving no unified modeling framework across biodiversity's component pieces. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use a one-dimensional "niche model" to predict antagonistic and mutualistic species interactions, finding that accuracy decreases with the size of the network. We show that properties of the modeled network structure closely approximate empirical properties even where individual interactions are poorly predicted. Further, some aspects of the structure of the niche space were consistently different between network classes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These novel results reveal fundamental differences between the ability to predict ecologically important features of the overall structure of a network and the ability to predict pair-wise species interactions.

  15. Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities: Assistance from Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA awarded Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities grants to four nonprofit organizations with extensive expertise in community sustainability. These organizations deliver technical assistance to communities.

  16. Building blocks for protein interaction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Raik; Ferrar, Tony S.; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Constante, Marco; Serrano, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Here, we propose a framework for the design of synthetic protein networks from modular protein–protein or protein–peptide interactions and provide a starter toolkit of protein building blocks. Our proof of concept experiments outline a general work flow for part–based protein systems engineering. We streamlined the iterative BioBrick cloning protocol and assembled 25 synthetic multidomain proteins each from seven standardized DNA fragments. A systematic screen revealed two main factors controlling protein expression in Escherichia coli: obstruction of translation initiation by mRNA secondary structure or toxicity of individual domains. Eventually, 13 proteins were purified for further characterization. Starting from well-established biotechnological tools, two general–purpose interaction input and two readout devices were built and characterized in vitro. Constitutive interaction input was achieved with a pair of synthetic leucine zippers. The second interaction was drug-controlled utilizing the rapamycin-induced binding of FRB(T2098L) to FKBP12. The interaction kinetics of both devices were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance. Readout was based on Förster resonance energy transfer between fluorescent proteins and was quantified for various combinations of input and output devices. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of parts-based protein synthetic biology. Additionally, we identify future challenges and limitations of modular design along with approaches to address them. PMID:20215443

  17. Divergent synthesis and optoelectronic properties of oligodiacetylene building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilzak, G.S.; Lagen, van B.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2008-01-01

    A new and divergent synthetic route to oligodiacetylene (ODA) building blocks has been developed via Sonogashira reactions under a reductive atmosphere. These central building blocks provide a new way for rapid preparation of long ODAs. In addition, we report on their optoelectronic properties which

  18. Building Blocks: Enmeshing Technology and Creativity with Artistic Pedagogical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Katherine J.; Perry, Beth; Edwards, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Using the analogy of children's building blocks, the reader is guided through the results of a research study that explored the use of three Artistic Pedagogical Technologies (APTs). "Building blocks" was the major theme that emerged from the data. Sub-themes included developing community, enhancing creativity, and risk taking. The…

  19. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  20. Large N saddle formulation of quadratic building block theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    I develop a large N saddle point formulation for the broad class of 'theories of quadratic building blocks'. Such theories are those on which the sums over internal indices are contained in quadratic building blocks, e.g. PHI 2 = Σsup(N)sub(a-1)PHi sup(a)sup(a). The formulation applies as well to fermions, derivative coupling and non-polynomial interactions. In a related development, closed Schwinger-Dyson equations for Green functions of the building blocks are derived and solved for large N. (orig.)

  1. The scientific building blocks for business coaching: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Contribution: The building blocks for business coaching as a relatively new and emerging science within the field of business leadership have been defined. This will contribute to the articulation of concepts within this discipline by future researchers and practitioners.

  2. Elementary structural building blocks encountered in silicon surface reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Corsin; Monney, Claude; Didiot, Clement; Schwier, Eike Fabian; Garnier, Michael Gunnar; Aebi, Philipp; Gaal-Nagy, Katalin; Onida, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the reduction of dangling bonds and the minimization of surface stress, reconstruction of silicon surfaces leads to a striking diversity of outcomes. Despite this variety even very elaborate structures are generally comprised of a small number of structural building blocks. We here identify important elementary building blocks and discuss their integration into the structural models as well as their impact on the electronic structure of the surface. (topical review)

  3. Automate Your Physical Plant Using the Building Block Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Matt

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how Mount Saint Vincent University (Halifax), by upgrading the control and monitoring of one building or section of the school at a time, could produce savings in energy and operating costs and improve the environment. Explains a gradual, "building block" approach to facility automation that provides flexibility without a…

  4. Characteristics of Recycled Concrete Aggregates from Precast Slab Block Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkrbec, Václav; Nováková, Iveta; Henková, Svatava

    2017-10-01

    Precast slab block buildings (PSBB) typically and frequently occur in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as elsewhere in the world. Some of these buildings are currently used beyond their service life capacity. The utilization of recycled materials from these buildings with regard to applying the principles of sustainable construction and using recycled materials will probably be significant in the following years. Documentation from the manufacturing processes of prefabricated blocks for precast slab block buildings is not available, and also it is difficult to declare technological discipline during the construction of these buildings. Therefore, properties of recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) produced from construction and demolition waste (C&DW) of precast slab block buildings build between 1950s to 1990s are not sufficiently known. The demolition of these buildings is very rare today, but it can be assumed an increase in demolitions of these buildings in the future. The use of RCA in new concrete requires verification/testing of the geometrical and physical properties of RCA according to the EN 12 620+A1 standard. The aim of the contribution is to present a case study of the demolition of slab block building with emphasis on RCA usage. The paper presents the results of the tests according to European standards for determining selected geometrical and physical properties of the RCA. The paper describes and evaluates tests such as determination of particle size distribution - Sieve Analysis, content of fine particles, determination of density and water absorption. The results of the properties testing of RCA are compared with the properties of natural aggregate. The general boundary conditions of RCA particular tests are presented.

  5. Tops as building blocks for G 2 manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.

    2017-10-01

    A large number of examples of compact G 2 manifolds, relevant to supersymmetric compactifications of M-Theory to four dimensions, can be constructed by forming a twisted connected sum of two building blocks times a circle. These building blocks, which are appropriate K3-fibred threefolds, are shown to have a natural and elegant construction in terms of tops, which parallels the construction of Calabi-Yau manifolds via reflexive polytopes. In particular, this enables us to prove combinatorial formulas for the Hodge numbers and other relevant topological data.

  6. Sortase-Mediated Ligation of Purely Artificial Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Dai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sortase A (SrtA from Staphylococcus aureus has been often used for ligating a protein with other natural or synthetic compounds in recent years. Here we show that SrtA-mediated ligation (SML is universally applicable for the linkage of two purely artificial building blocks. Silica nanoparticles (NPs, poly(ethylene glycol and poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide are chosen as synthetic building blocks. As a proof of concept, NP–polymer, NP–NP, and polymer–polymer structures are formed by SrtA catalysis. Therefore, the building blocks are equipped with the recognition sequence needed for SrtA reaction—the conserved peptide LPETG—and a pentaglycine motif. The successful formation of the reaction products is shown by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS, and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The sortase catalyzed linkage of artificial building blocks sets the stage for the development of a new approach to link synthetic structures in cases where their synthesis by established chemical methods is complicated.

  7. Building Blocks for Transport-Class Hybrid and Turboelectric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovsky, Amy; Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investing in research efforts to define potential vehicles that use hybrid and turboelectric propulsion to enable savings in fuel burn and carbon usage. This paper overviews the fundamental building blocks that have been derived from those studies and details what key performance parameters have been defined, what key ground and flight tests need to occur, and highlights progress toward each.

  8. Effects of different building blocks designs on the statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tholang T. Mokhele

    Enumeration Areas (EAs), Small Area Layers (SALs) and SubPlaces) from the 2001 census data were used as building blocks for the generation of census output areas with AZTool program in both rural and urban areas of South Africa. One way-Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also performed to determine statistical ...

  9. Building Blocks for the Development of Electronics Employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Building Blocks for the Development of Electronics Employees Performance Management System. ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ... Our approach is to determine the extent of effectiveness of the operational Performance Management System (PMS) in the NPS, which the literature identifies as ...

  10. Nano matters: building blocks for a precautionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhuizen, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Nano matters’ studies the positioning of civil society organisations (CSOs) regarding the responsible development of nanotechnologies and formulates building blocks for a precautionary approach, as to express the CSOs’ demands towards industry and governmental authorities. The study assesses the

  11. Alq3 nanorods: promising building blocks for optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2008-07-17

    Monodisperse Alq3 nanorods with hexagonal-prism-like morphology are produced via a facile, emulsion based synthesis route. The photoluminescence of individual nanorods differs from the bulk material. These nanorods are promising building blocks for novel optical devices. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Oligomers and Polymers Based on Pentacene Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnherr, Dan; Tykwinski, Rik R.

    2010-01-01

    Functionalized pentacene derivatives continue to provide unique materials for organic semiconductor applications. Although oligomers and polymers based on pentacene building blocks remain quite rare, recent synthetic achievements have provided a number of examples with varied structural motifs. This review highlights recent work in this area and, when possible, contrasts the properties of defined-length pentacene oligomers to those of mono- and polymeric systems.

  13. Internet of Things building blocks and business models

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the building blocks and introductory business models for Internet of Things (IoT). The author provide an overview of the entire IoT architecture and constituent layers, followed by detail description of each block . Various inter-connecting technologies and sensors are discussed in context of IoT networks. In addition to this, concepts of Big Data and Fog Computing are presented and characterized as per data generated by versatile IoT applications . Smart parking system and context aware services are presented as an hybrid model of cloud and Fog Afterwards, various IoT applications and respective business models are discussed. Finally, author summarizes the IoT building blocks and identify research issues in each, and suggest potential research projects worthy of pursuing. .

  14. Customizable Visualizations with Formula-Linked Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Lauesen, Søren

    different appearance or behavior than what the widgets support. Another approach is to combine primitive graphical elements using traditional programming or visualization toolkits. Traditional programming allows high customizability, but it is time consuming and hard to develop advanced visualizations......One approach to visualization construction is to use complex blocks (widgets) that are tailored for specific visualizations, and customize the visualizations by setting the properties of the widgets. This approach allows fast and easy visualization construction but falls short if the user wants....... Visualization toolkits allow easier visualization creation in some cases, but customization and interaction are tedious. As an alternative, we developed uVis visualization tool that uses spreadsheet-like formulas to connect building blocks. uVis formulas can refer to building blocks and database tables. We...

  15. Hydration effects on the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis Oliveira, Leonardo Bruno; Fonseca, Tertius L.; Costa Cabral, Benedito J.; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical results for the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks in the gas phase and water are presented. The building blocks presently investigated include the monomeric species DHI (5,6-dihydroxyindole) or hydroquinone (HQ), DHICA (5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid), indolequinone (IQ), quinone methide (MQ), two covalently bonded dimers [HM ≡ HQ + MQ and IM ≡ IQ + MQ], and two tetramers [HMIM ≡ HQ + IM, IMIM ≡ IM + IM]. The electronic properties in water were determined by carrying out sequential Monte Carlo/time dependent density functional theory calculations. The results illustrate the role played by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions in the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks in a polar environment. In water, the dipole moments of monomeric species are significantly increased ([54–79]%) relative to their gas phase values. Recently, it has been proposed that the observed enhancement of the higher-energy absorption intensity in eumelanin can be explained by excitonic coupling among eumelanin protomolecules [C.-T. Chen et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3859 (2014)]. Here, we are providing evidence that for DHICA, IQ, and HMIM, the electronic absorption toward the higher-energy end of the spectrum ([180–220] nm) is enhanced by long-range Coulombic interactions with the water environment. It was verified that by superposing the absorption spectra of different eumelanin building blocks corresponding to the monomers, dimers, and tetramers in liquid water, the behaviour of the experimental spectrum, which is characterised by a nearly monotonic decay from the ultraviolet to the infrared, is qualitatively reproduced. This result is in keeping with a “chemical disorder model,” where the broadband absorption of eumelanin pigments is determined by the superposition of the spectra associated with the monomeric and oligomeric building blocks.

  16. Hydration effects on the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis Oliveira, Leonardo Bruno [Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Departamento de Física - CEPAE, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Escola de Ciências Exatas e da Computação, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás, 74605-010 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Fonseca, Tertius L. [Instituto de Física da Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Costa Cabral, Benedito J., E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa and Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-28

    Theoretical results for the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks in the gas phase and water are presented. The building blocks presently investigated include the monomeric species DHI (5,6-dihydroxyindole) or hydroquinone (HQ), DHICA (5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid), indolequinone (IQ), quinone methide (MQ), two covalently bonded dimers [HM ≡ HQ + MQ and IM ≡ IQ + MQ], and two tetramers [HMIM ≡ HQ + IM, IMIM ≡ IM + IM]. The electronic properties in water were determined by carrying out sequential Monte Carlo/time dependent density functional theory calculations. The results illustrate the role played by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions in the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks in a polar environment. In water, the dipole moments of monomeric species are significantly increased ([54–79]%) relative to their gas phase values. Recently, it has been proposed that the observed enhancement of the higher-energy absorption intensity in eumelanin can be explained by excitonic coupling among eumelanin protomolecules [C.-T. Chen et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3859 (2014)]. Here, we are providing evidence that for DHICA, IQ, and HMIM, the electronic absorption toward the higher-energy end of the spectrum ([180–220] nm) is enhanced by long-range Coulombic interactions with the water environment. It was verified that by superposing the absorption spectra of different eumelanin building blocks corresponding to the monomers, dimers, and tetramers in liquid water, the behaviour of the experimental spectrum, which is characterised by a nearly monotonic decay from the ultraviolet to the infrared, is qualitatively reproduced. This result is in keeping with a “chemical disorder model,” where the broadband absorption of eumelanin pigments is determined by the superposition of the spectra associated with the monomeric and oligomeric building blocks.

  17. Optically controlled three-dimensional assembly of microfabricated building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lorand; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a system for constructing reconfigurable microstructures using multiple, real-time configurable counterpropagating-beam traps. We optically assemble geometrically complementary microstructures with complex three-dimensional (3D) topologies produced by two-photon polymerization....... This demonstrates utilization of controllable 3D optical traps for building hierarchical structures from microfabricated building blocks. Optical microassembly with translational and tip-tilt control in 3D achieved by dynamic multiple CB traps can potentially facilitate the construction of functional microdevices...... and may also lead to the future realization of optically actuated micromachines. Fabricating morphologically complex microstructures and then optically manipulating these archetypal building blocks can also be used to construct reconfigurable microenvironments that can aid in understanding cellular...

  18. Building houses with earth blocks: A guide for upgrading traditional building methods using handmade earth blocks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolton, M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a guide to building strong earth houses that will last a long time but without having to spend a lot of extra money or hire outside experts to do the building. It supports the process of improving the quality of earth housing...

  19. THE USAGE OF FACEBOOK FUNCTIONAL BUILDING BLOCKS IN UNISEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Abd Latib

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Internet-based social media has made it possible for a personto communicate with thousands of other people to increase the communicationeffectiveness, collaboration among internal organization and knowledge sharing.By engaging employees through social media such as Facebook as a two-waycommunications tool, employers can reach a larger audience and build credibilitywith techno-savvy workers. Although it is clear that Facebook is a very powerfultool for communication, many employers are unable to identify the functionalityof Facebook in terms of developing strategies and to allocate the resourceseffectively. Taking this into account this study sought to identify the usage ofFacebook Functionality building blocks. This survey involved 55 academic staffsfrom the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Unisel. Theseven functional building blocks identified were Identity (M=3.39, Relationships(M=3.39, Groups (M=3.6, Presence (M=3.28, Sharing (M=3.06, andConversations (M=2.90, Reputation (M=2.05. This study suggests that theability to identify the functional building blocks itself is very important in anorganization in terms of developing their communication strategies. It is hopedthat the results of the study will be applicable to the instituition, current users,and potential users of Facebook.

  20. BUILDING BLOCKS: ENMESHING TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY WITH ARTISTIC PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J.JANZEN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the analogy of children’s building blocks, the reader is guided through the results of a research study that explored the use of three Artistic Pedagogical Technologies (APTs. ‘Building blocks’ was the major theme that emerged from the data. Sub-themes included developing community, enhancing creativity, and risk taking. The discourse of the paper centers on how selected APTs stimulate interaction, create social presence, and help develop community in the online post-secondary classroom. Additional findings are discussed and implications are presented.

  1. Block assembly for global registration of building scans

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Feilong

    2016-11-11

    We propose a framework for global registration of building scans. The first contribution of our work is to detect and use portals (e.g., doors and windows) to improve the local registration between two scans. Our second contribution is an optimization based on a linear integer programming formulation. We abstract each scan as a block and model the blocks registration as an optimization problem that aims at maximizing the overall matching score of the entire scene. We propose an efficient solution to this optimization problem by iteratively detecting and adding local constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on buildings of various styles and that our approach is superior to the current state of the art.

  2. Block assembly for global registration of building scans

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Feilong; Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework for global registration of building scans. The first contribution of our work is to detect and use portals (e.g., doors and windows) to improve the local registration between two scans. Our second contribution is an optimization based on a linear integer programming formulation. We abstract each scan as a block and model the blocks registration as an optimization problem that aims at maximizing the overall matching score of the entire scene. We propose an efficient solution to this optimization problem by iteratively detecting and adding local constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on buildings of various styles and that our approach is superior to the current state of the art.

  3. Preparing a Safety Analysis Report using the building block approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The credibility of the applicant in a licensing proceeding is severely impacted by the quality of the license application, particularly the Safety Analysis Report. To ensure the highest possible credibility, the building block approach was devised to support the development of a quality Safety Analysis Report. The approach incorporates a comprehensive planning scheme that logically ties together all levels of the investigation and provides the direction necessary to prepare a superior Safety Analysis Report

  4. Topology Optimization of Building Blocks for Photonic Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits are likely candidates as high speed replacements for the standard electrical integrated circuits of today. However, in order to obtain a satisfactorily performance many design prob- lems that up until now have resulted in too high losses must be resolved. In this work...... we demonstrate how the method of topology optimization can be used to design a variety of high performance building blocks for the future circuits....

  5. Oligomers and Polymers Based on Pentacene Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lehnherr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized pentacene derivatives continue to provide unique materials for organic semiconductor applications. Although oligomers and polymers based on pentacene building blocks remain quite rare, recent synthetic achievements have provided a number of examples with varied structural motifs. This review highlights recent work in this area and, when possible, contrasts the properties of defined-length pentacene oligomers to those of mono- and polymeric systems.

  6. Development of building blocks using vegetable oil and recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to contribute towards greater sustainability of the construction industry in the Qatar by proposing methods to reduce its dependency on primary imported materials. In this investigation, recycled and secondary aggregates (RSA were combined with non-traditional binders to develop a unique method of manufacturing construction and building blocks. Following an extensive phase of laboratory trials and experimentation, it was realised that many types of graded mineral aggregates, when mixed with vegetable oils (virgin or waste at optimal proportions, then compacted and thermally cured at elevated temperatures can readily generate hardened composites that have the mechanical characteristics of conventional building blocks. The resultant blocks have been named “Vegeblocks” and are viewed as viable alternatives to conventional concrete blocks. Furthermore, the research has demonstrated the feasibility of producing Vegeblocks composed of 100% recycled aggregate and discarded waste cooking oil. Based on physical and mineralogical properties, each type of aggregate has an optimum oil content for maximum compressive strength, beyond which, any additional oil will result in reduction in mechanical properties. Acceptable compressive strength values were achieved by thermally curing Vegeblocks at of 170 °C for 24 hours.

  7. Molecular Clusters: Nanoscale Building Blocks for Solid-State Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, Andrew; Champsaur, Anouck M; Roy, Xavier

    2018-04-17

    The programmed assembly of nanoscale building blocks into multicomponent hierarchical structures is a powerful strategy for the bottom-up construction of functional materials. To develop this concept, our team has explored the use of molecular clusters as superatomic building blocks to fabricate new classes of materials. The library of molecular clusters is rich with exciting properties, including diverse functionalization, redox activity, and magnetic ordering, so the resulting cluster-assembled solids, which we term superatomic crystals (SACs), hold the promise of high tunability, atomic precision, and robust architectures among a diverse range of other material properties. Molecular clusters have only seldom been used as precursors for functional materials. Our team has been at the forefront of new developments in this exciting research area, and this Account focuses on our progress toward designing materials from cluster-based precursors. In particular, this Account discusses (1) the design and synthesis of molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, (2) their self-assembly into SACs, and (3) their resulting collective properties. The set of molecular clusters discussed herein is diverse, with different cluster cores and ligand arrangements to create an impressive array of solids. The cluster cores include octahedral M 6 E 8 and cubane M 4 E 4 (M = metal; E = chalcogen), which are typically passivated by a shell of supporting ligands, a feature upon which we have expanded upon by designing and synthesizing more exotic ligands that can be used to direct solid-state assembly. Building from this library, we have designed whole families of binary SACs where the building blocks are held together through electrostatic, covalent, or van der Waals interactions. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) to determine the atomic structure, a remarkable range of compositional variability is accessible. We can also use this technique, in tandem with vibrational

  8. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  9. Anisotropy Spectra for Enantiomeric Differentiation of Biomolecular Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Amanda C.; Meinert, Cornelia; Bredehoft, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    All biopolymers are composed of homochiral building blocks, and both D-sugars and L-amino acids uniquely constitute life on Earth. These monomers were originally enantiomerically differentiated under prebiotic conditions. Particular progress has recently been made in support of the photochemical...... light. This chapter will: (1) present the theory and configuration of anisotropy spectroscopy; (2) explain experimentally recorded anisotropy spectra of selected chiral biomolecules such as amino acids; and (3) discuss the relevance of these spectra for the investigation of the origin of the molecular...

  10. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calix[4]arenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calix[4]-arenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4 f combinations......(Figure Presented). Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise...

  11. Building blocks toward contemporary trauma theory: Ferenczi 's paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Judit

    2010-12-01

    In laying down the building blocks of contemporary trauma theory, Ferenczi asserted that trauma is founded on real events and that it occurs in the interpersonal and intersubjective dynamics of object relations. He stressed the significance of the presence or lack of a trusted person in the post-traumatic situation. After the trauma, the loneliness and later the isolation of the victim represent a serious pathogenic source. In the traumatic situation, the victim and the persecutor/aggressor operate differing ego defense mechanisms. Ferenczi was the first to describe the ego defense mechanism of identification with the aggressor. Ferenczi pointed out the characteristic features of the role of analyst/therapist with which (s)he may assist the patient in working through the trauma, among them being the development of a therapeutic atmosphere based on trust, so that the traumatic experiences can be relived, without which effective therapeutic change cannot be achieved. For the analyst, countertransference, as part of authentic communication, is incorporated into the therapeutic process. These are the key building blocks that are laid down by Ferenczi in his writings and appear in later works on trauma theory.

  12. MECs: "Building Blocks" for Creating Biological and Chemical Instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Hill

    Full Text Available The development of new biological and chemical instruments for research and diagnostic applications is often slowed by the cost, specialization, and custom nature of these instruments. New instruments are built from components that are drawn from a host of different disciplines and not designed to integrate together, and once built, an instrument typically performs a limited number of tasks and cannot be easily adapted for new applications. Consequently, the process of inventing new instruments is very inefficient, especially for researchers or clinicians in resource-limited settings. To improve this situation, we propose that a family of standardized multidisciplinary components is needed, a set of "building blocks" that perform a wide array of different tasks and are designed to integrate together. Using these components, scientists, engineers, and clinicians would be able to build custom instruments for their own unique needs quickly and easily. In this work we present the foundation of this set of components, a system we call Multifluidic Evolutionary Components (MECs. "Multifluidic" conveys the wide range of fluid volumes MECs operate upon (from nanoliters to milliliters and beyond; "multi" also reflects the multiple disciplines supported by the system (not only fluidics but also electronics, optics, and mechanics. "Evolutionary" refers to the design principles that enable the library of MEC parts to easily grow and adapt to new applications. Each MEC "building block" performs a fundamental function that is commonly found in biological or chemical instruments, functions like valving, pumping, mixing, controlling, and sensing. Each MEC also has a unique symbol linked to a physical definition, which enables instruments to be designed rapidly and efficiently using schematics. As a proof-of-concept, we use MECs to build a variety of instruments, including a fluidic routing and mixing system capable of manipulating fluid volumes over five orders

  13. Microbial production of building block chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Hyun Uk; Choi, Sol; Yi, Jongho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-12-01

    Owing to our increasing concerns on the environment, climate change, and limited natural resources, there has recently been considerable effort exerted to produce chemicals and materials from renewable biomass. Polymers we use everyday can also be produced either by direct fermentation or by polymerization of monomers that are produced by fermentation. Recent advances in metabolic engineering combined with systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to more systematically develop superior strains and bioprocesses for the efficient production of polymers and monomers. Here, we review recent trends in microbial production of building block chemicals that can be subsequently used for the synthesis of polymers. Also, recent successful cases of direct one-step production of polymers are reviewed. General strategies for the production of natural and unnatural platform chemicals are described together with representative examples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg

    Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

  15. The assessment of professional competence: building blocks for theory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, C P M; Schuwirth, L W T; Scheele, F; Driessen, E W; Hodges, B

    2010-12-01

    This article presents lessons learnt from experiences with assessment of professional competence. Based on Miller's pyramid, a distinction is made between established assessment technology for assessing 'knows', 'knowing how' and 'showing how' and more recent developments in the assessment of (clinical) performance at the 'does' level. Some general lessons are derived from research of and experiences with the established assessment technology. Here, many paradoxes are revealed and empirical outcomes are often counterintuitive. Instruments for assessing the 'does' level are classified and described, and additional general lessons for this area of performance assessment are derived. These lessons can also be read as general principles of assessment (programmes) and may provide theoretical building blocks to underpin appropriate and state-of-the-art assessment practices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrotalcite catalysis for the synthesis of new chiral building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Jesus M; Neves, Patricia P; Pombal, Sofia; Rives, Vicente; Trujillano, Raquel; Díez, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of hydrotalcites for the synthesis of two chiral building blocks in a simple way is described as a new and green methodology. The synthesis of these compounds implies a regioselective Baeyer-Villiger reaction in a very selective way with ulterior opening and lactonisation. This methodology should be considered green for the use of hydrogen peroxide as the only oxidant and hydrotalcites as the catalyst, and because no residues are produced apart from water. The procedure is very adequate for using in gram scale, in order to increase the value of the obtained compounds. The conditions are excellent and can be applied for nonstable compounds, as they are very mild. The synthesised compounds are magnific starting materials for the synthesis of biologically active or natural compounds. The use of a cheap, commercial and chiral compound as carvone disposable in both enantiomeric forms adds an extra value to this methodology.

  17. α-Haloaldehydes: versatile building blocks for natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert; Kang, Baldip

    2013-02-01

    The diastereoselective addition of organometallic reagents to α-chloroaldehydes was first reported in 1959 and occupies a historically significant role as the prototypical reaction for Cornforth's model of stereoinduction. Despite clear synthetic potential for these reagents, difficulties associated with producing enantiomerically enriched α-haloaldehydes limited their use in natural product synthesis through the latter half of the 20th century. In recent years, however, a variety of robust, organocatalytic processes have been reported that now provide direct access to optically enriched α-haloaldehydes and have motivated renewed interest in their use as building blocks for natural product synthesis. This Highlight summarizes the methods available for the enantioselective preparation of α-haloaldehydes and their stereoselective conversion into natural products.

  18. Building blocks for a polarimeter-on-a-chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Schneider, Gideon; Travers, Douglas; Cao, Nga; Wollack, Edward; Limon, Michele; Kogut, Alan

    2006-01-01

    For the 'Primordial Anisotropy Polarization Pathfinder Array (PAPPA)' balloon flight project, we have designed and made thin-film niobium microstrip circuits as building blocks for a 'polarimeter-on-a-chip' in which superconducting transmission lines are used to couple millimeter wave signals from planar antennas to superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) detectors. Our goal is to demonstrate technology for precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. To enable characterization and verification of our microstrip components, we have incorporated waveguide probes on each chip that can bring millimeter wave signals from a room temperature vector network analyzer to the superconducting circuits on the chip and back again for S-parameter measurements. We have designed a planar antenna and RF choke on the probes to efficiently couple radiation between waveguide and thin-film microstrip. To support the probe antennas in waveguides, we sculpted thin silicon cantilevers that extend from an edge of each silicon chip into a pair of waveguides within a specially designed split-block mount. This technique will allow us to make calibrated measurements at low temperatures of the velocity, impedance, and loss properties of our niobium transmission lines, the frequency response of microstrip filters, hybrid couplers, or terminations, and the performance of integrated detectors

  19. A droplet-based building block approach for bladder smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, F; Moon, S J; Emre, A E; Turali, E S; Song, Y S; Hacking, S A; Demirci, U [Department of Medicine, Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nagatomi, J, E-mail: udemirci@rics.bwh.harvard.ed [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Tissue engineering based on building blocks is an emerging method to fabricate 3D tissue constructs. This method requires depositing and assembling building blocks (cell-laden microgels) at high throughput. The current technologies (e.g., molding and photolithography) to fabricate microgels have throughput challenges and provide limited control over building block properties (e.g., cell density). The cell-encapsulating droplet generation technique has potential to address these challenges. In this study, we monitored individual building blocks for viability, proliferation and cell density. The results showed that (i) SMCs can be encapsulated in collagen droplets with high viability (>94.2 +- 3.2%) for four cases of initial number of cells per building block (i.e. 7 +- 2, 16 +- 2, 26 +- 3 and 37 +- 3 cells/building block). (ii) Encapsulated SMCs can proliferate in building blocks at rates that are consistent (1.49 +- 0.29) across all four cases, compared to that of the controls. (iii) By assembling these building blocks, we created an SMC patch (5 mm x 5 mm x 20 mum), which was cultured for 51 days forming a 3D tissue-like construct. The histology of the cultured patch was compared to that of a native rat bladder. These results indicate the potential of creating 3D tissue models at high throughput in vitro using building blocks.

  20. Theoretical and technological building blocks for an innovation accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, F.; Kampis, G.; Börner, K.; van den Besselaar, P.; Schultes, E.; Goble, C.; Groth, P.; Mons, B.; Anderson, S.; Decker, S.; Hayes, C.; Buecheler, T.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    Modern science is a main driver of technological innovation. The efficiency of the scientific system is of key importance to ensure the competitiveness of a nation or region. However, the scientific system that we use today was devised centuries ago and is inadequate for our current ICT-based society: the peer review system encourages conservatism, journal publications are monolithic and slow, data is often not available to other scientists, and the independent validation of results is limited. The resulting scientific process is hence slow and sloppy. Building on the Innovation Accelerator paper by Helbing and Balietti [1], this paper takes the initial global vision and reviews the theoretical and technological building blocks that can be used for implementing an innovation (in first place: science) accelerator platform driven by re-imagining the science system. The envisioned platform would rest on four pillars: (i) Redesign the incentive scheme to reduce behavior such as conservatism, herding and hyping; (ii) Advance scientific publications by breaking up the monolithic paper unit and introducing other building blocks such as data, tools, experiment workflows, resources; (iii) Use machine readable semantics for publications, debate structures, provenance etc. in order to include the computer as a partner in the scientific process, and (iv) Build an online platform for collaboration, including a network of trust and reputation among the different types of stakeholders in the scientific system: scientists, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, students and industrial innovators among others. Any such improvements to the scientific system must support the entire scientific process (unlike current tools that chop up the scientific process into disconnected pieces), must facilitate and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinarity (again unlike current tools), must facilitate the inclusion of intelligent computing in the scientific process, must facilitate

  1. Origami building blocks: Generic and special four-vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Four rigid panels connected by hinges that meet at a point form a four-vertex, the fundamental building block of origami metamaterials. Most materials designed so far are based on the same four-vertex geometry, and little is known regarding how different geometries affect folding behavior. Here we systematically categorize and analyze the geometries and resulting folding motions of Euclidean four-vertices. Comparing the relative sizes of sector angles, we identify three types of generic vertices and two accompanying subtypes. We determine which folds can fully close and the possible mountain-valley assignments. Next, we consider what occurs when sector angles or sums thereof are set equal, which results in 16 special vertex types. One of these, flat-foldable vertices, has been studied extensively, but we show that a wide variety of qualitatively different folding motions exist for the other 15 special and 3 generic types. Our work establishes a straightforward set of rules for understanding the folding motion of both generic and special four-vertices and serves as a roadmap for designing origami metamaterials.

  2. Exploring Integration in Action: Competencies as Building Blocks of Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Maria; Borschel, Debaroti Tina; O'Brien, Tara; Martimianakis, Sofia; Woods, Nicole N

    2017-12-01

    Competency frameworks such as the CanMEDS roles and the ACGME core competencies may lead to the implicit assumption that physicians can learn and practice individual competencies in isolation. In contrast, models of adaptive expertise suggest that the integration of competencies reflects the capabilities of an expert physician. Thus, educational programming aimed at teaching discrete roles or competencies might overlook expert physician capabilities that are central to patient care. To develop expertise, learning opportunities must reflect expert capabilities. To better understand the relationship between competency-based medical education and expert development, the authors sought to explore how integrated competencies are enacted during patient care by postgraduate medical trainees. Using a cognitive ethnographic approach, in 2014-2015 the authors conducted observations and-to refine and elaborate these observations-ad hoc informal interviews with 13 postgraduate trainee participants. Data collection resulted in 92 hours of observation, 26 patient case portraits, and a total of 220 pages of field notes for analysis. Through analysis, the authors identified and examined moments when postgraduate trainees appeared to be simultaneously enacting multiple competencies. The authors identified two key expert capabilities in moments of integrated competence: finding complexity and being patient-centered. They described two mechanisms for these forms of integration: valuing the patient's narrative of their illness, and integrated understanding. Understanding integrated competencies as the building blocks of expert capabilities, along with recognizing the importance of mechanisms that support integration, offers an opportunity to use existing competency-based frameworks to understand and teach adaptive expertise.

  3. Building blocks for a clinical imaging informatics environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Marc D; Warnock, Max; Daly, Mark; Toland, Christopher; Meenan, Chris; Nagy, Paul G

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, imaging informatics has been driven by the widespread adoption of radiology information and picture archiving and communication and speech recognition systems. These three clinical information systems are commonplace and are intuitive to most radiologists as they replicate familiar paper and film workflow. So what is next? There is a surge of innovation in imaging informatics around advanced workflow, search, electronic medical record aggregation, dashboarding, and analytics tools for quality measures (Nance et al., AJR Am J Roentgenol 200:1064-1070, 2013). The challenge lies in not having to rebuild the technological wheel for each of these new applications but instead attempt to share common components through open standards and modern development techniques. The next generation of applications will be built with moving parts that work together to satisfy advanced use cases without replicating databases and without requiring fragile, intense synchronization from clinical systems. The purpose of this paper is to identify building blocks that can position a practice to be able to quickly innovate when addressing clinical, educational, and research-related problems. This paper is the result of identifying common components in the construction of over two dozen clinical informatics projects developed at the University of Maryland Radiology Informatics Research Laboratory. The systems outlined are intended as a mere foundation rather than an exhaustive list of possible extensions.

  4. From Building Blocks to Architects Empowering Learners for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Juana Mahissa

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Although our ultimate goal is to enable our learners to become autonomous and efficient in their use of the foreign language, whether or not they have the opportunity to ever live and interact in a foreign language setting, our work as teachers must involve a conscious analysis of the different factors involved in this process, as well as the conscious effort to put all the intervening factors into action. Furthermore, it is our responsibility to develop the learners¿ thinking skills as they increase their competence in the target language and at the same time make them aware of their responsibility for their own processes and success by enhancing their autonomy and making them aware of the value of learning strategies. It is our task as teachers to be present on this journey and guide our learners towards becoming architects and masters of their own foreign language construct. In order for this journey to be a successful one, we must make sure we provide the learner with a correct supply of building blocks. In this paper we present an analysis of the main components comprised in teaching English as a foreign language, including a historical overview of methods, approaches, strategies, the concept of learner¿s autonomy, social and psychological factors, aiming at contributing to every teacher¿s reflection on his/her task in the school context.

  5. Aminobenzoates as building blocks for natural product assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher T; Haynes, Stuart W; Ames, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    The ortho-, meta-, and para- regioisomers of aminobenzoate are building blocks for a wide range of microbial natural products. Both the ortho-isomer (anthranilate) and PABA derive from the central shikimate pathway metabolite chorismate while the meta-isomer is not available by that route and starts from UDP-3-aminoglucose. PABA is largely funnelled into folate biosynthesis while anthranilate is the scaffold for biosynthetic elaboration into many natural heterocycles, most notably with its role in indole formation for tryptophan biosynthesis. Anthranilate is also converted to benzodiazepinones, fumiquinazolines, quinoxalines, phenoxazines, benzoxazolinates, quinolones, and phenazines, often with redox enzyme participation. The 5-hydroxy form of 3-aminobenzaote is the starter unit for ansa-bridged rifamycins, ansamitocins, and geldanamycins, whereas regioisomers 2-hydroxy, 4-hydroxy and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-aminobenzoate are key components of antimycin, grixazone, and platencin and platensimycin biosynthesis, respectively. The enzymatic mechanisms for generation of the aminobenzoate regioisomers and their subsequent utilization for diverse heterocycle and macrocycle construction are examined.

  6. Building blocks of temporal filters in retinal synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo Suh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems must be able to extract features of a stimulus to detect and represent properties of the world. Because sensory signals are constantly changing, a critical aspect of this transformation relates to the timing of signals and the ability to filter those signals to select dynamic properties, such as visual motion. At first assessment, one might think that the primary biophysical properties that construct a temporal filter would be dynamic mechanisms such as molecular concentration or membrane electrical properties. However, in the current issue of PLOS Biology, Baden et al. identify a mechanism of temporal filtering in the zebrafish and goldfish retina that is not dynamic but is in fact a structural building block-the physical size of a synapse itself. The authors observe that small, bipolar cell synaptic terminals are fast and highly adaptive, whereas large ones are slower and adapt less. Using a computational model, they conclude that the volume of the synaptic terminal influences the calcium concentration and the number of available vesicles. These results indicate that the size of the presynaptic terminal is an independent control for the dynamics of a synapse and may reveal aspects of synaptic function that can be inferred from anatomical structure.

  7. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu

    2017-01-01

    -containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters with additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. We employ an NMR approach to identify, quantify and optimize the formation these building blocks in the chemocatalytic transformation of abundant carbohydrates by Sn...

  8. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  9. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Antonella; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality (IVR) focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the illusion of ownership can be generated when the virtual body has a realistic skin tone and spatially substitutes the real body seen from a first person perspective. In this case there is no need for an additional contribution of congruent visuotactile or sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body is not high enough and/or when there is no spatial overlap between the two bodies, then the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported in the literature. PMID:23519597

  10. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eMaselli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the level of realism of the virtual body, in particular the realism of skin tone, plays a critical role: when high enough, the illusion can be triggered by the sole effect of the spatial overlap between the real and virtual bodies, providing congruent visuoproprioceptive information, with no need for the additional contribution of congruent visuotactile and/or visual sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body and/or the spatial overlap of the two bodies is not high enough, the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported

  11. Two innovative solutions based on fibre concrete blocks designed for building substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderka, J.; Hájek, P.

    2017-09-01

    Using of fibers in a high-strength concrete allows reduction of the dimensions of small precast concrete elements, which opens up new ways of solution for traditional construction details in buildings. The paper presents two innovative technical solutions for building substructure: The special shaped plinth block from fibre concrete and the fibre concrete elements for new technical solution of ventilated floor. The main advantages of plinth block from fibre concrete blocks (compared with standard plinth solutions) is: easier and faster assembly, higher durability and thanks to the air cavity between the vertical part of the block, the building substructure reduced moisture level of structures under the waterproofing layer and a comprehensive solution to the final surface of building plinth as well as the surface of adjacent terrain. The ventilated floor based on fibre concrete precast blocks is an attractive structural alternative for tackling the problem of increased moisture in masonry in older buildings, lacking a functional waterproof layer in the substructure.

  12. CEMENT KILN DUST AS A MATERIAL FOR BUILDING BLOCKS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on the properties of hollow sandcrete blocks with cement kiln dust (CKD) as an additive and as a replacement for ordinary portland cement (OPC). When CKD was used as a replacement for cement, the compressive strength and density of blocks generally decreased with higher ...

  13. Science Support: The Building Blocks of Active Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, A.

    2013-12-01

    While the scientific method is built on reproducibility and transparency, and results are published in peer reviewed literature, we have come to the digital age of very large datasets (now of the order of petabytes and soon exabytes) which cannot be published in the traditional way. To preserve reproducibility and transparency, active curation is necessary to keep and protect the information in the long term, and 'science support' activities provide the building blocks for active data curation. With the explosive growth of data in all fields in recent years, there is a pressing urge for data centres to now provide adequate services to ensure long-term preservation and digital curation of project data outputs, however complex those may be. Science support provides advice and support to science projects on data and information management, from file formats through to general data management awareness. Another purpose of science support is to raise awareness in the science community of data and metadata standards and best practice, engendering a culture where data outputs are seen as valued assets. At the heart of Science support is the Data Management Plan (DMP) which sets out a coherent approach to data issues pertaining to the data generating project. It provides an agreed record of the data management needs and issues within the project. The DMP is agreed upon with project investigators to ensure that a high quality documented data archive is created. It includes conditions of use and deposit to clearly express the ownership, responsibilities and rights associated with the data. Project specific needs are also identified for data processing, visualization tools and data sharing services. As part of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), the Centre for Environmental Data Archival (CEDA) fulfills this science support role of facilitating atmospheric and Earth observation data generating projects to ensure

  14. Mn-based nanostructured building blocks: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Huarac, Juan

    The quest for smaller functional elements of devices has stimulated increased interest in charge-transfer phenomena at the nanoscale. Mn-based nanostructured building blocks are particularly appealing given that the excited states of high-spin Mn2+ ions induce unusual d-d energy transfer processes, which is critical for better understanding the performance of electronic and spintronic devices. These nanostructures also exhibit unique properties superior to those of common Fe- and Co-based nanomaterials, including: excellent structural flexibility, enhanced electrochemical energy storage, effective ion-exchange dynamics, more comprehensive transport mechanisms, strong quantum yield, and they act as effective luminescent centers for more efficient visible light emitters. Moreover, Mn-based nanostructures (MBNs) are crucial for the design and assembly of inexpensive nanodevices in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), optoelectronics, magneto-optics, and field-effect transistors, owing to the great abundance and low-cost of Mn. Nonetheless, the paucity of original methods and techniques to fabricate new multifunctional MBNs that fulfill industrial demands limits the sustainable development of innovative technology in materials sciences. In order to meet this critical need, in this thesis we develop and implement novel methods and techniques to fabricate zero- and one-dimensional highly-crystalline new-generation MBNs conducive to the generation of new technology, and provide alternative and feasible miniaturization strategies to control and devise at nanometric precision their size, shape, structure and composition. Herein, we also establish the experimental conditions to grow Mn-based nanowires (NWs), nanotubes (NTs), nanoribbons (NRs), nanosaws (NSs), nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocomposites (NCs) via chemical/physical deposition and co-precipitation chemical routes, and determine the pertinent arrangements to our experimental schemes in order to extend our bottom

  15. Cosmic "Dig" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Peering through the thick dust clouds of our galaxy's "bulge" (the myriads of stars surrounding its centre), and revealing an amazing amount of detail, a team of astronomers has unveiled an unusual mix of stars in the stellar grouping known as Terzan 5. Never observed anywhere in the bulge before, this peculiar "cocktail" of stars suggests that Terzan 5 is in fact one of the bulge's primordial building blocks, most likely the relic of a proto-galaxy that merged with the Milky Way during its very early days. "The history of the Milky Way is encoded in its oldest fragments, globular clusters and other systems of stars that have witnessed the entire evolution of our galaxy," says Francesco Ferraro from the University of Bologna, lead author of a paper appearing in this week's issue of the journal Nature. "Our study opens a new window on yet another piece of our galactic past." Like archaeologists, who dig through the dust piling up on top of the remains of past civilisations and unearth crucial pieces of the history of mankind, astronomers have been gazing through the thick layers of interstellar dust obscuring the bulge of the Milky Way and have unveiled an extraordinary cosmic relic. The target of the study is the star cluster Terzan 5. The new observations show that this object, unlike all but a few exceptional globular clusters, does not harbour stars which are all born at the same time - what astronomers call a "single population" of stars. Instead, the multitude of glowing stars in Terzan 5 formed in at least two different epochs, the earliest probably some 12 billion years ago and then again 6 billion years ago. "Only one globular cluster with such a complex history of star formation has been observed in the halo of the Milky Way: Omega Centauri," says team member Emanuele Dalessandro. "This is the first time we see this in the bulge." The galactic bulge is the most inaccessible region of our galaxy for astronomical observations: only infrared light can

  16. Analog Organic Electronics Building Blocks for Organic Smart Sensor Systems on Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Marien, Hagen; Heremans, Paul

    2013-01-01

     This book provides insight into organic electronics technology and in analog circuit techniques that can be used to increase the performance of both analog and digital organic circuits. It explores the domain of organic electronics technology for analog circuit applications, specifically smart sensor systems.  It focuses on all the building blocks in the data path of an organic sensor system between the sensor and the digital processing block. Sensors, amplifiers, analog-to-digital converters and DC-DC converters are discussed in detail. Coverage includes circuit techniques, circuit implementation, design decisions and measurement results of the building blocks described. Offers readers the first book to focus on analog organic circuit design; Discusses organic electronics technology for analog circuit applications in the context of smart sensor systems; Describes all building blocks necessary for an organic sensor system between the sensor and the digital processing block; Includes circuit techniques, cir...

  17. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel Cervantes-Salguero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  18. Enantiopure heterobimetallic single-chain magnets from the chiral Ru(III) building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wu, Tao; Yao, Min-Xia; Li, Yi-Zhi; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2014-01-21

    A pair of one-dimensional enantiomers based on the versatile chiral dicyanoruthenate(III) building block have been synthesized and they are chiral single-chain magnets with the effective spin-reversal barrier of 28.2 K.

  19. Solid-phase route to Fmoc-protected cationic amino acid building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jacob Dahlqvist; Linderoth, Lars; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2012-01-01

    Diamino acids are commonly found in bioactive compounds, yet only few are commercially available as building blocks for solid-phase peptide synthesis. In the present work a convenient, inexpensive route to multiple-charged amino acid building blocks with varying degree of hydrophobicity...... was developed. A versatile solid-phase protocol leading to selectively protected amino alcohol intermediates was followed by oxidation to yield the desired di- or polycationic amino acid building blocks in gram-scale amounts. The synthetic sequence comprises loading of (S)-1-(p-nosyl)aziridine-2-methanol onto...... of simple neutral amino acids as well as analogs displaying high bulkiness or polycationic side chains was prepared. Two building blocks were incorporated into peptide sequences using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis confirming their general utility....

  20. Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMS) For Power Building Block Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of developing high power density modular power electronic building blocks...

  1. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just twelve building blocks and one coupling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerly, Eric M.; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides, and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized building block-based synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks covering all of this natural product chemical space, and first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A, and neurosporaxanthin β-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach for making small molecules in the laboratory. PMID:24848233

  2. Binding Blocks: Building the Universe One Nucleus at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diget, C. Aa.; Pastore, A.; Leech, K.; Haylett, T.; Lock, S.; Sanders, T.; Shelley, M.; Willett, H. V.; Keegans, J.; Sinclair, L.; Simpson, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new teaching and outreach activity based around the construction of a three-dimensional chart of isotopes using LEGO® bricks. The activity, "binding blocks", demonstrates nuclear and astrophysical processes through a seven-meter chart of all nuclear isotopes, built from over 26000 LEGO® bricks. It integrates A-Level and GCSE…

  3. Building an organic block storage service at CERN with Ceph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ster, Daniel van der; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Emerging storage requirements, such as the need for block storage for both OpenStack VMs and file services like AFS and NFS, have motivated the development of a generic backend storage service for CERN IT. The goals for such a service include (a) vendor neutrality, (b) horizontal scalability with commodity hardware, (c) fault tolerance at the disk, host, and network levels, and (d) support for geo-replication. Ceph is an attractive option due to its native block device layer RBD which is built upon its scalable, reliable, and performant object storage system, RADOS. It can be considered an 'organic' storage solution because of its ability to balance and heal itself while living on an ever-changing set of heterogeneous disk servers. This work will present the outcome of a petabyte-scale test deployment of Ceph by CERN IT. We will first present the architecture and configuration of our cluster, including a summary of best practices learned from the community and discovered internally. Next the results of various functionality and performance tests will be shown: the cluster has been used as a backend block storage system for AFS and NFS servers as well as a large OpenStack cluster at CERN. Finally, we will discuss the next steps and future possibilities for Ceph at CERN.

  4. Building an organic block storage service at CERN with Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-06-01

    Emerging storage requirements, such as the need for block storage for both OpenStack VMs and file services like AFS and NFS, have motivated the development of a generic backend storage service for CERN IT. The goals for such a service include (a) vendor neutrality, (b) horizontal scalability with commodity hardware, (c) fault tolerance at the disk, host, and network levels, and (d) support for geo-replication. Ceph is an attractive option due to its native block device layer RBD which is built upon its scalable, reliable, and performant object storage system, RADOS. It can be considered an "organic" storage solution because of its ability to balance and heal itself while living on an ever-changing set of heterogeneous disk servers. This work will present the outcome of a petabyte-scale test deployment of Ceph by CERN IT. We will first present the architecture and configuration of our cluster, including a summary of best practices learned from the community and discovered internally. Next the results of various functionality and performance tests will be shown: the cluster has been used as a backend block storage system for AFS and NFS servers as well as a large OpenStack cluster at CERN. Finally, we will discuss the next steps and future possibilities for Ceph at CERN.

  5. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  6. Binding blocks: building the Universe one nucleus at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diget, C. Aa; Pastore, A.; Leech, K.; Haylett, T.; Lock, S.; Sanders, T.; Shelley, M.; Willett, H. V.; Keegans, J.; Sinclair, L.; Simpson, E. C.; Binding Blocks Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present a new teaching and outreach activity based around the construction of a three-dimensional chart of isotopes using \\text{LEG}{{\\text{O}}\\circledR} bricks5. The activity, binding blocks, demonstrates nuclear and astrophysical processes through a seven-meter chart of all nuclear isotopes, built from over 26 000 \\text{LEG}{{\\text{O}}\\circledR} bricks. It integrates A-Level and GCSE curricula across areas of nuclear physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, including: nuclear decays (through the colours in the chart); nuclear binding energy (through tower heights); production of chemical elements in the cosmos; fusion processes in stars and fusion energy on Earth; as well as links to medical physics, particularly diagnostics and radiotherapy.

  7. Building block synthesis using the polymerase chain assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Julie A; Peccoud, Jean

    2012-01-01

    De novo gene synthesis allows the creation of custom DNA molecules without the typical constraints of traditional cloning assembly: scars, restriction site incompatibility, and the quest to find all the desired parts to name a few. Moreover, with the help of computer-assisted design, the perfect DNA molecule can be created along with its matching sequence ready to download. The challenge is to build the physical DNA molecules that have been designed with the software. Although there are several DNA assembly methods, this section presents and describes a method using the polymerase chain assembly (PCA).

  8. Retinal bipolar cells: elementary building blocks of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Thomas; Haverkamp, Silke; Schubert, Timm; Baden, Tom

    2014-08-01

    Retinal bipolar cells are the first ‘projection neurons’ of the vertebrate visual system—all of the information needed for vision is relayed by this intraretinal connection. Each of the at least 13 distinct types of bipolar cells systematically transforms the photoreceptor input in a different way, thereby generating specific channels that encode stimulus properties, such as polarity, contrast, temporal profile and chromatic composition. As a result, bipolar cell output signals represent elementary ‘building blocks’ from which the microcircuits of the inner retina derive a feature-oriented description of the visual world.

  9. The new district energy : building blocks for sustainable community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The price of energy is expected to rise as world demand for fossil fuels increases and energy supplies become harder to access. Governments and businesses are interested in the role of energy in the design, development and operation of buildings and whole communities. In addition to contributing to community economic development, district energy (DE) systems can assist communities in meeting their goals for sustainable growth and in managing the changing nature of risk in the generation and delivery of energy. This handbook was developed in order to encourage information sharing and provide ideas on how to advance district energy development in communities across Canada. The handbook identified those who could use DE and listed the benefits provided by DE. These included community, environmental, and business benefits. The handbook also offered suggestions for overcoming common challenges experienced by communities initiating a DE system and provided a checklist to help accelerate the uptake of DE systems in a community. These challenges included working with the community; using integrated design; building knowledge, know-how and technical skills; and partnering to improve project financing and reducing development risk. 50 refs., 8 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Crosbie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels deliver most of the flexibility in contemporary electricity systems. The pressing need to reduce CO2 emissions requires new methods to provide this flexibility. Demand response (DR offers consumers a significant role in the delivery of flexibility by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during periods of stress or constraint. Blocks of buildings offer more flexibility in the timing and use of energy than single buildings, however, and a lack of relevant scalable ICT tools hampers DR in blocks of buildings. To ameliorate this problem, a current innovation project called “Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings” (DR-BoB: www.dr-bob.eu has integrated existing technologies into a scalable cloud-based solution for DR in blocks of buildings. The degree to which the DR-BoB energy management solution can increase the ability of any given site to participate in DR is dependent upon its current energy systems, i.e., the energy metering, the telemetry and control technologies in building management systems, and the existence/capacity of local power generation and storage plants. To encourage the owners and managers of blocks of buildings to participate in DR, a method of assessing and validating the technological readiness to participate in DR energy management solutions at any given site is required. This paper describes the DR-BoB energy management solution and outlines what we have called the demand response technology readiness levels (DRTRLs for the implementation of such a solution in blocks of buildings.

  11. Global value chains: Building blocks and network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekeris, Theodore

    2017-12-01

    The paper employs measures and tools from complex network analysis to enhance the understanding and interpretation of structural characteristics pertaining to the Global Value Chains (GVCs) during the period 1995-2011. The analysis involves the country, sector and country-sector value chain networks to identify main drivers of structural change. The results indicate significant intertemporal changes, mirroring the increased globalization in terms of network size, strength and connectivity. They also demonstrate higher clustering and increased concentration of the most influential countries and country-sectors relative to all others in the GVC network, with the geographical dimension to prevail over the sectoral dimension in the formation of value chains. The regionalization and less hierarchical organization drive country-sector production sharing, while the sectoral value chain network has become more integrated and more competitive over time. The findings suggest that the impact of country-sector policies and/or shocks may vary with the own-group and network-wide influence of each country, take place in multiple geographical scales, as GVCs have a block structure, and involve time dynamics.

  12. Building Blocks of Psychology: on Remaking the Unkept Promises of Early Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozli, Davood G; Deng, Wei Sophia

    2018-03-01

    The appeal and popularity of "building blocks", i.e., simple and dissociable elements of behavior and experience, persists in psychological research. We begin our assessment of this research strategy with an historical review of structuralism (as espoused by E. B. Titchener) and behaviorism (espoused by J. B. Watson and B. F. Skinner), two movements that held the assumption in their attempts to provide a systematic and unified discipline. We point out the ways in which the elementism of the two schools selected, framed, and excluded topics of study. After the historical review, we turn to contemporary literature and highlight the persistence of research into building blocks and the associated framing and exclusions in psychological research. The assumption that complex categories of human psychology can be understood in terms of their elementary components and simplest forms seems indefensible. In specific cases, therefore, reliance on the assumption requires justification. Finally, we review alternative strategies that bypass the commitment to building blocks.

  13. An Approach for On-Board Software Building Blocks Cooperation and Interfaces Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Dario; Campolo, Giovanni; Candia, Sante; Lisio, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    This paper provides an insight on the Avionic SW architecture developed by Thales Alenia Space Italy (TAS-I) to achieve structuring of the OBSW as a set of self-standing and re-usable building blocks. It is initially described the underlying framework for building blocks cooperation, which is based on ECSSE-70 packets forwarding (for services request to a building block) and standard parameters exchange for data communication. Subsequently it is discussed the high level of flexibility and scalability of the resulting architecture, reporting as example an implementation of the Failure Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) function which exploits the proposed architecture. The presented approach evolves from avionic SW architecture developed in the scope of the project PRIMA (Mult-Purpose Italian Re-configurable Platform) and has been adopted for the Sentinel-1 Avionic Software (ASW).

  14. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerly, Eric M; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D

    2014-06-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small-molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled both the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks that covered all of this natural-product chemical space and the first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A and neurosporaxanthin b-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach to making small molecules in the laboratory.

  15. Origami-inspired building block and parametric design for mechanical metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Yan, Leilei; Wang, Jiafu; Wang, Jun; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    An origami-based building block of mechanical metamaterials is proposed and explained by introducing a mechanism model based on its geometry. According to our model, this origami mechanism supports response to uniaxial tension that depends on structure parameters. Hence, its mechanical properties can be tunable by adjusting the structure parameters. Experiments for poly lactic acid (PLA) samples were carried out, and the results are in good agreement with those of finite element analysis (FEA). This work may be useful for designing building blocks of mechanical metamaterials or other complex mechanical structures. (paper)

  16. Molecular Building Blocks for Nanotechnology From Diamondoids to Nanoscale Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mansoori, G. Ali; Assoufid, Lahsen; Zhang, Guoping

    2007-01-01

    This book is a result of the research and educational activities of a group of outstanding scientists worldwide who have authored the chapters of this book dealing with the behavior of nanoscale building blocks. It contains a variety of subjects covering computational, dry and wet nanotechnology. The state-of-the-art subject matters presented here provide the reader with the latest developments on ongoing nanoscience and nanotechnology research from the bottom-up approach, which starts with with atoms and molecules as molecular building blocks.

  17. Recent advances in synthesis of bacterial rare sugar building blocks and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmadi, Madhu; Kulkarni, Suvarn S

    2014-07-01

    Covering: 1964 to 2013. Bacteria have unusual glycans on their surfaces which distinguish them from the host cells. These unique structures offer avenues for targeting bacteria with specific therapeutics and vaccine. However, these rare sugars are not accessible in acceptable purity and amounts by isolation from natural sources. Thus, procurement of orthogonally protected rare sugar building blocks through efficient chemical synthesis is regarded as a crucial step towards the development of glycoconjugate vaccines. This Highlight focuses on recent advances in the synthesis of the bacterial deoxy amino hexopyranoside building blocks and their application in constructing various biologically important bacterial O-glycans.

  18. Origami-inspired building block and parametric design for mechanical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Yan, Leilei; Wang, Jiafu; Wang, Jun; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-08-01

    An origami-based building block of mechanical metamaterials is proposed and explained by introducing a mechanism model based on its geometry. According to our model, this origami mechanism supports response to uniaxial tension that depends on structure parameters. Hence, its mechanical properties can be tunable by adjusting the structure parameters. Experiments for poly lactic acid (PLA) samples were carried out, and the results are in good agreement with those of finite element analysis (FEA). This work may be useful for designing building blocks of mechanical metamaterials or other complex mechanical structures.

  19. Media Peace Discourse: Constraints, Concepts and Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Shinar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Normative, professional, and academic premises steer the discussion of the importance and the absence of a peace discourse in the media, and of the need and possibility to invent one. Among the possible points of departure are that the media should be involved in the promotion of peace; that peace coverage is hindered by the absence of a peace discourse in the professional media repertoire; and that the creation, development, and marketing of a media peace discourse should be included in the current research agenda. The development of a peace-oriented media discourse can be assisted by three conceptual elements, namely, the existing strategies employed by the media to cover peace; the competition in the media among dominant and alternative frames, in which news-value is the measure of success; and the concept of “constitutive rhetoric” – the creation, change and legitimization of realities through texts, rhetorical constructs and the manipulation of symbols – as a discourse-building device. Research on the three major strategies used by the media in the coverage of peace – Framing Peace Coverage in War Discourse; Trivialization; and Ritualization – suggests that the latter fits this conceptual framework better than the others, and thus is more suitable for the development of a media peace discourse. Some findings and models of media research can be used for conceptual leverage by providing paradigmatic frameworks and variables. Good examples include the media events and the textual analysis genres, as they are particularly related to professional effects; narrative techniques; and performance styles; and concepts such as “master-frames” and “super-texts” – major motifs, composed of many smaller frames or sub-texts – to suggest the potential contents of a media peace discourse. Finally, it is proposed that research and development efforts of media peace coverage along these lines should include work on adapting the current

  20. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  1. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  2. Synthesis of N-protected Galactosamine Building Blocks from D-Tagatose via the Heyns Rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrodnigg, Tanja M.; Lundt, Inge; Stütz, Arnold E.

    2006-01-01

    N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine (11), a very important naturally occurring building block of oligosaccharides, is easily accessible via the Heyns rearrangement of D-tagatose (3) with benzylamine. The short and efficient synthesis of various differently N-protected D-galactosamine derivatives is reported....

  3. Fluorinated building blocks for next-generation polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadekar, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to design, create and study basic building blocks for the construction of self-assembled nanostructured electrodes and membranes for PEMFC. The research described deals with the synthesis of polymerizable fluorosurfactant (1) and its non-polymerizable analogue (2) and

  4. Silicene Flowers: A Dual Stabilized Silicon Building Block for High-Performance Lithium Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghao; Qiu, Xiongying; Kong, Debin; Zhou, Lu; Li, Zihao; Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2017-07-25

    Nanostructuring is a transformative way to improve the structure stability of high capacity silicon for lithium batteries. Yet, the interface instability issue remains and even propagates in the existing nanostructured silicon building blocks. Here we demonstrate an intrinsically dual stabilized silicon building block, namely silicene flowers, to simultaneously address the structure and interface stability issues. These original Si building blocks as lithium battery anodes exhibit extraordinary combined performance including high gravimetric capacity (2000 mAh g -1 at 800 mA g -1 ), high volumetric capacity (1799 mAh cm -3 ), remarkable rate capability (950 mAh g -1 at 8 A g -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (1100 mA h g -1 at 2000 mA g -1 over 600 cycles). Paired with a conventional cathode, the fabricated full cells deliver extraordinarily high specific energy and energy density (543 Wh kg ca -1 and 1257 Wh L ca -1 , respectively) based on the cathode and anode, which are 152% and 239% of their commercial counterparts using graphite anodes. Coupled with a simple, cost-effective, scalable synthesis approach, this silicon building block offers a horizon for the development of high-performance batteries.

  5. Dimeric Building Blocks for Solid-Phase Synthesis of α-Peptide-β-Peptoid Chimeras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seigan, Gitte Bonke; Vedel, Line; Matthias, Witt,

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a novel type of antimicrobial and proteolytically stable peptidomimetic oligomers having an α-peptide-β-peptoid chimeric backbone was reported. The present paper describes efficient protocols for the preparation of a wide range of dimeric building blocks, displaying different types of s...

  6. Stereoselective total synthesis of Oxylipin from open chain gluco-configured building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkar, Santosh Ramdas; Aidhen, Indrapal Singh

    2017-04-18

    Total synthesis of naturally occurring Oxylipin has been achieved from open chain gluco-configured building block which is readily assembled from inexpensive and commercially available D-(+)-gluconolactone. Grignard reaction and Wittig olefination reactions are key steps for the requisite CC bond formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  8. Membrane InP saturable absorbers on silicon as building blocks for transparent optical networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, O.; Tassaert, M.; Roelkens, G.C.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    As silicon photonics continues to gain research and industrial relevance, some of the building blocks in this technology such as modulators and switches still suffer from limitation when it comes to insertion losses and/or extinction ratio. In the past two years we have been investigating a

  9. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The...

  10. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure isoprenoid building blocks : application in the synthesis of apple leafminer pheromones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summeren, Ruben P. van; Reijmer, Sven J.W.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The first catalytic asymmetric procedure capable of preparing all 4 diastereoisomers (ee > 99%, de > 98%) of a versatile saturated isoprenoid building block was developed and the value of this new method was demonstrated in its application to the concise total synthesis of two pheromones.

  11. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie; Wojtas, Łukasz; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks

  12. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  13. Block Play and Mathematics Learning in Preschool: The Effects of Building Complexity, Peer and Teacher Interactions in the Block Area, and Replica Play Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawick-Smith, Jeffrey; Swaminathan, Sudha; Baton, Brooke; Danieluk, Courtney; Marsh, Samantha; Szarwacki, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Block play has been included in early childhood classrooms for over a century, yet few studies have examined its effects on learning. Several previous investigations indicate that the complexity of block building is associated with math ability, but these studies were often conducted in adult-guided, laboratory settings. In the present…

  14. Fundamental Autopoietic Building Blocks in 4.0 Organization as a Challenge to Humane Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Balažic Peček

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: The area of a human, organizations and Organizations is complex and with new aspects of 4.0 organization even more complex. We did an autopoietic outline with horizontal and vertical view of a researcher who sticks to humanity of an individual and organizations. The research question stems from the central study: Which are building blocks of autopoises in a modern and which in 4.0 organization? Purpose: To detect, recognize, research principles of autopoiesis and setting building blocks of autopoiesis in organizations. We are interested in a human in organization, in interpersonal co-dependance on micro and macro level. Inside this more and more virtual organization we are studying a human, humanity and human potential as a creative potential of humane organization. Method: Action research with mixed methods for comprehensive study of autopoietic principle and methodology of setting the autopoietic building blocks. We used Atlas.ti software and methodological informational software »Informational graph of Autopoiesis - IGA«. Validation was carried out with double triangulaton (static and dynamic view. Results: We formed and validated four directional building blocks and 36 process building blocks, which are shown in a human as: emotions, thinking, directing and activity. Significant difference in two process building blocks of autopoiesis in modern and 4.0 organization confirms the set thesis statement that the building blocks of modern and 4.0 organization are different. We detected that in 4.0 organization the process building blocks of self-/co-feeling and self-/co-referencing aregetting weaker. With results we claim that 4.0 organization is oriented mostly towards action and is getting stronger in improved communication. However, it decreases in emotions and thinking of a human in an organization. Organization: Results can serve as a guideline and challenge to humane organizations. We present the challenge how – by

  15. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  16. The Impact of Individual Differences, Types of Model and Social Settings on Block Building Performance among Chinese Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Children’s block building performances are used as indicators of other abilities in multiple domains. In the current study, we examined individual differences, types of model and social settings as influences on children’s block building performance. Chinese preschoolers (N = 180 participated in a block building activity in a natural setting, and performance was assessed with multiple measures in order to identify a range of specific skills. Using scores generated across these measures, three dependent variables were analyzed: block building skills, structural balance and structural features. An overall MANOVA showed that there were significant main effects of gender and grade level across most measures. Types of model showed no significant effect in children’s block building. There was a significant main effect of social settings on structural features, with the best performance in the 5-member group, followed by individual and then the 10-member block building. These findings suggest that boys performed better than girls in block building activity. Block building performance increased significantly from 1st to 2nd year of preschool, but not from second to third. The preschoolers created more representational constructions when presented with a model made of wooden rather than with a picture. There was partial evidence that children performed better when working with peers in a small group than when working alone or working in a large group. It is suggested that future study should examine other modalities rather than the visual one, diversify the samples and adopt a longitudinal investigation.

  17. The Impact of Individual Differences, Types of Model and Social Settings on Block Building Performance among Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mi; Deng, Zhu; Meng, Zhaokun; Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Qi, Wenhui; Wang, Rui; Yin, Tingting; Ji, Menghui

    2018-01-01

    Children's block building performances are used as indicators of other abilities in multiple domains. In the current study, we examined individual differences, types of model and social settings as influences on children's block building performance. Chinese preschoolers ( N = 180) participated in a block building activity in a natural setting, and performance was assessed with multiple measures in order to identify a range of specific skills. Using scores generated across these measures, three dependent variables were analyzed: block building skills, structural balance and structural features. An overall MANOVA showed that there were significant main effects of gender and grade level across most measures. Types of model showed no significant effect in children's block building. There was a significant main effect of social settings on structural features, with the best performance in the 5-member group, followed by individual and then the 10-member block building. These findings suggest that boys performed better than girls in block building activity. Block building performance increased significantly from 1st to 2nd year of preschool, but not from second to third. The preschoolers created more representational constructions when presented with a model made of wooden rather than with a picture. There was partial evidence that children performed better when working with peers in a small group than when working alone or working in a large group. It is suggested that future study should examine other modalities rather than the visual one, diversify the samples and adopt a longitudinal investigation.

  18. Amphiphilic building blocks for self-assembly: from amphiphiles to supra-amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2012-04-17

    The process of self-assembly spontaneously creates well-defined structures from various chemical building blocks. Self-assembly can include different levels of complexity: it can be as simple as the dimerization of two small building blocks driven by hydrogen bonding or as complicated as a cell membrane, a remarkable supramolecular architecture created by a bilayer of phospholipids embedded with functional proteins. The study of self-assembly in simple systems provides a fundamental understanding of the driving forces and cooperativity behind these processes. Once the rules are understood, these guidelines can facilitate the research of highly complex self-assembly processes. Among the various components for self-assembly, an amphiphilic molecule, which contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, forms one of the most powerful building blocks. When amphiphiles are dispersed in water, the hydrophilic component of the amphiphile preferentially interacts with the aqueous phase while the hydrophobic portion tends to reside in the air or in the nonpolar solvent. Therefore, the amphiphiles aggregate to form different molecular assemblies based on the repelling and coordinating forces between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of the component molecules and the surrounding medium. In contrast to conventional amphiphiles, supra-amphiphiles are constructed on the basis of noncovalent interactions or dynamic covalent bonds. In supra-amphiphiles, the functional groups can be attached to the amphiphiles by noncovalent synthesis, greatly speeding their construction. The building blocks for supra-amphiphiles can be either small organic molecules or polymers. Advances in the development of supra-amphiphiles will not only enrich the family of conventional amphiphiles that are based on covalent bonds but will also provide a new kind of building block for the preparation of complex self-assemblies. When polymers are used to construct supra-amphiphiles, the resulting

  19. Synthesis of homo- and heteromultivalent carbohydrate-functionalized oligo(amidoamines using novel glyco-building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wojcik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the solid phase synthesis of carbohydrate-functionalized oligo(amidoamines with different functionalization patterns utilizing a novel alphabet of six differently glycosylated building blocks. Highly efficient in flow conjugation of thioglycosides to a double-bond presenting diethylentriamine precursor is the key step to prepare these building blocks suitable for fully automated solid-phase synthesis. Introduction of the sugar ligands via functionalized building blocks rather than postfunctionalization of the oligomeric backbone allows for the straightforward synthesis of multivalent glycoligands with full control over monomer sequence and functionalization pattern. We demonstrate the potential of this building-block approach by synthesizing oligomers with different numbers and spacing of carbohydrates and also show the feasibility of heteromultivalent glycosylation patterns by combining building blocks presenting different mono- and disaccharides.

  20. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  1. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Samuel G; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Taarning, Esben; Meier, Sebastian

    2017-07-21

    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters, and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohol and water solvents using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters bearing additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. An NMR approach was used to identify, quantify, and optimize the formation of these building blocks in the Sn-Beta-catalyzed transformation of abundant carbohydrates. Record yields of the target molecules can be achieved by obstructing competing reactions through solvent selection. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Fragmented Agrarian Space: Building Blocks and Modernisation Trajectories. The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavič Irma Potočnik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production, processing and consumption within Slovenian agrarian space are fragmented due to physical constraints (72.4% of the territory categorised as ANC and socio-geographic factors. Based on available data, five essential building blocks of contemporary Slovenian agrarian space (available land, change management, integrated circular economy, adjustable policies, and flexibility of institutions are discussed. Interrelations among the building blocks shape the modernisation trajectories of approx. 70,000 agricultural holdings in Slovenia. The coexistence of three modernisation trajectories, i.e. practised autarky, various forms of pluri-activity, and small-scale intensive and innovative modernisation, creates a complex mosaic. The governance of multifunctional and multi-structured agrarian space is becoming more demanding.

  3. Dendrimers and Dendrons as Versatile Building Blocks for the Fabrication of Functional Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have emerged as a versatile class of polymeric materials with a wide range of applications in biomedical sciences. The judicious choice of hydrogel precursors allows one to introduce the necessary attributes to these materials that dictate their performance towards intended applications. Traditionally, hydrogels were fabricated using either polymerization of monomers or through crosslinking of polymers. In recent years, dendrimers and dendrons have been employed as well-defined building blocks in these materials. The multivalent and multifunctional nature of dendritic constructs offers advantages in either formulation or the physical and chemical properties of the obtained hydrogels. This review highlights various approaches utilized for the fabrication of hydrogels using well-defined dendrimers, dendrons and their polymeric conjugates. Examples from recent literature are chosen to illustrate the wide variety of hydrogels that have been designed using dendrimer- and dendron-based building blocks for applications, such as sensing, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  4. Building Blocks Of Innovation Within A State-Owned Enterprise (Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie van Zyl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article (the second part of a two-part study the focus is on establishing a theoretical framework of state owned enterprise (SOE managers’ espoused theory of building blocks of innovation. A qualitative approach, namely Grounded Theory, supported by Theoretical Sampling, was applied in generating the primary data for the study from different management levels in the SOE. The managers’ espoused theory, based on empirical evidence, shows that innovation consisted of five important building blocks, namely contextual setting; strategic enablers; business enablers; foundational enablers; and human resources; each with its own categories and sub-categories. The study also identified barriers to innovation. An innovation diffusion framework, specifically for implementation in a government context, was proposed.

  5. A chemical platform approach on cardanol oil: from the synthesis of building blocks to polymer synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaillet Fanny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This review proposes a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol oil in one or two-steps synthesis. Cardanol is a natural phenol issued from Cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL. CNSL is a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is non-toxic and particularly suitable as an aromatic renewable resource for polymers and materials. Various routes were used for the synthesis of di- and poly-functional building blocks used thereafter in polymer syntheses. Phenolation was used to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (methacrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (methacrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

  6. Benzoylated Uronic Acid Building Blocks and Synthesis of N-Uronate Conjugates of Lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bård Helge Hoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemoenzymatic approach towards benzoylated uronic acid building blocks has been investigated starting with benzoylated hexapyranosides using regioselective C-6 enzymatic hydrolysis as the key step. Two of the building blocks were reacted with the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine. Glucuronidation of lamotrigine using methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-α-D-glycopyranosyl bromideuronate proceeded to give the N2-conjugate. However, lamotrigine-N2-glucuronide was most efficiently synthesised from methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromideuronate. Employing nitromethane as solvent with CdCO3 as a base lamotrigine-N2 glucuronide was prepared in a high yield (41%. Also methyl (2,3-di-O-benzoyl-4-deoxy-4-fluoro-α-D-glucosyl bromideuronate underwent N-glucuronidation, but the product was unstable, eliminating hydrogen fluoride to give the corresponding enoate conjugate.

  7. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineerin...

  8. Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    SiC Based Power Electronic Building Blocks Award Number Title of Research 30 October 2017 SUBMITTED BY D R. HERBERT L. G INN, Pl DEPT. OF...Naval Research , Philadelphia PA, Aug. 2017. • Ginn, H.L. Bakos J., "Development of Universal Controller Architecture for SiC Based Power Electronic...Controller Implementation for MMC Converters", Workshop on Control Architectures for Modular Power Conversion Systems, Office of Naval Research , Arlington VA

  9. Synthesis of 4-Halogenated 3-Fluoro-6-methoxyquinolines: Key Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flagstad, Thomas; Petersen, Mette Terp; Hinnerfeldt, Daniel Michael

    2014-01-01

    A practical and scalable 4-step route is presented for the synthesis of 4-bromo-3-fluoro-6-methoxyoquinoline and 3-fluoro-4-iodo-6-methoxyoquinoline from readily available 2,4-dichloro-3-fluoroquinoline with an overall yield of 81-85%. Halogenated quinoline building blocks have found much use in ...... in antimicrobial drug discovery, and the method reported here would be useful for the synthesis of these compounds. © Georg Thieme Verlag....

  10. Methods for estimating wake flow and effluent dispersion near simple block-like buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report is intended as an interim guide for those who routinely face air quality problems associated with near-building exhaust stack placement and height, and the resulting concentration patterns. Available data and methods for estimating wake flow and effluent dispersion near isolated block-like structures are consolidated. The near-building and wake flows are described, and quantitative estimates for frontal eddy size, height and extent of roof and wake cavities, and far wake behavior are provided. Concentration calculation methods for upwind, near-building, and downwind pollutant sources are given. For an upwind source, it is possible to estimate the required stack height, and to place upper limits on the likely near-building concentration. The influences of near-building source location and characteristics relative to the building geometry and orientation are considered. Methods to estimate effective stack height, upper limits for concentration due to flush roof vents, and the effect of changes in rooftop stack height are summarized. Current wake and wake cavity models are presented. Numerous graphs of important expressions have been prepared to facilitate computations and quick estimates of flow patterns and concentration levels for specific simple buildings. Detailed recommendations for additional work are given

  11. Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

  12. Building block method: a bottom-up modular synthesis methodology for distributed compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesizing topologies of compliant mechanisms are based on rigid-link kinematic designs or completely automated optimization techniques. These designs yield mechanisms that match the kinematic specifications as a whole, but seldom yield user insight on how each constituent member contributes towards the overall mechanism performance. This paper reviews recent developments in building block based design of compliant mechanisms. A key aspect of such a methodology is formulating a representation of compliance at a (i single unique point of interest in terms of geometric quantities such as ellipses and vectors, and (ii relative compliance between distinct input(s and output(s in terms of load flow. This geometric representation provides a direct mapping between the mechanism geometry and their behavior, and is used to characterize simple deformable members that form a library of building blocks. The design space spanned by the building block library guides the decomposition of a given problem specification into tractable sub-problems that can be each solved from an entry in the library. The effectiveness of this geometric representation aids user insight in design, and enables discovery of trends and guidelines to obtain practical conceptual designs.

  13. Engineering multifunctional protein nanoparticles by in vitro disassembling and reassembling of heterologous building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Serna, Naroa; Sánchez-García, Laura; Roldán, Mónica; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Mangues, Ramón; Villaverde, Antonio; Vázquez, Esther

    2017-12-01

    The engineering of protein self-assembling at the nanoscale allows the generation of functional and biocompatible materials, which can be produced by easy biological fabrication. The combination of cationic and histidine-rich stretches in fusion proteins promotes oligomerization as stable protein-only regular nanoparticles that are composed by a moderate number of building blocks. Among other applications, these materials are highly appealing as tools in targeted drug delivery once empowered with peptidic ligands of cell surface receptors. In this context, we have dissected here this simple technological platform regarding the controlled disassembling and reassembling of the composing building blocks. By applying high salt and imidazole in combination, nanoparticles are disassembled in a process that is fully reversible upon removal of the disrupting agents. By taking this approach, we accomplish here the in vitro generation of hybrid nanoparticles formed by heterologous building blocks. This fact demonstrates the capability to generate multifunctional and/or multiparatopic or multispecific materials usable in nanomedical applications.

  14. From synthesis to function via iterative assembly of N-methyliminodiacetic acid boronate building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Grillo, Anthony S; Burke, Martin D

    2015-08-18

    The study and optimization of small molecule function is often impeded by the time-intensive and specialist-dependent process that is typically used to make such compounds. In contrast, general and automated platforms have been developed for making peptides, oligonucleotides, and increasingly oligosaccharides, where synthesis is simplified to iterative applications of the same reactions. Inspired by the way natural products are biosynthesized via the iterative assembly of a defined set of building blocks, we developed a platform for small molecule synthesis involving the iterative coupling of haloboronic acids protected as the corresponding N-methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA) boronates. Here we summarize our efforts thus far to develop this platform into a generalized and automated approach for small molecule synthesis. We and others have employed this approach to access many polyene-based compounds, including the polyene motifs found in >75% of all polyene natural products. This platform further allowed us to derivatize amphotericin B, the powerful and resistance-evasive but also highly toxic last line of defense in treating systemic fungal infections, and thereby understand its mechanism of action. This synthesis-enabled mechanistic understanding has led us to develop less toxic derivatives currently under evaluation as improved antifungal agents. To access more Csp(3)-containing small molecules, we gained a stereocontrolled entry into chiral, non-racemic α-boryl aldehydes through the discovery of a chiral derivative of MIDA. These α-boryl aldehydes are versatile intermediates for the synthesis of many Csp(3) boronate building blocks that are otherwise difficult to access. In addition, we demonstrated the utility of these types of building blocks in accessing pharmaceutically relevant targets via an iterative Csp(3) cross-coupling cycle. We have further expanded the scope of the platform to include stereochemically complex macrocyclic and polycyclic molecules

  15. A polynomial-chaos-expansion-based building block approach for stochastic analysis of photonic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Abi; Melati, Daniele; Manfredi, Paolo; Grassi, Flavia; Melloni, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The Building Block (BB) approach has recently emerged in photonic as a suitable strategy for the analysis and design of complex circuits. Each BB can be foundry related and contains a mathematical macro-model of its functionality. As well known, statistical variations in fabrication processes can have a strong effect on their functionality and ultimately affect the yield. In order to predict the statistical behavior of the circuit, proper analysis of the uncertainties effects is crucial. This paper presents a method to build a novel class of Stochastic Process Design Kits for the analysis of photonic circuits. The proposed design kits directly store the information on the stochastic behavior of each building block in the form of a generalized-polynomial-chaos-based augmented macro-model obtained by properly exploiting stochastic collocation and Galerkin methods. Using this approach, we demonstrate that the augmented macro-models of the BBs can be calculated once and stored in a BB (foundry dependent) library and then used for the analysis of any desired circuit. The main advantage of this approach, shown here for the first time in photonics, is that the stochastic moments of an arbitrary photonic circuit can be evaluated by a single simulation only, without the need for repeated simulations. The accuracy and the significant speed-up with respect to the classical Monte Carlo analysis are verified by means of classical photonic circuit example with multiple uncertain variables.

  16. Computational strategies for the automated design of RNA nanoscale structures from building blocks using NanoTiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindewald, Eckart; Grunewald, Calvin; Boyle, Brett; O'Connor, Mary; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2008-10-01

    One approach to designing RNA nanoscale structures is to use known RNA structural motifs such as junctions, kissing loops or bulges and to construct a molecular model by connecting these building blocks with helical struts. We previously developed an algorithm for detecting internal loops, junctions and kissing loops in RNA structures. Here we present algorithms for automating or assisting many of the steps that are involved in creating RNA structures from building blocks: (1) assembling building blocks into nanostructures using either a combinatorial search or constraint satisfaction; (2) optimizing RNA 3D ring structures to improve ring closure; (3) sequence optimisation; (4) creating a unique non-degenerate RNA topology descriptor. This effectively creates a computational pipeline for generating molecular models of RNA nanostructures and more specifically RNA ring structures with optimized sequences from RNA building blocks. We show several examples of how the algorithms can be utilized to generate RNA tecto-shapes.

  17. Computational strategies for the automated design of RNA nanoscale structures from building blocks using NanoTiler☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindewald, Eckart; Grunewald, Calvin; Boyle, Brett; O’Connor, Mary; Shapiro, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    One approach to designing RNA nanoscale structures is to use known RNA structural motifs such as junctions, kissing loops or bulges and to construct a molecular model by connecting these building blocks with helical struts. We previously developed an algorithm for detecting internal loops, junctions and kissing loops in RNA structures. Here we present algorithms for automating or assisting many of the steps that are involved in creating RNA structures from building blocks: (1) assembling building blocks into nanostructures using either a combinatorial search or constraint satisfaction; (2) optimizing RNA 3D ring structures to improve ring closure; (3) sequence optimisation; (4) creating a unique non-degenerate RNA topology descriptor. This effectively creates a computational pipeline for generating molecular models of RNA nanostructures and more specifically RNA ring structures with optimized sequences from RNA building blocks. We show several examples of how the algorithms can be utilized to generate RNA tecto-shapes. PMID:18838281

  18. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies to address this challenge and has proven fruitful at allowing some degree of control over the resultant materials synthesized. Several methodologies for synthesis of MOFs have been developed which rely on use of predetermined building blocks. The work presented herein is focused on the utilization of two of these design principles, namely the use of molecular building blocks (MBBs) and supermolecular building blocks (SBBs) to target MOF materials having desired connectivities (topologies). These design strategies also permit the introduction of specific chemical moieties, allowing for modification of the MOFs properties. This research is predominantly focused on two platforms (rht-MOFs and ftw-MOFs) which topologically speaking are edge transitive binodal nets; ftw being a (4,12)-connected net and rht being a (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets (at least one node having connectivity greater than eight) have been purposefully targeted to increase the predictability of structural outcome. A general trend in topology is that there is an inverse relationship between the connectivity of the node(s) and the number of topological outcomes. Therefore the key to this research (and to effective use of the SBB and MBB approaches) is identification of conditions which allow for reliable formation of the targeted MBBs and SBBs. In the case of the research presented herein: a 12-connected Group IV or Rare Earth based hexanuclear MBB and a 24-connected transition metal based SBB were successfully targeted and synthesized. These two synthetic platforms will be presented and used as examples of how these design methods have been (and can be further) utilized to modify existing materials or develop new materials for gas storage and

  19. Synthesis of orthogonally protected bacterial, rare-sugar and D-glycosamine building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmadi, Madhu; Kulkarni, Suvarn S

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial glycoconjugates comprise atypical deoxy amino sugars that are not present on the human cell surface, making them good targets for drug discovery and carbohydrate-based vaccine development. Unfortunately, they cannot be isolated with sufficient purity in acceptable amounts, and therefore chemical synthesis is a crucial step toward the development of these products. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the synthesis of orthogonally protected bacterial deoxy amino hexopyranoside (2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyhexose (DATDH), D-bacillosamine, D-fucosamine, and 2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-galactose (AAT)), D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine building blocks starting from β-D-thiophenylmannoside. Readily available β-D-thiophenylmannoside was first converted into the corresponding 2,4-diols via deoxygenation or silylation at C6, followed by O3 acylation. The 2,4-diols were converted into 2,4-bis-trifluoromethanesulfonates, which underwent highly regioselective, one-pot, double-serial and double-parallel displacements by azide, phthalimide, acetate and nitrite ions as nucleophiles. Thus, D-rhamnosyl- and D-mannosyl 2,4-diols can be efficiently transformed into various rare sugars and D-galactosamine, respectively, as orthogonally protected thioglycoside building blocks on a gram scale in 1-2 d, in 54-85% overall yields, after a single chromatographic purification. This would otherwise take 1-2 weeks. D-Glucosamine building blocks can be prepared from β-D-thiophenylmannoside in four steps via C2 displacement of triflates by azide in 2 d and in 66-70% overall yields. These procedures have been applied to the synthesis of L-serine-linked trisaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis and a rare disaccharide fragment of the zwitterionic polysaccharide (ZPS) A1 (ZPS A1) of Bacteroides fragilis.

  20. Hierarchical coassembly of DNA–triptycene hybrid molecular building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kumari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the successful construction of composite DNA nanostructures by the self-assembly of complementary symmetrical 2,6,14-triptycenetripropiolic acid (TPA–DNA building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn PpIX. DNA–organic molecule scaffolds for the composite DNA nanostructure were constructed through covalent conjugation of TPA with 5′-C12-amine-terminated modified single strand DNA (ssDNA and its complementary strand. The repeated covalent conjugation of TPA with DNA was confirmed by using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF. The biologically relevant photosensitizer Zn PpIX was used to direct the hybridization-mediated self-assembly of DNA–TPA molecular building blocks as well as a model guest molecule within the DNA–TPA supramolecular self-assembly. The formation of fiber-like composite DNA nanostructures was observed. Native PAGE, circular dichroism (CD and atomic force microscopy (AFM have been utilized for analyzing the formation of DNA nanofibers after the coassembly. Computational methods were applied to discern the theoretical dimension of the DNA–TPA molecular building block of the nanofibers. A notable change in photocatalytic efficiency of Zn PpIX was observed when it was inside the TPA–DNA scaffold. The significant increase in ROS generation by Zn PpIX when trapped in this biocompatible DNA–TPA hybrid nanofiber may be an effective tool to explore photodynamic therapy (PDT applications as well as photocatalytic reactions.

  1. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F

    2015-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.

  2. Total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin based on an automated electrochemical assembly of a disaccharide building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Kitamura, Kei; Takahashi, Shuji; Manmode, Sujit; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Nokami, Toshiki; Itoh, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin using an automated electrochemical synthesizer for the assembly of carbohydrate building blocks is demonstrated. We have successfully prepared a precursor of TMG-chitotriomycin, which is a structurally-pure tetrasaccharide with typical protecting groups, through the methodology of automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis developed by us. The synthesis of structurally well-defined TMG-chitotriomycin has been accomplished in 10-steps from a disaccharide building block.

  3. Total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin based on an automated electrochemical assembly of a disaccharide building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Isoda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The total synthesis of TMG-chitotriomycin using an automated electrochemical synthesizer for the assembly of carbohydrate building blocks is demonstrated. We have successfully prepared a precursor of TMG-chitotriomycin, which is a structurally-pure tetrasaccharide with typical protecting groups, through the methodology of automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis developed by us. The synthesis of structurally well-defined TMG-chitotriomycin has been accomplished in 10-steps from a disaccharide building block.

  4. Automated electrochemical assembly of the protected potential TMG-chitotriomycin precursor based on rational optimization of the carbohydrate building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokami, Toshiki; Isoda, Yuta; Sasaki, Norihiko; Takaiso, Aki; Hayase, Shuichi; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Ryutaro; Shimizu, Akihiro; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2015-03-20

    The anomeric arylthio group and the hydroxyl-protecting groups of thioglycosides were optimized to construct carbohydrate building blocks for automated electrochemical solution-phase synthesis of oligoglucosamines having 1,4-β-glycosidic linkages. The optimization study included density functional theory calculations, measurements of the oxidation potentials, and the trial synthesis of the chitotriose trisaccharide. The automated synthesis of the protected potential N,N,N-trimethyl-d-glucosaminylchitotriomycin precursor was accomplished by using the optimized building block.

  5. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  6. Dialkoxybithiazole: a new building block for head-to-head polymer semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xugang; Quinn, Jordan; Chen, Zhihua; Usta, Hakan; Zheng, Yan; Xia, Yu; Hennek, Jonathan W; Ortiz, Rocío Ponce; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2013-02-06

    Polymer semiconductors have received great attention for organic electronics due to the low fabrication cost offered by solution-based printing techniques. To enable the desired solubility/processability and carrier mobility, polymers are functionalized with hydrocarbon chains by strategically manipulating the alkylation patterns. Note that head-to-head (HH) linkages have traditionally been avoided because the induced backbone torsion leads to poor π-π overlap and amorphous film microstructures, and hence to low carrier mobilities. We report here the synthesis of a new building block for HH linkages, 4,4'-dialkoxy-5,5'-bithiazole (BTzOR), and its incorporation into polymers for high performance organic thin-film transistors. The small oxygen van der Waals radius and intramolecular S(thiazolyl)···O(alkoxy) attraction promote HH macromolecular architectures with extensive π-conjugation, low bandgaps (1.40-1.63 eV), and high crystallinity. In comparison to previously reported 3,3'-dialkoxy-2,2'-bithiophene (BTOR), BTzOR is a promising building block in view of thiazole geometric and electronic properties: (a) replacing (thiophene)C-H with (thiazole)N reduces steric encumbrance in -BTzOR-Ar- dyads by eliminating repulsive C-H···H-C interactions with neighboring arene units, thereby enhancing π-π overlap and film crystallinity; and (b) thiazole electron-deficiency compensates alkoxy electron-donating characteristics, thereby lowering the BTzOR polymer HOMO versus that of the BTOR analogues. Thus, the new BTzOR polymers show substantial hole mobilities (0.06-0.25 cm(2)/(V s)) in organic thin-film transistors, as well as enhanced I(on):I(off) ratios and greater ambient stability than the BTOR analogues. These geometric and electronic properties make BTzOR a promising building block for new classes of polymer semiconductors, and the synthetic route to BTzOR reported here should be adaptable to many other bithiazole-based building blocks.

  7. InGaN micro-LED-pillar as the building block for high brightness emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    In summary, we confirmed the improved electrical and optical characteristics, with reduced efficiency droop in InGaN μLED-pillars when these devices were scaled down in size. We demonstrated that strain relief contributed to further improvement in EQE characteristics in small InGaN μLED-pillars (D < 50 μm), apart from the current spreading effect. The μLED-pillar can be deployed as the building block for large effective-area, high brightness emitter. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program: Air lock cover block refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.; Gale, R.M.

    1989-05-01

    The high-density concrete cover blocks shielding the pipe trench in the hot-cell air lock of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells had accumulated fixed radioactivity ranging from 1100 to 22, 000 mrad/hr. A corresponding increase in the radiation exposure to personnel entering the air lock, together with ALARA concerns, led to the removal of the contaminated concrete surface with a hydraulic spaller and the emplacement of a stainless steel covering over a layer of grout. The resultant saving in radiation exposure is estimated to be 7200 mrad for personnel completing burial box runs for the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program. Radiation exposure to all staff members entering the air lock is now at least 50% lower. 3 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  9. Optimum Compressive Strength of Hardened Sandcrete Building Blocks with Steel Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alohan Omoregie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of steel chips into an environmentally friendly, responsive, and profitable commodity in the manufacturing and construction industries is a huge and difficult challenge. Several strategies designed for the management and processing of this waste in developed countries have been largely unsuccessful in developing countries mainly due to its capital-intensive nature. To this end, this investigation attempts to provide an alternative solution to the recycling of this material by maximizing its utility value in the building construction industry. This is to establish their influence on the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks and solid cubes with the aim of specifying the range percent of steel chips for the sandcrete optimum compressive strength value. This is particularly important for developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and even Latin America where most sandcrete blocks exhibit compressive strengths far below standard requirements. Percentages of steel chips relative to the weight of cement were varied and blended with the sand in an attempt to improve the sand grading parameters. The steel chips variations were one, two, three, four, five, ten and fifteen percent respectively. It was confirmed that the grading parameters were improved and there were significant increases in the compressive strength of the blocks and cube samples. The greatest improvement was noticed at four percent steel chips and sand combination. Using the plotted profile, the margin of steel chips additions for the optimum compressive strength was also established. It is recommended that steel chip sandcrete blocks are suitable for both internal load bearing, and non-load bearing walls, in areas where they are not subjected to moisture ingress. However, for external walls, and in areas where they are liable to moisture attack after laying, the surfaces should be well rendered. Below ground level, the surfaces should be coated with a water

  10. Determination of lead equivalent thickness to building blocks used in shielding of diagnostic x-ray rooms in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawash, A.; Khedr, M.; Wannus, K.; Souliman, J.; Al-Oudat, M.

    1998-06-01

    Lead equivalent thicknesses of various kinds of blocks (Hollow core, solid, filled, roof) with different thicknesses were determined. These blocks are widely used for building the diagnostic X-rya departments in Syria. Different applied voltages at X-ray tube (65, 85, 100, 125, 150 KVp) were examined. The results showed that the highest lead equivalent thicknesses for hollow core blocks were at 100 KVp. These equivalent thicknesses were 0.4372, 0.7008 and 0.928 mm for block thicknesses of 10, 15 and 20 cm, respectively. it was also found that, the lead equivalent thicknesses for filled, solid and concrete block were 3.5 to 4 times higher than that of the hollow core block for the same thicknesses and the applied KVp. Values obtained for roof blocks were similar to that of hollow core for the same conditions and geometry. (Author)

  11. Engineering cell factories for producing building block chemicals for bio-polymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-21

    Synthetic polymers are widely used in daily life. Due to increasing environmental concerns related to global warming and the depletion of oil reserves, the development of microbial-based fermentation processes for the production of polymer building block chemicals from renewable resources is desirable to replace current petroleum-based methods. To this end, strains that efficiently produce the target chemicals at high yields and productivity are needed. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have enabled the biosynthesis of polymer compounds at high yield and productivities by governing the carbon flux towards the target chemicals. Using these methods, microbial strains have been engineered to produce monomer chemicals for replacing traditional petroleum-derived aliphatic polymers. These developments also raise the possibility of microbial production of aromatic chemicals for synthesizing high-performance polymers with desirable properties, such as ultraviolet absorbance, high thermal resistance, and mechanical strength. In the present review, we summarize recent progress in metabolic engineering approaches to optimize microbial strains for producing building blocks to synthesize aliphatic and high-performance aromatic polymers.

  12. Exploring the building blocks of social cognition: spontaneous agency perception and visual perspective taking in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickel, Jan; White, Sarah J; Coniston, Devorah; Senju, Atsushi; Frith, Uta

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders have highly characteristic impairments in social interaction and this is true also for those with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (AS). These social cognitive impairments are far from global and it seems likely that some of the building blocks of social cognition are intact. In our first experiment, we investigated whether high functioning adults who also had a diagnosis of AS would be similar to control participants in terms of their eye movements when watching animated triangles in short movies that normally evoke mentalizing. They were. Our second experiment using the same movies, tested whether both groups would spontaneously adopt the visuo-spatial perspective of a triangle protagonist. They did. At the same time autistic participants differed in their verbal accounts of the story line underlying the movies, confirming their specific difficulties in on-line mentalizing. In spite of this difficulty, two basic building blocks of social cognition appear to be intact: spontaneous agency perception and spontaneous visual perspective taking.

  13. Concept analysis and the building blocks of theory: misconceptions regarding theory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the attempts to justify concepts analysis as a way to construct theory - a notion often advocated in nursing. The notion that concepts are the building blocks or threads from which theory is constructed is often repeated. It can be found in many articles and well-known textbooks. However, this notion is seldom explained or defended. The notion of concepts as building blocks has also been questioned by several authors. However, most of these authors seem to agree to some degree that concepts are essential components from which theory is built. Discussion paper. Literature was reviewed to synthesize and debate current knowledge. Our point is that theory is not built by concepts analysis or clarification and we will show that this notion has its basis in some serious misunderstandings. We argue that concept analysis is not a part of sound scientific method and should be abandoned. The current methods of concept analysis in nursing have no foundation in philosophy of science or in language philosophy. The type of concept analysis performed in nursing is not a way to 'construct' theory. Rather, theories are formed by creative endeavour to propose a solution to a scientific and/or practical problem. The bottom line is that the current style and form of concept analysis in nursing should be abandoned in favour of methods in line with modern theory of science. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Catalytic allylic oxidation of internal alkenes to a multifunctional chiral building block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeh, Liela; Le, Phong Q.; Tambar, Uttam K.

    2017-07-01

    The stereoselective oxidation of hydrocarbons is one of the most notable advances in synthetic chemistry over the past fifty years. Inspired by nature, enantioselective dihydroxylations, epoxidations and other oxidations of unsaturated hydrocarbons have been developed. More recently, the catalytic enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of alkenes has streamlined the production of pharmaceuticals, natural products, fine chemicals and other functional materials. Allylic functionalization provides a direct path to chiral building blocks with a newly formed stereocentre from petrochemical feedstocks while preserving the olefin functionality as a handle for further chemical elaboration. Various metal-based catalysts have been discovered for the enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of simple alkenes with cyclic or terminal double bonds. However, a general and selective allylic oxidation using the more common internal alkenes remains elusive. Here we report the enantioselective, regioselective and E/Z-selective allylic oxidation of unactivated internal alkenes via a catalytic hetero-ene reaction with a chalcogen-based oxidant. Our method enables non-symmetric internal alkenes to be selectively converted into allylic functionalized products with high stereoselectivity and regioselectivity. Stereospecific transformations of the resulting multifunctional chiral building blocks highlight the potential for rapidly converting internal alkenes into a broad range of enantioenriched structures that can be used in the synthesis of complex target molecules.

  15. Multifunctional Nanoparticles Self-Assembled from Small Organic Building Blocks for Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengyao; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-09-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly shows significant potential to construct responsive materials. By tailoring the structural parameters of organic building blocks, nanosystems can be fabricated, whose performance in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine has been explored. Since small organic building blocks are structurally simple, easily modified, and reproducible, they are frequently employed in supramolecular self-assembly and materials science. The dynamic and adaptive nature of self-assembled nanoarchitectures affords an enhanced sensitivity to the changes in environmental conditions, favoring their applications in controllable drug release and bioimaging. Here, recent significant research advancements of small-organic-molecule self-assembled nanoarchitectures toward biomedical applications are highlighted. Functionalized assemblies, mainly including vesicles, nanoparticles, and micelles are categorized according to their topological morphologies and functions. These nanoarchitectures with different topologies possess distinguishing advantages in biological applications, well incarnating the structure-property relationship. By presenting some important discoveries, three domains of these nanoarchitectures in biomedical research are covered, including biosensors, bioimaging, and controlled release/therapy. The strategies regarding how to design and characterize organic assemblies to exhibit biomedical applications are also discussed. Up-to-date research developments in the field are provided and research challenges to be overcome in future studies are revealed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Griffiths, Ulla K; Closser, Svea; Burchett, Helen; Marchal, Bruno

    2014-03-25

    The WHO health systems Building Blocks framework has become ubiquitous in health systems research. However, it was not developed as a research instrument, but rather to facilitate investments of resources in health systems. In this paper, we reflect on the advantages and limitations of using the framework in applied research, as experienced in three empirical vaccine studies we have undertaken. We argue that while the Building Blocks framework is valuable because of its simplicity and ability to provide a common language for researchers, it is not suitable for analysing dynamic, complex and inter-linked systems impacts. In our three studies, we found that the mechanical segmentation of effects by the WHO building blocks, without recognition of their interactions, hindered the understanding of impacts on systems as a whole. Other important limitations were the artificial equal weight given to each building block and the challenge in capturing longer term effects and opportunity costs. Another criticism is not of the framework per se, but rather how it is typically used, with a focus on the six building blocks to the neglect of the dynamic process and outcome aspects of health systems.We believe the framework would be improved by making three amendments: integrating the missing "demand" component; incorporating an overarching, holistic health systems viewpoint and including scope for interactions between components. If researchers choose to use the Building Blocks framework, we recommend that it be adapted to the specific study question and context, with formative research and piloting conducted in order to inform this adaptation. As with frameworks in general, the WHO Building Blocks framework is valuable because it creates a common language and shared understanding. However, for applied research, it falls short of what is needed to holistically evaluate the impact of specific interventions on health systems. We propose that if researchers use the framework, it

  17. Culture's building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John J; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    ONE OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL BUT THEORETICALLY VEXING ISSUES REGARDING THE NOTION OF CULTURE IS THAT OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION AND TRANSMISSION: how a group's accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of "culture" into its component "building blocks." In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly.

  18. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of “culture” into its component “building blocks.” In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly. PMID:25309482

  19. RNA and RNP as Building Blocks for Nanotechnology and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hirohisa; Saito, Hirohide

    2016-01-01

    Recent technologies that aimed to elucidate cellular function have revealed essential roles for RNA molecules in living systems. Our knowledge concerning functional and structural information of naturally occurring RNA and RNA-protein (RNP) complexes is increasing rapidly. RNA and RNP interaction motifs are structural units that function as building blocks to constitute variety of complex structures. RNA-central synthetic biology and nanotechnology are constructive approaches that employ the accumulated information and build synthetic RNA (RNP)-based circuits and nanostructures. Here, we describe how to design and construct synthetic RNA (RNP)-based devices and structures at the nanometer-scale for biological and future therapeutic applications. RNA/RNP nanostructures can also be utilized as the molecular scaffold to control the localization or interactions of target molecule(s). Moreover, RNA motifs recognized by RNA-binding proteins can be applied to make protein-responsive translational "switches" that can turn gene expression "on" or "off" depending on the intracellular environment. This "synthetic RNA and RNP world" will expand tools for nanotechnology and synthetic biology. In addition, these reconstructive approaches would lead to a greater understanding of building principle in naturally occurring RNA/RNP molecules and systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Mcgraw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of culture into its component building blocks. In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly.

  1. Object Use in Children with Autism: Building with Blocks from a Piagetian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iannaccone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimThis study focused on the manipulation of objects by children with suspected autism spectrum disorder. The aim was to demonstrate how objects can be seen as active agents of interpersonal exchange in face-to-face interactions.ParticipantsThree children with suspected autism spectrum disorder (aged 18, 20, and 24 months were selected as representative of the sensorimotor stage of development.MethodsStarting from Piaget’s classical approach to the sensorimotor and symbolic developmental stages, the study moved toward a socio-material interpretation in which some patterns of interaction involving object manipulation seem to create a space that supports adult–child communication. In videotaped observations of verbal and non-verbal signs during an (organized free play session, each child manipulated seven small blocks of colored plastic in the presence of an adult. The observations were informed by a checklist of 14 items, including eye contact and building a tower of toy blocks from section B of the CHAT (CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers instrument.ResultsBased on a broad Piagetian perspective and recent work in the field of socio-materiality, key observations included the following: (1 sensorimotor and realistic play was observed in all three children; (2 there were some intriguing indications that objects serve as concrete mediators in the intersubjective space between adult and child; (3 some of the children’s attention patterns were visibly mediated by the object.Discussion and conclusionAll three children exhibited a particular sequence of actions. First, they manipulated the blocks through active experimentation; second, there was an apparent pause, during which, the children were in fact examining the blocks to determine how best to continue the interaction; and finally, the children monitored adult attention by means of eye contact or by restarting manipulation of the blocks. As this last step in the sequence indicated that the

  2. On the building blocks of the M31 and Milky Way halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monelli Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of the halo of M31 and the Milky Way as traced by the population of RR Lyrae stars, in comparison with the population of such stars preent in satellite dwarf galaxies. We find that both halos and the massive dwarf host a population of high amplitude short period RRab stars, absent in low-mass dwarfs. These stars are explained as the metal-rich tail of the RR Lyrae distribution ([Fe/H] ∼ - 1.5, and thus their existence imply fast chemical enrichment in the host system. Their presence in both halos implies that massive building blocks had an important role in their formation.

  3. Exploring the Chemistry of Bicyclic Isoxazolidines for the Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycomimetic Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Lutz, Martin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-10-07

    Starting from a chiral furanone, the nitrone-olefin [3 + 2] cycloaddition can be used to obtain bicyclic isoxazolidines for which we report a set of reactions to selectively modify each functional position. These synthetically versatile bicyclic isoxazolidines allowed us to obtain complex glycomimetic building blocks, like iminosugars, via multicomponent chemistry. For example, a library of 20 pipecolic acid derivatives, a recurring motif in various prescription drugs, could be obtained via a one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Ugi three-component reaction of a bicyclic isoxazolidine-derived azido-hemiacetal. Notably, specific pipecolic acids in this library were obtained via hydrolysis of an unique tricyclic imidate side product of the Ugi reaction. The azido-hemiacetal was also converted into an aza-C-glycoside iminosugar via an unprecendented one-pot Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Mannich reaction.

  4. LEP : four building blocks of matter ... times three Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The four building blocks of everyday matter form a family composed of the up-quark, the down-quark, the electron and the electron-neutrino. Similar particles, heavier but otherwise identical, are known to exist - grouped together in two further families. By measuring the number of neutrino types that exist, LEP has shown that there are no more fam-ilies of particles. Nature has chosen the number three. This is an intriguing result, and the reason why there are neither more nor fewer than three particle families is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. One important consequence is that we exist. Had there been any fewer than three families of matter particles, the phenomenon known as CP violation - which led to matter dominating anti-matter in the early Universe - would not have occurred. All the matter and antimatter created in the Big Bang would have annihilated.

  5. Lurgi MegaMethanol technology. Delivering the building blocks for the future fuel and monomer demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzel, T. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes the central role of methanol within a changing environment with respect to feedstock availability as well as steadily growing demand in fuel and monomer demand. The current large-scale production facilities are described with respect to the technological challenges in order to ensure the availability of sufficient methanol for down-stream applications. Different down-stream applications are described which clearly confirm that methanol is the dominant C1-building block due to its chemical flexibility. It is concluded that by means of the implementation of two MTP (Methanol to Propylene) projects in China initiated the era of ''down-stream methanol'' has begun in the industry. (orig.)

  6. Self-assembling peptide-based building blocks in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Handan; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Chung, Eun Ji; Schnorenberg, Mathew R.; Barrett, John C.; LaBelle, James L.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Peptides and peptide-conjugates, comprising natural and synthetic building blocks, are an increasingly popular class of biomaterials. Self-assembled nanostructures based on peptides and peptide-conjugates offer advantages such as precise selectivity and multifunctionality that can address challenges and limitations in the clinic. In this review article, we discuss recent developments in the design and self-assembly of various nanomaterials based on peptides and peptide-conjugates for medical applications, and categorize them into two themes based on the driving forces of molecular self-assembly. First, we present the self-assembled nanostructures driven by the supramolecular interactions between the peptides, with or without the presence of conjugates. The studies where nanoassembly is driven by the interactions between the conjugates of peptide-conjugates are then presented. Particular emphasis is given to in vivo studies focusing on therapeutics, diagnostics, immune modulation and regenerative medicine. Finally, challenges and future perspectives are presented.

  7. Remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks in metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Wenyang

    2015-03-24

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu2(O2C-)4], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu3O(N4-x(CH)xC-)3] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  8. Building blocks for future detectors: Silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, R; Britzger, M; Burmeister, O; Danzmann, K; Duck, J; Eberle, T; Friedrich, D; Luck, H; Mehmet, M; Steinlechner, S; Willke, B; Brueckner, F; Nawrodt, R

    2010-01-01

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use the combination of quasi-monochromatic, continuous-wave laser light at 1064 nm and fused silica test masses at room temperature. Detectors of the third generation, such as the Einstein-Telescope, will involve a considerable sensitivity increase. The combination of 1550 nm laser radiation and crystalline silicon test masses at low temperatures might be important ingredients in order to achieve the sensitivity goal. Here we compare some properties of the fused silica and silicon test mass materials relevant for decreasing the thermal noise in future detectors as well as the recent technology achievements in the preparation of laser radiation at 1064 nm and 1550 nm relevant for decreasing the quantum noise. We conclude that silicon test masses and 1550 nm laser light have the potential to form the future building blocks of gravitational wave detection.

  9. Autonomously Self-Adhesive Hydrogels as Building Blocks for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xudong; Attalla, Rana; Sadowski, Lukas P; Chen, Mengsu; Majcher, Michael J; Urosev, Ivan; Yin, Da-Chuan; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi; Filipe, Carlos D M; Hoare, Todd

    2018-01-08

    We report a simple method of preparing autonomous and rapid self-adhesive hydrogels and their use as building blocks for additive manufacturing of functional tissue scaffolds. Dynamic cross-linking between 2-aminophenylboronic acid-functionalized hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) yields hydrogels that recover their mechanical integrity within 1 min after cutting or shear under both neutral and acidic pH conditions. Incorporation of this hydrogel in an interpenetrating calcium-alginate network results in an interfacially stiffer but still rapidly self-adhesive hydrogel that can be assembled into hollow perfusion channels by simple contact additive manufacturing within minutes. Such channels withstand fluid perfusion while retaining their dimensions and support endothelial cell growth and proliferation, providing a simple and modular route to produce customized cell scaffolds.

  10. Core-Shell Particles as Building Blocks for Systems with High Duality Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadegan, Aso; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Material electromagnetic duality symmetry requires a system to have equal electric and magnetic responses. Intrinsically dual materials that meet the duality conditions at the level of the constitutive relations do not exist in many frequency bands. Nevertheless, discrete objects like metallic helices and homogeneous dielectric spheres can be engineered to approximate the dual behavior. We exploit the extra degrees of freedom of a core-shell dielectric sphere in a particle optimization procedure. The duality symmetry of the resulting particle is more than 1 order of magnitude better than previously reported nonmagnetic objects. We use T -matrix-based multiscattering techniques to show that the improvement is transferred onto the duality symmetry of composite objects when the core-shell particle is used as a building block instead of homogeneous spheres. These results are relevant for the fashioning of systems with high duality symmetry, which are required for some technologically important effects.

  11. Isotopic evolution of the protoplanetary disk and the building blocks of Earth and the Moon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin; Fernandes, Vera Assis

    2018-01-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope variability among Solar System objects is often used to probe the genetic relationship between meteorite groups and the rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), which, in turn, may provide insights into the building blocks of the Earth-Moon system. Using this approach......, it has been inferred that no primitive meteorite matches the terrestrial composition and the protoplanetary disk material from which Earth and the Moon accreted is therefore largely unconstrained. This conclusion, however, is based on the assumption that the observed nucleosynthetic variability of inner...... into the thermally processed inner protoplanetary disk associated with the accretion of mass to the proto-Sun. The identical calcium isotope composition of Earth and the Moon reported here is a prediction of our model if the Moon-forming impact involved protoplanets or precursors that completed their accretion near...

  12. Remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks in metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Wenyang; Cai, Rong; Pham, Tony T.; Forrest, Katherine A.; Hogan, Adam; Nugent, Patrick S.; Williams, Kia R.; Wojtas, Łukasz; Luebke, Ryan; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian; Chen, Yusheng; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shi, Xiaodong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-01-01

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu2(O2C-)4], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu3O(N4-x(CH)xC-)3] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  13. Synthesis of borylated porphyrin and bromo- porphyrin as building blocks for light harvesting antenna molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzuan, Nuur Haziqah Mohd; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Bakar, Muntaz Abu

    2018-04-01

    The building blocks for synthesis of light harvesting antenna which are 5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane)-10,20-diphenylporphyrin, 5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane)-10,20-dihexylporphyrin and 5,10,15,20-tetra-(bromophenyl)porphyrin were synthesized. Borylated porphyrin was synthesized by Suzuki coupling reaction between A2BC bromo-porphyrin and pinacolborane. Whereas 5,10,15,20-tetra-(bromophenyl) porphyrin was synthesized by Lindsey condensation reaction between pyrrole and 4-bromobenzaldehyde. 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed the successful formation of all compounds.

  14. Structural insight into RNA recognition motifs: versatile molecular Lego building blocks for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    'RNA recognition motifs (RRMs)' are common domain-folds composed of 80-90 amino-acid residues in eukaryotes, and have been identified in many cellular proteins. At first they were known as RNA binding domains. Through discoveries over the past 20 years, however, the RRMs have been shown to exhibit versatile molecular recognition activities and to behave as molecular Lego building blocks to construct biological systems. Novel RNA/protein recognition modes by RRMs are being identified, and more information about the molecular recognition by RRMs is becoming available. These RNA/protein recognition modes are strongly correlated with their biological significance. In this review, we would like to survey the recent progress on these versatile molecular recognition modules. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Pinenes: Abundant and Renewable Building Blocks for a Variety of Sustainable Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnacker, Malte

    2018-05-14

    Pinenes - a group of monoterpenes containing a double bond - are very suitable renewable building blocks for a variety of sustainable polymers and materials. Their abundance from mainly non-edible parts of plants as well as the feasibility to isolate them render these compounds unique amongst the variety of biomass that is utilizable for novel materials. Accordingly, their use for the synthesis of biobased polymers has been investigated intensively, and strong progress has been made with this especially within the past 2-3 years. Direct cationic or radical polymerization via the double bonds as well as polymerization upon their further functionalization can afford a variety of sustainable polymers suitable for many applications, which is summarized in this article. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Natural supramolecular building blocks: from virus coat proteins to viral nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Qiao, Jing; Niu, Zhongwei; Wang, Qian

    2012-09-21

    Viruses belong to a fascinating class of natural supramolecular structures, composed of multiple copies of coat proteins (CPs) that assemble into different shapes with a variety of sizes from tens to hundreds of nanometres. Because of their advantages including simple/economic production, well-defined structural features, unique shapes and sizes, genetic programmability and robust chemistries, recently viruses and virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) have been used widely in biomedical applications and materials synthesis. In this critical review, we highlight recent advances in the use of virus coat proteins (VCPs) and viral nanoparticles (VNPs) as building blocks in self-assembly studies and materials development. We first discuss the self-assembly of VCPs into VLPs, which can efficiently incorporate a variety of different materials as cores inside the viral protein shells. Then, the self-assembly of VNPs at surfaces or interfaces is summarized. Finally, we discuss the co-assembly of VNPs with different functional materials (178 references).

  17. Chiral thiazoline and thiazole building blocks for the synthesis of peptide-derived natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just-Baringo, Xavier; Albericio, Fernando; Alvarez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Thiazoline and thiazole heterocycles are privileged motifs found in numerous peptide-derived natural products of biological interest. During the last decades, the synthesis of optically pure building blocks has been addressed by numerous groups, which have developed a plethora of strategies to that end. Efficient and reliable methodologies that are compatible with the intricate and capricious architectures of natural products are a must to further develop their science. Structure confirmation, structure-activity relationship studies and industrial production are fields of paramount importance that require these robust methodologies in order to successfully bring natural products into the clinic. Today's chemist toolbox is assorted with many powerful methods for chiral thiazoline and thiazole synthesis. Ranging from biomimetic approaches to stereoselective alkylations, one is likely to find a suitable method for their needs.

  18. Current situation of the project finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the nuclear power plant Mochovce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznan, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the contribution there is the basic information mentioned about history of building and the current situation at the finishing of the building of 3 and 4 block of the Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce with the use of project digitization. Further on the contribution shows what kinds of supporting material has been elaborated, what kind of decisions have been issued to the finishing of the building, way of financing and also the assumption of investment return under the defined conditions. An orientation time schedule of the finishing of the building and the crucial steps for its security are presented in the conclusion

  19. Building Quality Report Cards for Geriatric Care in The Netherlands: Using Concept Mapping to Identify the Appropriate "Building Blocks" from the Consumer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, A. Stef; van Exel, N. Job A.; Berg, Marc; Huijsman, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on a study to identify "building blocks" for quality report cards for geriatric care. Its aim is to present (a) the results of the study and (b) the innovative step-by-step approach that was developed to arrive at these results. Design and Methods: We used Concept Mapping/Structured Conceptualization to…

  20. Depth geological model building: application to the 3D high resolution 'ANDRA' seismic block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Yven, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. 3D seismic blocks and logging data, mainly acoustic and density logs, are often used for geological model building in time. The geological model must be then converted from time to depth. Geostatistical approach for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is often used in many geo-modelling projects. From a geostatistical point of view, the time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is a classical estimation problem involving one or more secondary variables. Bayesian approach [1] provides an excellent estimator which is more general than the traditional kriging with external drift(s) and fits very well to the needs for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons. The time-to-depth conversion of the selected seismic horizons is used to compute a time-to-depth conversion model at the time sampling rate (1 ms). The 3D depth conversion model allows the computation of an interval velocity block which is compared with the acoustic impedance block to estimate a density block as QC. Non realistic density values are edited and the interval velocity block as well as the depth conversion model is updated. The proposed procedure has been applied on a 3D data set. The dataset comes from a High Resolution 3D seismic survey recorded in France at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in the vicinity of the Andra Center (National radioactive waste management Agency). The 3D design is a cross spread. The active spread is composed of 12 receiver lines with 120 stations each. The source lines are perpendicular to the receiver lines. The receiver and source line spacings are respectively 80 m and 120 m. The receiver and source point spacings are 20 m. The source is a Vibroseis source generating a signal in the 14 - 140 Hz frequency bandwidth.. The bin size is 10 x 10 m 2 . The nominal fold is 60. A conventional seismic sequence was applied to the data set. It includes amplitude recovery, deconvolution and wave

  1. "Science SQL" as a Building Block for Flexible, Standards-based Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We have learnt to live with the pain of separating data and metadata into non-interoperable silos. For metadata, we enjoy the flexibility of databases, be they relational, graph, or some other NoSQL. Contrasting this, users still "drown in files" as an unstructured, low-level archiving paradigm. It is time to bridge this chasm which once was technologically induced, but today can be overcome. One building block towards a common re-integrated information space is to support massive multi-dimensional spatio-temporal arrays. These "datacubes" appear as sensor, image, simulation, and statistics data in all science and engineering domains, and beyond. For example, 2-D satellilte imagery, 2-D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geophysical voxel data, and 4-D x/y/z/t climate data contribute to today's data deluge in the Earth sciences. Virtual observatories in the Space sciences routinely generate Petabytes of such data. Life sciences deal with microarray data, confocal microscopy, human brain data, which all fall into the same category. The ISO SQL/MDA (Multi-Dimensional Arrays) candidate standard is extending SQL with modelling and query support for n-D arrays ("datacubes") in a flexible, domain-neutral way. This heralds a new generation of services with new quality parameters, such as flexibility, ease of access, embedding into well-known user tools, and scalability mechanisms that remain completely transparent to users. Technology like the EU rasdaman ("raster data manager") Array Database system can support all of the above examples simultaneously, with one technology. This is practically proven: As of today, rasdaman is in operational use on hundreds of Terabytes of satellite image timeseries datacubes, with transparent query distribution across more than 1,000 nodes. Therefore, Array Databases offering SQL/MDA constitute a natural common building block for next-generation data infrastructures. Being initiator and editor of the standard we present principles

  2. Quantum Simulation with Circuit-QED Lattices: from Elementary Building Blocks to Many-Body Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanyu

    Recent experimental and theoretical progress in superconducting circuits and circuit QED (quantum electrodynamics) has helped to develop high-precision techniques to control, manipulate, and detect individual mesoscopic quantum systems. A promising direction is hence to scale up from individual building blocks to form larger-scale quantum many-body systems. Although realizing a scalable fault-tolerant quantum computer still faces major barriers of decoherence and quantum error correction, it is feasible to realize scalable quantum simulators with state-of-the-art technology. From the technological point of view, this could serve as an intermediate stage towards the final goal of a large-scale quantum computer, and could help accumulating experience with the control of quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. From the physical point of view, this opens up a new regime where condensed matter systems can be simulated and studied, here in the context of strongly correlated photons and two-level systems. In this thesis, we mainly focus on two aspects of circuit-QED based quantum simulation. First, we discuss the elementary building blocks of the quantum simulator, in particular a fluxonium circuit coupled to a superconducting resonator. We show the interesting properties of the fluxonium circuit as a qubit, including the unusual structure of its charge matrix elements. We also employ perturbation theory to derive the effective Hamiltonian of the coupled system in the dispersive regime, where qubit and the photon frequencies are detuned. The observables predicted with our theory, including dispersive shifts and Kerr nonlinearity, are compared with data from experiments, such as homodyne transmission and two-tone spectroscopy. These studies also relate to the problem of detection in a circuit-QED quantum simulator. Second, we study many-body physics of circuit-QED lattices, serving as quantum simulators. In particular, we focus on two different

  3. Chiral building blocks from biomass: 2,5-Diamino-2,5-dideoxy-1,4-3,6-dianhydroiditol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiyagarajan, S.; Gootjes, L.; Vogelzang, W.; Wu, J.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Isohexides (isomannide (endo-endo), isosorbide (endo-exo), and isoidide (exo-exo) are a group of renewable bio-based building blocks that received considerable attention among the polymer industries because these rigid bicyclic diols have several interesting properties in polymer applications.1 We

  4. Network diversity through two-step crystal engineering of a decorated 6-connected primary molecular building block

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Kai-Jie; Schoedel, Alexander; Wojtas, Lukasz; Perry IV, John J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    [Cr3O(nicotinate)6]+ was isolated and then utilised as a new primary molecular building block, PMBB, linked by 2-, 3- and 4-connected metal centres. Five novel metal–organic materials (MOMs) with acs, stp, rtl, fsc and pcu topologies were thereby isolated and characterised.

  5. The asc trinodal platform: Two-step assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander; Cairns, Amy; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Wojtas, Łukasz; Mohamed, Mona Hassan; Zhang, ZhenJie; Proserpio, Davide Maria; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks affords the first example of a trinodal family of metal-organic materials. Four examples of isoreticular expanded and functionalized frameworks are detailed. Gas adsorption experiments validated the permanent porosity of the parent structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Network diversity through two-step crystal engineering of a decorated 6-connected primary molecular building block

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qing-Yuan

    2016-10-04

    [Cr3O(nicotinate)6]+ was isolated and then utilised as a new primary molecular building block, PMBB, linked by 2-, 3- and 4-connected metal centres. Five novel metal–organic materials (MOMs) with acs, stp, rtl, fsc and pcu topologies were thereby isolated and characterised.

  7. Internet governance and global self regulation: theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vey Mestdagh, C.; Rijgersberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    The following exposition sets out to identify the basic theoretical and empirical building blocks for a general theory of self-regulation. It uses the Internet as an empirical basis since its global reach and technical characteristics create interdependencies between actors that transcend national

  8. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan

    2017-08-10

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  9. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Xiujun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junli; Fu, Jiecai; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Chaoyi; Bai, Feiming; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  10. The Influence of Building Block Play on Mathematics Achievement and Logical and Divergent Thinking in Italian Primary School Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, Concetta; Tienken, Christopher H.; Pagano, Tatiana; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2018-01-01

    In an experimental study to explain the effect of structured Building Block Play with LEGO™ bricks on 6-year-old student mathematics achievement and in the areas of logical thinking, divergent thinking, nonverbal reasoning, and mental imagery, students in the experimental group scored significantly higher (p = 0.05) in mathematics achievement and…

  11. The Development of Logico-Mathematical Knowledge in a Block-Building Activity at Ages 1-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamii, Constance; Miyakawa, Yoko; Kato, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To study the developmental interrelationships among various aspects of logico-mathematical knowledge, 80 one- to 4-year-olds were individually asked to build "something tall" with 20 blocks. Percentages of new and significant behaviors increased with age and were analyzed in terms of the development of logico-mathematical relationships. It was…

  12. The asc trinodal platform: Two-step assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2013-02-10

    The self-assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks affords the first example of a trinodal family of metal-organic materials. Four examples of isoreticular expanded and functionalized frameworks are detailed. Gas adsorption experiments validated the permanent porosity of the parent structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Alessia; Candela, Michele; Fonti, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called 'solifluxion'. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of 'oleo-dynamic' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with 'oleo dynamic' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of 'solifluxion'. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each 'oleo dynamic' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way

  14. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D

    2010-03-04

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  15. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Semiexperimental equilibrium structures for building blocks of organic and biological molecules: the B2PLYP route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penocchio, Emanuele; Piccardo, Matteo; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-10-13

    The B2PLYP double hybrid functional, coupled with the correlation-consistent triple-ζ cc-pVTZ (VTZ) basis set, has been validated in the framework of the semiexperimental (SE) approach for deriving accurate equilibrium structures of molecules containing up to 15 atoms. A systematic comparison between new B2PLYP/VTZ results and several equilibrium SE structures previously determined at other levels, in particular B3LYP/SNSD and CCSD(T) with various basis sets, has put in evidence the accuracy and the remarkable stability of such model chemistry for both equilibrium structures and vibrational corrections. New SE equilibrium structures for phenylacetylene, pyruvic acid, peroxyformic acid, and phenyl radical are discussed and compared with literature data. Particular attention has been devoted to the discussion of systems for which lack of sufficient experimental data prevents a complete SE determination. In order to obtain an accurate equilibrium SE structure for these situations, the so-called templating molecule approach is discussed and generalized with respect to our previous work. Important applications are those involving biological building blocks, like uracil and thiouracil. In addition, for more general situations the linear regression approach has been proposed and validated.

  17. Manipulation of partially oriented hydroxyapatite building blocks to form flowerlike bundles without acid-base regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenliang; Wang, Zihao; Chen, Jingdi; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-06-01

    The application of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in different fields depends greatly on its morphology, composition and structure. Besides, the main inorganic building blocks of human bones and teeth are also HAP. Therefore, accurate shape and aggregation control and of hydroxyapatite particles will be of great interest. Herein, oriented bundles of flowerlike HAP nanorods were successfully prepared through hydrothermal treatment without acid-base regulation, with the mono-alkyl phosphate (MAP) and sodium citrate as surfactant and chelating agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and zeta potential, the pH value and conductivity value of suspension were characterized by pH meter and conductivity measurement. The results showed that the MAP and citrate play an important role in assembly of HAP nanorods without acid-base regulation. Citrate calcium complex could decompose slowly and release citrate ions at hydrothermal conditions. Besides, the further decomposition of citrate ions could release aconitic acid as the reaction time prolongs. Moreover, the possible scheme for the formation process was discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Eggshell membrane-templated porous gold membranes using nanoparticles as building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Khalid, Z. M.; Hussain, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highly porous gold membrane-like structures are formed using eggshell membrane, as such and heat denatured, as a template and gold nanoparticles as building blocks. Gold nanoparticles were produced in-situ on the eggshell membranes without using additional reducing agents. The morphology and loading of gold nanoparticles can easily be controlled by adjusting the pH and thus the redox potential of eggshell membranes. Lower pH favored the formation of irregularly-shaped but dense gold macro/ nanocrystals whereas higher pH(8-9) favored the formation of fairly uniform but less dense gold nanoparticles onto the eggshell membranes. Heat treatment of eggshell membrane-gold nanoparticle composites formed at pH 8-9 led to the formation of highly porous membrane like gold while mimicking the original structure of eggshell membrane. All these materials have been thoroughly characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ISP-AES). These highly porous membrane-like gold materials may have potential applications in catalysis, biosensors, electrode materials, optically selective coatings, heat dissipation and biofiltration. (author)

  19. Ultraflat Au nanoplates as a new building block for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Wooseok; Lee, Miyeon; Lee, Hyunsoo; Lee, Hyoban; Kim, Bongsoo; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-05-27

    We demonstrate the charge transport properties of a self-assembled organic monolayer on Au nanoplates with conductive probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Atomically flat Au nanoplates, a few hundred micrometers on each side, that have only (111) surfaces, were synthesized using the chemical vapor transport method; these nanoplates were employed as the substrates for hexadecanethiol (HDT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Atomic-scale high-resolution images show (√3 x √3) R30° molecular periodicity, indicating a well-ordered structure of the HDT on the Au nanoplates. We observed reduced friction and adhesion forces on the HDT SAMs on Au nanoplates, compared with Si substrates, which is consistent with the lubricating nature of HDT SAMs. The electrical properties, such as I-V characteristics and current as a function of load, were measured using CP-AFM. We obtained a tunneling decay constant (β) of 0.57 Å(-1), including through-bond (βtb = 0.99 Å(-1)) and through-space (βts = 1.36 Å(-1)) decay constants for the two-pathway model. This indicates that the charge transport properties of HDT SAMs on Au nanoplates are consistent with those on a Au (111) film, suggesting that SAMs on nanoplates can provide a new building block for molecular electronics.

  20. Nucleic acids and smart materials: advanced building blocks for logic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-09-03

    Logic gates can convert input signals into a defined output signal, which is the fundamental basis of computing. Inspired by molecular switching from one state to another under an external stimulus, molecular logic gates are explored extensively and recognized as an alternative to traditional silicon-based computing. Among various building blocks of molecular logic gates, nucleic acid attracts special attention owing to its specific recognition abilities and structural features. Functional materials with unique physical and chemical properties offer significant advantages and are used in many fields. The integration of nucleic acids and functional materials is expected to bring about several new phenomena. In this Progress Report, recent progress in the construction of logic gates by combining the properties of a range of smart materials with nucleic acids is introduced. According to the structural characteristics and composition, functional materials are categorized into three classes: polymers, noble-metal nanomaterials, and inorganic nanomaterials. Furthermore, the unsolved problems and future challenges in the construction of logic gates are discussed. It is hoped that broader interests in introducing new smart materials into the field are inspired and tangible applications for these constructs are found. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2013-04-24

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S) 2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Assembly of Robust Bacterial Microcompartment Shells Using Building Blocks from an Organelle of Unknown Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, JK; Bernstein, SL; Kinney, JN; Axen, SD; Kerfeld, CA

    2014-05-29

    Bacterial microconnpartnnents (BMCs) sequester enzymes from the cytoplasmic environment by encapsulation inside a selectively permeable protein shell. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many bacteria encode BMC clusters of unknown function and with diverse combinations of shell proteins. The genome of the halophilic myxobacterium Haliangium ochraceum encodes one of the most atypical sets of shell proteins in terms of composition and primary structure. We found that microconnpartnnent shells could be purified in high yield when all seven H. ochraceum BMC shell genes were expressed from a synthetic operon in Escherichia coll. These shells differ substantially from previously isolated shell systems in that they are considerably smaller and more homogeneous, with measured diameters of 39 2 nm. The size and nearly uniform geometry allowed the development of a structural model for the shells composed of 260 hexagonal units and 13 hexagons per icosahedral face. We found that new proteins could be recruited to the shells by fusion to a predicted targeting peptide sequence, setting the stage for the use of these remarkably homogeneous shells for applications such as three-dimensional scaffolding and the construction of synthetic BMCs. Our results demonstrate the value of selecting from the diversity of BMC shell building blocks found in genomic sequence data for the construction of novel compartments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new building block for DNA network formation by self-assembly and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußkamp, Holger; Keller, Sascha; Robotta, Marta; Drescher, Malte; Marx, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The predictability of DNA self-assembly is exploited in many nanotechnological approaches. Inspired by naturally existing self-assembled DNA architectures, branched DNA has been developed that allows self-assembly to predesigned architectures with dimensions on the nanometer scale. DNA is an attractive material for generation of nanostructures due to a plethora of enzymes which modify DNA with high accuracy, providing a toolbox for many different manipulations to construct nanometer scaled objects. We present a straightforward synthesis of a rigid DNA branching building block successfully used for the generation of DNA networks by self-assembly and network formation by enzymatic DNA synthesis. The Y-shaped 3-armed DNA construct, bearing 3 primer strands is accepted by Taq DNA polymerase. The enzyme uses each arm as primer strand and incorporates the branched construct into large assemblies during PCR. The networks were investigated by agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The findings indicate that rather rigid DNA networks were formed. This presents a new bottom-up approach for DNA material formation and might find applications like in the generation of functional hydrogels.

  4. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  5. Probing the Conformational Landscape of Polyether Building Blocks in Supersonic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocklitz, Sebastian; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Suhm, Martin A.

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene oxides (Polyethylene glycoles) and their phenoxy-capped analogs represent a prominent class of important polymers that are highly used as precursor molecules in supramolecular reactions. After a detailed study on the simplest representative (1,2-dimethoxyethane) [1], we present results on oligoethylene oxides with increasing chain lengths obtained by spontaneous Raman scattering in a supersonic jet. Through variation of stagnation pressure, carrier gas, nozzle distance and temperature we gain information on the conformational landscape as well as the mutual interconversion of low energy conformers. The obtained results are compared to state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculations. Additionally, we present UV as well as IR-UV and UV-UV double resonance studies on 1-methoxy-2-phenoxyethane in a supersonic jet. These complementary techniques allow for conformationally selective electronic and vibrational spectra in a closely related conformational landscape. [1] S. Bocklitz, M. A. Suhm, Constraining the Conformational Landscape of a Polyether Building Block by Raman Jet Spectroscopy, Z. Phys. Chem. 2015, 229, 1625-1648.

  6. Creating Metamaterial Building Blocks with Directed Photochemical Metallization of Silver onto DNA Origami Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Mir; Bendickson, Lee; Palo, Pierre; Yao, Zhiqi; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Hillier, Andrew C

    2018-06-07

    DNA origami can be used to create a variety of complex and geometrically unique nanostructures that can be further modified to produce building blocks for applications such as in optical metamaterials. We describe a method for creating metal-coated nanostructures using DNA origami templates and a photochemical metallization technique. Triangular DNA origami were fabricated and coated with a thin metal layer by photochemical silver reduction while either in solution or supported on a surface. The DNA origami template serves as a localized photosensitizer to facilitate reduction of silver ions directly from solution onto the DNA surface. The metallizing process is shown to result in a conformal metal coating, which grows in height to a self-limiting value with increasing photoreduction steps. Although this coating process results in a slight decrease in the triangle dimensions, the overall template shape is retained. Notably, this coating method exhibits characteristics of self-limiting and defect-filling growth, which results in a metal nanostructure that maps the shape of the original origami template with a continuous and uniform metal layer and stops growing once all available DNA sites are exhausted. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Perspectives of 99mTc chemistry and radiopharmacy: strategies, building blocks and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, R.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium chemistry, both fundamental and applied are required to a larger extent in order to keep the essential role of this element in radiopharmacy alive. After an introduction, highlighting the situation in general from research and market aspects, new strategies will be proposed in which technetium and rhenium play an essential role which can not be taken over by other radionuclides such as 11 C or 18 F. Furthermore, currently available and potential future building blocks in technetium chemistry and their relationship to the new strategies as well as characteristics of new precursors will be discussed and compared to each other. Targets and targeting molecules, again in the context of strategies unique for technetium (and rhenium) are in the focus of the last part. With respect of retaining a unique role, it is obvious that any future technetium or rhenium labelled biomolecule should have potential to therapy or be applied in the immediate context of therapy, as e.g. for the early assessment of success in chemotherapy. All these aspects emphasize a role of inorganic technetium chemistry which goes far beyond simple labelling strategies. To underline the importance of fundamental chemistry, we will present and discuss some examples with nuclear targeting agents, amino acids and vitamin B12. (author)

  8. Protein Assembly and Building Blocks: Beyond the Limits of the LEGO Brick Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yaakov

    2017-09-26

    Proteins, like other biomolecules, have a modular and hierarchical structure. Various building blocks are used to construct proteins of high structural complexity and diverse functionality. In multidomain proteins, for example, domains are fused to each other in different combinations to achieve different functions. Although the LEGO brick metaphor is justified as a means of simplifying the complexity of three-dimensional protein structures, several fundamental properties (such as allostery or the induced-fit mechanism) make deviation from it necessary to respect the plasticity, softness, and cross-talk that are essential to protein function. In this work, we illustrate recently reported protein behavior in multidomain proteins that deviates from the LEGO brick analogy. While earlier studies showed that a protein domain is often unaffected by being fused to another domain or becomes more stable following the formation of a new interface between the tethered domains, destabilization due to tethering has been reported for several systems. We illustrate that tethering may sometimes result in a multidomain protein behaving as "less than the sum of its parts". We survey these cases for which structure additivity does not guarantee thermodynamic additivity. Protein destabilization due to fusion to other domains may be linked in some cases to biological function and should be taken into account when designing large assemblies.

  9. Filamentous phages as building blocks for reconfigurable and hierarchical self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaud, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Filamentous bacteriophages such as fd-like viruses are monodisperse rod-like colloids that have well defined properties of diameter, length, rigidity, charge and chirality. Engineering these viruses leads to a library of colloidal rods, which can be used as building blocks for reconfigurable and hierarchical self-assembly. Their condensation in an aqueous solution with additive polymers, which act as depletants to induce attraction between the rods, leads to a myriad of fluid-like micronic structures ranging from isotropic/nematic droplets, colloid membranes, achiral membrane seeds, twisted ribbons, π-wall, pores, colloidal skyrmions, Möbius anchors, scallop membranes to membrane rafts. These structures, and the way that they shape-shift, not only shed light on the role of entropy, chiral frustration and topology in soft matter, but also mimic many structures encountered in different fields of science. On the one hand, filamentous phages being an experimental realization of colloidal hard rods, their condensation mediated by depletion interactions constitutes a blueprint for the self-assembly of rod-like particles and provides a fundamental foundation for bio- or material-oriented applications. On the other hand, the chiral properties of the viruses restrict the generalities of some results but vastly broaden the self-assembly possibilities.

  10. Elfin: An algorithm for the computational design of custom three-dimensional structures from modular repeat protein building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Ting; Brunette, T J; Baker, David; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Parmeggiani, Fabio

    2018-02-01

    Computational protein design methods have enabled the design of novel protein structures, but they are often still limited to small proteins and symmetric systems. To expand the size of designable proteins while controlling the overall structure, we developed Elfin, a genetic algorithm for the design of novel proteins with custom shapes using structural building blocks derived from experimentally verified repeat proteins. By combining building blocks with compatible interfaces, it is possible to rapidly build non-symmetric large structures (>1000 amino acids) that match three-dimensional geometric descriptions provided by the user. A run time of about 20min on a laptop computer for a 3000 amino acid structure makes Elfin accessible to users with limited computational resources. Protein structures with controlled geometry will allow the systematic study of the effect of spatial arrangement of enzymes and signaling molecules, and provide new scaffolds for functional nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BUILDING BLOCKS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM (PILARES BÁSICOS EN EL AULA DE IDIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coto Keith Rossina

    2010-12-01

    presents each separately, giving the idea that only one or two can be used in the language classroom, thus missing some important matters. The point of this article is that in order to be more effective, Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies must intertwine, so as to create a solid building block. The author first gives an overview of each of these areas. She then explains in the review of the literature how they should be used as a closely-knit unit. Next, she provides an example of this integration through a lesson plan on the topic of environmental conservation for an Oral Communication course for English majors at School of Modern Languages, University of Costa Rica. Finally, some advice is given to instructors on the incorporation of each of these building blocks.

  12. π-Extended Isoindigo-Based Derivative: A Promising Electron-Deficient Building Block for Polymer Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Mingchao; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Jian; Yi, Zhengran; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-11-22

    The exploration of novel electron-deficient building blocks is a key task for developing high-performance polymer semiconductors in organic thin-film transistors. In view of the situation of the lack of strong electron-deficient building blocks, we designed two novel π-extended isoindigo-based electron-deficient building blocks, IVI and F 4 IVI. Owing to the strong electron-deficient nature and the extended π-conjugated system of the two acceptor units, their copolymers, PIVI2T and PF 4 IVI2T, containing 2,2'-bithiophene donor units, are endowed with deep-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels and strong intermolecular interactions. In comparison to PIVI2T, the fluorinated PF 4 IVI2T exhibits stronger intra- and intermolecular interactions, lower HOMO/LUMO energy levels up to -5.74/-4.17 eV, and more ordered molecular packing with a smaller π-π stacking distance of up to 3.53 Å, resulting in an excellent ambipolar transporting behavior and a promising application in logic circuits for PF 4 IVI2T in ambient with hole and electron mobilities of up to 1.03 and 1.82 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. The results reveal that F 4 IVI is a promising and strong electron-deficient building unit to construct high-performance semiconducting polymers, which provides an insight into the structure-property relationships for the exploration and molecular engineering of excellent electron-deficient building blocks in the field of organic electronics.

  13. Triazole: a unique building block for the construction of functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juríček, Michal; Kouwer, Paul H J; Rowan, Alan E

    2011-08-21

    Over the past 50 years, numerous roads towards carbon-based materials have been explored, all of them being paved using mainly one functional group as the brick: acetylene. The acetylene group, or the carbon-carbon triple bond, is one of the oldest and simplest functional groups in chemistry, and although not present in any of the naturally occurring carbon allotropes, it is an essential tool to access their synthetic carbon-rich family. In general, two strategies towards the synthesis of π-conjugated carbon-rich structures can be employed: (a) either the acetylene group serves as a building block to access acetylene-derived structures or (b) it serves as a synthetic tool to provide other, usually benzenoid, structures. The recently discovered copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, however, represents a new powerful alternative: it transforms the acetylene group into a five-membered heteroaromatic 1H-1,2,3-triazole (triazole) ring and this gives rise to new opportunities. Compared with all-carbon aromatic non-functional rings, the triazole ring possesses three nitrogen atoms and, thus, can serve as a ligand to coordinate metals, or as a hydrogen bond acceptor and donor. This Feature Article summarises examples of using the triazole ring to construct conjugation- and/or function-related heteroaromatic materials, such as tuneable multichromophoric covalent ensembles, macrocyclic receptors or responsive foldamers. These recent examples, which open a new sub-field within organic materials, started to appear only few years ago and represent "a few more bricks" on the road to carbon-rich functional materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Radiation engineered multi-functional nanogels as nanoscale building blocks of useful biomedical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.

    2011-01-01

    for mass fabrication of nanoscale hydrogel particles with the recourse to industrial-type accelerators will be discussed. Radiation engineered nanogels may become base building blocks of higher order structures with designed properties, through the integration of heterogeneous components of different sizes and compositions, including biomolecules.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted acid hydrolysis of cellulose to chemical building blocks: Application to furfural synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel; Silva, Ubiratan F; Duarte, Fabio A; Bizzi, Cezar A; Flores, Erico M M; Mello, Paola A

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the use of ultrasound energy for the production of furanic platforms from cellulose was investigated and the synthesis of furfural was demonstrated. Several systems were evaluated, as ultrasound bath, cup horn and probe, in order to investigate microcrystalline cellulose conversion using simply a diluted acid solution and ultrasound. Several acid mixtures were evaluated for hydrolysis, as diluted solutions of HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HCl and H 2 C 2 O 4 . The influence of the following parameters in the ultrasound-assisted acid hydrolysis (UAAH) were studied: sonication temperature (30 to 70°C) and ultrasound amplitude (30 to 70% for a cup horn system) for 4 to 8molL -1 HNO 3 solutions. For each evaluated condition, the products were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ToF-MS), which provide accurate information regarding the products obtained from biomass conversion. The furfural structure was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H and 13 C NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, cellulosic residues from hydrolysis reaction were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which contributed for a better understanding of physical-chemical effects caused by ultrasound. After process optimization, a 4molL -1 HNO 3 solution, sonicated for 60min at 30°C in a cup horn system at 50% of amplitude, lead to 78% of conversion to furfural. This mild temperature condition combined to the use of a diluted acid solution represents an important contribution for the selective production of chemical building blocks using ultrasound energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel fundamental building blocks and site dependent isomorphism in the first actinide borophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijun; Polinski, Matthew J; Malcherek, Thomas; Bismayer, Ulrich; Klinkenberg, Martina; Modolo, Giuseppe; Bosbach, Dirk; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2013-07-15

    Three novel uranyl borophosphates, Ag2(NH4)3[(UO2)2{B3O(PO4)4(PO4H)2}]H2O (AgNBPU-1), Ag(2-x)(NH4)3[(UO2)2{B2P5O(20-x)(OH)x}] (x = 1.26) (AgNBPU-2), and Ag(2-x)(NH4)3[(UO2)2{B2P(5-y)AsyO(20-x)(OH)x}] (x = 1.43, y = 2.24) (AgNBPU-3), have been prepared by the H3BO3-NH4H2PO4/NH4H2AsO4 flux method. The structure of AgNBPU-1 has an unprecedented fundamental building block (FBB), composed of three BO4 and six PO4 tetrahedra which can be written as 9□:[Φ] □□|□□|□□|. Two Ag atoms are linearly coordinated; the coordination of a third one is T-shaped. AgNBPU-2 and AgNBPU-3 are isostructural and possess a FBB of two BO4 and five TO4 (T = P, As) tetrahedra (7□:□□|□). AgNBPU-3 is a solid solution with some PO4 tetrahedra of the AgNBPU-2 end-member being substituted by AsO4. Only two out of the three independent P positions are partially occupied by As, resulting in site dependent isomorphism. The three compounds represent the first actinide borophosphates.

  17. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Mixed Micelles for Presentation of Building Blocks in a New Combinatorial Discovery Methodology: Proof-of-Concept Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Toth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new method of combinatorial screening in which building blocks, instead of being linked together chemically, are placed on the surface of nanoparticles. Two- or three-dimensional structures form on the surface of these particles through the close approach of different building blocks, with sufficient flexibility to be able to adapt and interact with putative binding sites in biological systems. The particles assemble without the need for formation of chemical bonds, so libraries comprised of many structures can be prepared rapidly, with large quantities of material available for testing. Screening methods can include solid and solution-phase binding assays, or tissue culture models, for example looking for structures which can change the behaviour of cells in a disease-modifying manner.

  19. Solar thermal electricity production. A building block for the energy turnaround?; Solarthermische Stromerzeugung. Ein Baustein fuer die Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) e.V., Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung

    2012-12-15

    Whereas in Germany enthusiasm for solar thermal power plants has subsided following the inglorious insolvency of Solar Millennium AG, internationally the market is livening up again. This has to do with the fact that many countries have now understood that security of supply cannot be founded on photovoltaics and wind alone in the long term. Solar thermal power could thus yet become an important building block in Germany's energy supply system as it continues to pursue the energy turnaround.

  20. Design of fundamental building blocks for fast binary readout CMOS sensors used in high-energy physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: degerli@cea.fr

    2009-04-21

    In this paper, design details of key building blocks for fast binary readout CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors developed for charged particle detection are presented. Firstly, an all-NMOS pixel architecture with in-pixel amplification and reset noise suppression which allows fast readout is presented. This pixel achieves high charge-to-voltage conversion factors (CVF) using a few number of transistors inside the pixel. It uses a pre-amplifying stage close to the detector and a simple double sampling (DS) circuitry to store the reset level of the detector. The DS removes the offset mismatches of amplifiers and the reset noise of the detector. Offset mismatches of the source follower are also corrected by a second column-level DS stage. The second important building block of these sensors, a low-power auto-zeroed column-level discriminator, is also presented. These two blocks transform the charge of the impinging particle into binary data. Finally, some experimental results obtained on CMOS chips designed using these blocks are presented.

  1. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  2. An Electronic Structure Approach to Charge Transfer and Transport in Molecular Building Blocks for Organic Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Heidi Phillips

    A fundamental understanding of charge separation in organic materials is necessary for the rational design of optoelectronic devices suited for renewable energy applications and requires a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)DFT are cost effective ab-initio approaches for calculating fundamental properties of large molecular systems, however conventional DFT methods have been known to fail in accurately characterizing frontier orbital gaps and charge transfer states in molecular systems. In this dissertation, these shortcomings are addressed by implementing an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional approach within DFT and TDDFT. The first part of this thesis presents the way in which RSH-DFT addresses the shortcomings in conventional DFT. Environmentally-corrected RSH-DFT frontier orbital energies are shown to correspond to thin film measurements for a set of organic semiconducting molecules. Likewise, the improved RSH-TDDFT description of charge transfer excitations is benchmarked using a model ethene dimer and silsesquioxane molecules. In the second part of this thesis, RSH-DFT is applied to chromophore-functionalized silsesquioxanes, which are currently investigated as candidates for building blocks in optoelectronic applications. RSH-DFT provides insight into the nature of absorptive and emissive states in silsesquioxanes. While absorption primarily involves transitions localized on one chromophore, charge transfer between chromophores and between chromophore and silsesquioxane cage have been identified. The RSH-DFT approach, including a protocol accounting for complex environmental effects on charge transfer energies, was tested and validated against experimental measurements. The third part of this thesis addresses quantum transport through nano-scale junctions. The ability to quantify a molecular junction via spectroscopic methods is crucial to their

  3. Isotopic evolution of the protoplanetary disk and the building blocks of Earth and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin; Fernandes, Vera Assis

    2018-03-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope variability among Solar System objects is often used to probe the genetic relationship between meteorite groups and the rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), which, in turn, may provide insights into the building blocks of the Earth–Moon system. Using this approach, it has been inferred that no primitive meteorite matches the terrestrial composition and the protoplanetary disk material from which Earth and the Moon accreted is therefore largely unconstrained. This conclusion, however, is based on the assumption that the observed nucleosynthetic variability of inner-Solar-System objects predominantly reflects spatial heterogeneity. Here we use the isotopic composition of the refractory element calcium to show that the nucleosynthetic variability in the inner Solar System primarily reflects a rapid change in the mass-independent calcium isotope composition of protoplanetary disk solids associated with early mass accretion to the proto-Sun. We measure the mass-independent 48Ca/44Ca ratios of samples originating from the parent bodies of ureilite and angrite meteorites, as well as from Vesta, Mars and Earth, and find that they are positively correlated with the masses of their parent asteroids and planets, which are a proxy of their accretion timescales. This correlation implies a secular evolution of the bulk calcium isotope composition of the protoplanetary disk in the terrestrial planet-forming region. Individual chondrules from ordinary chondrites formed within one million years of the collapse of the proto-Sun reveal the full range of inner-Solar-System mass-independent 48Ca/44Ca ratios, indicating a rapid change in the composition of the material of the protoplanetary disk. We infer that this secular evolution reflects admixing of pristine outer-Solar-System material into the thermally processed inner protoplanetary disk associated with the accretion of mass to the proto-Sun. The identical calcium isotope composition of Earth

  4. Identification of Biomolecular Building Blocks by Recognition Tunneling: Stride towards Nanopore Sequencing of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suman

    DNA, RNA and Protein are three pivotal biomolecules in human and other organisms, playing decisive roles in functionality, appearance, diseases development and other physiological phenomena. Hence, sequencing of these biomolecules acquires the prime interest in the scientific community. Single molecular identification of their building blocks can be done by a technique called Recognition Tunneling (RT) based on Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). A single layer of specially designed recognition molecule is attached to the STM electrodes, which trap the targeted molecules (DNA nucleoside monophosphates, RNA nucleoside monophosphates or amino acids) inside the STM nanogap. Depending on their different binding interactions with the recognition molecules, the analyte molecules generate stochastic signal trains accommodating their "electronic fingerprints". Signal features are used to detect the molecules using a machine learning algorithm and different molecules can be identified with significantly high accuracy. This, in turn, paves the way for rapid, economical nanopore sequencing platform, overcoming the drawbacks of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. To read DNA nucleotides with high accuracy in an STM tunnel junction a series of nitrogen-based heterocycles were designed and examined to check their capabilities to interact with naturally occurring DNA nucleotides by hydrogen bonding in the tunnel junction. These recognition molecules are Benzimidazole, Imidazole, Triazole and Pyrrole. Benzimidazole proved to be best among them showing DNA nucleotide classification accuracy close to 99%. Also, Imidazole reader can read an abasic monophosphate (AP), a product from depurination or depyrimidination that occurs 10,000 times per human cell per day. In another study, I have investigated a new universal reader, 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)pyrene (Pyrene reader) based on stacking interactions, which should be more specific to the canonical DNA nucleosides. In addition

  5. [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)4]-: a new building block for designing single-chain magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Luminita Marilena; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2012-11-28

    We herein present the synthesis and magneto-structural study of a new family of heterobimetallic chains of general formula {[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(2)}(n)·pnH(2)O [dmbpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine; M = Mn (2), Cu (3), Ni (4) and Co (5) with p = 4 (2), 3 (3), 9 (4) and 3.5 (5)] which were prepared by using the mononuclear PPh(4)[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)]·3H(2)O (1) building block (PPh(4)(+) = tetraphenylphosphonium) as a ligand toward fully solvated M(II) ions. The structure of 1 consists of discrete [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](-) anions, tetraphenylphosphonium cations and noncoordinated water molecules. Complexes 2-5 are isostructural compounds whose structure consists of neutral 4,2-wave like heterobimetallic chains of formula {[Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](2)M(II)(H(2)O)(2)}(n) where the [Fe(III)(dmbpy)(CN)(4)](-) entity adopts a bis-monodentate coordination mode toward trans-[M(II)(H(2)O)(2)] units through two of its four cyanide groups in cis positions. 1 exhibits the magnetic behaviour of magnetically isolated six-coordinate low-spin Fe(III) complexes with an important orbital contribution. 2 behaves as ferrimagnetic Fe(III)(2)Mn(II) chains, whereas 3-5 exhibit intrachain ferromagnetic couplings between the low-spin Fe(III) and either Cu(II) (3), Ni (4) or Co(II) (5) as well as frequency-dependence of the out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals below 3.0 (3), 5.5 (4) and 5.0 K (5). The relaxation time and the energy to reverse the magnetization of 3-5 are related to the anisotropy of the M(II) center and to the intra- and interchain magnetic interactions. Unprecedentedly in the world of cyanide-bearing complexes, 5 exhibits a double slow relaxation of the magnetization.

  6. RELATIVE DISTANCE: THE KEY TO THE SHAPE OF HEPATIC BUILDING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ruijter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The delineation and the shape of the smallest structural units of the liver is still the subject of debate. However,the blood flow from an upstream terminal branch of the portal vein to a downstream central vein is thought to induce a functional zonation in hepatocyte gene expression. This property was used to determine boundary conditions for the shape of the hepatic building blocks. Histochemical techniques that specifically label periportally or pericentrally expressed enzymes can be used to distinguish periportal and pericentral areas in a liver section. Pairs of images from aligned serial sections, one stained for a portal and the next for a central enzyme, are used. Segmentation and skeletonisation of these images results in the skeletons of the portal and central areas. Distance transformation with respect to these skeletons gives for each point in the image pair the distance to the nearest terminal branches of the portal vein and the central vein. For each point the relative position on the porto-central radius can then be calculated as its distance to a portal vein divided by the sum of its portal and its central distance. In the resulting relative radius image, the area occupied by 'zones' of equivalent relative radius can be measured. According to the principle of Delesse the relative area of a zone in the image is equal to the relative volume of that zone in the tissue. For structural units of plate-like, cylindrical or spherical shape, the relative volume of a zone is equal to the relative radius of that zone to the power 1, 2 or 3, respectively. Thus, the exponent in the relative area - relative radius relation gives information on the shape of the structural unit. Measurement of the areas of each relative radius zone and determination of the area - radius relation in images of random sections of adult mouse liver results in an exponent of 1.1. This suggests that the smallest structural unit of the mouse liver has the shape of a

  7. Engineering responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest molecular recognition for functional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: All living organisms and soft matter are intrinsically responsive and adaptive to external stimuli. Inspired by this fact, tremendous effort aiming to emulate subtle responsive features exhibited by nature has spurred the invention of a diverse range of responsive polymeric materials. Conventional stimuli-responsive polymers are constructed via covalent bonds and can undergo reversible or irreversible changes in chemical structures, physicochemical properties, or both in response to a variety of external stimuli. They have been imparted with a variety of emerging applications including drug and gene delivery, optical sensing and imaging, diagnostics and therapies, smart coatings and textiles, and tissue engineering. On the other hand, in comparison with molecular chemistry held by covalent bonds, supramolecular chemistry built on weak and reversible noncovalent interactions has emerged as a powerful and versatile strategy for materials fabrication due to its facile accessibility, extraordinary reversibility and adaptivity, and potent applications in diverse fields. Typically involving more than one type of noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic association, electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, and π-π stacking), host-guest recognition refers to the formation of supramolecular inclusion complexes between two or more entities connected together in a highly controlled and cooperative manner. The inherently reversible and adaptive nature of host-guest molecular recognition chemistry, stemming from multiple noncovalent interactions, has opened up a new platform to construct novel types of stimuli-responsive materials. The introduction of host-guest chemistry not only enriches the realm of responsive materials but also confers them with promising new applications. Most intriguingly, the integration of responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest recognition motifs will endow the former with

  8. Studies and mechanical properties of a new type of 'hybrid' ceramic block for buildings in structural masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara, Cassio Freire; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a hybrid ceramic block to the use of resides in the buildings executed with structural masonry. This work seeking new materials and / or products with the purpose of increasing the compressive strength of the ceramic blocks, without neglecting other properties (water absorption and linear shrinkage). After the obtained material (clay powder and crushed), the packaging (in percentages ranging from 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% substitution of crushed clay powder), the identification and measuring (weights and lengths) of the bodies of the test piece, was performed on the approach characterized by fluorescence, mineralogy and SEM of these materials as well as the characterization (SEM) of ceramic blocks after the sintering (temperature of the 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, and 1100 deg C rate with heating tax of 5 o C/minute and soak for 1 hour). Then the samples were subjected to the tests (compressive strength and water absorption) and the respective calculated linear shrinkage. After conducting the analysis of the results of these tests (according to the criteria and parameters required by the ABNT NBR 15270) was found that the 'hybrid' block with the addition of 10% crushed powder obtained the best results, increasing the compressive strength at 16 % without compromising the other parameters required by the Standard. (author)

  9. Total synthesis of a CD-ring: side-chain building block for preparing 17-epi-calcitriol derivatives from the Hajos-Parrish dione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Karol; Wicha, Jerzy

    2011-08-19

    An efficient synthesis of the key building block for 17-epi-calctriol from the Hajos-Parrish dione involving a sequence of diastereoselective transformation of the azulene core and the side-chain construction is presented.

  10. Power Block Geometry Applied to the Building of Power Electronics Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E. C., Jr.; da Silva, E. R. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology, Power Block Geometry (PBG), for the presentation of power electronics topologies that process ac voltage. PBG's strategy uses formal methods based on a geometrical representation with particular rules and defines a universe with axioms and conjectures to establish a formation law. It allows power…

  11. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective...... production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological...

  12. Developing the basic building blocks of mathematics to be employed in practical embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S [Intelligence Engineering and Industrial Automation Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Wu, F, E-mail: a.j.tickle@liverpool.ac.u [RF Engines Ltd, Innovation Centre, St. Cross Business Park, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 5WB (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Mathematics is vitally important as it is used in many areas of science and engineering, in particular are functions such as sine, cosine and the exponent in addition to being to able to carry out such tasks as decimal division. The sine wave is vitally important in physics and communications due to its ability to retain its waveshape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase. It is the only periodic waveform that has this property and leads to techniques such as Fourier analysis. Unfortunately these blocks are not included in the standard DSP Builder blockset in Simulink and so a method of creating these operations must be created if this methodology is to be employed in real world tasks such as power relay protection and stereo vision systems. Shown here is a method of performing these calculations using the limited blocks provided for a 50-bit based embedded system with a discussion about the accuracy when compared to traditional digital system counterparts. The order of the equations used and the scaling factors of the blocks are investigated to provide evidence of why certain values need to be changed depending upon the calculation being performed.

  13. Developing the basic building blocks of mathematics to be employed in practical embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S; Wu, F

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is vitally important as it is used in many areas of science and engineering, in particular are functions such as sine, cosine and the exponent in addition to being to able to carry out such tasks as decimal division. The sine wave is vitally important in physics and communications due to its ability to retain its waveshape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase. It is the only periodic waveform that has this property and leads to techniques such as Fourier analysis. Unfortunately these blocks are not included in the standard DSP Builder blockset in Simulink and so a method of creating these operations must be created if this methodology is to be employed in real world tasks such as power relay protection and stereo vision systems. Shown here is a method of performing these calculations using the limited blocks provided for a 50-bit based embedded system with a discussion about the accuracy when compared to traditional digital system counterparts. The order of the equations used and the scaling factors of the blocks are investigated to provide evidence of why certain values need to be changed depending upon the calculation being performed.

  14. Culture’s building blocks: Investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest...... the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development...

  15. EDITORIAL: Nature's building blocks Nature's building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andreas

    2009-10-01

    The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer in the early 1980s in the IBM Laboratory in Zurich, and the atomic force microscope (AFM) that followed shortly afterwards, were key developments that initiated a new era in scientific research: nanotechnology. These and related scanning probe microscopes have become fruitful tools in the study of cells, supramolecular assemblies and single biomolecules, as well as other nanoscale structures. In particular, the ability to investigate living matter in native environments made possible by atomic force microscopy, has allowed pronounced progress in biological research. The journal Nanotechnology was the first to serve as a publication platform for this rapidly developing field of science. The journal celebrates its 20th volume with this special issue, which presents a collection of original research articles in various fields of science, but all with the common feature that the structures, processes and functions all take place at the nanometre scale. Scanning probe microscopes are constantly being devised with increasingly sophisticated sensing and actuating features that optimize their performance. However, while these tools continue to provide impressive and informative images of nanoscale systems and allow single molecules to be manipulated with increasing dexterity, a wider field of research activity stimulated either by or for biology has emerged. The unique properties of matter at the nanoscale, such as localized surface plasmons supported by nanostructures, have been exploited in sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. Nanostructures have also found a profitable role in the encapsulation of molecules for 'smart' drug delivery. The potential application of DNA in the self-assembly of nanostructures guided by molecular recognition is another rapidly advancing area of research. In this issue a group of researchers in Germany report how the addition of copper ions can promote the stability of modified double-stranded DNA. They use scanning force microscope observations to provide insights into the energy landscape as DNA complexes form. This research provides just one example of how developments on biological systems are being applied to research across the spectrum of disciplines. This 20th volume special issue provides a snapshot of current state-of-the-art research activity in various areas of nanotechnology, and highlights the breadth and range of research progressing in this field. The developments reported here highlight the continued prominence of biology-related research and promise a bright future for nanotechnology.

  16. Expedient Route To Access Rare Deoxy Amino l-Sugar Building Blocks for the Assembly of Bacterial Glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapala, Someswara Rao; Kulkarni, Suvarn S

    2016-04-13

    Bacterial glycoproteins and oligosaccharides contain several rare deoxy amino l-sugars which are virtually absent in the human cells. This structural difference between the bacterial and host cell surface glycans can be exploited for the development of carbohydrate based vaccines and target specific drugs. However, the unusual deoxy amino l-sugars present in the bacterial glycoconjugates are not available from natural sources. Thus, procurement of orthogonally protected rare l-sugar building blocks through efficient chemical synthesis is a crucial step toward the synthesis of structurally well-defined and homogeneous complex glycans. Herein, we report a general and expedient methodology to access a variety of unusual deoxy amino l-sugars starting from readily available l-rhamnose and l-fucose via highly regioselective, one-pot double serial and double parallel displacements of the corresponding 2,4-bistriflates using azide and nitrite anions as nucleophiles. Alternatively, regioselective monotriflation at O2, O3, and O4 of l-rhamnose/l-fucose allowed selective inversions at respective positions leading to diverse rare sugars. The orthogonally protected deoxy amino l-sugar building blocks could be stereoselectively assembled to obtain biologically relevant bacterial O-glycans, as exemplified by the first total synthesis of the amino linker-attached, conjugation-ready tetrasaccharide of O-PS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:50 strain 3229 and the trisaccharide of Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens strain M71.

  17. The building blocks of drinking experience across men and women: A case study with craft and industrial beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    In today's market, every product seems to be marked by the label of "experience". It is expected that successful products give the consumer "extraordinary experiences". The research in consumption experience is growing, but much work still needs to be done to understand the food and beverage experience. A qualitative study was conducted using contextual focus groups to explore the building blocks of consumers' drinking experience of industrial and craft beers. The results show that drinking experience is shaped by our cognitive, sensory or affective systems, especially during the core consumption experience. Elements such as attitudes, consumption habits, and individual versus social consumption, shopping experience and product benefits are also responsible for shaping the experience, but are more relevant during the pre-consumption or post-consumption experience. Gender differences occur more frequently in the affective experience, as women search more for relaxation while men for excitement and stimulation while drinking beer. When comparing industrial users versus craft, in the latter the cognitive and shopping experiences are more relevant. Overall, the results showed that the drinking experience of beers can be studied as a function of the salient human system used during product interaction, and this systems act as the building blocks of the drinking experience of beer. This information can be applied in consumer research studies to further study the experiential differences across products and consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new fixation strategy for addressable nano-network building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Lundberg, Erik P.; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Kocalka, Petr; Wilhelmsson, L. Marcus; Brown, Tom; Nordé n, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Rapid controlled self-assembly makes DNA ideal for building nanostructures. A problem using hybridized intermediates in hierarchic assembly is their thermodynamic lability. We demonstrate a click-fixation technology by which robust hexagonal DNA modules can be made. This principle is applicable to a wide variety of DNA nanoconstructs. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Cost, Schedule and Risk Management, The Building Blocks of a U.S. Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, John

    2002-01-01

    The most important consideration in the decision to build a new nuclear plant is the capital cost. Right? Yes and no. Yes, the capital cost accounts for 80% of the generation cost of a new plant. No, because there are other equally important considerations. (author)

  20. The Building Blocks of User-Focused 3D City Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sargent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At Ordnance Survey, GB, we have taken an incremental approach to creating our 3D geospatial database. Research at Ordnance Survey has focused not only on methods for deriving 3D data, but also on the needs of the user in terms of the actual tasks they perform. This provides insights into the type and quality of the data required and how its quality is conveyed. In 2007, using task analysis and user-centred design, we derived a set of geometric characteristics of building exteriors that are relevant to one or more use contexts. This work has been valuable for guiding which building data to collect and how to augment our products. In 2014, we began to supply building height attributes as an alpha-release enhancement to our 2D topography data, OS MasterMap® Topography Layer. This is the first in a series of enhancements of our 2D data that forms part of a road map that will ultimately lead to a full range of 3D products. This paper outlines our research journey from the understanding of the key 3D building characteristics to the development of geo-spatial products and the specification of research. There remains a rich seam of research into methods for capturing user-focused, geo-spatial data to enable visualisation and analysis in three dimensions. Because the process of informing and designing a product is necessarily focused on the practicalities of production, storage and distribution, this paper is presented as a case report, as we believe our journey will be of interest to others involved in the capture of 3D buildings at a national level.

  1. Block-induced Complex Structures Building the Flare-productive Solar Active Region 12673

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Xiaoshuai [Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Song, Qiao, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-11-10

    Solar active region (AR) 12673 produced 4 X-class, 27 M-class, and numerous lower-class flares during its passage across the visible solar disk in 2017 September. Our study is to answer the questions why this AR was so flare-productive and how the X9.3 flare, the largest one of the past decade, took place. We find that there was a sunspot in the initial several days, and then two bipolar regions emerged nearby it successively. Due to the standing of the pre-existing sunspot, the movement of the bipoles was blocked, while the pre-existing sunspot maintained its quasi-circular shaped umbra only with the disappearance of a part of penumbra. Thus, the bipolar patches were significantly distorted, and the opposite polarities formed two semi-circular shaped structures. After that, two sequences of new bipolar regions emerged within the narrow semi-circular zone, and the bipolar patches separated along the curved channel. The new bipoles sheared and interacted with the previous ones, forming a complex topological system, during which numerous flares occurred. At the highly sheared region, a great deal of free energy was accumulated. On September 6, one negative patch near the polarity inversion line began to rapidly rotate and shear with the surrounding positive fields, and consequently the X9.3 flare erupted. Our results reveal that the block-induced complex structures built the flare-productive AR and the X9.3 flare was triggered by an erupting filament due to the kink instability. To better illustrate this process, a block-induced eruption model is proposed for the first time.

  2. A tribo-mechanical analysis of PVA-based building-blocks for implementation in a 2-layered skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hurtado, M; de Vries, E G; Zeng, X; van der Heide, E

    2016-09-01

    Poly(vinyl) alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a well-known polymer widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility properties and easy manufacturing. In this work, the tribo-mechanical properties of PVA-based blocks are studied to evaluate their suitability as a part of a structure simulating the length scale dependence of human skin. Thus, blocks of pure PVA and PVA mixed with Cellulose (PVA-Cel) were synthesised via freezing/thawing cycles and their mechanical properties were determined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and creep tests. The dynamic tests addressed to elastic moduli between 38 and 50kPa for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. The fitting of the creep compliance tests in the SLS model confirmed the viscoelastic behaviour of the samples with retardation times of 23 and 16 seconds for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. Micro indentation tests were also achieved and the results indicated elastic moduli in the same range of the dynamic tests. Specifically, values between 45-55 and 56-81kPa were obtained for the PVA and PVA-Cel samples, respectively. The tribological results indicated values of 0.55 at low forces for the PVA decreasing to 0.13 at higher forces. The PVA-Cel blocks showed lower friction even at low forces with values between 0.2 and 0.07. The implementation of these building blocks in the design of a 2-layered skin model (2LSM) is also presented in this work. The 2LSM was stamped with four different textures and their surface properties were evaluated. The hydration of the 2LSM was also evaluated with a corneometer and the results indicated a gradient of hydration comparable to the human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. (1-Adamantyl)methyl glycidyl ether: a versatile building block for living polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Christian; Wrazidlo, Robert; Natalello, Adrian; Netz, Isabelle; Mondeshki, Mihail; Frey, Holger

    2014-06-01

    (1-Adamantyl)methyl glycidyl ether (AdaGE) is introduced as a versatile monomer for oxyanionic polymerization, enabling controlled incorporation of adamantyl moieties in aliphatic polyethers. Via copolymerization with ethoxyethyl glycidyl ether (EEGE) and subsequent cleavage of the acetal protection groups of EEGE, hydrophilic linear polyglycerols with an adjustable amount of pendant adamantyl moieties are obtained. The adamantyl unit permits control over thermal properties and solubility profile of these polymers (LCST). Additionally, AdaGE is utilized as a termination agent in carbanionic polymerization, affording adamantyl-terminated polymers. Using these structures as macroinitiators for the polymerization of ethylene oxide affords amphiphilic, in-chain adamantyl-functionalized block copolymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG)- Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donisha; Harris, Barbara; Blue, Cynthia; Gaskins, Charla

    2014-09-16

    The original BetterBuildings for Greensboro grant program included an outreach campaign to inform 100% of the Greensboro community about the benefits of reducing energy use; a plan to reduce energy consumption in at least 34% of the homes and 10% of the other buildings in the east Greensboro target area; and a plan to create and retain jobs in the energy conservation industry. Under the original program structure the City of Greensboro planned to partner with local and regional lenders to create a diversified portfolio of loan products to meet the needs of various income levels and building types. All participants would participate in the loan programs as a method of meeting the program’s 5 to1 private capital match/leverage requirements. In June 2011 the program was restructured to include partnerships with large commercial and multifamily projects, with these partners providing the greater portion of the required match/leverage. The geographic focus was revised to include reducing energy consumption across the entire City of Greensboro, targeting neighborhoods with high concentrations of low-moderate income households and aged housing stock. The community outreach component used a neighborhood-based approach to train community residents and volunteers to conduct door-to-door neighborhood sweeps; delivered high quality information on available program resources; helped residents to evaluate alternative energy efficiency measures and alternative financing sources; assisted with contractor selections and monitoring/evaluation of work; coordinated activities with BetterBuildings program partners; and collected data required by the Department of Energy. Additionally, HERO (Home Energy Response Officers) delivered intro packages (energy efficiency information and products) to thousands of households at the initial point of contact. A pilot program (Early Adopters) was offered from March 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. The Early Adopters program was designed to offer

  5. Bark polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata as functional building-blocks for polylactic acid (PLA-based green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA was melt-blended with Pinus radiata unmodified and modified (hydroxypropyled bark polyflavonoids in order to use such polyphenolic building-blocks as functional additives for envisaged applications. Rheological, morphological, molecular, thermal, and flexural properties were studied. Polyflavonoids improved blend processability in terms of short-time mixing. Furthermore, hydroxypropylated polyflavonoids improve miscibility in binary and ternary blends. Blend-composition affects crystallization-, melting-, and glass transition-temperature of PLA, as well as thermal resistance, and flexural properties of the blends. Polyflavonoids induced PLA-crystallization, and polymer-chain decomposition. Modified and unmodified bark polyflavonoids from radiata pine can be used successfully in PLA-based green composites beyond the food-packaging applications. The high compatibility between PLA and hydroxypropyled polyflavonoids highlights the potential of such phenolic derivatives for PLA-based material design.

  6. Naphthalene Bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide Building Block for Semiconducting Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Brian J; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Manley, Eric F; Fabiano, Simone; Mouat, Aidan R; Chen, Lin X; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2017-10-18

    We report a new naphthalene bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide (NBA) building block for polymeric semiconductors. Computational modeling suggests that regio-connectivity at the 2,6- or 3,7-NBA positions strongly modulates polymer backbone torsion and, therefore, intramolecular π-conjugation and aggregation. Optical, electrochemical, and X-ray diffraction characterization of 3,7- and 2,6-dithienyl-substituted NBA molecules and corresponding isomeric NBA-bithiophene copolymers P1 and P2, respectively, reveals the key role of regio-connectivity. Charge transport measurements demonstrate that while the twisted 3,7-NDA-based P1 is a poor semiconductor, the planar 2,6-functionalized NBA polymers (P2-P4) exhibit ambipolarity, with μ e and μ h of up to 0.39 and 0.32 cm 2 /(V·s), respectively.

  7. Introduction of Molecular Building Blocks to Improve the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Mercury Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Yi; He, Wen-Wen; Li, Shun-Li; Su, Zhong-Min; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2018-05-08

    With expanding human needs, many heavy metals were mined, smelted, processed, and manufactured for commercialization, which caused serious environmental pollutions. Currently, many adsorption materials are applied in the field of adsorption of heavy metals. Among them, the principle of many mercury adsorbents is based on the interaction between mercury and sulfur. Here, a S-containing metal-organic framework NENU-400 was synthesized for effective mercury extraction. Unfortunately, the skeleton of NENU-400 collapsed easily when exposed to the mercury liquid solution. To improve the stability, a synthetic strategy installing molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the channels was used. Modified by the MBBs, a more stable nanoporous framework was synthesized, which not only exhibits a high capacity of saturation mercury uptake but also shows high selectivity and efficient recyclability.

  8. Hierarchical assembly of inorganic nanostructure building blocks to octahedral superstructures-a true template-free self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Karakoti, Ajay S; Seal, Sudipta

    2007-01-01

    A room temperature, template-free, wet chemical synthesis of ceria nanoparticles and their long term ageing characteristics are reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy techniques are used to observe the variation in size, structure and oxidation state, respectively as a function of time. The morphology variation and the hierarchical assembly (octahedral superstructure) of nanostructures are imputed to the inherent structural aspects of cerium oxide. It is hypothesized that the 3-5 nm individual building blocks will undergo an intra-agglomerate re-orientation to attain the low energy configuration. This communication also emphasizes the need for long term ageing studies of nanomaterials in various solvents for multiple functionalities

  9. Fluorinated cyclohexanes: Synthesis of amine building blocks of the all-cis 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorocyclohexylamine motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bykova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of three amine stereoisomers 5a–c of the tetrafluorocyclohexyl ring system, as building blocks for discovery chemistry programmes. The synthesis starts from a Birch reduction of benzonitrile, followed by an in situ methyl iodide quench. The resultant 2,5-cyclohexadiene was progressed via double epoxidations and then hydrofluorination ring opening reactions. The resultant fluorohydrin moieties were then converted to different stereoisomers of the tetrafluorocyclohexyl ring system, and then reductive hydrogenation of the nitrile delivered three amine stereoisomers. It proved necessary to place a methyl group on the cyclohexane ring in order to stabilise the compound against subsequent HF elimination. The two all-cis tetrafluorocyclohexyl isomers 5a and 5b constitute facially polarized cyclohexane rings, with fluorines on the electronegative face and hydrogens on the electropositive face.

  10. An Overview of Metallic Nanowire Networks, Promising Building Blocks for Next Generation Transparent Conductors: Emergence, Fundamentals and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsalami, Sedigheh; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Daneshmanesh, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conductors (TCs) have a wide range of applications in numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices. This review provides an overview of the emergence of metallic nanowire networks (MNNs) as promising building blocks for the next generation transparent conductors. The fundamental aspects, structure-property relations, fabrication techniques and the corresponding challenges are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental researches suggest that nanowires with smaller diameter, longer length and higher aspect ratio have higher performance. Yet, the development of an efficient synthesis technique for the production of MNNs has remained a challenge. The synthesis method is also crucial to the scalability and the commercial potential of these emerging TCs. The most promising techniques for the synthesis together with their advantages, limitations and the recent findings are here discussed. Finally, we will try to show the promising future research trends in MNNs to have an approach to design the next generation TCs.

  11. High-definition polymeric membranes: construction of 3D lithographed channel arrays through control of natural building blocks dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Valentina; Trotta, Francesco; Drioli, Enrico; Gugliuzza, Annarosa

    2010-02-01

    The fabrication of well-defined interfaces is in high demand in many fields of biotechnologies. Here, high-definition membrane-like arrays are developed through the self-assembly of water droplets, which work as natural building blocks for the construction of ordered channels. Solution viscosity together with the dynamics of the water droplets can decide the final formation of three-dimensional well-ordered patterns resembling anodic structures, especially because solvents denser than water are used. Particularly, the polymer solution viscosity is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for control of the mobility of submerged droplets during the microfabrication process. The polymeric patterns are structured at very high levels of organization and exhibit well-established transport-surface property relationships, considered basics for any types of advanced biotechnologies.

  12. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP

  13. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP.

  14. Simultaneous tuning of chemical composition and topography of copolymer surfaces: micelles as building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Jian

    2007-05-14

    A simple method is described for controlling the surface chemical composition and topography of the diblock copolymer poly(styrene)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PS-b-PDMS) by casting the copolymer solutions from solvents with different selectivities. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively, and the wetting behavior was studied by water contact angle (CA) and sliding angle (SA) and by CA hysteresis. Chemical composition and morphology of the surface depend on solvent properties, humidity of the air, solution concentration, and block lengths. If the copolymer is cast from a common solvent, the resultant surface is hydrophobic, with a flat morphology, and dominated by PDMS on the air side. From a PDMS-selective solvent, the surface topography depends on the morphology of the micelles. Starlike micelles give rise to a featureless surface nearly completely covered by PDMS, while crew-cut-like micelles lead to a rough surface with a hierarchical structure that consists partly of PDMS. From a PS-selective solvent, however, surface segregation of PDMS was restricted, and the surface morphology can be controlled by vapor-induced phase separation. On the basis of the tunable surface roughness and PDMS concentration on the air side, water repellency of the copolymer surface could be tailored from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic. In addition, reversible switching behavior between hydrophobic and superhydrophobic can be achieved by exposing the surface to solvents with different selectivities.

  15. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.L.; Brown, S.S.D.; Ferguson, S.P.; Jarvis, R.F. Jr. [Dow Corning Corp., Carrollton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this program are to (a) develop a process for converting natural gas to methyl chloride via an oxyhydrochlorination route using highly selective, stable catalysts in a fixed-bed, (b) design a reactor capable of removing the large amount of heat generated in the process so as to control the reaction, (c) develop a recovery system capable of removing the methyl chloride from the product stream and (d) determine the economics and commercial viability of the process. The general approach has been as follows: (a) design and build a laboratory scale reactor, (b) define and synthesize suitable OHC catalysts for evaluation, (c) select first generation OHC catalyst for Process Development Unit (PDU) trials, (d) design, construct and startup PDU, (e) evaluate packed bed reactor design, (f) optimize process, in particular, product recovery operations, (g) determine economics of process, (h) complete preliminary engineering design for Phase II and (i) make scale-up decision and formulate business plan for Phase II. Conclusions regarding process development and catalyst development are presented.

  17. Automated global structure extraction for effective local building block processing in XCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Martin V; Pelikan, Martin; Llorà, Xavier; Goldberg, David E

    2006-01-01

    Learning Classifier Systems (LCSs), such as the accuracy-based XCS, evolve distributed problem solutions represented by a population of rules. During evolution, features are specialized, propagated, and recombined to provide increasingly accurate subsolutions. Recently, it was shown that, as in conventional genetic algorithms (GAs), some problems require efficient processing of subsets of features to find problem solutions efficiently. In such problems, standard variation operators of genetic and evolutionary algorithms used in LCSs suffer from potential disruption of groups of interacting features, resulting in poor performance. This paper introduces efficient crossover operators to XCS by incorporating techniques derived from competent GAs: the extended compact GA (ECGA) and the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA). Instead of simple crossover operators such as uniform crossover or one-point crossover, ECGA or BOA-derived mechanisms are used to build a probabilistic model of the global population and to generate offspring classifiers locally using the model. Several offspring generation variations are introduced and evaluated. The results show that it is possible to achieve performance similar to runs with an informed crossover operator that is specifically designed to yield ideal problem-dependent exploration, exploiting provided problem structure information. Thus, we create the first competent LCSs, XCS/ECGA and XCS/BOA, that detect dependency structures online and propagate corresponding lower-level dependency structures effectively without any information about these structures given in advance.

  18. PSI-BOIL, a building block towards the multi-scale modeling of flow boiling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niceno, Bojan; Andreani, Michele; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2008-01-01

    handle solid obstacles in the flow and to simulate multiphase flows by explicit surface tracking using the Level Set (LS) approach. Solid blocks are represented as regions on numerical grid where momentum equations are not solved, but energy equation is, thus giving us the possibility to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in the fluid part of the domain and heat transfer in the solid part (practically the fuel rod cladding) and having the possibility to simulate conjugate heat transfer is essential for simulation of boiling phenomena. In this work, we present the details of the PSI-BOIL program and some first results of free-surface flow simulation. (authors)

  19. Winter energy behaviour in multi-family block buildings in a temperate-cold climate in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); INENCO - Instituto de Investigaciones en Energias No Convencionales, U.N.Sa., CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150 - CP 4400, Salta Capital (Argentina); Mercado, V. [LAHV-Laboratorio de Ambienet Humano y Vivienda (INCIHUSA-CCT-CONICET) (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal and energy behaviour of apartments in three-story block buildings located along a NE-SW axis (azimuth = 120 ) in a temperate-cold climate (latitude: 36 57'; longitude: 64 27') in the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa, central Argentina. Four apartments had been monitored during May and June 2009. Three of them are located in Block 126. Two of these apartments face South: 15 and 23 on the SE end, ground and first floor, respectively; 18 faces N on the second floor. Finally apartment, 12 is located in Block 374, on the first floor, faces N and shows a carpentry-closed balcony. The purpose of this work is - to study the evolution of the indoor temperature in each apartment; to analyze energy consumption and comfort conditions; to study energy potential and energy intervention in order to reduce energy consumption; to analyze bioclimatic alternatives feasibility and the possibility to extrapolate results to all blocks. On the basis of the analysis of natural gas historical consumption records, results showed that regarding heating energy consumption during the period May-June, Apartment 12, facing N, with its only bedroom facing NW and its carpentry-closed, transparent glass balcony, presented a mean temperature of 21.2 C, using a halogen heater for 6 h/day between 9 pm and 2 am (0.16 kWh/day/m{sup 2}). Apartment 15, on the SE end, first floor of the block consumed 22.5 kWh/day (0.43 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.2 C). Apartment 23, located on the second and top floor (on top of Apartment 15) with higher energy loss, consumed 28 kWh/day (0.54 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature 23.7 C). Apartment 18, also on the second floor and facing N, located in the centre and with its only bedroom facing SE, consumed 18.8 kWh/day (0.48 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.3 C). Apartment 23, with higher thermal loss through its envelope, but with heat transfer from the apartment located below, is the one that showed the highest

  20. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  1. Rapid formation of complexity in the total synthesis of natural products enabled by oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Corinna S; Carreira, Erick M

    2009-11-01

    This critical review showcases examples of rapid formation of complexity in total syntheses starting from 7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene derivatives. An overview of methods allowing synthetic access to these building blocks is provided and their application in recently developed synthetic transformations to structurally complex systems is illustrated. In addition, the facile access to a novel oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptene derived building block is presented which significantly enlarges the possibilities of previously known chemical transformations and is highlighted in the enantioselective route to the core of the banyaside and suomilide natural products (107 references).

  2. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG): Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Kat A.

    2014-01-10

    The Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge (N2N) brought together a consortium of 14 leading clean energy rural, suburban, and low income communities throughout Connecticut. N2N was awarded $4.2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) competitive BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program on August 10, 2010 to run a two-year pilot program (plus one year of transition and evaluation) (Award No. EMCBC- 00969-10). N2N tested innovative program models and hypotheses for improving Connecticut’s existing residential energy efficiency programs that are overseen by the ratepayer fund board and administered by CT utilities. N2N’s original goal was to engage 10 percent of households in participating communities to reduce their energy usage by 20 percent through energy upgrades and clean energy measures. N2N planned for customers to complete more comprehensive whole-home energy efficiency and clean energy measures and to achieve broader penetration than existing utility-administered regulated programs. Since this was an ARRA award, we report the following figures on job creation in Table 1. Since N2N is not continuing in its current form, we do not provide figures on job retention. Table 1 N2N Job Creation by Quarter Jobs Created 2010 Q4 6.65 2011 Q1 7.13 2011 Q2 4.98 2011 Q3 9.66 2011 Q4 5.43 2012 Q1 11.11 2012 Q2 6.85 2012 Q3 6.29 2012 Q4 6.77 2013 Q1 5.57 2013 Q2 8.35 2013 Q3 6.52 Total 85.31 The N2N team encountered several gaps in the existing efficiency program performance that hindered meeting N2N’s and DOE’s short-term program goals, as well as the State of Connecticut’s long-term energy, efficiency, and carbon reduction goals. However, despite the slow program start, N2N found evidence of increasing upgrade uptake rates over time, due to delayed customer action of one to two years from N2N introduction to completion of deeper household upgrades. Two main social/behavioral principles have contributed to driving deeper upgrades in CT: 1. Word of mouth

  3. Enstatite chondrites EL3 as building blocks for the Earth: The debate over the 146Sm-142Nd systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyet, M.; Bouvier, A.; Frossard, P.; Hammouda, T.; Garçon, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2018-04-01

    The 146Sm-142Nd extinct decay scheme (146Sm half-life of 103 My) is a powerful tool to trace early Earth silicate differentiation. Differences in 142Nd abundance measured between different chondrite meteorite groups and the modern Earth challenges the interpretation of the 142Nd isotopic variations found in terrestrial samples because the origin of the Earth and the nature of its building blocks is still an ongoing debate. As bulk meteorites, the enstatite chondrites (EC) have isotope signatures that are the closest to the Earth value with an average small deficit of ∼10 ppm in 142Nd relative to modern terrestrial samples. Here we review all the Nd isotope data measured on EC so far, and present the first measurements on an observed meteorite fall Almahata Sitta containing pristine fragments of an unmetamorphosed enstatite chondrite belonging to the EL3 subgroup. Once 142Nd/144Nd ratios are normalized to a common chondritic evolution, samples from the EC group (both EL and EH) have a deficit in 142Nd but the dispersion is important (μ142 Nd = - 10 ± 12 (2SD) ppm). This scatter reflects their unique mineralogy associated to their formation in reduced conditions (low fO2 or high C/O). Rare-earth elements are mainly carried by the sulfide phase oldhamite (CaS) that is more easily altered than silicates by weathering since most of the EC meteorites are desert finds. The EL6 have fractionated rare-earth element patterns with depletion in the most incompatible elements. Deviations in Nd mass independent stable isotope ratios in enstatite chondrites relative to terrestrial standard are not resolved with the level of analytical precision achieved by modern mass spectrometry techniques. Here we show that enstatite chondrites from the EL3 and EL6 subgroups may come from different parent bodies. Samples from the EL3 subgroup have Nd (μ142 Nd = - 0.8 ± 7.0, 2SD) and Ru isotope ratios undistinguishable from that of the Bulk Silicate Earth. EL3 samples have never been

  4. Expedite Protocol for Construction of Chiral Regioselectively N-Protected Monosubstituted Piperazine, 1,4-Diazepane, and 1,4-Diazocane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Witt, Matthias; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of solution-phase synthesis of chiral monosubstituted piperazine building blocks from nosylamide-activated aziridines. The protocol, involving aminolysis of the starting aziridines with ω-amino alcohols and subsequent Fukuyama−Mitsunobu cyclization, offers the...

  5. Role of Solvent, pH, and Molecular Size in Excited-State Deactivation of Key Eumelanin Building Blocks: Implications for Melanin Pigment Photostability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauden, M.; Pezzella, A.; Panzella, L.

    2008-01-01

      Ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to investigate the excited state dynamics of the basic eumelanin building block 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid  (DHICA) its acetylated, methylated and carboxylic ester derivatives as well as two oligomers, a dimer and a trim...

  6. An easy access to 2-Amino-5,6-dihydro-3H-pyrimidin-4-one building blocks: the reaction under conventional and microwave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostras, Konstantin S; Gorobets, Nikolay Yu; Desenko, Sergey M; Musatov, Vladimir I

    2006-08-01

    A new one-stage fast multicomponent synthesis of title compounds leads to products in 21-55% isolated yields under both conventional and microwave conditions. The primary amino group in the building blocks can be easily acylated by various usual electophilic agents that can be utilized in the synthesis of diverse heterocylic compounds libraries.

  7. Synthesis of a Hoechst 32258 Analogue Amino Acid Building Block for Direct Incorporation of a Fluorescent High-Affinity DNA Binding Motif into Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrit, Niels; Behrens, Carsten; Nielsen, P. E.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of a new versatile "Hoechst 33258-like" Boc-protected amino acid building block for peptide synthesis is described. It is demonstrated that this new ligand is an effective mimic of Hoechst 33258 in terms of DNA affinity and sequence specificity. Furthermore, this minor groove binder...

  8. Amino propynyl benzoic acid building block in rigid spacers of divalent ligands binding to the Syk SH2 domains with equally high affinity as the natural ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Fischer, Marcel J E; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The construction of rigid spacers composed of amino propynyl benzoic acid building blocks is described. These spacers were used to link two phosphopeptide ligand sites towards obtaining divalent ligands with a high affinity for Syk tandem SH2 domains, which are important in signal transduction. The

  9. Water-soluble building blocks for terpyridine-containing supramolecular polymers : synthesis, complexation, and pH stability studies of poly(ethylene oxide) moieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeijer, B.G.G.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) of various molecular weights ([bar M ]n = 3 000, 5 200, 10 000, 16 500 g · mol-1) has been modified with terpyridine end groups as building blocks for water-soluble metallo-supramolecular polymers. Metallo-supramolecular A-A homopolymers have been prepared and characterized by

  10. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Bond, Virginia; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Mlewa, Susan; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-08-01

    The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity

  11. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia’s MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. Methods A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. Results The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating

  12. CdTe magic-sized clusters and the use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hu; Hou, Yumei; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-pot noninjection synthesis of CdTe magic-sized clusters (MSCs) and their use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional (2D) quantum confined nanoplatelets (NPLs) are reported. Four distinct MSC families, with the first exciton absorption peaks at 447 nm (F447), 485 nm (F485), 535 nm (F535), and 555 nm (F555), are synthesized by the reaction between cadmium oleate and trioctylphosphine tellurium (TOP-Te) in octadecene media containing primary amine and TOP at appropriate intermediate temperatures. Especially, F447 is obtained in pure form and can self-assemble in situ into 2D NPLs in the reaction solution. The formation, growth, and transformation of CdTe MSCs are monitored mainly by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The pure F447 and its assembled 2D NPLs are further characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of various experimental variables, including reaction temperature, the nature, and amount of capping ligands, on the stability and growth kinetics of the obtained MSC families has been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicate that the appropriate reaction temperature and the presence of long hydrocarbon chain primary amines play a crucial role in the formation of MSCs and the subsequent assembly into 2D NPLs. Primary amines can also promote ultra-small sized CdTe regular nanocrystals to transform into MSCs, and therefore, CdTe MSCs can be obtained indirectly from regularly sized nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides with zwitterionic backbones: stereoselective synthesis of A-T phosphoramidite building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtgall, Boris; Höbartner, Claudia; Ducho, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of the nucleic acid backbone are essential for the development of oligonucleotide-derived bioactive agents. The NAA-modification represents a novel artificial internucleotide linkage which enables the site-specific introduction of positive charges into the otherwise polyanionic backbone of DNA oligonucleotides. Following initial studies with the introduction of the NAA-linkage at T-T sites, it is now envisioned to prepare NAA-modified oligonucleotides bearing the modification at X-T motifs (X = A, C, G). We have therefore developed the efficient and stereoselective synthesis of NAA-linked 'dimeric' A-T phosphoramidite building blocks for automated DNA synthesis. Both the (S)- and the (R)-configured NAA-motifs were constructed with high diastereoselectivities to furnish two different phosphoramidite reagents, which were employed for the solid phase-supported automated synthesis of two NAA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. This represents a significant step to further establish the NAA-linkage as a useful addition to the existing 'toolbox' of backbone modifications for the design of bioactive oligonucleotide analogues.

  14. Design of nanocarriers for nanoscale drug delivery to enhance cancer treatment using hybrid polymer and lipid building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui Xue; Ahmed, Taksim; Li, Lily Yi; Li, Jason; Abbasi, Azhar Z; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2017-01-26

    Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN) are an emerging nanocarrier platform made from building blocks of polymers and lipids. PLN integrate the advantages of biomimetic lipid-based nanoparticles (i.e. solid lipid nanoparticles and liposomes) and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles. PLN are constructed from diverse polymers and lipids and their numerous combinations, which imparts PLN with great versatility for delivering drugs of various properties to their nanoscale targets. PLN can be classified into two types based on their hybrid nanoscopic structure and assembly methods: Type-I monolithic matrix and Type-II core-shell systems. This article reviews the history of PLN development, types of PLN, lipid and polymer candidates, fabrication methods, and unique properties of PLN. The applications of PLN in delivery of therapeutic or imaging agents alone or in combination for cancer treatment are summarized and illustrated with examples. Important considerations for the rational design of PLN for advanced nanoscale drug delivery are discussed, including selection of excipients, synthesis processes governing formulation parameters, optimization of nanoparticle properties, improvement of particle surface functionality to overcome macroscopic, microscopic and cellular biological barriers. Future directions and potential clinical translation of PLN are also suggested.

  15. Surface tectonics of nanoporous networks of melamine-capped molecular building blocks formed through interface Schiff-base reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan-He; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Control over the assembly of molecules on a surface is of great importance for the fabrication of molecule-based miniature devices. Melamine (MA) and molecules with terminal MA units are promising candidates for supramolecular interfacial packing patterning, owing to their multiple hydrogen-bonding sites. Herein, we report the formation of self-assembled structures of MA-capped molecules through a simple on-surface synthetic route. MA terminal groups were successfully fabricated onto rigid molecular cores with 2-fold and 3-fold symmetry through interfacial Schiff-base reactions between MA and aldehyde groups. Sub-molecular scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging of the resultant adlayer revealed the formation of nanoporous networks. Detailed structural analysis indicated that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the MA groups persistently drove the formation of nanoporous networks. Herein, we demonstrate that functional groups with strong hydrogen-bond-formation ability are promising building blocks for the guided assembly of nanoporous networks and other hierarchical 2D assemblies. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Could the ethics of institutionalized health care be anything but Kantian? Collecting building blocks for a unifying metaethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldis, Byron

    2005-01-01

    Is a Health Care Ethics possible? Against sceptical and relativist doubts Kantian deontology may advance a challenging alternative affirming the possibility of such an ethics on the condition that deontology be adopted as a total programme or complete vision. Kantian deontology is enlisted to move us from an ethics of two-person informal care to one of institutions. It justifies this affirmative answer by occupying a commanding meta-ethical stand. Such a total programme comprises, on the one hand, a dual-aspect strategy incorporating the macro- (institutional) and micro- (person-to-person) levels while, on the other, it integrates consistently within moral epistemology a meta-ethics with lower-ground moral theories. The article describes the issues to be dealt with and the problems which have to be solved on the way to a unifying theory of that kind (Sections I-III) and indicates elements of Kantian moral philosophy which may serve as building blocks (Section IV). Among these are not only Kant's ideas concerning the moral acting of persons and his ideas concerning civil society and state but also his ideas concerning morality, schematism and religion.

  17. Formation of Methylamine and Ethylamine in Extraterrestrial Ices and Their Role as Fundamental Building Blocks of Proteinogenic α -amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Förstel, Marko; Bergantini, Alexandre; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Góbi, Sándor; Kaiser, Ralf I., E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI, 96822 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The –CH–NH{sub 2} moiety represents the fundamental building block of all proteinogenic amino acids, with the cyclic amino acid proline being a special case (–CH–NH– in proline). Exploiting a chemical retrosynthesis, we reveal that methylamine (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}) and/or ethylamine (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}) are essential precursors in the formation of each proteinogenic amino acid. In the present study we elucidate the abiotic formation of methylamine and ethylamine from ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) ices exposed to secondary electrons generated by energetic cosmic radiation in cometary and interstellar model ices. Our experiments show that methylamine and ethylamine are crucial reaction products in irradiated ices composed of ammonia and methane. Using isotopic substitution studies we further obtain valuable information on the specific reaction pathways toward methylamine. The very recent identification of methylamine and ethylamine together with glycine in the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko underlines their potential to the extraterrestrial formation of amino acids.

  18. Theoretical insights into the photo-protective mechanisms of natural biological sunscreens: building blocks of eumelanin and pheomelanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Barbara; Karsili, Tolga N V

    2016-02-07

    Eumelanin (EM) and pheomelanin (PM) are ubiquitous in mammalian skin and hair--protecting against harmful radiation from the sun. Their primary roles are to absorb solar radiation and efficiently dissipate the excess excited state energy in the form of heat without detriment to the polymeric structure. EU and PM exist as polymeric chains consisting of exotic arrangements of functionalised heteroaromatic molecules. Here we have used state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and on-the-fly surface hopping molecular dynamics simulations to study the intrinsic deactivation paths of various building blocks of EU and PM. Ultrafast excited state decay, via electron-driven proton transfer (in EU and PM) and proton-transfer coupled ring-opening (in PM) reactions, have been identified to proceed along hitherto unknown charge-separated states in EU and PM oligomers. These results shed light on the possible relaxation pathways that dominate the photochemistry of natural skin melanins. Extrapolation of such findings could provide a gateway into engineering more effective molecular constituents in commercial sunscreens--with reduced phototoxicity.

  19. Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the US Department of Energy, reactor vendors, utilities, and others in the United States to develop improved LWRs. The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) program and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) program have as goals improved, commercially available LWRs in the early 1990s. The Advanced Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ASBWR) program and the AP-600 program are developing more advanced reactors with increased use of passive safety systems. It is planned that these reactors will become commercially available in the mid 1990s. The ORNL program is an exploratory research program for LWRs beyond the year 2000. Desired long-term goals for such reactors include: (1) use of only passive and inherent safety, (2) foolproof against operator errors, (3) malevolence resistance against internal sabotage and external assault and (4) walkaway safety. The acronym ''PRIME'' [Passive safety, Resilient operation, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended (walkaway) safety] is used to summarize these desired characteristics. Existing passive and inherent safety options are discussed in this document

  20. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  1. Composable Markov Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Fokkinga, M.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.; Prade, H.; Subrahmanian, V.S.

    2007-01-01

    In situations where disjunct parts of the same process are described by their own first-order Markov models and only one model applies at a time (activity in one model coincides with non-activity in the other models), these models can be joined together into one. Under certain conditions, nearly all

  2. Composable Markov Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Fokkinga, M.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    2007-01-01

    In situations where disjunct parts of the same process are described by their own first-order Markov models, these models can be joined together under the constraint that there can only be one activity at a time, i.e. the activities of one model coincide with non-activity in the other models. Under

  3. INFERENCE BUILDING BLOCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    expressed a variety of inference techniques on discrete and continuous distributions: exact inference, importance sampling, Metropolis-Hastings (MH...without redoing any math or rewriting any code. And although our main goal is composable reuse, our performance is also good because we can use...control paths. • The Hakaru language can express mixtures of discrete and continuous distributions, but the current disintegration transformation

  4. Better Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl R. Renner; Terry K. Haines; Margaret A. Reams

    2010-01-01

    As researchers for the National Database of State and Local Wildfire Mitigation Programs, we began cataloging programs to reduce wildfire risk on private land in 2001. Over the years, more than 250 programs in 35 states were described at www.wildfireprograms.usda.gov, and we wondered about their relative success. Was there one type of program that wildfire managers...

  5. Relationship Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santabarbara, Todd; Erbe, Ryan; Cooper, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Intimate or romantic relationships for young people today play an integral role in their health and quality of life. Between the ages of 11 and 13 students become more interested in the opposite sex and as a result they begin to develop more intimate relationships. Around this age students are learning to deal with these feelings of attraction and…

  6. Building block diode laser concept for high brightness laser output in the kW range and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Fabio; Fritsche, Haro; Grohe, Andreas; Hagen, Thomas; Kern, Holger; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Reich, Axel; Sanftleben, Dennis; Steger, Ronny; Wallendorf, Till; Gries, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The modular concept of DirectPhotonics laser systems is a big advantage regarding its manufacturability, serviceability as well as reproducibility. By sticking to identical base components an economic production allows to serve as many applications as possible while keeping the product variations minimal. The modular laser design is based on single emitters and various combining technics. In a first step we accept a reduction of the very high brightness of the single emitters by vertical stacking several diodes in fast axis. This can be theoretically done until the combined fast axis beam quality is on a comparable level as the individual diodes slow axis beam quality without loosing overall beam performance after fiber coupling. Those stacked individual emitters can be wavelength stabilized by an external resonator, providing the very same feedback to each of those laser diodes which leads to an output power of about 100 W with BPP of BPP. The 500 W building blocks are consequently designed in a way that they feature a high flexibility with regard to their emitting wavelength bandwidth. Therefore, new wavelengths can be implemented by only exchanging parts and without any additional change of the production process. This design principal theoretically offers the option to adapt the wavelength of those blocks to any applications, from UV, visible into the far IR as long as there are any diodes commercially available. This opens numerous additional applications like laser pumping, scientific applications, materials processing such as cutting and welding of copper aluminum or steel and also medical application. Typical operating at wavelengths in the 9XX nm range, these systems are designed for and mainly used in cutting and welding applications, but adapted wavelength ranges such as 793 nm and 1530 nm are also offered. Around 15XX nm the diodes are already successfully used for resonant pumping of Erbium lasers [1]. Furthermore, the fully integrated electronic

  7. Rapid and annealing-free self-assembly of DNA building blocks for 3D hydrogel chaperoned by cationic comb-type copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Yuyang; Yu, Feng; Niu, Chaoqun; Du, Zhi; Chen, Yong; Du, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The construction and self-assembly of DNA building blocks are the foundation of bottom-up development of three-dimensional DNA nanostructures or hydrogels. However, most self-assembly from DNA components is impeded by the mishybridized intermediates or the thermodynamic instability. To enable rapid production of complicated DNA objects with high yields no need for annealing process, herein different DNA building blocks (Y-shaped, L- and L'-shaped units) were assembled in presence of a cationic comb-type copolymer, poly (L-lysine)-graft-dextran (PLL-g-Dex), under physiological conditions. The results demonstrated that PLL-g-Dex not only significantly promoted the self-assembly of DNA blocks with high efficiency, but also stabilized the assembled multi-level structures especially for promoting the complicated 3D DNA hydrogel formation. This study develops a novel strategy for rapid and high-yield production of DNA hydrogel even derived from instable building blocks at relatively low DNA concentrations, which would endow DNA nanotechnology for more practical applications.

  8. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  9. Social cognition: empirical contribution. The developmental building blocks of psychopathic traits: revisiting the role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Vanwoerden, Salome

    2014-02-01

    In the context of personality disorder development, theories of typical and atypical development both emphasize social cognition as an important building block for personality development. Prior claims of intact theory of mind (ToM) abilities in psychopathic individuals have relied upon a narrow conception of ToM as equivalent to "cognitive empathy." In this article, the authors make use of a broader conception of ToM comprising top-down and bottom-up processing, as well as the fractionation of ToM in terms of reduced or excessive ToM function, to examine relationships between ToM and psychopathic traits. A total of 342 adolescents (ages 12-17; Mage 15.39; SD = 1.45; 61.5% females) completed the Movie Assessment for Social Cognition (Dziobek, Fleck, Kalbe, et al., 2006) and the Child Eyes Test (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001) in addition to three measures of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated unique relations between the affective components of psychopathy (callous-unemotional traits [CU traits]) and impairment in both top-down and bottom-up ToM. In addition, excessive ToM related to affective components of psychopathy, while reduced or no ToM related to behavioral components of psychopathy. In mediational analyses, bottom-up ToM was shown to be necessary for top-town ToM in its relation with CU traits. Taken together, these results from the study lend support to revisiting the link between ToM and psychopathy.

  10. Selective nickel-catalyzed conversion of model and lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cyclohexanone-based polymer building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutyser, Wouter; Van den Bosch, Sander; Dijkmans, Jan; Turner, Stuart; Meledina, Maria; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Debecker, Damien P; Sels, Bert F

    2015-05-22

    Valorization of lignin is essential for the economics of future lignocellulosic biorefineries. Lignin is converted into novel polymer building blocks through four steps: catalytic hydroprocessing of softwood to form 4-alkylguaiacols, their conversion into 4-alkylcyclohexanols, followed by dehydrogenation to form cyclohexanones, and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to give caprolactones. The formation of alkylated cyclohexanols is one of the most difficult steps in the series. A liquid-phase process in the presence of nickel on CeO2 or ZrO2 catalysts is demonstrated herein to give the highest cyclohexanol yields. The catalytic reaction with 4-alkylguaiacols follows two parallel pathways with comparable rates: 1) ring hydrogenation with the formation of the corresponding alkylated 2-methoxycyclohexanol, and 2) demethoxylation to form 4-alkylphenol. Although subsequent phenol to cyclohexanol conversion is fast, the rate is limited for the removal of the methoxy group from 2-methoxycyclohexanol. Overall, this last reaction is the rate-limiting step and requires a sufficient temperature (>250 °C) to overcome the energy barrier. Substrate reactivity (with respect to the type of alkyl chain) and details of the catalyst properties (nickel loading and nickel particle size) on the reaction rates are reported in detail for the Ni/CeO2 catalyst. The best Ni/CeO2 catalyst reaches 4-alkylcyclohexanol yields over 80 %, is even able to convert real softwood-derived guaiacol mixtures and can be reused in subsequent experiments. A proof of principle of the projected cascade conversion of lignocellulose feedstock entirely into caprolactone is demonstrated by using Cu/ZrO2 for the dehydrogenation step to produce the resultant cyclohexanones (≈80 %) and tin-containing beta zeolite to form 4-alkyl-ε-caprolactones in high yields, according to a Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidation with H2 O2 . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mesoporous Bragg reflectors: block-copolymer self-assembly leads to building blocks with well defined continuous pores and high control over optical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, S.

    2011-08-19

    Mesoporous distributed Bragg re ectors (MDBRs) exhibit porosity on the sub-optical length scale. This makes them ideally suited as sensing platforms in biology and chemistry as well as for light management in optoelectronic devices. Here we present a new fast forward route for the fabrication of MDBRs which relies on the self-assembling properties of the block copolymer poly(isoprene-block -ethylene oxide) (PI-b -PEO) in combination with sol-gel chemistry. The interplay between structure directing organic host and co-assembled inorganic guest allows the ne tuning of refractive index in the outcome material. The refractive index dierence between the high and low porosity layer can be as high as 0.4, with the optical interfaces being well dened. Following a 30 min annealing protocol after each layer deposition enables the fast and reliable stacking of MDBRs which exhibit a continuous TiO2 network with large accessible pores and high optical quality.

  12. Polymers with alternating anthracene and phenylene building blocks linked by ethynylene and/or vinylene units: Studying structure-properties-relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boudiba, S.; Růžička, Aleš; Ulbricht, C.; Enengl, S.; Enengl, C.; Gasiorowski, J.; Yumusak, C.; Pokorná, Veronika; Výprachtický, Drahomír; Hingerl, K.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Tinti, F.; Camaioni, N.; Bouguessa, S.; Gouasmia, A.; Cimrová, Věra; Egbe, D. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2017), s. 129-143 ISSN 0887-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : anthracene building block * charge transport * conjugated polymers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2016

  13. A Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Nielsen, Christian B.; Collado-Fregoso, Elisa; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Yousaf, Syeda Amber; Kirkus, Mindaugas; Chen, Hung-Yang; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; McCulloch, Iain

    2015-01-01

    A novel photoactive polymer with two different molecular weights is reported, based on a new building block: thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene isoindigo. Due to the improved crystallinity, optimal blend morphology, and higher charge mobility, solar-cell devices of the high-molecular-weight polymer exhibit a superior performance, affording efficiencies of 9.1% without the need for additives, annealing, or additional extraction layers during device fabrication.

  14. A Thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene Isoindigo Building Block for Additive- and Annealing-Free High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Wan

    2015-08-20

    A novel photoactive polymer with two different molecular weights is reported, based on a new building block: thieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene isoindigo. Due to the improved crystallinity, optimal blend morphology, and higher charge mobility, solar-cell devices of the high-molecular-weight polymer exhibit a superior performance, affording efficiencies of 9.1% without the need for additives, annealing, or additional extraction layers during device fabrication.

  15. C–H arylation of unsubstituted furan and thiophene with acceptor bromides: access to donor–acceptor–donor-type building blocks for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsidik, Rukiya; Martin, Johannes; Schmidt, Simon; Obermayer, Johannes; Lombeck, Florian; Nübling, Fritz; Komber, Hartmut; Fazzi, Daniele; Sommer, Michael

    2015-01-16

    Pd-catalyzed direct arylation (DA) reaction conditions have been established for unsubstituted furan (Fu) and thiophene (Th) with three popular acceptor building blocks to be used in materials for organic electronics, namely 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTBr2), N,N′-dialkylated 2,6-dibromonaphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide) (NDIBr2), and 1,4-dibromotetrafluorobenzene (F4Br2). Reactions with BTBr2, F4Br2, and NDIBr2 require different solvents to obtain high yields. The use of dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is essential for the successful coupling of BTBr2 and F4Br2, but detrimental for NDIBr2, as the electron-deficient NDI core is prone to nucleophilic core substitution in DMAc as solvent but not in toluene. NDIFu2 is much more planar compared to NDITh2, resulting in an enhanced charge-transfer character, which makes it an interesting building block for conjugated systems designed for organic electronics. This study highlights direct arylation as a simple and inexpensive method to construct a series of important donor–acceptor–donor building blocks to be further used for the preparation of a variety of conjugated materials.

  16. Mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supramolecular complexes containing a new tri-sulfonate ligand and cobalt(II)/copper(II)-(1,10-phenanthroline) 2 building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunfang; Wei, Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Sa, Rongjian; Wu, Kechen

    2008-03-01

    Novel mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supermolecular complexes, [Co(phen) 2(H 2O)(HTST)]·2H 2O ( 1), [Co 3(phen) 6(H 2O) 2(TST) 2]·7H 2O ( 2), and [Co 2Cu(phen) 6(H 2O) 2(TST) 2]·10H 2O ( 3), have been synthesized by the reactions of a new tri-sulfonate ligand (2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, H 3TST) with the M2+ ( M=Co, Cu) and the second ligand 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Complex 1 contains a cis-Co(II)(phen) 2 building block and an HTST as monodentate ligand; complex 2 consists of two TST as bidentate ligands connecting one trans- and two cis-Co(II)(phen) 2 building blocks; complex 3 is formed by replacing the trans-Co(II)(phen) 2 in 2 with a trans-Cu(II)(phen) 2, which is the first reported hetero-trinuclear supramolecular complex containing both the Co(II)(phen) 2 and Cu(II)(phen) 2 as building blocks. The study shows the flexible multifunctional self-assembly capability of the H 3TST ligands presenting in these supramolecular complexes through coordinative, H-bonding and even π- π stacking interactions. The photoluminescent optical properties of these complexes are also investigated and discussed as well as the second-order nonlinear optical properties of 1.

  17. Building blocks for the development of an interface for high-throughput thin layer chromatography/ambient mass spectrometric analysis: a green methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Huang, Min-Zong; Wu, Li-Chieh; Chou, Chih-Chiang; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2012-07-17

    Interfacing thin layer chromatography (TLC) with ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) has been an important area of analytical chemistry because of its capability to rapidly separate and characterize the chemical compounds. In this study, we have developed a high-throughput TLC-AMS system using building blocks to deal, deliver, and collect the TLC plate through an electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization (ELDI) source. This is the first demonstration of the use of building blocks to construct and test the TLC-MS interfacing system. With the advantages of being readily available, cheap, reusable, and extremely easy to modify without consuming any material or reagent, the use of building blocks to develop the TLC-AMS interface is undoubtedly a green methodology. The TLC plate delivery system consists of a storage box, plate dealing component, conveyer, light sensor, and plate collecting box. During a TLC-AMS analysis, the TLC plate was sent to the conveyer from a stack of TLC plates placed in the storage box. As the TLC plate passed through the ELDI source, the chemical compounds separated on the plate would be desorbed by laser desorption and subsequently postionized by electrospray ionization. The samples, including a mixture of synthetic dyes and extracts of pharmaceutical drugs, were analyzed to demonstrate the capability of this TLC-ELDI/MS system for high-throughput analysis.

  18. Impacts of city-block-scale countermeasures against urban heat-island phenomena upon a building's energy-consumption for air-conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikegawa, Yukihiro [Department of Environmental Systems, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan); Genchi, Yutaka [Research Center for Life Cycle Assessment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroaki [Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    This study quantifies the possible impacts of urban heat-island countermeasures upon buildings' energy use during summer in Tokyo metropolis. Considering the dependency of the buildings air temperature upon the local urban canopy structure, Tokyo urban canopies were classified in the city-block-scale using the sky-view factor (svf). Then, a multi-scale model system describing the interaction between buildings' energy use and urban meteorological conditions was applied to each classified canopy. In terms of urban warming alleviation and cooling energy saving, simulations suggested that the reduction in the air-conditioning anthropogenic heat could be the most effective measure in office buildings' canopies, and that vegetative fraction increase on the side walls of buildings in residential canopies. Both measures indicated daily and spatially averaged decreases in near-ground summer air temperature of 0.2-1.2{sup o}C. The simulations also suggested these temperature decreases could result in the buildings' cooling energy-savings of 4-40%, indicating remarkable savings in residential canopies. These temperature drops and energy savings tended to increase with the decrease of the svf of urban canopies. (author)

  19. Principles of building and assembly technology of containment from steel structural blocks for WWER 1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichstedt, J.; Friedrich, F.

    1983-01-01

    This technology is being developed in cooperation between the USSR and the GDR. The cylindrical part of the containment consists of prefabricated double-sided steel blocks with inner reinforcement. The steel plates in a thickness of 20 mm provide casing and secure tightness. Blocks with one steel wall are used for the construction of the cupola. The outer slabs are assembled subsequently. The methods of assembly, concreting and quality assurance are described. (Ha)

  20. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishing an Appropriate Level of Detail (LoD) for a Building Information Model (BIM) - West Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, S.; Rafeiro, J.

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation of the historically significant West Block of Canada's Parliament Hill. With over 17 thousand square meters of floor space, the West Block is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. As part of the rehabilitation, PWGSC is working with the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) to develop a building information model (BIM) that can serve as maintenance and life-cycle management tool once construction is completed. The scale and complexity of the model have presented many challenges. One of these challenges is determining appropriate levels of detail (LoD). While still a matter of debate in the development of international BIM standards, LoD is further complicated in the context of heritage buildings because we must reconcile the LoD of the BIM with that used in the documentation process (terrestrial laser scan and photogrammetric survey data). In this paper, we will discuss our work to date on establishing appropriate LoD within the West Block BIM that will best serve the end use. To facilitate this, we have developed a single parametric model for gothic pointed arches that can be used for over seventy-five unique window types present in the West Block. Using the AEC (CAN) BIM as a reference, we have developed a workflow to test each of these window types at three distinct levels of detail. We have found that the parametric Gothic arch significantly reduces the amount of time necessary to develop scenarios to test appropriate LoD.

  2. A tribo-mechanical analysis of PVA-based building-blocks for implementation in a 2-layered skin model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; de Vries, Erik G.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Poly(vinyl) alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a well-known polymer widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility properties and easy manufacturing. In this work, the tribo-mechanical properties of PVA-based blocks are studied to evaluate their suitability as a part of a structure simulating

  3. Bidirectional cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis/ring opening of a C2-symmetric building block: a strategy for the synthesis of decanolide natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schmidt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the conveniently available ex-chiral pool building block (R,R-hexa-1,5-diene-3,4-diol, the ten-membered ring lactones stagonolide E and curvulide A were synthesized using a bidirectional olefin-metathesis functionalization of the terminal double bonds. Key steps are (i a site-selective cross metathesis, (ii a highly diastereoselective extended tethered RCM to furnish a (Z,E-configured dienyl carboxylic acid and (iii a Ru–lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution to establish the desired configuration at C9. Ring closure was accomplished by macrolactonization. Curvulide A was synthesized from stagonolide E through Sharpless epoxidation.

  4. Bidirectional cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis/ring opening of a C 2-symmetric building block: a strategy for the synthesis of decanolide natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernd; Kunz, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the conveniently available ex-chiral pool building block (R,R)-hexa-1,5-diene-3,4-diol, the ten-membered ring lactones stagonolide E and curvulide A were synthesized using a bidirectional olefin-metathesis functionalization of the terminal double bonds. Key steps are (i) a site-selective cross metathesis, (ii) a highly diastereoselective extended tethered RCM to furnish a (Z,E)-configured dienyl carboxylic acid and (iii) a Ru-lipase-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution to establish the desired configuration at C9. Ring closure was accomplished by macrolactonization. Curvulide A was synthesized from stagonolide E through Sharpless epoxidation.

  5. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program at Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training

  7. 25 years and still going strong: 2'-O-(pyren-1-yl)methylribonucleotides - versatile building blocks for applications in molecular biology, diagnostics and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlicka, Patrick J; Karmakar, Saswata

    2017-11-29

    Oligonucleotides (ONs) modified with 2'-O-(pyren-1-yl)methylribonucleotides have been explored for a range of applications in molecular biology, nucleic acid diagnostics, and materials science for more than 25 years. The first part of this review provides an overview of synthetic strategies toward 2'-O-(pyren-1-yl)methylribonucleotides and is followed by a summary of biophysical properties of nucleic acid duplexes modified with these building blocks. Insights from structural studies are then presented to rationalize the reported properties. In the second part, applications of ONs modified with 2'-O-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-RNA monomers are reviewed, which include detection of RNA targets, discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms, formation of self-assembled pyrene arrays on nucleic acid scaffolds, the study of charge transfer phenomena in nucleic acid duplexes, and sequence-unrestricted recognition of double-stranded DNA. The predictable binding mode of the pyrene moiety, coupled with the microenvironment-dependent properties and synthetic feasibility, render 2'-O-(pyren-1-yl)methyl-RNA monomers as a promising class of pyrene-functionalized nucleotide building blocks for new applications in molecular biology, nucleic acid diagnostics, and materials science.

  8. Mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supramolecular complexes containing a new tri-sulfonate ligand and cobalt(II)/copper(II)-(1,10-phenanthroline)2 building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunfang; Wei Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Sa Rongjian; Wu Kechen

    2008-01-01

    Novel mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supermolecular complexes, [Co(phen) 2 (H 2 O)(HTST)].2H 2 O (1), [Co 3 (phen) 6 (H 2 O) 2 (TST) 2 ].7H 2 O (2), and [Co 2 Cu(phen) 6 (H 2 O) 2 (TST) 2 ].10H 2 O (3), have been synthesized by the reactions of a new tri-sulfonate ligand (2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, H 3 TST) with the M 2+ (M=Co, Cu) and the second ligand 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Complex 1 contains a cis-Co(II)(phen) 2 building block and an HTST as monodentate ligand; complex 2 consists of two TST as bidentate ligands connecting one trans- and two cis-Co(II)(phen) 2 building blocks; complex 3 is formed by replacing the trans-Co(II)(phen) 2 in 2 with a trans-Cu(II)(phen) 2 , which is the first reported hetero-trinuclear supramolecular complex containing both the Co(II)(phen) 2 and Cu(II)(phen) 2 as building blocks. The study shows the flexible multifunctional self-assembly capability of the H 3 TST ligands presenting in these supramolecular complexes through coordinative, H-bonding and even π-π stacking interactions. The photoluminescent optical properties of these complexes are also investigated and discussed as well as the second-order nonlinear optical properties of 1. - Graphical abstract: Novel mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supermolecular complexes, [Co(phen) 2 (H 2 O)(HTST)].2H 2 O (1), [Co 3 (phen) 6 (H 2 O) 2 (TST) 2 ].7H 2 O (2), and [Co 2 Cu(phen) 6 (H 2 O) 2 (TST) 2 ].10H 2 O (3), have been synthesized by the reactions of a new tri-sulfonate ligand (2,4,6-tris(4-sulfophenylamino)-1,3,5-triazine, H 3 TST) with the M 2+ (M=Co, Cu) and the second ligand 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The study shows the flexible multifunctional self-assembly capability of H 3 TST ligand presenting in these supramolecular complexes

  9. Bainbridge Energy Challenge. Energy efficiency and conservation block grant (EECBG) - Better buildings neighborhood program. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Yvonne X.

    2014-02-14

    RePower Bainbridge and Bremerton (RePower) is a residential energy-efficiency and conservation program designed to foster a sustainable, clean, and renewable energy economy. The program was a 3.5 year effort in the cities of Bainbridge Island and Bremerton, Washington, to conserve and reduce energy use, establish a trained home performance trade ally network, and create local jobs. RePower was funded through a $4.8 million grant from the US Department of Energy, Better Buildings Program. The grant’s performance period was August 1, 2010 through March 30, 2014.

  10. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  11. Le glycérol « building blocks » majeur de la bioraffinerie oléagineuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeputte Jacky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production increases, and each ton of biodiésel produced leads to about 100 kg of glycerol. Because of increasing amount of generated glycerol, but also according to environmental concerns and scarcity of oil, glycerol is considered as one of the top 10 building block chemicals derived from biomass that can subsequently be converted into a number of high value biobased chemicals. Besides the well established sell of purified glycerine to manufacturers of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, a variety of novel conversion techniques are introduced. This paper provides an overview of the latest biobased compounds produced from glycerol’s conversion, and of the lower environmental impact of these new ways of production.

  12. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Are trinuclear superhalogens promising candidates for building blocks of novel magnetic materials? A theoretical prospect from combined broken-symmetry density functional theory and ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Li, Chen; Yin, Bing; Li, Jian-Li; Huang, Yuan-He; Wen, Zhen-Yi; Jiang, Zhen-Yi

    2013-08-07

    The structures, relative stabilities, vertical electron detachment energies, and magnetic properties of a series of trinuclear clusters are explored via combined broken-symmetry density functional theory and ab initio study. Several exchange-correlation functionals are utilized to investigate the effects of different halogen elements and central atoms on the properties of the clusters. These clusters are shown to possess stronger superhalogen properties than previously reported dinuclear superhalogens. The calculated exchange coupling constants indicate the antiferromagnetic coupling between the transition metal ions. Spin density analysis demonstrates the importance of spin delocalization in determining the strengths of various couplings. Spin frustration is shown to occur in some of the trinuclear superhalogens. The coexistence of strong superhalogen properties and spin frustration implies the possibility of trinuclear superhalogens working as the building block of new materials of novel magnetic properties.

  14. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of statine side chain building blocks and application in the total synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering compound solistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Oliver; Wolberg, Michael; Foegen, Silke E; Müller, Michael

    2017-09-20

    The synthesis and enzymatic reduction of several 6-substituted dioxohexanoates are presented. Two-step syntheses of tert-butyl 6-bromo-3,5-dioxohexanoate and the corresponding 6-hydroxy compound have been achieved in 89% and 59% yield, respectively. Regio- and enantioselective reduction of these diketones and of the 6-chloro derivative with alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH) gave the (5S)-5-hydroxy-3-oxo products with enantiomeric excesses of 91%, 98.4%, and >99.5%, respectively. Chain elongation of the reduction products by one carbon via cyanide addition, and by more than one carbon by Julia-Kocienski olefination, gave access to well-established statine side-chain building blocks. Application in the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering natural compound solistatin is given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bottom-up processing of thermoelectric nanocomposites from colloidal nanocrystal building blocks: the case of Ag2Te–PbTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadavid, Doris; Ibáñez, Maria; Gorsse, Stéphane; López, Antonio M.; Cirera, Albert; Morante, Joan Ramon; Cabot, Andreu

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposites are highly promising materials to enhance the efficiency of current thermoelectric devices. A straightforward and at the same time highly versatile and controllable approach to produce nanocomposites is the assembly of solution-processed nanocrystal building blocks. The convenience of this bottom-up approach to produce nanocomposites with homogeneous phase distributions and adjustable composition is demonstrated here by blending Ag 2 Te and PbTe colloidal nanocrystals to form Ag 2 Te–PbTe bulk nanocomposites. The thermoelectric properties of these nanocomposites are analyzed in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K. The evolution of their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient is discussed in terms of the blend composition and the characteristics of the constituent materials.

  16. Bottom-up processing of thermoelectric nanocomposites from colloidal nanocrystal building blocks: the case of Ag{sub 2}Te-PbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, Doris [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, IREC (Spain); Ibanez, Maria [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Electronica (Spain); Gorsse, Stephane [Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, CNRS (France); Lopez, Antonio M. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica (Spain); Cirera, Albert [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Electronica (Spain); Morante, Joan Ramon; Cabot, Andreu, E-mail: acabot@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, IREC (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Nanocomposites are highly promising materials to enhance the efficiency of current thermoelectric devices. A straightforward and at the same time highly versatile and controllable approach to produce nanocomposites is the assembly of solution-processed nanocrystal building blocks. The convenience of this bottom-up approach to produce nanocomposites with homogeneous phase distributions and adjustable composition is demonstrated here by blending Ag{sub 2}Te and PbTe colloidal nanocrystals to form Ag{sub 2}Te-PbTe bulk nanocomposites. The thermoelectric properties of these nanocomposites are analyzed in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K. The evolution of their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient is discussed in terms of the blend composition and the characteristics of the constituent materials.

  17. Switching slips. Building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century; Wissels omzetten. Bouwstenen voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de 21e eeuw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-06-15

    With this 'signal report', PBL (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) offers building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the twentyfirst century, such as changes in consumer behavior, new coalitions of interests and stakeholders, and the establishment of an investment fund for eco-innovation. Which track does the Netherlands want to follow? With this essay, PBL is calling for a broad public debate on this issue [Dutch] In dit signalenrapport reikt het PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) bouwstenen aan voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de eenentwintigste eeuw, zoals gedragsverandering van consumenten, nieuwe coalities van belangen en betrokkenen, en de oprichting van een investeringsfonds voor eco-innovatie. Welk spoor wil Nederland bewandelen? Met dit essay roept het PBL op tot een breed maatschappelijk debat over deze vraag.

  18. Enantioselective ProPhenol-catalyzed addition of 1,3-diynes to aldehydes to generate synthetically versatile building blocks and diyne natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Chan, Vincent S; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2010-04-14

    A highly enantioselective method for the catalytic addition of terminal 1,3-diynes to aldehydes was developed using our dinuclear zinc ProPhenol (1) system. Furthermore, triphenylphosphine oxide was found to interact synergistically with the catalyst to substantially enhance the chiral recognition. The generality of this catalytic transformation was demonstrated with aryl, alpha,beta-unsaturated and saturated aldehydes, of which the latter were previously limited in alkynyl zinc additions. The chiral diynol products are also versatile building blocks that can be readily elaborated; this was illustrated through highly selective trans-hydrosilylations, which enabled the synthesis of a beta-hydroxyketone and enyne. Additionally, the development of this method allowed for the rapid total syntheses of several biologically important diynol-containing natural products.

  19. Use of (S)-trans-gamma-monocyclofarnesol as a useful chiral building block for the stereoselective synthesis of diterpenic natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Stefano; Cominetti, Alessandra A; Lissoni, Veronica

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of the exploitation of (S)-trans-gamma-monocyclofarnesol as a useful chiral building block for the stereoselective synthesis of natural diterpene derivatives is here described. The farnesol derivative (+)-1 was used as starting material in the preparation of the diterpenes (S)-dehydroambliol-A and (S)-trixagol, as well as for the syntheses of the dinorditerpene (S)-dinortrixagone and of the guanidine-interrupted terpenoid (S)-dotofide. Key steps of the presented syntheses were the cross-coupling between an allyl acetate and a Grignard reagent, the Wittig reaction, the selective preparation ofa diacylguanidine derivative and the alkylation of a sulfone derivative, followed by the reductive removal of the same functional group. It is worth noting that the natural products (+)-8, (+)-12 and (+)-15 were prepared stereoselectively for the first time, thus allowing the unambiguous assignment of their absolute configuration.

  20. Switching slips. Building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the 21st century; Wissels omzetten. Bouwstenen voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de 21e eeuw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogervorst, N.; Hajer, M.; Dietz, F.; Timmerhuis, J.; Kruitwagen, S.

    2013-06-15

    With this 'signal report', PBL (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency) offers building blocks for a robust environmental policy for the twentyfirst century, such as changes in consumer behavior, new coalitions of interests and stakeholders, and the establishment of an investment fund for eco-innovation. Which track does the Netherlands want to follow? With this essay, PBL is calling for a broad public debate on this issue [Dutch] In dit signalenrapport reikt het PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) bouwstenen aan voor een robuust milieubeleid voor de eenentwintigste eeuw, zoals gedragsverandering van consumenten, nieuwe coalities van belangen en betrokkenen, en de oprichting van een investeringsfonds voor eco-innovatie. Welk spoor wil Nederland bewandelen? Met dit essay roept het PBL op tot een breed maatschappelijk debat over deze vraag.

  1. Poly(Acrylic Acid-b-Styrene) Amphiphilic Multiblock Copolymers as Building Blocks for the Assembly of Discrete Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna C.; Zhu, Jiahua; Pochan, Darrin J.; Jia, Xinqiao; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to expand the utility of current polymeric micellar systems, we have developed amphiphilic multiblock copolymers containing alternating blocks of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(styrene). Heterotelechelic poly(tert-butyl acrylate-b-styrene) diblock copolymers containing an α-alkyne and an ω-azide were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), allowing control over the molecular weight while maintaining narrow polydispersity indices. The multiblock copolymers were constructed by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition of azide-alkyne end functional diblock copolymers which were then characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR and SEC. The tert-butyl moieties of the poly(tert-butyl acrylate-b-styrene) multiblock copolymers were easily removed to form the poly(acrylic acid-b-styrene) multiblock copolymer ((PAA-PS)9), which contained up to 9 diblock repeats. The amphiphilic multiblock (PAA-PS)9 (Mn = 73.3 kg/mol) was self-assembled by dissolution into tetrahydrofuran and extensive dialysis against deionized water for 4 days. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) for (PAA-PS)9 was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a fluorescent probe and was found to be very low at 2 × 10-4 mg/mL. The (PAA-PS)9 multiblock was also analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameter of the particles was found to be 11 nm. Discrete spherical particles were observed by TEM with an average particle diameter of 14 nm. The poly(acrylic acid) periphery of the spherical particles should allow for future conjugation of biomolecules. PMID:21552373

  2. SIOS: A regional cooperation of international research infrastructures as a building block for an Arctic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, K. J.; Lønne, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is a regional response to the Earth System Science (ESS) challenges posed by the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. SIOS is intended to develop and implement methods for how observational networks in the Arctic are to be designed in order to address such issues in a regional scale. SIOS builds on the extensive observation capacity and research installations already in place by many international institutions and will provide upgraded and relevant Observing Systems and Research Facilities of world class in and around Svalbard. It is a distributed research infrastructure set up to provide a regional observational system for long term measurements under a joint framework. As one of the large scale research infrastructure initiatives on the ESFRI roadmap (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures), SIOS is now being implemented. The new research infrastructure organization, the SIOS Knowledge Center (SIOS-KC), is instrumental in developing methods and solutions for setting up its regional contribution to a systematically constructed Arctic observational network useful for global change studies. We will discuss cross-disciplinary research experiences some case studies and lessons learned so far. SIOS aims to provide an effective, easily accessible data management system which makes use of existing data handling systems in the thematic fields covered by SIOS. SIOS will, implement a data policy which matches the ambitions that are set for the new European research infrastructures, but at the same time be flexible enough to consider `historical' legacies. Given the substantial international presence in the Svalbard archipelago and the pan-Arctic nature of the issue, there is an opportunity to build SIOS further into a wider regional network and pan-Arctic context, ideally under the umbrella of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) initiative. It is necessary to anchor SIOS strongly in a European

  3. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  4. XOP, a fast versatile processor, as a building block for parallel processing in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehler, P.; Bosco, N.; Lingjaerde, T.; Ljuslin, C.; Van Praag, A.; Werner, P.

    1986-01-01

    The XOP processor has been designed for trigger calculation and data compression in high energy physics experiments. Therefore, emphasis has been placed upon fast execution and high input/output rate. The fast execution is achieved by a wide instruction word holding operations which are executed concurrently. Thus, the arithmetic operations, data address calculations, data accessing, condition checking, loop count checking and next instruction evaluation all overlap in time. In conventional micro-processors these operations are performed sequentially. In addition, the instruction set comprises not only the classical computer instructions, but also specialized instructions suitable for trigger calculations, such as bit search, population count, loose compare and vector instructions. In order to achieve a high input/output rate, each XOP ECLine interface board is equipped with an input and an output port which fulfil the LeCroy ECLine specifications. The autonomous input port allows a data rate of 40 Mbytes/sec, while the program controlled output port allows 20 Mbytes/sec. For Fastbus based systems a dual Fastbus master interface is under design which allows to build up a Fastbus multi-processor system. This design is being done in collaboration with LAPP Annecy for the CERN Lep L3 experiment. Their scheme comprises 4-5 XOP processors, each of them with a master interface on a data input segment and a master interface on a data output segment. This paper describes the structure of the XOP processor, the interface capabilities and the software development and debugging tools. (Auth.)

  5. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  6. CMOL/CMOS hardware architectures and performance/price for Bayesian memory - The building block of intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad Shaheriar

    implementation. We later use this methodology to investigate the hardware implementations of cortex-scale spiking neural system, which is an approximate neural equivalent of BICM based cortex-scale system. The results of this investigation also suggest that CMOL is a promising candidate to implement such large-scale neuromorphic systems. In general, the assessment of such hypothetical baseline hardware architectures provides the prospects for building large-scale (mammalian cortex-scale) implementations of neuromorphic/Bayesian/intelligent systems using state-of-the-art and beyond state-of-the-art silicon structures.

  7. Novel biodegradable aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate)s bearing functionalizable carbonate building blocks: II. Enzymatic biodegradation and in vitro biocompatibility assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tian, Weisheng; Li, Qiaobo; Li, Yang; Cao, Amin

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study, we have reported chemical synthesis of novel aliphatic poly(butylene succinate-co-cyclic carbonate) P(BS-co-CC)s bearing various functionalizable carbonate building blocks, and this work will continue to present our new studies on their enzymatic degradation and in vitro cell biocompatibility assay. First, enzymatic degradation of the novel P(BS-co-CC) film samples was investigated with two enzymes of lipase B Candida Antartic (Novozyme 435) and lipase Porcine Pancreas PPL, and it was revealed that copolymerizing linear poly(butylene succinate) PBS with a functionalizable carbonate building block could remarkably accelerate the enzymatic degradation of a synthesized product P(BS-co-CC), and its biodegradation behavior was found to strongly depend on the overall impacts of several important factors as the cyclic carbonate (CC) comonomer structure and molar content, molar mass, thermal characteristics, morphology, the enzyme-substrate specificity, and so forth. Further, the biodegraded residual film samples and water-soluble enzymatic degradation products were allowed to be analyzed by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), gel permeation chromatograph (GPC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). On the experimental evidences, an exo-type mechanism of enzymatic chain hydrolysis preferentially occurring in the noncrystalline domains was suggested for the synthesized new P(BS-co-CC) film samples. With regard to their cell biocompatibilities, an assay with NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell was conducted using the novel synthesized P(BS-co-CC) films as substrates with respect to the cell adhesion and proliferation, and these new biodegradable P(BS-co-CC) samples were found to exhibit as low cell toxicity as the PLLA control, particularly the two samples of poly(butylene succinate-co-18.7 mol % dimethyl

  8. Crystal engineered acid–base complexes with 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding systems using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU SU ZHAO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HOBA was selected as the building block for self-assembly with five bases, i.e., diethylamine, tert-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, imidazole and piperazine, and generation of the corresponding acid–base complexes 1–5. Crystal structure analyses suggest that proton-transfer from the carboxyl hydrogen to the nitrogen atom of the bases can be observed in 1–4, while only in 5 does a solvent water molecule co-exist with p--HOBA and piperazine. With the presence of O–H···O hydrogen bonds in 1–4, the deprotonated p-hydroxybenzoate anions (p-HOBAA– are simply connected each other in a head-to-tail motif to form one-dimensional (1D arrays, which are further extended to distinct two-dimensional (2D (for 1 and 4 and three-dimensional (3D (for 2 and 3 networks via N–H···O interactions. While in 5, neutral acid and base are combined pair-wise by O–H···N and N–H···O bonds to form a 1D tape and then the 1D tapes are sequentially combined by water molecules to create a 3D network. Some interlayer or intralayer C–H···O, C–H···p and p×××p interactions help to stabilize the supramolecular buildings. Melting point determination analyses indicate that the five acid–base complexes are not the ordinary superposition of the reactants and they are more stable than the original reactants.

  9. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  10. Ternary thiophene-X-thiophene semiconductor building blocks (X = fluorene, carbazole, phenothiazine): Modulating electronic properties and electropolymerization ability by tuning the X core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacca, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.tacca@eni.com [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto ENI Donegani, ENI S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo; Caldararo, Maria; Chiaberge, Stefano; Gila, Liliana; Longo, Luca [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto ENI Donegani, ENI S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Mussini, Patrizia Romana [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pellegrino, Andrea; Perin, Nicola; Salvalaggio, Mario; Savoini, Alberto; Spera, Silvia [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto ENI Donegani, ENI S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > Effect of aromatic core on electronic properties in thiophene-X-thiophene trimers. > The lower the electron richness of X core, the deeper the HOMO level. > Different thiophene positions on X lead to kinked structure with lower conjugation. > The fluorene structure exhibits the lowest Stokes shift and the highest quantum yield. > The corresponding polymers obtained through three routes were studied. - Abstract: To achieve rationalization criteria for target-oriented molecular design of Th-X-Th (Th = thiophene) semiconductor building blocks, we have carried out an extensive investigation on the effects of the X core (X = fluorene, carbazole or phenothiazine) on the electronic properties and polymerization ability of Th-X-Th monomers and on the electronic and structural properties of the corresponding periodic conducting polymers -(Th-X-Th){sub n}-, obtained by electropolymerization and, for comparison's sake, by FeCl{sub 3}-catalyzed polymerization and/or Suzuki coupling. The effects of molecule bending and of solubilising bulky alkyl substituents have also been considered. The systematic, exhaustive template sequence combined with a rigorous, multitechnique investigation protocol affords a unique data library and a complete set of reliable interpretative/predictive guidelines.

  11. An Asymmetric Furan/Thieno[3,2-b]Thiophene Diketopyrrolopyrrole Building Block for Annealing-Free Green-Solvent Processable Organic Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shang; Ni, Zhenjie; Hu, Mengxiao; Qiu, Gege; Li, Jie; Ye, Jun; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Feng; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2018-06-21

    A new asymmetric furan and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole (TTFDPP) building block for conjugated polymers is designed and used to generate a donor-acceptor semiconducting polymer, poly[3-(furan-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-6-(thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione-alt-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (abbreviated to PTTFDPP-TT), consisting of TTFDPP unit copolymerized with thieno[3,2-b]thiophene comonomer (TT), which is further synthesized. Results demonstrate that PTTFDPP-TT-based thin-film transistors in a bottom-gate bottom-contact device configuration exhibit typical hole-transporting property, with weak temperature dependence for charge carrier mobility from room temperature to 200 °C. In addition, the good solubility of PTTFDPP-TT due to the incorporation of a polar furan unit and an asymmetric conjugated structure makes it able to be solution processed with a less toxic nonchlorinated solvent such as toluene, demonstrating comparable performance with that prepared from chlorinated solution. These results suggest PTTFDPP-TT as a promising organic semiconductor candidate for annealing-free, environmentally benign, and less energy-consuming applications in large-area flexible organic electronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Automated radiosynthesis of no-carrier-added 4-[18F]fluoroiodobenzene: a versatile building block in 18F radiochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jenilee Dawn; Wuest, Frank

    2014-02-01

    4-[18F]Fluoroiodobenzene ([18F]FIB) is a versatile building block in 18F radiochemistry used in various transition metal-mediated C-C and C-N cross-coupling reactions and [18F]fluoroarylation reactions. Various synthesis routes have been described for the preparation of [18F]FIB. However, to date, no automated synthesis of [18F]FIB has been reported to allow access to larger amounts of [18F]FIB in high radiochemical and chemical purity. Herein, we describe an automated synthesis of no-carrier-added [18F]FIB on a GE TRACERlab™ FX automated synthesis unit starting from commercially available(4-iodophenyl)diphenylsulfonium triflate as the labelling precursor. [18F]FIB was prepared in high radiochemical yields of 89 ± 10% (decay-corrected, n = 7) within 60 min, including HPLC purification. The radiochemical purity exceeded 95%, and specific activity was greater than 40 GBq/μmol. Typically, from an experiment, 6.4 GBq of [18F]FIB could be obtained starting from 10.4 GBq of [18F]fluoride.

  13. Microbial production of the aromatic building-blocks (S)-styrene oxide and (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Rebekah; Pugh, Shawn; Thompson, Brian; Nielsen, David R

    2013-12-01

    (S)-Styrene oxide and (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol are chiral aromatic molecular building blocks used commonly as precursors to pharmaceuticals and other specialty chemicals. Two pathways have been engineered in Escherichia coli for their individual biosynthesis directly from glucose. The novel pathways each constitute extensions of the previously engineered styrene pathway, developed by co-expressing either styrene monooxygenase (SMO) or styrene dioxygenase (SDO) to convert styrene to (S)-styrene oxide and (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol, respectively. StyAB from Pseudomonas putida S12 was determined to be the most effective SMO. SDO activity was achieved using NahAaAbAcAd of Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816-4, a naphthalene dioxygenase with known broad substrate specificity. Production of phenylalanine, the precursor to both pathways, was systematically enhanced through a number of mutations, most notably via deletion of tyrA and over-expression of tktA. As a result, (R)-1,2-phenylethanediol reached titers as high as 1.23 g/L, and at 1.32 g/L (S)-styrene oxide titers already approach their toxicity limit. As with other aromatics, product toxicity was strongly correlated with a model of membrane accumulation and disruption. This study additionally demonstrates that greater flux through the styrene pathway can be achieved if its toxicity is addressed, as achieved in this case by reacting styrene to less toxic products. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Internal reforming of methane in a mono-block-layer build solid oxide fuel cell with an embedding porous pipe: Numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Minguela, J.J.; Mendoza-Miranda, J.M.; Muñoz-Carpio, V.D.; Rangel-Hernández, V.H.; Pérez-García, V.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A MOLB-type SOFC with different biogas compositions is modeled. • Internal reforming of methane and water gas shift in the anode side are considered. • Changes in the SOFC according to the phenomena inside of them are assessed. • A new configuration for the MOLB-type geometry is proposed. • Temperature gradients effects in the new configuration are significant. - Abstract: A mono-block-layer build type (MOLB-type) geometry, composed with trapezoidal cross-section channels for fuel and air, of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), is modeled in this study using a three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The model is used to obtain the performance of the SOFC considering internal reforming of methane in the anode side with different biogas compositions. From the results obtained, a new configuration for the MOLB-type geometry is proposed. The model takes into account the mass transfer, heat transfer, species transport, chemical and electrochemical reactions, detailed comparisons of species concentration, temperature and electric fields inside the cell analyzed in the present study. Results show that the biogas from local sludge has the lower temperature gradient and more homogeneous current density distributions along of the fuel cell, on the other hand, with the new configuration proposed for the MOLB-type geometry the temperature distribution inside of the fuel cell has lower temperature gradients

  15. An electron-deficient small molecule accessible from sustainable synthesis and building blocks for use as a fullerene alternative in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Seth M; Topple, Jessica M; Payne, Abby-Jo; Sun, Jon-Paul; Hill, Ian G; Welch, Gregory C

    2015-04-27

    An electron-deficient small molecule accessible from sustainable isoindigo and phthalimide building blocks was synthesized via optimized synthetic procedures that incorporate microwave-assisted synthesis and a heterogeneous catalyst for Suzuki coupling, and direct heteroarylation carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. The material was designed as a non-fullerene acceptor with the help of DFT calculations and characterized by optical, electronic, and thermal analysis. Further investigation of the material revealed a differing solid-state morphology with the use of three well-known processing conditions: thermal annealing, solvent vapor annealing and small volume fractions of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) additive. These unique morphologies persist in the active layer blends and have demonstrated a distinct influence on device performance. Organic photovoltaic-bulk heterojunction (OPV-BHJ) devices show an inherently high open circuit voltage (Voc ) with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) cells reaching 1.0 V with 0.4 v/v % DIO as a processing additive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. New Perspectives for Old Clusters: Anderson-Evans Anions as Building Blocks of Large Polyoxometalate Frameworks in a Series of Heterometallic 3 d-4 f Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artetxe, Beñat; Reinoso, Santiago; San Felices, Leire; Lezama, Luis; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Vicent, Cristian; Haso, Fadi; Liu, Tianbo

    2016-03-18

    A series of nine [Sb7W36O133Ln3M2(OAc)(H2O)8](17-) heterometallic anions (Ln3M2; Ln=La-Gd, M=Co; Ln=Ce, M=Ni and Zn) have been obtained by reacting 3 d metal disubstituted Krebs-type tungstoantimonates(III) with early lanthanides. Their unique tetrameric structure contains a novel {MW9O33} capping unit formed by a planar {MW6O24} fragment to which three {WO2} groups are condensed to form a tungstate skeleton identical to that of a hypothetical trilacunary derivative of the ɛ-Keggin cluster. It is shown, for the first time, that classical Anderson-Evans {MW6O24} anions can act as building blocks to construct purely inorganic large frameworks. Unprecedented reactivity in the outer ring of these disk-shaped species is also revealed. The Ln3M2 anions possess chirality owing to a {Sb4O4} cluster being encapsulated in left- or right-handed orientations. Their ability to self-associate in blackberry-type vesicles in solution has been assessed for the Ce3Co2 derivative. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Building blocks for career advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomall, Thomas; Snyder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    After attaining IAHSS certification, protective services officers at CCHMC continue on a Career Ladder Program designed to improve knowledge and performance and improve the chances of officer retention. That program is described in detail in this article.

  18. Building blocks of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleadon, M.E.; Malamud, E.; DeJong, T.; Fales, P.; Lindsay, R.; O'Connell, C.; Pasquinelli, R.; Snow, G.; Trombly-Freytag, S.; O'Connor, C.; Stanley, M.; Wisne, J.; Peshkin, M.

    1992-01-01

    SciTech and COSI are collaborating to develop interactive exhibits to convey to a wide audience some of the fascination of the world of the very small. In both museums, existing exhibits already offer a rich variety of experiences of nature at the human scale. On entering this new group of exhibits, the visitor will be led from the human scale to progressively smaller scales of size, discovering a sequence of new ways that matter is constituted. Some of the behavior will appear strange to most visitors, for example the quantum jumps of a huge model atom. But on reaching the level of quarks, it will be found that high energy physics has revealed that laws of the utmost simplicity underlie the complications of the human world. The creation of an effective ensemble of exhibits represents a challenge to our exhibit designers. We have to weigh the value and necessity of classical analogs of quantum behavior against their inevitable shortcomings. We have to engender a sense of wonder, but not of mystery. The visitor must feel that the exhibits represent gateways that open up, not barriers to surmount; that the new worlds discovered do not undermine common experience, but rather form an exciting extension to it. In the IISSC symposium two years ago we presented our first ideas. Now the proposed exhibits are in the final design and evaluation stage, and some are on the museum floor. This work is supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation and by matching contributions from several corporations and foundations

  19. Building blocks for national cyberpower

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, JJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available national power, than simply a means or attribute of national power. Thus, for a formulation for perceived cyberpower (PCP) would be best expressed as a replication or fractal of national power, and not a unique independent attribute. National security... by using the indicators of the Booz Allen Cyberpower Index (2011) to the traditional “DIME” elements, shows that cyberpower is an abstraction of the DIME acronym, and thus cyber is a fractal of National Power and not an element. Furthermore...

  20. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  1. Chitosan microspheres with an extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous structure as cell-carrier building blocks for bottom-up cartilage tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Gao, Huai-Ling; Shen, Li-Li; Pan, Zhao; Mao, Li-Bo; Wu, Tao; He, Jia-Cai; Zou, Duo-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-12-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) which closely mimic the physicochemical properties of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) have been proven to advantageously favor cell attachment, proliferation, migration and new tissue formation. Recently, as a valuable alternative, a bottom-up TE approach utilizing cell-loaded micrometer-scale modular components as building blocks to reconstruct a new tissue in vitro or in vivo has been proved to demonstrate a number of desirable advantages compared with the traditional bulk scaffold based top-down TE approach. Nevertheless, micro-components with an ECM-mimicking nanofibrous structure are still very scarce and highly desirable. Chitosan (CS), an accessible natural polymer, has demonstrated appealing intrinsic properties and promising application potential for TE, especially the cartilage tissue regeneration. According to this background, we report here the fabrication of chitosan microspheres with an ECM-mimicking nanofibrous structure for the first time based on a physical gelation process. By combining this physical fabrication procedure with microfluidic technology, uniform CS microspheres (CMS) with controlled nanofibrous microstructure and tunable sizes can be facilely obtained. Especially, no potentially toxic or denaturizing chemical crosslinking agent was introduced into the products. Notably, in vitro chondrocyte culture tests revealed that enhanced cell attachment and proliferation were realized, and a macroscopic 3D geometrically shaped cartilage-like composite can be easily constructed with the nanofibrous CMS (NCMS) and chondrocytes, which demonstrate significant application potential of NCMS as the bottom-up cell-carrier components for cartilage tissue engineering.Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) which closely mimic the physicochemical properties of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) have been proven to advantageously favor cell attachment, proliferation, migration and new tissue formation

  2. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinenghi, E., E-mail: edoardo.martinenghi@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sanzaro, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm{sup 2} together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  3. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm"2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  4. The monomeric, tetrameric, and fibrillar organization of Fib: the dynamic building block of the bacterial linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Krausz, Sara; Cabahug, Pamela C; Trachtenberg, Shlomo

    2011-07-08

    Spiroplasmas belong to the class Mollicutes, representing the minimal, free-living, and self-replicating forms of life. Spiroplasmas are helical wall-less bacteria and the only ones known to swim by means of a linear motor (rather than the near-universal rotary bacterial motor). The linear motor follows the shortest path along the cell's helical membranal tube. The motor is composed of a flat monolayered ribbon of seven parallel fibrils and is believed to function in controlling cell helicity and motility through dynamic, coordinated, differential length changes in the fibrils. The latter cause local perturbations of helical symmetry, which are essential for net directional displacement in environments with a low Reynolds number. The underlying fibrils' core building block is a circular tetramer of the 59-kDa protein Fib. The fibrils' differential length changes are believed to be driven by molecular switching of Fib, leading consequently to axial ratio and length changes in tetrameric rings. Using cryo electron microscopy, diffractometry, single-particle analysis of isolated ribbons, and sequence analyses of Fib, we determined the overall molecular organization of the Fib monomer, tetramer, fibril, and linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3 that underlies cell geometry and motility. Fib appears to be a bidomained molecule, of which the N-terminal half is apparently a globular phosphorylase. By a combination of reversible rotation and diagonal shift of Fib monomers, the tetramer adopts either a cross-like nonhanded conformation or a ring-like handed conformation. The sense of Fib rotation may determine the handedness of the linear motor and, eventually, of the cell. A further change in the axial ratio of the ring-like tetramers controls fibril lengths and the consequent helical geometry. Analysis of tetramer quadrants from adjacent fibrils clearly demonstrates local differential fibril lengths. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Lyα EMITTERS AT z ∼ 6-7: CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS FROM GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Masami Ouchi; Dunlop, James; Farrah, Duncan; McLure, Ross

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the stellar populations of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 and 6.6 in a 0.65 deg 2 sky of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) Field, using deep images taken with the Subaru/Suprime-Cam, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Infrared Camera, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We produce stacked multiband images at each redshift from 165 (z = 5.7) and 91 (z = 6.6) IRAC-undetected objects to derive typical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of z ∼ 6-7 LAEs for the first time. The stacked LAEs have as blue UV continua as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) z-dropout galaxies of similar M UV , with a spectral slope β ∼ -3, but at the same time they have red UV-to-optical colors with detection in the 3.6 μm band. Using SED fitting we find that the stacked LAEs have low stellar masses of ∼(3-10) x 10 7 M sun , very young ages of ∼1-3 Myr, negligible dust extinction, and strong nebular emission from the ionized interstellar medium, although the z = 6.6 object is fitted similarly well with high-mass models without nebular emission; inclusion of nebular emission reproduces the red UV-to-optical colors while keeping the UV colors sufficiently blue. We infer that typical LAEs at z ∼ 6-7 are building blocks of galaxies seen at lower redshifts. We find a tentative decrease in the Lyα escape fraction from z = 5.7 to 6.6, which may imply an increase in the intergalactic medium neutral fraction. From the minimum contribution of nebular emission required to fit the observed SEDs, we place an upper limit on the escape fraction of ionizing photons of f ion esc ∼ 0.6 at z = 5.7 and ∼0.9 at z = 6.6. We also compare the stellar populations of our LAEs with those of stacked HST/WFC3 z-dropout galaxies.

  6. From linking of metal-oxide building blocks in a dynamic library to giant clusters with unique properties and towards adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim; Gouzerh, Pierre

    2012-11-21

    Following Nature's lessons, today chemists can cross the boundary of the small molecule world to construct multifunctional and highly complex molecular nano-objects up to protein size and even cell-like nanosystems showing responsive sensing. Impressive examples emerge from studies of the solutions of some oxoanions of the early transition metals especially under reducing conditions which enable the controlled linking of metal-oxide building blocks. The latter are available from constitutional dynamic libraries, thus providing the option to generate multifunctional unique nanoscale molecular systems with exquisite architectures, which even opens the way towards adaptive and evolutive (Darwinian) chemistry. The present review presents the first comprehensive report of current knowledge (including synthesis aspects not discussed before) regarding the related giant metal-oxide clusters mainly of the type {Mo(57)M'(6)} (M' = Fe(III), V(IV)) (torus structure), {M(72)M'(30)} (M = Mo, M' = V(IV), Cr(III), Fe(III), Mo(V)), {M(72)Mo(60)} (M = Mo, W) (Keplerates), {Mo(154)}, {Mo(176)}, {Mo(248)} ("big wheels"), and {Mo(368)} ("blue lemon") - all having the important transferable pentagonal {(M)M(5)} groups in common. These discoveries expanded the frontiers of inorganic chemistry to the mesoscopic world, while there is probably no collection of discrete inorganic compounds which offers such a versatile chemistry and the option to study new phenomena of interdisciplinary interest. The variety of different properties of the sphere- and wheel-type metal-oxide-based clusters can directly be related to their unique architectures: The spherical Keplerate-type capsules having 20 crown-ether-type pores and tunable internal functionalities allow the investigation of confined matter as well as that of sphere-surface-supramolecular and encapsulation chemistry - including related new aspects of the biologically important hydrophobic effects - but also of nanoscale ion transport and

  7. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  8. Dynamic generation of socio-economic scenarios for climate change adaptation: methods, building blocks and examples; Dynamisk generering av socioekonomiska scenarier foer klimatanpassning: metod, byggstenar och exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Dreborg, Karl Henrik

    2008-05-15

    There is a need for socio-economic scenarios in climate change adaptation work in order to help planners cope with uncertainty of the long term development of society. The United Nations' Panel of climate change (IPCC) has developed climate scenarios with substantially different climatic characteristics in a hundred years' perspective. However, in a 25-30 years' perspective, which is very long term in societal planning, the difference between the scenarios is small, while society may develop in different directions. Since measures of adaptation to a changing climate may have different impacts depending on future socio-economic conditions, there is a need for scenarios that describe different possible developments. With a time frame of 25 years scenarios are more useful than projections of single factors such as GDP or demography, because scenarios can capture structural changes of society. This report presents results from a first step of the development of a scenario tool for climate adaptation work in municipalities, regions, and sectors of society in Sweden. The tool is to be further developed in regional case studies with the aim to make it adaptable to the specific focus of interest of various planning agencies. Therefore, we primarily concentrate on developing external factors and different possible future states for these, and a methodology for combining them into scenarios. The report presents the main steps of the scenario methodology and building blocks for the scenario construction consisting of socio-economic factors of special importance for climate adaptation work. The 13 socio-economic factors are: Demography; International mitigation policy; International climate change adaptation policy, Swedish economy; Ideology and social cohesion; Climate change perception; Swedish governance; Environmental policy; Global energy paradigm; Swedish energy paradigm; Land use; Built environment; Transportation. For each factor different possible

  9. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  10. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  11. Two-step crystal engineering of porous nets from [Cr3(μ 3-O)(RCO2)6] and [Cu3(μ 3-Cl)(RNH2)6Cl6] molecular building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsaidi, Sameh K.

    2013-01-01

    Two porous nets have been prepared via a 2-step crystal engineering approach that links decorated trigonal prismatic [Cr3(μ 3-O)(CO2)6] and [Cu3(μ 3-Cl)(RNH2)6Cl6] molecular building blocks, MBBs. tp-PMBB-5-acs-1 is a rare example of a rigid acs underlying net whereas tp-PMBB-6-stp-1, an stp underlying net, exhibits free NH2 groups in its channels and a relatively high isosteric heat of adsorption for CO2. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Flexible synthetic routes to poison-frog alkaloids of the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine-class I: synthesis of common lactam chiral building blocks and application to the synthesis of (--203A, (--205A, and (--219F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spande Thomas F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines are the largest class of poison-frog alkaloids found in anuran skin, and are of considerable interest because of their inhibitory effects on the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Many synthetic strategies for the construction of this nucleus have been reported: however, a flexible route has not been reported to date. Results Synthesis of lactam chiral building blocks for the flexible synthesis of the title alkaloids has been achieved using a Michael-type conjugate addition reaction to a chiral cyclic enamine ester as the key step in constructing the trisubstituted piperidine ring system. To demonstrate the usefulness of these chiral building blocks, syntheses of (--203A, (--205A from 1, and (--219F from 2 have been achieved. Conclusion The total synthesis of (--203A, (--205A, and (--219F was achieved, and the absolute stereochemistry of natural 203A was determined to be 5S, 8R, 9S. In addition, the relative stereochemistry of natural 219F was determined.

  13. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  14. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  15. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  16. The quest for modular nanocages: Tbo -MOF as an archetype for mutual substitution, functionalization, and expansion of quadrangular pillar building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, Jarrod F.

    2011-09-14

    A new blueprint network for the design and synthesis of porous, functional 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been identified, namely, the tbo net. Accordingly, tbo-MOFs based on this unique (3,4)-connected net can be exclusively constructed utilizing a combination of well-known and readily targeted [M(R-BDC)]n MOF layers [i.e., supermolecular building layers (SBLs)] based on the edge-transitive 4,4 square lattice (sql) (i.e., 2D four-building units) and a novel pillaring strategy based on four proximal isophthalate ligands from neighboring SBL membered rings (i.e., two pairs from each layer) covalently cross-linked through an organic quadrangular core (e.g., tetrasubstituted benzene). Our strategy permits the rational design and synthesis of isoreticular structures, functionalized and/or expanded, that possess extra-large nanocapsule-like cages, high porosity, and potential for gas separation and storage, among others. Thus, tbo-MOF serves as an archetypal tunable, isoreticular MOF platform for targeting desired applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. The quest for modular nanocages: Tbo -MOF as an archetype for mutual substitution, functionalization, and expansion of quadrangular pillar building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, Jarrod F.; Mouttaki, Hasnaa; Cairns, Amy; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Wojtas, Łukasz; Luebke, Ryan; Al Kordi, Mohamed; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    A new blueprint network for the design and synthesis of porous, functional 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been identified, namely, the tbo net. Accordingly, tbo-MOFs based on this unique (3,4)-connected net can be exclusively constructed utilizing a combination of well-known and readily targeted [M(R-BDC)]n MOF layers [i.e., supermolecular building layers (SBLs)] based on the edge-transitive 4,4 square lattice (sql) (i.e., 2D four-building units) and a novel pillaring strategy based on four proximal isophthalate ligands from neighboring SBL membered rings (i.e., two pairs from each layer) covalently cross-linked through an organic quadrangular core (e.g., tetrasubstituted benzene). Our strategy permits the rational design and synthesis of isoreticular structures, functionalized and/or expanded, that possess extra-large nanocapsule-like cages, high porosity, and potential for gas separation and storage, among others. Thus, tbo-MOF serves as an archetypal tunable, isoreticular MOF platform for targeting desired applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Smoothing of geoelectrical resistivity profiles in order to build a 3D model: A case study from an outcropping limestone block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Krisztina; Kovács, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    Geoelectrical imaging is one of the most common survey methods in the field of shallow geophysics. In order to get information from the subsurface electric current is induced into the ground. In our summer camp organized by the Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University we have carried out resistivity surveys to get more accurate information about the lithology of the Dorog basin located in the Transdanubian range, Middle Hungary. This study focused on the outcropping limestone block located next to the village Leányvár in the Dorog basin. The main aim of the research is the impoundment of the subsurface continuation of the limestone outcrop. Cable problems occurred during field survey therefore the dataset obtained by the measurement have become very noisy thus we had to gain smoothed data with the appropriate editing steps. The goal was to produce an optimized model to demonstrate the reality beneath the subsurface. In order to achieve better results from the noisy dataset we changed some parameters based on the description of the program. Whereas cable problems occurred we exterminated the bad datum points visually and statistically as well. Because of the noisiness we increased the value of the so called damping factor which is a variable parameter in the equation used by the inversion routine responsible for smoothing the data. The limitation of the range of model resistivity values based on our knowledge about geological environment was also necessary in order to avoid physically unrealistic results. The purpose of the modification was to obtain smoothed and more interpretable geoelectric profiles. The geological background combined with the explanation of the profiles gave us the approximate location of the block. In the final step of the research we created a 3D model with proper location and smoothed resistivity data included. This study was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA NK83400) and was realized

  19. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  20. A novel metal-organic coordination polymer with unprecedented floor-like structural configuration consisting of two kinds of independent building blocks of triple- and double-stranded braids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yun-Xia; Luo, Feng; Zheng, Ji-Min

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel and distinctive metal-organic compound, {[Cd 4(bet) 4Cl 6(H 2O) 4][Cd 2Cl 6]} n (bet=(CH 3) 3NCH 2CO 2, namely betaine) 1, assembled from two independent building blocks of triple- and double-stranded braids, and characterized by an unprecedented floor-like structural configuration. Furthermore, IR, element analysis, and TG-DTA were employed to characterize it. Compound 1 belongs to triclinic system, space group P-1, a = 6.704(2) Å, b = 9.338(3) Å, c = 20.056(7) Å, α = 101.409(5)°, β = 96.650(5)°, γ = 93.148(5)°, V = 1218.5(7) Å 3, Z = 1, R1 = 0.0340, ωR2 = 0.1017.

  1. Hexatungstate subunit as building block in the hydrothermal synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials: synthesis, structure and optical properties of Co2(bpy)6 (W6O19)2 (bpy=4,4'-bipyridine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lijuan; Wei Yongge; Wang Chongchen; Guo Hongyou; Wang Ping

    2004-01-01

    A hydrothermal reaction of WO 3 , CoCl 2 and 4,4'-bipyridine, yields a novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, Co 2 (bpy) 6 (W 6 O 19 ) 2 , at 170 deg. C. X-ray single crystal structure determination reveals a two-dimensional covalent structure belonging to monoclinic crystal system, space group C2/c, with cell parameters a=19.971(4) A, b=11.523(2) A, c=16.138(3) A, β=96.49(3) deg., V=3690.0 A 3 and Z=2. The hexatungstate, [W 6 O 19 ] 2- , acts as a building block in bidentate fashion to bridge the Co(II) centers in the crystal structure. The title compound is found to have an optical energy gap of 2.2 eV from UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra

  2. Bonding and magnetic response properties of several toroid structures. Insights of the role of Ni2S2 as a building block from relativistic density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro

    2011-10-06

    Relativistic density functional calculations were carried out on several nickel toroid mercaptides of the general formula [Ni(μ-SR)(2)](n), with the aim to characterize and analyze their stability and magnetic response properties, in order to gain more insights into their stabilization and size-dependent behavior. The Ni-ligand interaction has been studied by means projected density of states and energy decomposition analysis, which denotes its stabilizing character. The graphical representation of the response to an external magnetic field is applied for the very first time taking into account the spin-orbit term. This map allows one to clearly characterize the magnetic behavior inside and in the closeness of the toroid structure showing the prescence of paratropic ring currents inside the Ni(n) ring, and by contrast, diatropic currents confined in each Ni(2)S(2) motif denoting an aromatic behavior (in terms of magnetic criteria). The calculated data suggests that the Ni(2)S(2) moiety can be regarded as a stable constructing block, which can afford several toroid structures of different nuclearities in agreement with that reported in the experimental literature. In addition, the effects of the relativistic treatment over the magnetic response properties on these lighter compounds are denoted by comparing nonrelativistic, scalar relativistic, and scalar plus spin-orbit relativistic treatments, showing their acting, although nonpronunced, role.

  3. Learning Drupal 8 create complex websites quickly and easily using the building blocks of Drupal 8, the most powerful version of Drupal yet

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Nick

    2016-01-01

    About This Book : Build complete, complex websites with no prior knowledge of web development entirely using the intuitive Drupal user interface ; Follow a practical case study chapter-by-chapter to construct a complete website as you progress ; Ensure your sites are modern, responsive and mobile-friendly through utilizing the full features available in Drupal 8. Who This Book Is For : If you want to learn to use Drupal 8 for the first time, or you are transitioning over from a previous version of Drupal, this is the book for you. No knowledge of PHP, MySQL, or HTML is assumed or required. What You Will Learn : Set up a local “stack” development environment and install your first Drupal 8 site ; Find out what is available in Drupal 8 core Define content types and taxonomies―and find out when you should do so ; Use the powerful Views module ; Get hands-on with image and media handling ; Extend Drupal using custom community modules ; Develop the look and feel of your website using Drupal themes ; M...

  4. Biocalcite, a multifunctional inorganic polymer: Building block for calcareous sponge spicules and bioseed for the synthesis of calcium phosphate-based bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is the material that builds up the spicules of the calcareous sponges. Recent results revealed that the calcium carbonate/biocalcite-based spicular skeleton of these animals is formed through an enzymatic mechanism, such as the skeleton of the siliceous sponges, evolutionarily the oldest animals that consist of biosilica. The enzyme that mediates the calcium carbonate deposition has been identified as a carbonic anhydrase (CA and has been cloned from the calcareous sponge species Sycon raphanus. Calcium carbonate deposits are also found in vertebrate bones besides the main constituent, calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA. Evidence has been presented that during the initial phase of HA synthesis poorly crystalline carbonated apatite is deposited. Recent data summarized here indicate that during early bone formation calcium carbonate deposits enzymatically formed by CA, act as potential bioseeds for the precipitation of calcium phosphate mineral onto bone-forming osteoblasts. Two different calcium carbonate phases have been found during CA-driven enzymatic calcium carbonate deposition in in vitro assays: calcite crystals and round-shaped vaterite deposits. The CA provides a new target of potential anabolic agents for treatment of bone diseases; a first CA activator stimulating the CA-driven calcium carbonate deposition has been identified. In addition, the CA-driven calcium carbonate crystal formation can be frozen at the vaterite state in the presence of silintaphin-2, an aspartic acid/glutamic acid-rich sponge-specific protein. The discovery that calcium carbonate crystals act as bioseeds in human bone formation may allow the development of novel biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Na-alginate hydrogels, enriched with biosilica, have recently been demonstrated as a suitable matrix to embed bone forming cells for rapid prototyping bioprinting/3D cell printing applications.

  5. Synthesis and fabrication of sized-controlled nanoparticles: Using surface self-assemblies as building blocks for developing supralattices on nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Chanel Kitmon

    2001-10-01

    A general one-phase synthesis for self-assembling thiols onto gold, platinum, palladium and iridium nanoparticles using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the solvent, and lithium triethylborohydride (superhydride) as the reducing agent, is presented. Using the same synthetic procedure gold nanoparticles functionalized with 11-hydroxyundecane-1-thiol and 4'-bromo-4-mercaptobiphenyl were prepared to show that the availability and reflexibility of this method could lead to surface fabrication with various type of facial moieties. Alkyl selenide- and alkyl thiolate-functionalized gold nanoparticles were also prepared by the same method at 6°C. The properties were compared to their counterparts made at 25°C. The formation of the Se-Au bond and S-Au bonds was investigated by transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the bond nature in each case was examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Particle size was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and further confirmed by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). Superparamagnetic Fe and Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by ultrasound irradiation and post-fabricated with alkyl sulfonic acids of various chain lengths and octadecyl phosphonic acid. TEM reveals nanoparticles of 5--10 mn in diameter. FTIR spectra suggest that the alkyl chains are packed in a solid-like assembly with packing disorder increasing with the decreasing chain length. The octadecyl sulfonic acid coating displays the lowest magnetization within the sulfonic acid series, which may be explained by the high packing and ordering of the alkyl chains on the particle surface. The smallest value of magnetization in the OPA case suggests that the spin-state of surface Fe3+ ions is affected by the bonded surfactant, and that the phosphonate empty d-orbitals increase magnetic interactions between neighboring Fe3+ spins. To build superstructures beyond the monolayer level, a general route for the attachment of amino

  6. Total mass difference statistics algorithm: a new approach to identification of high-mass building blocks in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry data of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunenkov, Erast V; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Perminova, Irina V; Hertkorn, Norbert; Gaspar, Andras; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Popov, Igor A; Garmash, Andrew V; Nikolaev, Evgeniy N

    2009-12-15

    The ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrum of natural organic matter (NOM) contains several thousand peaks with dozens of molecules matching the same nominal mass. Such a complexity poses a significant challenge for automatic data interpretation, in which the most difficult task is molecular formula assignment, especially in the case of heavy and/or multielement ions. In this study, a new universal algorithm for automatic treatment of FTICR mass spectra of NOM and humic substances based on total mass difference statistics (TMDS) has been developed and implemented. The algorithm enables a blind search for unknown building blocks (instead of a priori known ones) by revealing repetitive patterns present in spectra. In this respect, it differs from all previously developed approaches. This algorithm was implemented in designing FIRAN-software for fully automated analysis of mass data with high peak density. The specific feature of FIRAN is its ability to assign formulas to heavy and/or multielement molecules using "virtual elements" approach. To verify the approach, it was used for processing mass spectra of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, M(w) = 2200 Da) and polymethacrylate (PMA, M(w) = 3290 Da) which produce heavy multielement and multiply-charged ions. Application of TMDS identified unambiguously monomers present in the polymers consistent with their structure: C(8)H(7)SO(3)Na for PSS and C(4)H(6)O(2) for PMA. It also allowed unambiguous formula assignment to all multiply-charged peaks including the heaviest peak in PMA spectrum at mass 4025.6625 with charge state 6- (mass bias -0.33 ppm). Application of the TMDS-algorithm to processing data on the Suwannee River FA has proven its unique capacities in analysis of spectra with high peak density: it has not only identified the known small building blocks in the structure of FA such as CH(2), H(2), C(2)H(2)O, O but the heavier unit at 154.027 amu. The latter was

  7. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  8. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  9. The Role of Anisotropic Exchange in Single Molecule Magnets: A CASSCF/NEVPT2 Study of the Fe4 SMM Building Block [Fe2(OCH32(dbm4] Dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lunghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rationalisation of single molecule magnets’ (SMMs magnetic properties by quantum mechanical approaches represents a major task in the field of the Molecular Magnetism. The fundamental interpretative key of molecular magnetism is the phenomenological Spin Hamiltonian and the understanding of the role of its different terms by electronic structure calculations is expected to steer the rational design of new and more performing SMMs. This paper deals with the ab initio calculation of isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions in the Fe(III dimer [Fe 2 (OCH 3 2 (dbm 4 ]. This system represents the building block of one of the most studied Single Molecule Magnets ([Fe 4 RC(CH 2 O 3 2 (dpm 6 ] where R can be an aliphatic chain or a phenyl group just to name the most common functionalization groups and its relatively reduced size allows the use of a high computational level of theory. Calculations were performed using CASSCF and NEVPT2 approaches on the X-ray geometry as assessment of the computational protocol, which has then be used to evinced the importance of the outer coordination shell nature through organic ligand modelization. Magneto-structural correlations as function of internal degrees of freedom for isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions are also presented, outlining, for the first time, the extremely rapidly changing nature of the anisotropic exchange coupling.

  10. Exohedral M–C{sub 60} and M{sub 2}–C{sub 60} (M = Pt, Pd) systems as tunable-gap building blocks for nanoarchitecture and nanocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özdamar, Burak; Boero, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.boero@ipcms.unistra.fr; Massobrio, Carlo; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Le Roux, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.leroux@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, UMR 7504, 23 Rue du Loess, BP43, F-67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-09-21

    Transition metal–fullerenes complexes with metal atoms bound on the external surface of C{sub 60} are promising building blocks for next-generation fuel cells and catalysts. Yet, at variance with endohedral M@C{sub 60}, they have received a limited attention. By resorting to first principles simulations, we elucidate structural and electronic properties for the Pd–C{sub 60}, Pt–C{sub 60}, PtPd–C{sub 60}, Pd{sub 2}–C{sub 60}, and Pt{sub 2}–C{sub 60} complexes. The most stable structures feature the metal atom located above a high electron density site, namely, the π bond between two adjacent hexagons (π-66 bond). When two metal atoms are added, the most stable configuration is those in which metal atoms still stand on π-66 bonds but tends to clusterize. The electronic structure, rationalized in terms of localized Wannier functions, provides a clear picture of the underlying interactions responsible for the stability or instability of the complexes, showing a strict relationship between structure and electronic gap.

  11. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  12. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  13. Formulating the building blocks for national cyberpower

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, Johanna C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available , 1993) to determine a rough estimate of “perceived” national power by focusing primarily on a state's capacity to wage war. In this paper, the formula for Perceived Power (PP) will be adapted for use in cyberspace to create a similar formula...

  14. RF building block modeling: optimization and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.

    2012-01-01

    For circuit designers it is desirable to have relatively simple RF circuit models that do give decent estimation accuracy and provide sufficient understanding of circuits. Chapter 2 in this thesis shows a general weak nonlinearity model that meets these demands. Using a method that is related to

  15. Mathematical Building-Blocks in Engineering Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, David M.

    2007-01-01

    A gamut of mathematical subjects and concepts are taught within a handful of courses formally required of the typical engineering student who so often questions the relevancy of being bound to certain lower-division prerequisites. Basic classes at the undergraduate level, in this context, include: Integral and Differential Calculus, Differential…

  16. Captivate: Building Blocks for Implementing Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Brent; Means, Tawnya; Tan, Yinliang

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose a set of key elements that impact the success of an active learning implementation: content delivery, active learning methods, physical environment, technology enhancement, incentive alignment, and educator investment. Through a range of metrics the authors present preliminary evidence that students in courses…

  17. The building blocks of economic complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, César A.; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country's economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show that it is possible to quantify the complexity of a country's economy by characterizing the structure of this network. Furthermore, we show that the measures of complexity we derive are correlated with a country's level of income, and that deviations from this relationship are predictive of future growth. This suggests that countries tend to converge to the level of income dictated by the complexity of their productive structures, indicating that development efforts should focus on generating the conditions that would allow complexity to emerge to generate sustained growth and prosperity. PMID:19549871

  18. From nanoscale building blocks to hybrid nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The noble metal nanoparticle ... plasmon resonance (yellow, red and blue color for. Ag, Au and Cu, ... experience confinement along two dimensions and are free to move .... mechanical point of view.

  19. Structuring oil by protein building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke

    2017-01-01

    Over the recent years, structuring of oil into ‘organogels’ or ‘oleogels’ has gained much attention amongst colloid-, material,- and food scientists. Potentially, these oleogels could be used as an alternative for saturated- and trans fats in food products. To develop oleogels as a

  20. Superatoms as Building Blocks of New Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    size regime. The adiabatic detachment energy (ADE) and vertical detachment energy ( VDE ) of Zn3O3 − and Zn3O4 − clusters were determined by anion...Zn3Om (m = 3,4,5) clusters, while the theoretical ADE and VDE values are compared with experimental results. The experimentally observed relative

  1. Building blocks of e-commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    e-commerce possible are: html (hyper text markup language), XML (extensible markup .... Standard word processor outputs can be converted to ..... various types of transactions between organizations and it requires an expert to understand.

  2. Disk Galaxies : Building Blocks of the Universe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In my talk I look at the origin of disk galaxies from the theoretical perspective. In particular I look at simple ways to use the properties of disk galaxies, and their evolution, to test our current paradigm for galaxy formation within the CDM scenario.

  3. Small hydro generation building block profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Concise business information on small hydro generation in British Columbia was presented in this document. It was noted that the steep terrain within the province and its abundant precipitation provides numerous opportunities for hydropower generation in British Columbia. The hydroelectric sector produces approximately 90 per cent of the electrical demand in the province. The document focusses on small hydro sites producing between 0.5 and 50 mega watts (MW) and not having large water storage. In the first section, an overview of the electricity sector in the province is provided. The following issues are examined in subsequent sections: land resources; infrastructure requirements; sales market; labour market; the regulatory regime; development factors; non-governmental aspects; investments and economics; the present status and future outlook of the industry; and, government revenue. Input-output tables were also provided. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Essential building blocks of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleyzes, Jerome; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, IPhT, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, France CNRS, URA-2306, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex (France); Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: fpiazza@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [APC, (CNRS-Université Paris 7), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    We propose a minimal description of single field dark energy/modified gravity within the effective field theory formalism for cosmological perturbations, which encompasses most existing models. We start from a generic Lagrangian given as an arbitrary function of the lapse and of the extrinsic and intrinsic curvature tensors of the time hypersurfaces in unitary gauge, i.e. choosing as time slicing the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. Focusing on linear perturbations, we identify seven Lagrangian operators that lead to equations of motion containing at most two (space or time) derivatives, the background evolution being determined by the time-dependent coefficients of only three of these operators. We then establish a dictionary that translates any existing or future model whose Lagrangian can be written in the above form into our parametrized framework. As an illustration, we study Horndeski's — or generalized Galileon — theories and show that they can be described, up to linear order, by only six of the seven operators mentioned above. This implies, remarkably, that the dynamics of linear perturbations can be more general than that of Horndeski while remaining second order. Finally, in order to make the link with observations, we provide the entire set of linear perturbation equations in Newtonian gauge, the effective Newton constant in the quasi-static approximation and the ratio of the two gravitational potentials, in terms of the time-dependent coefficients of our Lagrangian.

  5. Enantiopure cyclopentane building blocks from iridoid glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Holbech

    .e. S. albida, S. woronowic, S. subvelutina, S. lateriflora, S. altissima, were investigated. It was found that in the water-soluble part of an ethanolic extract, a cinnamic ester of catalpol, scutellarioside I (348), was extractable into EtOAc. A method was developed in which the preparation of a water......-soluble extract of the plant material, extraction of 348 into EtOAc and acetylation of the crude EtOAc-extract, gave an acetylated crude product, from which scutellarioside I pentaacetate (351) was crystallised. Thus, 351 was obtained without the use of chromatography. Conversely, the purification of 5 was only......, pentaacetate 351 was transformed into an iridoid glucoside diacetonide 371. Ozonolysis of 371 followed by a reductive work-up procedure (NaBH4) led to the partially protected cyclopentane derivative 352. The ozonolysis/reduction sequence constitutes a new method in iridoid chemistry to obtain cyclopentanoid...

  6. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  7. BUILDING BLOCKS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossina Coto Keith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las ventajas de la integración de tres áreas comúnmente estudiadas en la enseñanza de idiomas: Estilos de Aprendizaje, Inteligencias Múltiples y Estrategias para el Aprendizaje de Idiomas. Cada una de estas áreas tiene un papel fundamental en la enseñanza de idiomas y el aprendizaje, pero por lo general se utilizan por separado, o en el mejor de los casos, los y las docentes integran ya sea estilos e inteligencias o estrategias, pero no las tres al mismo tiempo. De hecho, la mayoría de la literatura presenta cada una por separado, dando la idea de que sólo una o dos se pueden utilizar en la clase de idiomas, por lo que en muchas oportunidades se ignoran aspectos fundamentales. La tesis principal del artículo es que, para ser más eficaz, Estilos de Aprendizaje, Inteligencias Múltiples y Estrategias de Aprendizaje deben entrelazarse a fin de crear un pilar sólido para el aprendizaje de idiomas. Primeramente, la autora ofrece una visión general de cada una de estas áreas. Luego en el referente teórico explica cómo estas deben usarse como una unidad, y posteriormente da un ejemplo de esto a través de un plan de clase sobre el tema de la conservación del medio ambiente para un curso de Comunicación Oral I de la carrera de inglés de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Por último, se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones a los y las instructores sobre la integración de estos pilares en el aula.

  8. Phonons as building blocks in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of a nuclear system in terms of eigenmodes (phonons) of subsystems is investigated in three different approaches. In the frame of nuclear field theory the three identical particle system is analysed and the elimination of spurious states due to the violation of the Pauli principle is emphasized. In terms of weak coupling, a new approach of the shell model is proposed which is shown to be rapidly convergent with the number of basis vectors. Applications of three particle systems in the lead region are made. Lastly, a microscopic multiphonon theorie of collective K=0 states in deformed nuclei based on a Tamm Dancoff phonon is developed. The role of the Pauli principle as well as comparisons with boson expansion methods are deeply analysed [fr

  9. Construcción sustentable, análisis de retraso térmico a bloques de tierra comprimidos / Sustainable building, thermal analysis of delay to earth blocks tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Gutiérrez, Rubén Salvador

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de la investigación que aborda el tema las propiedades térmicas de los Bloques de Tierra Comprimida (BTC, para corroborar las ventajas de este material de construcción alternativo, sobre los materiales convencionales, para comprobar que estos materiales pueden satisfacer las necesidades de la población en la construcción de sus viviendas digna, mejorando la calidad de vida del usuario y produciendo un menor impacto ambiental. Se plantea el uso de BTC como unidad de análisis, elaborado con material de la zona del sur de Tamaulipas, probando sus ventajas como regulador natural de temperatura contra el bloque de concreto y el ladrillo recocido de la región, que son empleados en el ámbito de la construcción de viviendas. Las pruebas térmicas realizadas fueron simulando el efecto del sol sobre un muro, registrándose la temperatura durante las pruebas determinándose el retraso térmico en los muros dependiendo del material. Es así como con el resultado de las pruebas se determinó cual es el material óptimo para emplear como envolvente de la vivienda. This article is the result of research that addresses the issue the thermal properties of the Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB, to corroborate the benefits of this alternative building material, on the conventional materials, to verify that these materials can meet the needs of the population in the construction of their homes worthy, improving the quality of life of the user and producing a lower environmental impact. Considering the use of CEB as a unit of analysis, developed with materials from the area of southern Tamaulipas, proving its advantages as natural regulator of temperature against the concrete block and brick annealing of the region, who are employed in the field of housing construction. Thermal testing carried out were simulating the effect of the sun on a wall, the temperature recorded during the tests determined the delay in the thermal walls

  10. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  11. A Convenient Approach to Heterocyclic Building Blocks: Synthesis of Novel Ring Systems Containing a [5,6]Pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Holzer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from commercially available educts, a straightforward synthetic route to new heterocyclic building blocks is exemplified with the one- or two-step synthesis of tri-, tetra-, or pentacyclic ring systems. Representatives of the following novel ring systems are prepared from 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and the corresponding o-halo-arenecarbonyl chloride using calcium hydroxide in refluxing 1,4-dioxane: pyrimidino[4',5':5,6]pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one, thieno[3',2':5,6]pyrano[2,3c]pyrazol- 4-(1H-one, thieno[3',4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one, thieno[3'',2'':4',5']thieno[2',3':5,6]-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one, [1,3]dioxolo[5',6'][1]benzothieno[2',3':5,6]pyrano-[2,3-c]- pyrazol-4(1H-one, pyridazino[4',3':5,6]pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one and pyrazolo-[4'',3'':5',6']pyrido[3',4':5,6]pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H-one. While the latter two ring systems are directly obtained due to a spontaneous intramolecular substitution reaction, in the other reactions uncyclised 4-aroylpyrazol-5-ols are produced, which are cyclised into the target heterocycles in a subsequent synthetic step (i.e. treatment with NaH in DMF. Detailed NMR spectroscopic investigations (1H-, 13C-, 15N- with the obtained compounds were undertaken to unambiguously prove the new structures.

  12. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  13. Focus 2012. Awakening into a new age - Elements of a sustainable energy supply. Ressource efficiency - key competency of sustainable societies, Sustainable chemistry - fundamental building blocks of a green economy. Annual report; Schwerpunkte 2012. Aufbruch ins neue Zeitalter - Elemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung, Ressourceneffizienz - Schluesselkompetenz zukunftsfaehiger Gesellschaften, Nachhaltige Chemie - elementarer Baustein einer Green Economy. Jahrespublikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromati, Fotini; Ittershagen, Martin [comps.

    2012-05-30

    The Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) sees excellent opportunities to move the economic regeneration forward by means of environmental protection. Under this aspect, the annual report ''Focus 2012'' under consideration presents the following contributions: (1) Green Economy as a new model for economic development; (2) Elements of a sustainable energy supply; (3) Resource efficiency as a key competence for sustainable societies; (4) Green Chemistry as a fundamental building block of Green Economy.

  14. Focus 2012. Awakening into a new age - Elements of a sustainable energy supply. Ressource efficiency - key competency of sustainable societies, Sustainable chemistry - fundamental building blocks of a green economy. Annual report; Schwerpunkte 2012. Aufbruch ins neue Zeitalter - Elemente einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung, Ressourceneffizienz - Schluesselkompetenz zukunftsfaehiger Gesellschaften, Nachhaltige Chemie - elementarer Baustein einer Green Economy. Jahrespublikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromati, Fotini; Ittershagen, Martin (comps.)

    2012-05-30

    The Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) sees excellent opportunities to move the economic regeneration forward by means of environmental protection. Under this aspect, the annual report ''Focus 2012'' under consideration presents the following contributions: (1) Green Economy as a new model for economic development; (2) Elements of a sustainable energy supply; (3) Resource efficiency as a key competence for sustainable societies; (4) Green Chemistry as a fundamental building block of Green Economy.

  15. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  16. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  17. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  18. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  19. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  20. Assembly of [Cu2(COO)4] and [M3(μ3-O)(COO)6] (M = Sc, Fe, Ga, and In) building blocks into porous frameworks towards ultra-high C2H2/CO2 and C2H2/CH4 separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Wei; Hu, Man-Cheng; Li, Shu-Ni; Jiang, Yu-Cheng; Qu, Peng; Zhai, Quan-Guo

    2018-02-20

    A porous MOF platform (SNNU-65s) formed by creatively combining paddle-wheel-like [Cu 2 (COO) 4 ] and trigonal prismatic [M 3 (μ 3 -O)(COO) 6 ] building blocks was designed herein. The mixed and high-density open metal sites and the OH-functionalized pore surface promote SNNU-65s to exhibit ultra-high C 2 H 2 uptake and separation performance. Impressively, SNNU-65-Cu-Ga stands out for the highest C 2 H 2 /CO 2 (18.7) and C 2 H 2 /CH 4 (120.6) selectivity among all the reported MOFs at room temperature.

  1. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  2. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  3. Effect of block weight on work demands and physical workload during masonry work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H.F.; Kuijer, P.P.F.; Hopmans, P.P.; Houweling, A.G.; Faber, G.S.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of block weight on work demands and physical workload was determined for masons who laid sandstone building blocks over the course of a full work day. Three groups of five sandstone block masons participated. Each group worked with a different block weight: 11 kg, 14 kg or 16 kg.

  4. Effect of block weight on work demands and physical workload during masonry work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H.F.; Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; Hopmans, P.P.; Houweling, A.G.; Faber, G.S.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of block weight on work demands and physical workload was determined for masons who laid sandstone building blocks over the course of a full work day. Three groups of five sandstone block masons participated. Each group worked with a different block weight: 11 kg, 14 kg or 16 kg.

  5. Effect of block weight on work demands and physical workload during masonry work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H. F.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Hopmans, P. P. W.; Houweling, A. G.; Faber, G. S.; Hoozemans, M. J. M.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of block weight on work demands and physical workload was determined for masons who laid sandstone building blocks over the course of a full work day. Three groups of five sandstone block masons participated. Each group worked with a different block weight: 11 kg, 14 kg or 16 kg.

  6. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  7. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  8. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  9. (tek) block for housing provision and construction in ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is strongly associated with traditional unstabi- ... of reducing cost of housing development and to ... lised-earth floors were used to provide low cost ..... system. Even though some of the buildings have been transformed from TEK blocks into.

  10. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  11. Non-perturbative topological strings and conformal blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, M.C.N.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Vafa, C.

    2011-01-01

    We give a non-perturbative completion of a class of closed topological string theories in terms of building blocks of dual open strings. In the specific case where the open string is given by a matrix model these blocks correspond to a choice of integration contour. We then apply this definition to

  12. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  13. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  14. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  15. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  16. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  17. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  18. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  19. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  20. Developing Key Parameters for Green Performance of Partition Wall Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Cheng Siew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote sustainable construction, it is important to consider green performance of construction materials throughout the life cycle. Selecting inappropriate materials could not only affect the functional performance but also preclude the achievement of green building performance as a whole. Green performance of construction materials has therefore been one of the primary considerations of green building assessment systems. Using partition wall blocks as an example, this paper examines green performance of building materials primarily from the cradle to gate boundaries. Nine key parameters are proposed for the green performance of partition wall blocks. Apart from environmental features, technical performance of partition wall blocks is also taken into consideration since it is the determinant of the lifecycle performance. This paper offers a roadmap to decision makers to make environmentally responsible choices for their materials of internal walls and partitions, and hence provides a potential sustainable solution for green buildings.

  1. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\cal O}(1/\\epsilon)$, ${\\cal O}(1/\\sqrt{\\epsilon})$ and ${\\cal O}(\\log (1/\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  2. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  3. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  4. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  5. [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine as Building Blocks for Universal Host Materials for High-Performance Red, Green, Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenxuan; Shi, Lijiang; Gao, Lei; Hu, Peijun; Mu, Haichuan; Xia, Zhenyuan; Huang, Jinhai; Su, Jianhua

    2018-02-14

    The electron-accepting [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (TP) moiety was introduced to build bipolar host materials for the first time, and two host materials based on this TP acceptor and carbazole donor, namely, 9,9'-(2-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (o-CzTP) and 9,9'-(5-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (m-CzTP), were designed and synthesized. These two TP-based host materials possess a high triplet energy (>2.9 eV) and appropriate highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels as well as the bipolar transporting feature, which permits their applicability as universal host materials in multicolor phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs). Blue, green, and red PhOLEDs based on o-CzTP and m-CzTP with the same device configuration all show high efficiencies and low efficiency roll-off. The devices hosted by o-CzTP exhibit maximum external quantum efficiencies (η ext ) of 27.1, 25.0, and 15.8% for blue, green, and red light emitting, respectively, which are comparable with the best electroluminescene performance reported for FIrpic-based blue, Ir(ppy) 3 -based green, and Ir(pq) 2 (acac)-based red PhOLEDs equipped with a single-component host. The white PhOLEDs based on the o-CzTP host and three lumophors containing red, green, and blue emitting layers were fabricated with the same device structure, which exhibit a maximum current efficiency and η c of 40.4 cd/A and 17.8%, respectively, with the color rendering index value of 75.

  6. Space Launch Systems Block 1B Preliminary Navigation System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Park, Thomas; Anzalone, Evan; Smith, Austin; Strickland, Dennis; Patrick, Sean

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch Systems (SLS) Block 1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. In parallel, NASA is also designing the Block 1B launch vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle is an evolution of the Block 1 vehicle and extends the capability of the NASA launch vehicle. This evolution replaces the Interim Cryogenic Propulsive Stage (ICPS) with the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). As the vehicle evolves to provide greater lift capability, increased robustness for manned missions, and the capability to execute more demanding missions so must the SLS Integrated Navigation System evolved to support those missions. This paper describes the preliminary navigation systems design for the SLS Block 1B vehicle. The evolution of the navigation hard-ware and algorithms from an inertial-only navigation system for Block 1 ascent flight to a tightly coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation system for Block 1B is described. The Block 1 GN&C system has been designed to meet a LEO insertion target with a specified accuracy. The Block 1B vehicle navigation system is de-signed to support the Block 1 LEO target accuracy as well as trans-lunar or trans-planetary injection accuracy. Additionally, the Block 1B vehicle is designed to support human exploration and thus is designed to minimize the probability of Loss of Crew (LOC) through high-quality inertial instruments and robust algorithm design, including Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) logic.

  7. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  8. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  9. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  10. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  11. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  12. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  13. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  14. Small Buildings in Earthquake Areas. Educational Building Digest 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, D.

    This booklet is intended for builders and others who actually construct small buildings in earthquake areas and not for professionally qualified architects or engineers. In outline form with sketches the following topics are discussed: general construction and design principles; foundations; earth walls; brick, block, and stone walls; timber frame…

  15. Steam-cured stabilised soil blocks for masonry construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatarama Reddy, B.V. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Lokras, S.S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). ASTRA

    1998-12-01

    Energy-efficient, economical and durable building materials are essential for sustainable construction practices. The paper deals with production and properties of energy-efficient steam-cured stabilised soil blocks used for masonry construction. Problems of mixing expansive soil and lime, and production of blocks using soil-lime mixtures have been discussed briefly. Details of steam curing of stabilised soil blocks and properties of such blocks are given. A comparison of energy content of steam-cured soil blocks and burnt bricks is presented. It has been shown that energy-efficient steam cured soil blocks (consuming 35% less thermal energy compared to burnt clay bricks) having high compressive strength can be easily produced in a decentralised manner. (orig.)

  16. Strength of masonry blocks made with recycled concrete aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Pierre; Dalati, Rouba El

    The idea of recycling concrete of demolished buildings aims at preserving the environment. Indeed, the reuse of concrete as aggregate in new concrete mixes helped to reduce the expenses related to construction and demolition (C&D) waste management and, especially, to protect the environment by reducing the development rate of new quarries. This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on masonry blocks containing aggregates resulting from concrete recycling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of recycled aggregates on compressive strength of concrete blocks. Tests were performed on series of concrete blocks: five series each made of different proportions of recycled aggregates, and one series of reference blocks exclusively composed of natural aggregates. Tests showed that using recycled aggregates with addition of cement allows the production of concrete blocks with compressive strengths comparable to those obtained on concrete blocks made exclusively of natural aggregates.

  17. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  18. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  19. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  20. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  1. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  2. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  3. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  4. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  5. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  6. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  7. Impact-Contact Analysis of Prismatic Graphite Blocks Using Abaqus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Ho; Kim, Gyeong Ho; Choi, Woo Seok

    2010-12-01

    Graphite blocks are the important core components of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. As these blocks are simply stacked in array, collisions among neighboring components may occur during earthquakes or accidents. The final objective of the research project is to develop a reliable seismic model of the stacked graphite blocks from which their behavior can be predicted and, thus, they are designed to have sufficient strength to maintain their structural integrity during the anticipated occurrences. The work summarized in this report is a first step toward the big picture and is dedicated to build a realistic impact-contact dynamics model of the graphite block using a commercial FEM package, Abaqus. The developed model will be further used to assist building a reliable lumped dynamics model of these stacked graphite components

  8. Powered Explicit Guidance Modifications and Enhancements for Space Launch System Block-1 and Block-1B Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt; Fill, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. NASA is also currently designing the next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm (of Space Shuttle heritage) for closed loop guidance. To accommodate vehicle capabilities and design for future evolutions of SLS, modifications were made to PEG for Block-1 to handle multi-phase burns, provide PEG updated propulsion information, and react to a core stage engine out. In addition, due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) and EUS carrying out Lunar Vicinity and Earth Escape missions, certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions to account for long burn arcs and target translunar and hyperbolic orbits. This paper describes the design and implementation of modifications to the Block-1 PEG algorithm as compared to Space Shuttle. Furthermore, this paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle and the required PEG enhancements. These improvements make PEG capable for use on the SLS Block-1B vehicle as part of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System.

  9. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  10. Online design of Matlab/Simulink block schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Janík

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new online tool that enables to build a Matlab/Simulink block scheme in the Internet environment. The block scheme can be designed in similar manner as it is offered by local installation of Simulink. The application was created by widely used technologies as XHTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP together with AJAX approach. The created application can be used as a supporting tool in virtual and remote laboratories.

  11. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this brief report is to make the pollution inspectorate aware of the radiation hazards involved in new building materials, such as gypsum boards and alum slate based concrete blocks whose radium content is high. Experience in Swedish housebuilding has shown that a significant increase in the radiation dose to the occupants can occur. Improved insulation and elimination of draughts in fuel conservation accentuate the problem. Norwegian investigations are referred to and OECD and Scandinavian discussions aiming at recommendations and standards are mentioned. Suggested measures by the Norwegian authorities are given. (JIW)

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose, the two major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides in human milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a porous graphitic carbon column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Réka; Jankovics, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs

    2015-11-27

    This study presents a validated, porous graphitic carbon stationary phase-based LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc). These compounds are the major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides, however the presence of their unbound form in human milk has not been examined so far. The separation of these highly related structures in their alditol form was accomplished by a gradient LC method and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis after appropriate sample preparation including size-exclusion chromatography and solid-phase extraction. Baseline separation of the components provides the selectivity for the method. Validation was performed according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guidelines and the method was found to be precise and accurate. Using our developed and validated method we were able to identify and quantify both saccharides in human milk for the first time. Based on our results the LacNAc concentration is in the range of 6.7-31μg/mL while LNB concentration decreased from 26μg/mL below the detection limit during the first week of lactation. The presence of LNB and LacNAc in human milk also implies new biological functions which can lead us closer to the understanding of the various functions of this complex biofluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  14. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  15. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  16. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  17. An electromagnetic model for post-wall waveguide building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.J.; Bekers, D.J.; Tauritz, J.L.; Vliet, van F.E.

    2010-01-01

    During the past five years, dielectric and metallic post-wall waveguides (PWWGs) have been analyzed at TNO Defence, Security and Safety, using both an integral equation approach and a modal approach. The model developed focuses on TEn0 modes facilitating the analysis of infinitelylong, straight

  18. Arjunolic acid: A promising new building block for nanochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: kgp bgopal@rediffmail.com ... Inverted vials containing the ... Compound 3 formed transparent gels in various alcohols and mixed solvents (table. 1). ... electron microscopy (SEM) after drying in vacuum. The SEM images revealed a.

  19. Are dSph galaxies Galactic building blocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph are frequently assumed to represent surviving examples of a vast now destroyed population of small systems in which many of the stars now forming the Milky Way were formed. Ongoing accretion and considerable sub-structure in the outer Galactic halo is direct evidence that there is some role for stars formed in small galaxies in populating the (outer galaxy. The evidence from stellar populations is however contradictory to this. dSph stellar populations are unlike any stars found in significant numbers in the Milky Way. The dSph are indeed small galaxies, formed over long times with low rates of star formation. Most of the stars in the Milky Way halo however seem to have formed quickly, at higher star formation rate, in gas mixed efficiently on kpc scales. The overwhelming majority of Milky Way stars, those in the Galactic thick disk and thin disk, seem to have nothing at all to do with dwarf galaxy origins.

  20. Polyhedral Boranes: A Versatile Building Block for Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Daniel Jon

    The studies described in this dissertation examine several new concepts related to polyhedral boranes and their applications towards the synthesis of novel nanoporous materials. The unique thermal and chemical robustness, rigidity, quasi-spherical geometry, and high boron content of polyhedral boranes are explored to generate materials not possible with typical organic synthons. Aside from the fundamental synthetic work, this work was also aimed at solving larger global issues such as energy storage and new routes to therapeutics. Chapter 2 highlights the discovery of the first highly porous carborane-based metal-organic framework, where the spherical nature of the carborane increases volumetric surface area without reducing pore volume. Chapter 3 examines the first tritopic carborane-based ligand and the stabilizing effect the rigid, sterically bulky carboranyl groups have on highly porous topologies not stable with typical organic ligands. Chapters 4 and 5 describe the use of polyhedral borane-based ligands as a means to influence and generate unexpected topologies. Lastly, chapter 6 explores using a simple carborane-based ligand that harnesses the power of coordination-driven assembly to rapidly generate a high boron-containing supramolecular cuboctahedron.

  1. COP9 signalosome: a provider of DNA building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    In fission yeast, the COP9 signalosome is required to activate ribonucleotide reductase for DNA synthesis. This is mediated via the ubiquitin ligase Pcu4, activation of which leads to degradation of the scaffold protein Spd1, which anchors the small ribonucleotide reductase subunit in the nucleus...

  2. Building Blocks for the Development of Electronics Employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... towards improving the quality of service delivery in the Nigerian ... discovery, this paper introduces a software development framework ..... Article 10 of the Charter for Public .... Track Performance Aspects using the metrics.

  3. Spintronic Circuits: The Building Blocks of Spin-Based Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Warman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most general situation, binary computation is implemented by means of microscopic logical gates known as transistors. According to Moore’s Law, the size of transistors will half every two years, and as these transistors reach their fundamental size limit, the quantum effects of the electrons passing through the transistors will be observed. Due to the inherent randomness of these quantum fluctuations, the basic binary logic will become uncontrollable. This project describes the basic principle governing quantum spin-based computing devices, which may provide an alternative to the conventional solid-state computing devices and circumvent the technological limitations of the current implementation of binary logic.

  4. Building blocks of social cognition: Mirror, mentalize, share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-López, Daniel; Vogeley, Kai; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Bzdok, Danilo

    2018-05-14

    During the past decade, novel approaches to study social interaction have expanded and questioned long-standing knowledge about how humans understand each other. We aim to portray and reconcile the key psychological processes and neural mechanisms underlying navigation of the social environment. Theoretical accounts mostly revolved around either abstract inferences or embodied simulations, whereas experimental studies mostly focused on theory of mind or mentalizing, empathy, and action imitation. The tension between theories of and experiments on social cognition is systematically revisited to foster new theoretical and empirical studies in the fields. We finally retrace differential impairments in social capacities as a means to re-conceptualize psychopathological disturbance in psychiatry, including schizophrenia, borderline personality, and autism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteins as Supramolecular Building Blocks for Responsive Materials and Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-20

    are shown on the left in 0.2 M  magnesium  acetate, 20 % PEG 3350.  The diffraction pattern at 3.2 Å is shown on the right.    Figure 11:   Crystalline...la r w ei gh t ( kD a) C on ce nt ra tio n (g /m L) Elution volume (mL) 825 830 835 840 845 850 855 860 865 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22...a g e             Figure 10: Crystals of Lsm  [4+1]4 (left) in 0.2 M  magnesium  acetate, 20 %  PEG 3350. The recorded  diffraction pattern at 3.2 Å is

  6. Hollow spheres: crucial building blocks for novel nanostructures and nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the latest developments in research specifically derived from the unique properties of hollow microspheres, in particular, hollow silica spheres with uniform shells. We focus on applications in nanosphere (colloidal lithography and nanophotonics. The lithography from a layer of hollow spheres can result in nanorings, from a multilayer in unique nano-architecture. In nanophotonics, disordered hollow spheres can result in antireflection coatings, while ordered colloidal crystals (CCs of hollow spheres exhibit unique refractive index enhancement upon infiltration, ideal for optical sensing. Furthermore, whispering gallery mode (WGM inside the shell of hollow spheres has also been demonstrated to enhance light absorption to improve the performance of solar cells. These applications differ from the classical applications of hollow spheres, based only on their low density and large surface area, such as catalysis and chemical sensing. We provide a brief overview of the synthesis and self-assembly approaches of the hollow spheres. We elaborate on their unique optical features leading to defect mode lasing, optomicrofluidics, and the existence of WGMs inside shell for light management. Finally, we provide a perspective on the direction towards which future research relevant to hollow spheres might be directed.

  7. 3D hollow nanostructures as building blocks for multifunctional plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    De Angelis, Francesco De; Malerba, Mario; Patrini, Maddalena; Miele, Ermanno; Das, Gobind; Toma, Andrea; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2013-01-01

    We present an advanced and robust technology to realize 3D hollow plasmonic nanostructures which are tunable in size, shape, and layout. The presented architectures offer new and unconventional properties such as the realization of 3D plasmonic hollow nanocavities with high electric field confinement and enhancement, finely structured extinction profiles, and broad band optical absorption. The 3D nature of the devices can overcome intrinsic difficulties related to conventional architectures in a wide range of multidisciplinary applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. 3D hollow nanostructures as building blocks for multifunctional plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    De Angelis, Francesco De

    2013-08-14

    We present an advanced and robust technology to realize 3D hollow plasmonic nanostructures which are tunable in size, shape, and layout. The presented architectures offer new and unconventional properties such as the realization of 3D plasmonic hollow nanocavities with high electric field confinement and enhancement, finely structured extinction profiles, and broad band optical absorption. The 3D nature of the devices can overcome intrinsic difficulties related to conventional architectures in a wide range of multidisciplinary applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Explicit Building Block Multiobjective Evolutionary Computation: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-16

    Ciencia , Tecnologia , Inovaçao do Quadro Comunitário de Apoio III de Fundaçao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia ...Phenotype Function C on n ec te d D is co n n ec te d S y m m et ri c S ca la b le S ol u ti on T y p e( s) O b je ct iv es S id e C on st ra in ts G...ni=1(xi + 1√n ) 2 ) Ptrue concave, number of decision vars VL3:MOP 3 Max(F), where F = (f1(x, y ), f2(x, y )) −π ≤ x, y ≤ π

  10. Photochromic molecules as building blocks for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Belser

    2010-01-01

    Energy and electron transfer processes can be easily induced by a photonic excitation of a donor metal complex ([Ru(bpy)3]2), which is connected via a wire-type molecular fragment to an acceptor metal complex ([Os(bpy)3]2+). The rate constant for the transfer process can be determined by emission measurements of the two connected metal complexes. The system can be modified by incorporation of a switching unit or an interrupter into the wire, influencing the transfer process. Such a molecular device corresponds to an interrupter, mimic the same function applied in molecular electronics. We have used organic switches, which show photochromic properties. By irradiation with light of different wavelengths, the switch changes its functionality by a photochemical reaction from an OFF- to an ON-state and vice versa. The ON- respectively OFF-state is manifested by a color change but also in different conductivity properties for energy and electron transfer processes. Therefore, the mentioned molecular device can work as a simple interrupter, controlling the rate of the transfer processes.

  11. Building blocks of topological quantum chemistry: Elementary band representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jennifer; Bradlyn, Barry; Wang, Zhijun; Elcoro, L.; Vergniory, M. G.; Felser, C.; Aroyo, M. I.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2018-01-01

    The link between chemical orbitals described by local degrees of freedom and band theory, which is defined in momentum space, was proposed by Zak several decades ago for spinless systems with and without time reversal in his theory of "elementary" band representations. In a recent paper [Bradlyn et al., Nature (London) 547, 298 (2017), 10.1038/nature23268] we introduced the generalization of this theory to the experimentally relevant situation of spin-orbit coupled systems with time-reversal symmetry and proved that all bands that do not transform as band representations are topological. Here we give the full details of this construction. We prove that elementary band representations are either connected as bands in the Brillouin zone and are described by localized Wannier orbitals respecting the symmetries of the lattice (including time reversal when applicable), or, if disconnected, describe topological insulators. We then show how to generate a band representation from a particular Wyckoff position and determine which Wyckoff positions generate elementary band representations for all space groups. This theory applies to spinful and spinless systems, in all dimensions, with and without time reversal. We introduce a homotopic notion of equivalence and show that it results in a finer classification of topological phases than approaches based only on the symmetry of wave functions at special points in the Brillouin zone. Utilizing a mapping of the band connectivity into a graph theory problem, we show in companion papers which Wyckoff positions can generate disconnected elementary band representations, furnishing a natural avenue for a systematic materials search.

  12. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The general method adopted for the synthesis of the monofullerene ..... derivatives form small nanoparticles with narrow size distribution,30 whereas template- ... tapping mode AFM (TM-AFM), since this method is more suited for studying soft.

  13. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Markovian Building Blocks for Individual-Based Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lars Anders Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    previous exposure to Markov chains in continuous time (see e.g. Grimmett and Stirzaker, 2001)). Markovian arrival processes are very general point processes that are relatively easy to analyse. They have, so far, been largely unknown to the ecological modelling community. The article C deals...

  15. Carbon-based building blocks for alcohol dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Mallon, Peter E.; Magnacca, Giuliana

    A biopolymer (HAL), extracted from organic compost with yield ~20%, was used to fabricate composite HAL-graphene oxide (GO) membranes. Upon thermal stabilization, HAL brings high disorder in the membrane structure, thus increasing water permeability. This feature together with the good water/etha....../ethanol perm-selectivity make GO-HAL membranes promising devices for alcohol dehydration....

  16. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  17. The building blocks of electronic records and information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Electronic Records and Information Management (e-RIM) framework is paramount for ... formulating strategies for managing, use, maintain and protect electronic records and information (e-RI).

  18. Spatiotemporal modes of climatic variability: building blocks of complex networks?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hartman, David; Paluš, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2012), s. 14275 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2012. 22.04.2012-27.04.2012, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP103/11/J068 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : climate variability * dimensionality reduction * principal component analysis * surrogate data * climate network Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  19. IRM Concepts: Building Blocks for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Darrell E.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a conceptual overview of information resources management (IRM) by synthesizing concepts put forward during the 1980s and charts opportunities to move these concepts into practice. It is argued that the reorganization required by IRM is justified by better use of resources, better decision making, and an improved corporate structure. (21…

  20. Multivalent protein assembly using monovalent self-assembling building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Sonntag, M.H.; Colditz, A.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard

  1. Nucleon pairs as the building blocks of a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajdos, M.; Zajac, K.

    1989-01-01

    The effects induced by the interplay isovesctor and isoscalar components of the residual nucleon interactions were studied in the model based on six bosons: s μ + with J=0, T=1, μ=O,±1 and p μ + with J=1, μ=0, ±1, T=0. Low-lying energy levels, E2-transitions, p-boson structure of eigenstates, percentage of α clusters, (p,t) reactions and α elastic scattering were searched in even-even 156-166 Dy and N=92, Z=56-58 nuclei. 18 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-09-01

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Representing "Us" and "Them": Building Blocks of Intergroup Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Andrew Scott; Dunham, Yarrow

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments explored whether group membership affects the acquisition of richer information about social groups. Employing a minimal-groups paradigm, 6- to 8-year-olds were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 novel social groups. Experiment 1 demonstrated that immediately following random assignment to a novel group, children were more likely to…

  4. Limits to green? Building blocks for green taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.J.; Schroten, A.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Rooijers, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the question whether a further increase in environmental taxes can contribute to achieving a sustainable economy in which depletion and climate risks should be reduced to an acceptable level for 2050. The strategy to achieve this consists of four main elements: (1) Introduction of a new CO2 tax as part of the Energy Tax; (2) Broadening of the Energy Tax to sectors such as agriculture and industry and the cancellation of subsidies and tax rebates; (3) Expansion of new tax bases for import / production of natural resources (wood, fish, meat) and space; and (4) European agenda on 'greening'. [nl

  5. Green building blocks for bio-based plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Hackmann, M.M.; Bos, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible routes to produce the most commonly used polymers from biomass. This includes vinyl polymers, polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes, and synthetic rubbers. Also the most promising newly developed polymers that can be produced from biomass are investigated.

  6. The building blocks to the architecture of a cloud platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Service (SaaS). The datacenter hardware and software is what is called the Cloud. When a Cloud is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the public, it is called a Public Cloud; the service being sold is Utility Computing. The term Private Cloud... to develop and deliver Software as a Service (SaaS). Examples of such frameworks include the following: • Different hardware architectures with different server sizes— from small, Intel-based servers to mid- or top-range servers and mainframes...

  7. Positive Attitudes: The Building Blocks of Self Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Marlene A.

    South Area Alternative School is a disciplinary center for conduct disordered adolescents in Broward County, Florida. The center is governed by a school-wide environmental structure so positive that negative behavior is met by appropriate consequences rather than punishment. The intake procedure includes a tour of the facility, discussion of…

  8. GROUPS AND TEAMS AS BUILDING BLOCKS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca ZOLTAN; Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU; Romulus VANCEA

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define and analyze the groups and teams within organization as most adequate framework that enable the collective learning. In addition the organizational learning process is presented, whose role is to identify possible changes at the organization level to become learning organization. The need to understand how the organizations learn and how they accelerate their learning process is greater today than ever. It is said that in the future, the only competitive...

  9. Understanding Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Equilibrium with Interlocking Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Nichol, Carolyn A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reaction kinetics and equilibrium are essential core concepts of chemistry but are challenging topics for many students, both at the high school and undergraduate university level. Visualization at the molecular level is valuable to aid understanding of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. This activity provides a discovery-based method to…

  10. Toxicologic Pathology: The Basic Building Block of Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health risk assessment is a critical factor in many risk management decisions. Evaluation of human health risk requires research the provides information that appropriately characterizes potential hazards from exposure. Pathology endpoints are the central response around ...

  11. Building blocks of the GIPU, Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, V; Costa, R; Cenacchi, G

    2016-06-01

    The Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology, GIPU, is a scientific organization committed to promote the art and science of Electron Microscopy (EM) in the pathology field in Italy, sharing its professional work with a public audience. The history of the GIPU goes back to 1990s when a founder group set up the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Diagnostic (GIDU) in Milan. The central focus of annual meetings was on EM, transmission and scanning one, about interesting cases in which it was instrumental in diagnosis. In the 1990s, ultrastructure was still the gold standard for cell/tissue morphology, biology, biochemistry, diagnostic pathology, and played an important role in tailored medicine. So, especially transmission EM, could play a critical role in the diagnosis of various diseases as in human as in animals. Best topics of the annual scientific meetings of the group were kidney, muscle, heart, and liver pathology, infertility, neuropathology, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, storage diseases, tumor pathology, infectious diseases, parasitology, veterinary pathology and more. Nowadays, EM is a method whose importance for diagnosis and pathology is well established: it is still essential in several pathologies, helpful in others, and welcome implemented in eclectic research pathology. Omission of EM likely makes the studies suboptimal and wasteful. So, from 2007 the name of the group has been changed to the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology (GIPU) to favor broader applications of EM also to pathology research field. During last decades, GIDU/GIPU has interconnected with international (Society for Ultrastructural Pathology) and european (European Society of Pathology and Joint Meeting with the European Electron Microscopy Working Group) scientific society, according its statute. By 1991, GIPU has had 40 members: membership in this Group is still open and welcome to all pathologists, PhD, electron microscopy technologists, pathology trainees, and researchers interested in pathology and electron microscopy. © Copyright Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia Diagnostica, Divisione Italiana della International Academy of Pathology.

  12. Building Blocks: A Quantitative Approach for Evaluating Coastal Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komali Kantamaneni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and associated factors such as global and regional sea-level rise; the upsurge in high-intensity flooding events; and coastal erosion are pulse and press disturbances that threaten to increase landslides in coastal regions. Under these circumstances; a rigorous framework is required to evaluate coastal vulnerability in order to plan for future climate change scenarios. A vast majority of coastal vulnerability assessments across the globe are evaluated at the macro level (city scale but not at the micro level (small town scale; particularly in the United Kingdom (UK. In order to fill this vital research gap; the current study established a coastal vulnerability index termed here as the Micro Town Coastal Vulnerability Index (MTCVI and then applied it to Barton-on-Sea; which is a small coastal town of the Hampshire region; England; UK. MTCVI was evaluated for Barton-on-Sea coastal vulnerability by integrating both novel and existing parameters. Results suggest that the entire shoreline frontage (2 km exhibits very high coastal vulnerability and is prone to various coastal hazards such as landslides; erosion; and wave intrusion. This suggests that Barton-on-Sea coastal amenities will require a substantial improvement in shoreline protection measures. In this study; GIS (geographic information system coastal vulnerability and landslide maps were generated; and these maps can be used by the local authorities; district councils; coastal engineers; and planners to improve and design coastal management strategies under the climate change scenarios. Meanwhile; the methodology used in this study could also be applied to any other suitable location in the world depending on the availability of the data.

  13. ChemCalc: a building block for tomorrow's chemical infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiny, Luc; Borel, Alain

    2013-05-24

    Web services, as an aspect of cloud computing, are becoming an important part of the general IT infrastructure, and scientific computing is no exception to this trend. We propose a simple approach to develop chemical Web services, through which servers could expose the essential data manipulation functionality that students and researchers need for chemical calculations. These services return their results as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) objects, which facilitates their use for Web applications. The ChemCalc project http://www.chemcalc.org demonstrates this approach: we present three Web services related with mass spectrometry, namely isotopic distribution simulation, peptide fragmentation simulation, and molecular formula determination. We also developed a complete Web application based on these three Web services, taking advantage of modern HTML5 and JavaScript libraries (ChemDoodle and jQuery).

  14. DNA-nanoparticle superlattices formed from anisotropic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Macfarlane, Robert J.; Lee, Byeongdu; Zhang, Jian; Young, Kaylie L.; Senesi, Andrew J.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2010-11-01

    Directional bonding interactions in solid-state atomic lattices dictate the unique symmetries of atomic crystals, resulting in a diverse and complex assortment of three-dimensional structures that exhibit a wide variety of material properties. Methods to create analogous nanoparticle superlattices are beginning to be realized, but the concept of anisotropy is still largely underdeveloped in most particle assembly schemes. Some examples provide interesting methods to take advantage of anisotropic effects, but most are able to make only small clusters or lattices that are limited in crystallinity and especially in lattice parameter programmability. Anisotropic nanoparticles can be used to impart directional bonding interactions on the nanoscale, both through face-selective functionalization of the particle with recognition elements to introduce the concept of valency, and through anisotropic interactions resulting from particle shape. In this work, we examine the concept of inherent shape-directed crystallization in the context of DNA-mediated nanoparticle assembly. Importantly, we show how the anisotropy of these particles can be used to synthesize one-, two- and three-dimensional structures that cannot be made through the assembly of spherical particles.

  15. Nanocellulose as Material Building Block for Energy and Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangbing

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, I will discuss the fabrications, properties and device applications of functional nanostructured paper based on nanocellulose. Nanostructures with tunable optical, electrical, ionic and mechanical properties will be discussed. Lab-scale demonstration devices, including low-cost Na-ion batteries, microbial fuel cells, solar cells, transparent transistors, actuators and touch screens will be briefly mentioned. These studies show that nanocellulose is a promising green material for electronics and energy devices.

  16. Penta-fibrillar assembly: A Building block collagen based materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a smartness in the way the penta-fibrils behave in collagen based biomaterials. It is one of the intriguing nano material with a size of about 4 nano meter diagonal size. There are several intermolecular forces that participate in the penta fibrillar assembly, which derive importance in smart behavior of collagen.

  17. Analogue Building Blocks Based on Digital CMOS Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor

    1996-01-01

    Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility...... with the design of digital circuits....

  18. Music-Making and Musical Comprehension with Robotic Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Being able to express oneself musically and experiment with music composition is traditionally determined by one’s ability to play an actual instrument with a certain degree of craftsmanship. Lack of skills may cause difficulties for children and young people to experience the joy of musical crea...

  19. Diatomaceous Fungal and Bacterial Building Blocks for Material Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-08

    Thalassiosira-templated metallic microshells. Thalassiosira, only 1mM rhodamine 6G (d) lmM, (e) I piM ,(f 100 nM R6G. 4 concentrations gave detectable...hybridized with a 27-mer 7 oligonucleotide containing a 7-mer TAG GAA TAG TTA TA AT OTT ATT AGO complementary region 2, which produces TAIOATCCTTA TACAATAATCC

  20. The Microcontroller: A Paradigm for a Robot Building Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, John; Deal, Walter F., III

    2013-01-01

    Microcontrollers are used extensively in transportation and communications technologies, in automobiles to monitor and control engine speed and performance so as to maximize fuel economy and efficiency, and by manufacturing industries to produce "smart" technology. The flexibility, imagination, and spirit that make these tiny devices so…