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Sample records for diarrhoeal illness results

  1. Helicobacter pylori colonization and diarrhoeal illness: Results of a population-based cross-sectional study in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Guenter; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori colonization may protect against diarrhoeagenic gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and the frequency of diarrhoeal episodes among adults. Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by 13 C-urea breath test. Overall, 784 adults (mean age: 48.7 ± 17.7; range 18-85 years) who participated in two epidemiological studies were included in the analysis. Overall H. pylori prevalence was 25.5%. Episodes of diarrhoea within prior 3 months were less often reported for H. pylori infected subjects compared with H. pylori negative subjects (40.2 vs. 51.6%, p = 0.016). Compared to H. pylori negative subjects the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of diarrhoea within the prior 3 months was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45-0.87) for H. pylori infected subjects. After adjustment for covariates the OR was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47-0.95). These results support the hypothesis that colonization with H. pylori may protect from gastrointestinal infections that cause diarrhoea

  2. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. intermedia from fatal cases of diarrhoeal illness in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, T.; Islam, M.; Islam, M. R.; Azad, A. K.; Huq, M. I.; Speelman, P.; Roy, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    From three fatal cases of diarrhoeal illness in Bangladesh, Yersinia species were isolated from tissues at post-mortem examination. One patient was infected with Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:7, 8 and two patients were infected with Y. intermedia. These patients were infected also with other enteric

  3. Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

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    Ramírez Toro Graciela I

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. Methods An educational intervention was delivered to communities relying on community water supplies. This intervention consisted of student operators and administrators supervising and assisting community members who voluntarily "operate" these systems. These voluntary operators had no previous training and were principally concerned with seeing that some water was delivered. The quality of that water was not something they either understood or addressed. The impact of this intervention was measured through water sampling for standard bacteriological indicators and a frank pathogen. In addition, face-to-face epidemiological studies designed to determine the base-line occurrence of diarrhoeal disease in the communities were conducted. Some 15 months after the intervention a further epidemiological study was conducted in both the intervention communities and in control communities that had not received any intervention. Results Diarrhoeal illness rates over a four week period prior to the intervention were 3.5%. Salmonella was isolated from all of 5 distributed samples prior to intervention and from only 2 of 12 samples after the intervention. In the 15 months follow-up study, illness rates were lower in the intervention compared to control communities (2.5% vs 3.6%% (RR = 0.70, 95%CI 0.43, 1.15, though this was not statistically significant. However, in the final Poisson regression model living in an intervention system (RR = 0.318; 95%CI 0.137 - 0.739 and owning a dog (RR = 0.597, 95%CI 0.145 - 0.962 was negatively associated with illness. Whilst size of system (RR = 1.006, 95%CI 1.001 - 1

  4. WATER SUPPLY AND ITS RELATION TO DIARRHOEAL DISEASES

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    Surekha Kishore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As per WHO estimates, 80% of all the diseases in developing countries including India are related to unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation. Water pollution is invariably high in community wells. As such, incidence of diarrhoeal diseases is more in the rural set up and can be partly attributed to this. About 40% of the population does not have access to safe drinking water. Objective: To establish a relationship between water supply and incidence of diarrhoeal diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sawli village, District Samudrapur (Maharashtra. The study group comprised of 75 under five children, selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected on a pre-designed questionnaire by interviewing the mothers and was analyzed using an appropriate statistical package. Results: Prevalence ofdiarrhoea was found out to be 71 %. only 8% ofthe children who were exclusively breast-fed had any episode of diarrhea. Incidence of diarrhea was high in cases that were drawing water from open wells i.e. 65.3%. Only 28.5% cases reported diarrhea and were drawing water from sanitaiy wells as against 80.32% who took water from insanitary welts. About 45.33% mothers had wrong beliefs about thecauses of diarrhea. ORSwas used in only 30.66% of the cases as a treatment modality. Conclusions: Diarrhoeal incidence was significantly high in children below 3 years of age, prevalence was least in exclusively breast fed

  5. Clinico - demographic factors associated with diarrhoeal disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of under-5 children presenting with diarrhoeal disease, and the clinicodemographic variables associated with the outcome at the emergency paediatric ward (CHER) of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South- East Nigeria. Methods: Clinical and demographic ...

  6. Early childhood diarrhoeal diseases and cognition: are we missing the rest of the iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Jessica; McTaggart, Jennifer; Guerrant, Richard L; Goldfarb, David M

    2014-11-01

    Risk factors which interfere with cognitive function are especially important during the first 2 years of life - a period referred to as early child development and a time during which rapid growth and essential development occur. Malnutrition, a condition whose effect on cognitive function is well known, has been shown to be part of a vicious cycle with diarrhoeal diseases, and the two pathologies together continue to be the leading cause of illness and death in young children in developing countries. This paper reviews the burden of early childhood diarrhoeal diseases globally and the emerging evidence of their relationship with global disparities in neurocognitive development. The strength of evidence which indicates that the severe childhood diarrhoeal burden may be implicated in cognitive impairment of children from low- and middle-income counties is discussed. Findings suggest that greater investment in multi-site, longitudinal enteric infection studies that assess long-term repercussions are warranted. Furthermore, economic analyses using the concept of human capital should play a key role in advancing our understanding of the breadth and complexities of the health, social and economic ramifications of early childhood diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections. This broadened awareness can serve to help advocate for more effective interventions, particularly in developing economies.

  7. Recent results from the ILL NSEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farago, Bela [Institute Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: farago@ill.fr

    2007-07-15

    In this paper I will try to present some recent results on less usual subjects, which I believe are forward pointing to fields which might develop faster as new sources/instruments become available. The first deals with an assembly of spherical microemulsions which under certain conditions self-organize themselves into a cubic phase. Applying contrast variation and covering the large dynamical range of NSE we just start to be able to identify the different kind of relaxations present [B. Molle, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 068305]. The second shows a nice example of diffusion of alkane chains in porous material (zeolite). Here high resolution and high intensity were needed to pinpoint the predicted 'window' effect [H. Jobic, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43(3) (2004) 364]. Finally some results on PMMA/PEO polymer blend will be shown, where the high count rate and simultaneous multi-Q measurement on IN11C made the experiment possible. Still improved resolution would be very welcome to fully extract all possible information [B. Farago, et al., Phys. Rev. E 72 (2005) 031809].

  8. An instrument for the assessment of diarrhoeal severity based on a longitudinal community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Caulfield, Laura E; Sack, David A; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Black, Robert E; Kosek, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diarrhoea is a significant contributer to morbidity and is among the leading causes of death of children living in poverty. As such, the incidence, duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes in the household are often key variables of interest in a variety of community-based studies. However, there currently exists no means of defining diarrhoeal severity that are (A) specifically designed and adapted for community-based studies, (B) associated with poorer child outcomes and (C) agreed on by the majority of researchers. Clinical severity scores do exist and are used in healthcare settings, but these tend to focus on relatively moderate-to-severe dehydrating and dysenteric disease, require trained observation of the child and, given the variability of access and utilisation of healthcare, fail to sufficiently describe the spectrum of disease in the community setting. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Santa Clara de Nanay, a rural community in the Northern Peruvian Amazon. Participants 442 infants and children 0–72 months of age. Main outcome measures Change in weight over 1-month intervals and change in length/height over 9-month intervals. Results Diarrhoeal episodes with symptoms of fever, anorexia, vomiting, greater number of liquid stools per day and greater number of total stools per day were associated with poorer weight gain compared with episodes without these symptoms. An instrument to measure the severity was constructed based on the duration of these symptoms over the course of a diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions In order to address limitations of existing diarrhoeal severity scores in the context of community-based studies, we propose an instrument comprised of diarrhoea-associated symptoms easily measured by community health workers and based on the association of these symptoms with poorer child growth. This instrument can be used to test the impact of interventions on the burden of diarrhoeal disease. PMID:24907244

  9. Expatriates ill after travel: Results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network

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    Lim Poh-Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure. Methods We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM for travel-related illness. Results Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months, and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis. Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A, and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness. Conclusions Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.

  10. Diarrhoeal disease outbreak in a rural area of Karnataka

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    Bhavana R Hiremath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute diarrhoea is the passage of 3 or more loose or watery stools in the past 24 hours with or without dehydration. Owing to WASH strategy (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene the burden of diarrheal diseases has seen a tremendous decline over the past 2 decades. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Objectives: 1. To document the factors responsible for the outbreak. 2. To provide recommendations for prevention and control of such outbreaks in future. Methods: After receiving verbal information from district office regarding outbreak of diarrhoeal disease (cholera in a town of Bijapur district, we independently conducted a cross sectional study in the affected area and collected information regarding no. of people affected since the outbreak, their age and sex distribution. A total of 3802 people were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire on 28th and 29th July, 2012. We also conducted environmental investigation regarding the source of contamination and collected 2 water samples from drinking water source. Results: All the cases were clustered in the five streets, which were consuming water from contaminated two water tanks. A total of 121 cases of diarrhoea were identified affecting 3.18% of the population. Attack rate of cholera was highest (4.5% in 25-34 years age group followed by 4.22% in 15-24 years age group. Attack rates was higher among females (3.4% compared to males (2.9%. Laboratory report stated that water samples were unfit for drinking purpose. V. Cholera (Ogawa serotype was isolated from water sample. Conclusion: Consumption of contaminated water from a newly dug bore-well had led to the diarrhea outbreak. Lack of sanitation and hygiene had worsened the situation.

  11. Diarrhoeal disease outbreak in a rural area of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana R Hiremath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute diarrhoea is the passage of 3 or more loose or watery stools in the past 24 hours with or without dehydration. Owing to WASH strategy (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene the burden of diarrheal diseases has seen a tremendous decline over the past 2 decades. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Objectives: 1. To document the factors responsible for the outbreak. 2. To provide recommendations for prevention and control of such outbreaks in future. Methods: After receiving verbal information from district office regarding outbreak of diarrhoeal disease (cholera in a town of Bijapur district, we independently conducted a cross sectional study in the affected area and collected information regarding no. of people affected since the outbreak, their age and sex distribution. A total of 3802 people were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire on 28th and 29th July, 2012. We also conducted environmental investigation regarding the source of contamination and collected 2 water samples from drinking water source. Results: All the cases were clustered in the five streets, which were consuming water from contaminated two water tanks. A total of 121 cases of diarrhoea were identified affecting 3.18% of the population. Attack rate of cholera was highest (4.5% in 25-34 years age group followed by 4.22% in 15-24 years age group. Attack rates was higher among females (3.4% compared to males (2.9%. Laboratory report stated that water samples were unfit for drinking purpose. V. Cholera (Ogawa serotype was isolated from water sample. Conclusion: Consumption of contaminated water from a newly dug bore-well had led to the diarrhea outbreak. Lack of sanitation and hygiene had worsened the situation.

  12. Expatriates ill after travel: results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Poh-Lian; Han, Pauline; Chen, Lin H; MacDonald, Susan; Pandey, Prativa; Hale, DeVon; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Loutan, Louis; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Davis, Xiaohong M; Freedman, David O

    2012-12-31

    Expatriates are a distinct population at unique risk for health problems related to their travel exposure. We analyzed GeoSentinel data comparing ill returned expatriates with other travelers for demographics, travel characteristics, and proportionate morbidity (PM) for travel-related illness. Our study included 2,883 expatriates and 11,910 non-expatriates who visited GeoSentinel clinics ill after travel. Expatriates were more likely to be male, do volunteer work, be long-stay travelers (>6 months), and have sought pre-travel advice. Compared to non-expatriates, expatriates returning from Africa had higher proportionate morbidity (PM) for malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis, and hepatitis E; expatriates from the Asia-Pacific region had higher PM for strongyloidiasis, depression, and anxiety; expatriates returning from Latin America had higher PM for mononucleosis and ingestion-related infections (giardiasis, brucellosis). Expatriates returning from all three regions had higher PM for latent TB, amebiasis, and gastrointestinal infections (other than acute diarrhea) compared to non-expatriates. When the data were stratified by travel reason, business expatriates had higher PM for febrile systemic illness (malaria and dengue) and vaccine-preventable infections (hepatitis A), and volunteer expatriates had higher PM for parasitic infections. Expatriates overall had higher adjusted odds ratios for latent TB and lower odds ratios for acute diarrhea and dermatologic illness. Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.

  13. Management of acute diarrhoeal disease at Edendale Hospital: Are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Diarrhoeal disease (DD) is a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. In South Africa (SA), it ranks as one of the top five causes of under-5 mortality. Local and global guidelines on the management of acute DD are readily available. The Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) and Essential ...

  14. Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Cumming, Oliver; Bartram, Jamie; Bonjour, Sophie; Cairncross, Sandy; Clasen, Thomas; Colford, John M; Curtis, Valerie; De France, Jennifer; Fewtrell, Lorna; Freeman, Matthew C; Gordon, Bruce; Hunter, Paul R; Jeandron, Aurelie; Johnston, Richard B; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mathers, Colin; Neira, Maria; Higgins, Julian P T

    2014-08-01

    To assess the impact of inadequate water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings. The search strategy used Cochrane Library, MEDLINE & PubMed, Global Health, Embase and BIOSIS supplemented by screening of reference lists from previously published systematic reviews, to identify studies reporting on interventions examining the effect of drinking water and sanitation improvements in low- and middle-income settings published between 1970 and May 2013. Studies including randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials with control group, observational studies using matching techniques and observational studies with a control group where the intervention was well defined were eligible. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Ottawa-Newcastle scale. Study results were combined using meta-analysis and meta-regression to derive overall and intervention-specific risk estimates. Of 6819 records identified for drinking water, 61 studies met the inclusion criteria, and of 12,515 records identified for sanitation, 11 studies were included. Overall, improvements in drinking water and sanitation were associated with decreased risks of diarrhoea. Specific improvements, such as the use of water filters, provision of high-quality piped water and sewer connections, were associated with greater reductions in diarrhoea compared with other interventions. The results show that inadequate water and sanitation are associated with considerable risks of diarrhoeal disease and that there are notable differences in illness reduction according to the type of improved water and sanitation implemented. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  15. CAN MOTHERS CARE FOR ACUTE DIARRHOEAL DISEASE OF THEIR UNDER FIVE CHILDREN EFFECTIVELY AT HOME? A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN SLUM COMMUNITY IN BANKURA

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    Eashin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing world like India. WHO & Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness ( IMNCI diarrheal management guidelines encourage mothers and caretakers to treat diarrhoea at home by giving ORS and oral rehydration therapy (ORT to reduce the duration , severity , hospitalization , overall medical costs and death . OBJECTIVES : i t o assess the Knowledge , Attitude and Practice (KAP of mothers on home care of acu te diarrhoeal diseases and ii To find out the factors affecting it , if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study was conducted for three months duration among 76 mothers of slum - dwelling under five children (2 - 59 months in Bankura . Information about KAP on management of acute diarrhoeal diseases was obtained by interview of mother using schedule based on WHO & IMNCI diarrheal management guidelines. RESULTS: In this study , majority mothers (64.7% of children were of BPL category an d mean schooling years of mothers was 7.97±4.12. Majority of mothers’ knowledge was average (66.2% and favourable attitude was (76.5%. While 72.2% mothers performed average practice ; only 9.3% of mothers performed good practice. Education , occupation and socio - economic status (SES were the influencing factors of KAP on home care of diarrhea. Conclusions : A lot of gap was still present in knowledge , attitude and practice of home management of acute diarrheal diseases in an urban slum of Bankura. Health pro viders are needed to be skilled , motivated to percolate the information to mothers regarding home care of diarrhea.

  16. An exploration of spatial patterns of seasonal diarrhoeal morbidity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, B J J; Alonso, W J; Miller, M A

    2012-07-01

    Studies of temporal and spatial patterns of diarrhoeal disease can suggest putative aetiological agents and environmental or socioeconomic drivers. Here, the seasonal patterns of monthly acute diarrhoeal morbidity in Thailand, where diarrhoeal morbidity is increasing, are explored. Climatic data (2003-2006) and Thai Ministry of Health annual reports (2003-2009) were used to construct a spatially weighted panel regression model. Seasonal patterns of diarrhoeal disease were generally bimodal with aetiological agents peaking at different times of the year. There is a strong association between daily mean temperature and precipitation and the incidence of hospitalization due to acute diarrhoea in Thailand leading to a distinct spatial pattern in the seasonal pattern of diarrhoea. Model performance varied across the country in relation to per capita GDP and population density. While climatic factors are likely to drive the general pattern of diarrhoeal disease in Thailand, the seasonality of diarrhoeal disease is dampened in affluent urban populations.

  17. Management of acute diarrhoeal disease at Edendale Hospital: Are standard treatment guidelines followed?

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    Kershinee Reddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diarrhoeal disease (DD is a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. In South Africa (SA, it ranks as one of the top five causes of under-5 mortality. Local and global guidelines on the management of acute DD are readily available. The Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs and Essential Drugs List for Hospital Level Paediatrics are a recognised standard of care for children in SA hospitals. However, children still die from this preventable disease. Objective. To determine whether doctors adhered to standard treatment guidelines when treating children under 5 years of age presenting to Edendale Hospital in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province, with acute DD. Methods. The study was a retrospective clinical audit of individual patient records. Results. One hundred and thirty-five patient records were reviewed. Forty-seven percent had a correct nutritional assessment, 41% were correctly assessed for shock and 27% for dehydration. Appropriate investigations were undertaken in 12%. Ninety-seven percent of patients had appropriate fluid plans prescribed. Zinc was prescribed in only 39% of patients, whereas 84% were appropriately not prescribed antibiotics and no patients received anti-diarrhoeal medication. In 90% of patients, the correct post-care patient referral was made, and 47% of caregivers were adequately advised about ongoing care of their children. Conclusion. This study identifies substantial non-adherence to the SA STGs for the management of young children with acute DD.

  18. A cross-sectional study on aetiology of diarrhoeal disease, India

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    S Purwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global, regional and national estimates clearly place diarrhoeal diseases as a major, albeit to an extant neglected public health problem. Deaths of children aged <5 years owing to diarrhoea was estimated to be 1.87 million at the global level (uncertainty range from 1.56 to 2.19 million, which is approximately 19% of total child deaths. Objectives: The present report is a cross-sectional study undertaken to estimate the role of various aetiological agents causing diarrhoea in North Karnataka and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Goa. Methods: Three hundred stool samples were collected from patients seeking health care at KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum; and processed for detection of various bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Results: Bacterial pathogens attributed to 65.7% of diarrhoea cases, followed by viral infection (22%, parasitic infection (16.3% and infection by Candida spp. (5.6%. The study identified Escherichia coli in general and Enteropathogenic E. coli in particular, and Group A Rotavirus to be the most frequently isolated pathogens among diarrhoea patients. Conclusion: The data generated from the current study will help the health officials for better interventional and treatment strategies for diarrhoeal diseases.

  19. Climate change and diarrhoeal disease: Perspectives for development policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    2010-01-01

    This paper points to the key role of health in development programmes and illustrates through diarrhoeal diseases as a case example, how climate change can impose increasing risks, which particularly will hit young children and the poor. The increased incidence can both be expected to emerge from...... higher temperatures and from more extreme events in particularly flooding. The number of people affected is by WHO projected to be approximately 700,000 dead and 22 mill disability adjusted life years in 2030 without climate change, so it is very important to initiate climate change adaptation measures...... that can help to reduce these risks. An attempt to start such a process i.e. has been done by the Danish Overseas Development Assistance Programme, Danida, which has conducted a climate screening of programme activities in Bangladesh. The paper presents a number of conclusions from this climate screening...

  20. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

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    Mitrou Francis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8% and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%. Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher

  1. Diarrhoea in slum children: observation from a large diarrhoeal disease hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Das, Jui; Latham, Jonathan Ross; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2014-10-01

    To determine and compare socio-demographic, nutritional and clinical characteristics of children under five with diarrhoea living in slums with those of children who do not live in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. From 1993 to 2012, a total of 28 948 under fives children with diarrhoea attended the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b. Data were extracted from the hospital-based Diarrhoea Disease Surveillance System, which comprised 17 548 under fives children from slum and non-slum areas of the city. Maternal illiteracy [aOR = 1.57; 95% confidence interval (1.36, 1.81), P-value slum-dwelling children after controlling for co-variates. Measles immunisation [0.52 (0.47, 0.59) P slum dwellers than other children in univarate analysis only. Slum-dwelling children are more malnourished, have lower immunisation rates (measles vaccination and vitamin A supplementation) and higher rates of measles, are more susceptible to diarrhoeal illness due to V. cholerae and suffer from severe dehydration more often than children from non-slum areas. Improved health and nutrition strategies should give priority to children living in urban slums. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. First results from Tyrex, the new polarized-3He filling station at ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, K.H.; Chung, R.; Guillard, V.; Humblot, H.; Jullien, D.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Petoukhov, A.; Tasset, F.

    2005-01-01

    A new filling station for nuclear polarisation of 3 He gas has been constructed at the ILL, Grenoble. The 'Tyrex' machine uses metastability-exchange optical pumping for polarising the 3 He gas at about 1 mbar pressure. The gas is then compressed up to several bars via a hydraulic titanium-alloy piston compressor. The machine can provide about 1.5 bar-l/h of polarised gas--an order-of-magnitude increase over the first filling station installed at the ILL in 1996. The compressed, polarised gas is used for polarising neutron beams for condensed-matter and fundamental physics experiments. First results are presented and examples of implementations on existing neutron instruments at ILL are described

  3. Possible anti-diarrhoeal potential of ethanol leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata in castor oil-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Patrick Emeka; Joshua, Parker Elija; Ezeonuogu, Francis Chimaobi; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Omoja, Valentine Uneojo; Umeakuana, Paschal Ugochukwu

    2015-12-01

    Chromolaena odorata is a plant commonly used traditionally to treat ailments including diarrhoea in Nigeria. The ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata was studied for its anti-diarrhoeal activity using electrolyte test and castor oil-induced diarrhoea rats' models. Acute toxicity effect of the extract was also evaluated. The extract showed a dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhoea at the tested doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weights). The protection offered by pretreatment with 400 mg/kg body weight of the ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata with regards to reductions in the incidences of faecal wetness and rate of defaecations were statistically comparable to that achieved with Lomotil, a known anti-diarrhoeic drug. The result of the electrolyte test showed that the extract pretreated groups had significantly (p<0.05) lower potassium and sodium ions in their intestinal fluid when compared with the diarrhoeic untreated controls. This is well tolerated. The results indicate that the ethanol leaf extract of C. odorata is safe and possesses anti-diarrhoeal activity with electrolyte reabsorption proposed as the possible mechanism of action.

  4. Importance of diarrhoeal disease attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene in South Africa: An overview of the burden of disease approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available factor ? 1st = HIV ? 2nd Undernutrition ? 3rd Diarrhoeal disease ? Diseases of poverty ? low birth weight, diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, and high protein-energy malnutrition ? 30% of child deaths ? HIV = 40% of child deaths...

  5. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the gl...

  6. A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. MA Bisi-Johnson, CL Obi, L Kambizi, M Nkomo. Abstract. Indigenous health system and the use of herbal plants have been recognized as pivotal in primary health care and a system to reckon with in achieving ...

  7. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Woldeab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6% were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%. Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%, as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38% as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.

  8. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at evaluating the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the stem bark of the plant. The plant was extracted using distilled water (AEPF) and tested at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses on castor oil induced diarrhoea, castor oil induced enteropooling, small intestinal transit and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in both rats ...

  9. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeab, Bizuneh; Regassa, Reta

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6%) were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%). Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%), as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38%) as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests. PMID:29743923

  10. Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhna Thiam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011–2014. Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month. There were two annual peaks in diarrhoeal incidence: one during the cold dry season and one during the rainy season. We observed a positive association between diarrhoeal incidence and high average temperature of 36 °C and above and high cumulative monthly rainfall at 57 mm and above. The association between diarrhoeal incidence and temperature was stronger in rural compared to urban settings, while higher rainfall was associated with higher diarrhoeal incidence in the urban settings. Concluding, this study identified significant health–climate interactions and calls for effective preventive measures in the health district of Mbour. Particular attention should be paid to urban settings where diarrhoea was most common in order to reduce the high incidence in the context of climatic variability, which is expected to increase in urban areas in the face of global warming.

  11. Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Sokhna; Diène, Aminata N; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Schindler, Christian; Ndione, Jacques A; Faye, Ousmane; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-09-12

    We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011-2014). Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall) for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month. There were two annual peaks in diarrhoeal incidence: one during the cold dry season and one during the rainy season. We observed a positive association between diarrhoeal incidence and high average temperature of 36 °C and above and high cumulative monthly rainfall at 57 mm and above. The association between diarrhoeal incidence and temperature was stronger in rural compared to urban settings, while higher rainfall was associated with higher diarrhoeal incidence in the urban settings. Concluding, this study identified significant health-climate interactions and calls for effective preventive measures in the health district of Mbour. Particular attention should be paid to urban settings where diarrhoea was most common in order to reduce the high incidence in the context of climatic variability, which is expected to increase in urban areas in the face of global warming.

  12. Hodgkin Illness in the childhood. Results with combined treatment of OPPA with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terselich z, Gretti

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective revision was made (not randomized) among the years 1988 and 1997, of patients histories that had entered the INC for treatment for the Hodgkin illness. All the cases, patient smaller than 16 years were studied, that had not been treated in other centers neither it had received another oncospecific treatment. The sheets or the anatomy-pathology study were revised, being remarkable that for but of 10 years the histology study is in charge of oneself pathologists' group. In total 144 patients were recruited; 29 were excluded: 2 for treatments in other centers, 17 to only have received radiotherapy, 9 to receive other outlines of treatment chemo therapeutic and a patient to reject the treatment; finally 115 patients were studied. To all they were made complete analysis of hematology with erythro sedimentation and serology for hepatitis study B and C. Biopsy of bony marrow was not made in the I and II states; echography and thorax X rays, was made to all patients but the TAC it could not be carried out to all for logistical difficulties; in some patients the corporal journey was made with gammagraphy, using gallium. The final results showed a complete answer in 100 patients (87%). There were 7 deaths: 2 for causes different to the illness, one for sepsis for klebsiella, one for cardio toxicity for anthracycline, 2 for abandonment of the treatment and 3 patients got lost. 13 patients were presented with neutropenia, 3 patients with pneumonia, 1 with chicken pox and 2 with sepsis. The global survival is of 90%

  13. Determinants of levels and changes of physical functioning in chronically ill persons: results from the GLOBE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, J; Borsboom, G; Nusselder, W; Looman, C; Schrijvers, C

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Declines in physical functioning are a common result of chronic illness, but relatively little is known about factors not directly related to severity of disease that influence the occurrence of disability among chronically ill persons. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a large number of potential determinants (sociodemographic factors, health related behaviour, structural living conditions, and psychosocial factors).
DESIGN—Longitudinal study of levels and cha...

  14. An analysis of the effectiveness of WASH interventions in relation to diarrhoeal diseases in Chipinge district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demberere, T.; Muyambo, M.; Mutengu, S.; Ncozana, T.; Manyeruke, N.

    A study to analyse the effectiveness of WASH interventions in mitigating diarrhoeal diseases in ward 22 of Chipinge district, Manicaland Province was done in 2012. The objectives of the study were to determine the existing WASH interventions in the ward, to assess the KAP on WASH interventions as a mitigation measure against diarrhoeal disease, to analyse the trend of diarrhoea from 2005 to 2011 and to analyse the behaviour change attributed to WASH interventions. Data was collected using interviews, questionnaires, FGDs and observation checklists. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 and qualitative data was analysed by developing themes related to specific objectives. Results showed that WASH interventions were in place in all the villages of ward 22 though they were inadequate. The interventions among others included borehole rehabilitation, latrine construction and Participatory Health and Hygiene Education (PHHE). The cases of diarrhoea were on the increase between 2005 and 2011 despite the various WASH interventions. It was also noted that, although the communities had knowledge on good hygiene practices, economic hardships prevented them from practicing. Behaviour change was also noticed due to an increase in the number of households with hygiene enabling facilities. It was concluded that there is need to provide more water supply and sanitation facilities in the ward. Nurses and EHTs in the ward need to intensify on Health and hygiene education. It was recommended that the duration for PHHE sessions be lengthened and that Village Health Clubs should be formed for sustainability of the health and hygiene component of the interventions. Participation of vulnerable groups such as the disabled, People Living with HIV and AIDS and child headed families should also be encouraged as their participation was seen to be very low, yet their contribution in the society is very critical.

  15. Impact of drinking water, sanitation and handwashing with soap on childhood diarrhoeal disease: updated meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Hunter, Paul R; Freeman, Matthew C; Cumming, Oliver; Clasen, Thomas; Bartram, Jamie; Higgins, Julian P T; Johnston, Richard; Medlicott, Kate; Boisson, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2018-05-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several water, sanitation and hygiene interventions were associated with lower risk of diarrhoeal morbidity. Point-of-use filter interventions with safe storage reduced diarrhoea risk by 61% (RR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.48); piped water to premises of higher quality and continuous availability by 75% and 36% (RR = 0.25 (0.09, 0.67) and 0.64 (0.42, 0.98)), respectively compared to a baseline of unimproved drinking water; sanitation interventions by 25% (RR = 0.75 (0.63, 0.88)) with evidence for greater reductions when high sanitation coverage is reached; and interventions promoting handwashing with soap by 30% (RR = 0.70 (0.64, 0.77)) vs. no intervention. Results of the analysis of sanitation and hygiene interventions are sensitive to certain differences in study methods and conditions. Correcting for non-blinding would reduce the associations with diarrhoea to some extent. Although evidence is limited, results suggest that household connections of water supply and higher levels of community coverage for sanitation appear particularly impactful which is in line with targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. © 2018 World Health Organization; licensed by WHO Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inpatient care of mentally ill people in prison: results of a year's programme of semistructured inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John L; Lyne, Maggi

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the facilities for inpatient care of mentally disordered people in prison. Design Semistructured inspections conducted by doctor and nurse. Expected standards were based on healthcare quality standards published by the Prison Service or the NHS. Setting 13 prisons with inpatient beds in England and Wales subject to the prison inspectorate's routine inspection programme during 1997-8. Main outcomes measures Appraisals of quality of care against published standards. Results The 13 prisons had 348 beds, 20% of all beds in prisons. Inpatient units had between 3 and 75 beds. No doctor in charge of inpatients had completed specialist psychiatric training. 24% of nursing staff had mental health training; 32% were non-nursing trained healthcare officers. Only one prison had occupational therapy input; two had input from a clinical psychologist. Most patients were unlocked for about 3.5 hours a day and none for more than nine hours a day. Four prisons provided statistics on the use of seclusion. The average length of an episode of seclusion was 50 hours. Conclusion The quality of services for mentally ill prisoners fell far below the standards in the NHS. Patients' lives were unacceptably restricted and therapy limited. The present policy dividing inpatient care of mentally disordered prisoners between the prison service and the NHS needs reconsideration. PMID:10764360

  17. The experience of Greek-Cypriot individuals living with mental illness: preliminary results of a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis P. Kaite

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence shows that healthcare professionals do not fully comprehend the difficulty involved in problems faced by people living with severe mental illness (SMI. As a result, mental health service consumers do not show confidence in the healthcare system and healthcare professionals, a problem related to the phenomenon of adherence to therapy. Moreover, the issue of unmet needs in treating individuals living with SMI is relared to their quality of life in a negative way. Methods A qualitative methodological approach based on the methodology of van Manen phenomenology was employed through a purposive sampling of ten people living with SMI. The aim was to explore their perceptions and interpretations regarding: a their illness, b their self-image throughout the illness, c the social implications following their illness, and d the quality of the therapeutic relationship with mental health nurses. Participants were recruited from a community mental health service in a Greek-Cypriot urban city. Data were collected through personal, semi-structured interviews. Results Several main themes were identified through the narratives of all ten participants. Main themes included: a The meaning of mental illness, b The different phases of the illness in time, c The perception of the self during the illness, d Perceptions about the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, e Social and personal consequences for participants following the diagnosis of mental illness, f Participants’ perceptions regarding mental health professionals and services and g The therapeutic effect of the research interview on the participants. Conclusions The present study provides data for the enhancement of the empathic understanding of healthcare professionals regarding the concerns and particular needs of individuals living with SMI, as well as the formation of targeted psychosocial interventions based on these needs. Overall, the present data illuminate the

  18. A reorientation strategy for reducing delirium in the critically ill. Results of an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, R; Corona, A; Praga, F; Minari, C; Giannotti, C; Castelli, A; Raimondi, F

    2012-09-01

    A wide variability in the approach towards delirium prevention and treatment in the critically ill results from the dearth of prospective randomised studies. We launched a two-stage prospective observational study to assess delirium epidemiology, risk factors and impact on patient outcome, by enrolling all patients admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) over a year. The first step - from January to June 2008 was the observational phase, whereas the second one from July to December 2008 was interventional. All the patients admitted to our ICU were recruited but those with pre-existing cognitive disorders, dementia, psychosis and disability after stroke were excluded from the data analysis. Delirium assessment was performed according with Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU twice per day after sedation interruption. During phase 2, patients underwent both a re-orientation strategy and environmental, acoustic and visual stimulation. We admitted a total of respectively 170 (I-ph) and 144 patients (II-ph). The delirium occurrence was significantly lower in (II-ph) 22% vs. 35% in (I-ph) (P=0.020). A Cox's Proportional Hazard model found the applied reorientation strategy as the strongest protective predictors of delirium: (HR 0.504, 95% C.I. 0.313-0.890, P=0.034), whereas age (HR 1.034, 95% CI: 1.013-1.056, P=0.001) and sedation with midazolam plus opiate (HR 2.145, 95% CI: 2.247-4.032, P=0.018) were negative predictors. A timely reorientation strategy seems to be correlated with significantly lower occurrence of delirium.

  19. Chronic Physical Illness and Mental Health in Children. Results from a Large-Scale Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Elgen, Irene; Gillberg, Christopher; Lie, Stein Atle; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in detecting emotional and behavioural problems among children with chronic illness (CI). Methods: Parents and teachers of a population of primary school children in Norway (n = 9430) completed a…

  20. The experience of Greek-Cypriot individuals living with mental illness: preliminary results of a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaite, Charis P; Karanikola, Maria N; Vouzavali, Foteini J D; Koutroubas, Anna; Merkouris, Anastasios; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E

    2016-10-06

    Research evidence shows that healthcare professionals do not fully comprehend the difficulty involved in problems faced by people living with severe mental illness (SMI). As a result, mental health service consumers do not show confidence in the healthcare system and healthcare professionals, a problem related to the phenomenon of adherence to therapy. Moreover, the issue of unmet needs in treating individuals living with SMI is relared to their quality of life in a negative way. A qualitative methodological approach based on the methodology of van Manen phenomenology was employed through a purposive sampling of ten people living with SMI. The aim was to explore their perceptions and interpretations regarding: a) their illness, b) their self-image throughout the illness, c) the social implications following their illness, and d) the quality of the therapeutic relationship with mental health nurses. Participants were recruited from a community mental health service in a Greek-Cypriot urban city. Data were collected through personal, semi-structured interviews. Several main themes were identified through the narratives of all ten participants. Main themes included: a) The meaning of mental illness, b) The different phases of the illness in time, c) The perception of the self during the illness, d) Perceptions about the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, e) Social and personal consequences for participants following the diagnosis of mental illness, f) Participants' perceptions regarding mental health professionals and services and g) The therapeutic effect of the research interview on the participants. The present study provides data for the enhancement of the empathic understanding of healthcare professionals regarding the concerns and particular needs of individuals living with SMI, as well as the formation of targeted psychosocial interventions based on these needs. Overall, the present data illuminate the necessity for the reconstruction of the provided mental

  1. Results from extrapleural clipping of a patent ductus arteriosus in seriously ill preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk, Orhan; Güvener, Murat; Coşkun, Isa; Tünel, Hüseyin Ali

    2011-12-01

    Minithoracotomy for extrapleural closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in seriously ill patients offers a fast and less invasive alternative to conventional transpleural ductal closure. This study reports the immediate postoperative clinical outcomes for 24 extrapleurally clipped premature infants presenting with congestive heart failure in high-risk comorbidity status between March 2007 and November 2010. The demographics, preoperative clinical characteristics, and postoperative outcomes of the patients, including echocardiographic assessments, were evaluated. No surgery-related mortalities occurred. Four mortalities occurred after surgery due to sepsis and bleeding diathesis. All 20 surviving patients exhibited normal left ventricular dimensions and systolic function in the immediate follow-up period. The study shows that extrapleural clip closure in seriously ill premature infants has an acceptable overall short-term mortality and complication rate with a high rate of ductal closure.

  2. [Characteristics of Hospitalized Mentally ill Spanish Migrants in Germany - Results of a Statistical Reanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Stauber, J; Valdés-Stauber, M A

    2015-10-01

    To draft a clinical profile of mentally ill first-generation Spanish immigrants in Germany treated in a special setting in their native language and to identify possible correlations between time of onset of a mental disorder and migration and also between degree of utilization and clinical as well as care variables. Statistical reanalysis of individual data (n = 100) of a previously published descriptive study with aggregated data corresponding to 15 variables. Correlations are calculated using chi-square as well as Fisher's exact test. Multivariate regression and logistic models were conducted. In addition to the explained variance of the models (R(2)), analyses of residuals as well as post-hoc power analyses (1-β) were performed. A quarter of the sample (26 %) was mentally ill before migration; most of the patients received treatment very late (about 10 years after onset) and became chronically ill. Half of the sample shows a relevant somatic comorbidity and large average lengths of inpatient stays (54 days). In 16 % of treated cases, repatriation had to be organized. The degree of chronicity correlates with mental illness prior to migration. Severe mood disorders and psychoses occur late after having migrated, addictions and neurotic disorders are equally distributed over time. Migration can not be set in a causal relationship with the development of mental disorders, although there is a positive correlation between affective disorders and the duration of the migration status. Chronicity is related to an outbreak of the disease before migration. The sample is relatively homogeneous (one nationality, first generation), but loses epidemiological representativeness (not related to a catchment area). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The global burden of childhood coeliac disease: a neglected component of diarrhoeal mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Coeliac disease has emerged as an increasingly recognised public health problem over the last half-century, and is now coming to be seen as a global phenomenon, despite a profound lack of globally representative epidemiological data. Since children with coeliac disease commonly present with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition, diagnosis is often overlooked, particularly in poorer settings where children often fail to thrive and water-borne infectious diarrhoeas are common. This is the first attempt to make global estimates of the burden of coeliac disease in childhood. METHODS: We built a relatively crude model of childhood coeliac disease, incorporating estimates of population prevalence, probability of non-diagnosis, and likelihood of mortality among the undiagnosed across all countries from 1970 to 2010, based around the few available data. All our assumptions are stated in the paper and the model is available as a supplementary file. FINDINGS: Our model suggests that in 2010 there were around 2.2 million children under 5 years of age living with coeliac disease. Among these children there could be 42,000 deaths related to coeliac disease annually. In 2008, deaths related to coeliac disease probably accounted for approximately 4% of all childhood diarrhoeal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although coeliac disease may only account for a small proportion of diarrhoeal mortality, these deaths are not preventable by applying normal diarrhoea treatment guidelines, which may even involve gluten-based food supplements. As other causes of diarrhoeal mortality decline, coeliac disease will become a proportionately increasing problem unless consideration is given to trying gluten-free diets for children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.

  4. Effect of eliminating open defecation on diarrhoeal morbidity: an ecological study of Nyando and Nambale sub-counties, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Njuguna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defecating in the open predisposes people to soil transmitted helminthes and diarrhoeal diseases. An estimated 5.6 million Kenyans defecate in the open. Kenya launched a program to eradicate open defecation by 2013 in the rural areas. By end of 2013, only two sub-counties had eliminated open defecation. These are Nambale and Nyando. The study looked at the impact of eradicating open defecation on diarrhea prevalence among children in these two sub-counties. Methods Data on diarrhoea morbidity among children under 5 years was extracted from the Kenya Health Information System for all the sub-counties in Busia and Kisumu counties for 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively. Prevalence was calculated for each sub-county in Kisumu for comparison with Nyando’s. Prevalence was also calculated for each sub-county in Busia County and compared to that of Nambale sub-county. A Mann–Whitney U Test was done to test the null hypothesis that diarrhoea prevalence was similar in both open defecation and open defecation free sub-counties. Results A Mann–Whitney U Test revealed significant difference in diarrhoeal prevalence of open defecation sub-counties (Md = 18.4, n = 34 and open defecation free sub-counties (Md = 9.8, n = 5, U = 9, z = −3.2, p = .001. Among the two Counties, Nambale had the lowest prevalence. It recorded a decline from 9.8 to 5.7 % across the three years. Prevalence for diarrhoea cases in Nyando declined from 19.1 to 15.2 % across the three years. Nyando initially had the second highest prevalence in Kisumu County and by 2014 it had the lowest prevalence. Conclusions The two sub-counties with open defecation free status had lower prevalence of diarrhoea cases compared to sub-counties which were yet to attain open defecation free status. This suggests that elimination of open defecation may reduce the number of diarrhoea cases.

  5. The Impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy on Childhood Diarrhoeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Eight hundred and ninety one patients presented in the DTU over the one-year period in 1993/94 compared to 109 patients over the same period in 1997/98. There was a significantly higher mean duration of diarrhoea before presentation in the 1993/94 group (58.3 ± 13 hours) compared to the 1997/98 group (25.7 ...

  6. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema: results from the Burden of Illness Study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen; Hautamaki, Emily; Sisic, Zlatko; Wait, Suzanne; Boysen, Henrik B

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients' lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical and emotional impacts. One hundred eighty-six patients participated; 59% reported having an attack at least once a month, 67% reported moderate-to-severe pain during their last attack, and 74% reported moderate-to-severe swelling. The most common sites of the last attack were the abdomen and extremities; 24% experienced an attack in more than one site. The impact of HAE on daily activities was high during attacks and did not vary significantly by body site affected; patients also reported that HAE impacted their daily activities between attacks. Patients reported substantial anxiety about future attacks, traveling, and passing HAE to their children. Based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, 38 and 14% had clinically meaningful anxiety and depression, respectively. Despite standard of care, HAE patients still have frequent and painful attacks. Patients experience substantial impairment physically and emotionally both during and between attacks. A better understanding of these effects may help in the clinical management of HAE patients.

  7. Care challenges for informal caregivers of chronically ill lung patients: results from a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautun, Heidi; Werner, Anne; Lurås, Hilde

    2012-02-01

    The article aims to answer who the informal caregivers of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are, what kind of help they provide, and how they experience providing help to the patient. Data from a questionnaire survey to next of kin of COPD patients carried through in Norway in December 2009 and January 2010 is explored. About 70% of the patients have one or more informal caregivers, and a majority of the caregivers is the patient's spouse, most often a wife. The help provided is, to a large extent, practical help like housework, garden work, and shopping. Another important support is to accompany the patient to health care. About 45% of the caregivers are part of the work force. Rather few of the respondents experience the caregiving as so demanding that they have chosen to work part-time or quit working. The most demanding part of being an informal caregiver is an overall worrying for the patient. Paid sick leaves for caregivers that are employed, and hospital-at-home programmes that provide education and surveillance to the patient and his/her family through different phases of the illness, are policy means that both can help the informal caregivers to manage daily life and reduce the pressure on the formal healthcare and long-term care services in the future.

  8. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Added water related diarrhoeal burden due to HIV/AIDS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to proper water, improved sanitation and hygiene, is the main risk factor attributable to diarrhoeal-related disease in the country. Of the 48 million people in South Africa, approximately 3.3 million people still lack access...

  9. Genetic characterization of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santanu; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Nataro, James P; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Shigella spp. isolated from diarrhoeal and asymptomatic children aged up to 5 years were analysed in this study. In total, 91 and 17 isolates were identified from diarrhoeal (case) and asymptomatic (control) children, respectively. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of integrons, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), virulence-associated genes and Shigella pathogenicity island (SH-PAI). The majority of the Shigella spp. from cases (68.1%) and controls (82.3%) were found to be resistant to fluoroquinolones. Integron carriage was detected more in cases (76.9%) than in controls (35.5%). Atypical class 1 integron was detected exclusively in Shigella flexneri from cases but not from the controls. PMQR genes such as aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS1 were detected in 82.4 and 14.3% of the isolates from cases and in 53 and 17.6% in controls, respectively. Shigella isolates from cases as well as from controls were positive for the invasive plasmid antigen H-encoding gene ipaH. The other virulence genes such as virF, sat, setA, setB, sen and ial were detected in Shigella isolates in 80.2, 49.4, 27.4, 27.4, 80.2 and 79.1% of cases and in 64.7, 52.9, 17.6, 17.6, 64.7 and 64.7% of controls, respectively. The entire SH-PAI was detected in S. flexneri serotype 2a from cases and controls. In an isolate from a control child, the SH-PAI was truncated. Integrons, PMQR and virulence-encoding genes were detected more frequently in cases than in controls. In diarrhoea endemic areas, asymptomatic carriers may play a crucial role in the transmission of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. with all the putative virulence genes. © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Religious versus Conventional Psychotherapy for Major Depression in Patients with Chronic Medical Illness: Rationale, Methods, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper (1 reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2 discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3 describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4 presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients’ religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes.

  11. Perceived quality of chronic illness care is associated with self-management: Results of a nationwide study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtum, L; Heijmans, M; Rijken, M; Groenewegen, P

    2016-04-01

    Healthcare providers are increasingly expected to help chronically ill patients understand their own central role in managing their illness. The aim of this study was to determine whether experiencing high-quality chronic illness care and having a nurse involved in their care relate to chronically ill people's self-management. Survey data from 699 people diagnosed with chronic diseases who participated in a nationwide Dutch panel-study were analysed using linear regression analysis, to estimate the association between chronic illness care and various aspects of patients' self-management, while controlling for their socio-demographic and illness characteristics. Chronically ill patients reported that the care they received was of high quality to some extent. Patients who had contact with a practise nurse or specialised nurse perceived the quality of the care they received as better than patients who only had contact with a GP or medical specialist. Patients' perceptions of the quality of care were positively related to all aspects of their self-management, whereas contact with a practise nurse or specialised nurse in itself was not. Chronically ill patients who have the experience to receive high-quality chronic illness care that focusses on patient activation, decision support, goal setting, problem solving, and coordination of care are better self-managers. Having a nurse involved in their care seems to be positively valued by chronically ill patients, but does not automatically imply better self-management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. [Alcoholism: definition, diagnosis, illness concept, follow-up, results and costs of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerlein, W

    1991-02-01

    The article starts with a review on the definition of alcoholism stressing the useful differentiation between alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. On the basis of this definition the principles of the diagnosis of alcoholism are demonstrated. The disease concept of alcoholism is discussed in detail. Then the aims, the structure and the results of the therapy for alcoholics are briefly described. The article concludes with a short cost-benefit analysis of the alcoholism treatment.

  13. Burden of illness in systemic lupus erythematosus: results from a UK patient and carer online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, T; Davidson, A; Newman, D; Buck, G; D'Cruz, D

    2017-09-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on patients and carers. Methods Adults with SLE and carers of SLE patients completed a UK-specific online survey covering many aspects of the disease. Surveys were developed in collaboration with an NHS lupus unit and a lupus patient organization. Results A total of 121 patients and 31 carers completed the surveys. Of the 70% of patients initially misdiagnosed with another condition, 59% received treatment for the misdiagnosis. Fatigue was the most debilitating symptom, experienced daily by 79% of patients. The proportion of patients not reporting flares to healthcare providers varied with flare severity: mild flares (43%), moderate flares (15%) and severe flares (5%). Most patients (89%) reported reduced ability to socialize, and 76% had changed employment; of these, 52% stopped working completely. Over one-half (52%) of carers in paid employment missed time from work, and 55% of carers reported a worsened financial status. Most carers (87%) experienced interference with social activities. Conclusion SLE is commonly misdiagnosed and has a considerable impact on the physical, social and financial status of patients and carers. Increased awareness of the disease among healthcare providers and employers of patients and their carers is needed.

  14. Motivation for Psychotherapy and Illness Beliefs in Turkish Immigrant Inpatients in Germany: Results of a Cultural Comparison Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hanna; Bockel, Luisa; Mewes, Ricarda

    2015-03-01

    Some immigrant populations, for instance, Turkish immigrants, suffer from worse mental health than the general population. Moreover, psychotherapeutic treatment does not work well in this group. This might be explained by lower motivation for psychotherapy and particular illness beliefs as important early predictors of treatment outcome. We investigate differences in these predictors between Turkish immigrant inpatients and inpatients without a migration background and evaluate whether particular illness beliefs have a negative impact on motivation for psychotherapy. Turkish immigrant inpatients and inpatients without a migration background (N = 100), suffering from depressive disorder, somatoform disorder, and/or adjustment disorder, completed questionnaires assessing motivation for psychotherapy, depressive and somatic symptoms, illness perception, illness-related locus of control, and causal illness attributions. Despite a higher symptom burden, motivation for psychotherapy was lower in Turkish immigrant inpatients than in inpatients without a migration background (d = 0.54). This was fully explained by stronger beliefs in supernatural causes of illness and higher fatalistic-external illness-related locus of control in the Turkish immigrant sample (mediation analysis; R (2) = 0.27). Turkish immigrants believe in supernatural or fatalistic causes of illness and fatalistic-external locus of control to a greater extent than German inpatients without a migration background. These beliefs reduce motivation for psychotherapy and need to be addressed in psychotherapeutic treatment in order to secure positive treatment outcomes.

  15. Can mothers safely prepare labon-gur salt-sugar solution after demonstration in a diarrhoeal hospital?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, M A; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Begum, S

    1992-01-01

    Home-based salt-sugar solution (SSS) prepared with labon (locally produced sea salt) and gur (unrefined brown sugar) has been recommended as a cheap, locally available and a simple tool to prevent and treat diarrhoeal dehydration. Preparation of labon-gur SSS is demonstrated to the patients...... and the attendants at ICDDR, Bangladesh. To evaluate performances, 150 mothers were asked to measure labon and gur by finger pinch and first method and 100 mothers measured half a seer of water to prepare labon-gur SSS, shortly after the demonstration sessions. 4.0% of the samples exceeded the upper safety limit...... this knowledge. Our study suggests that demonstration of home-based SSS in a diarrhoeal hospital may positively affect health education and that health personnel should actively participate in increasing health awareness....

  16. A new device for the prevention of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients: Results of the European Angel Catheter Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccone, Fabio S; Bunker, Nicholas; Waldmann, Carl; De Backer, Daniel; Brohi, Karim; Jones, Robert G; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of critical illness. In trauma and neurosurgical patients with contraindications to anticoagulation, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been used to prevent PE, but their associated long-term complication rates and difficulties associated with filter removal have limited their use. The Angel catheter is a temporary device, which combined an IVC filter with a triple-lumen central venous catheter (IVC filter-catheter) and is intended for bedside placement and removal when no longer indicated. This study presents data from a European Registry of 60 critically ill patients in whom the IVC filter-catheter was used to prevent PE. The patients were all at high risk of PE development or recurrence and had contraindications to anticoagulation. The primary end points of this study were to evaluate the safety (in particular, the presence of infectious or thrombotic events) and effectiveness (the numbers of PEs and averted PEs) of the IVC filter-catheter. The main diagnosis before catheter insertion was major trauma in 33 patients (55%), intracerebral hemorrhage or stroke in 9 (15%), a venous thromboembolic event in 9 (15%), and active bleeding in 6 (10%). The IVC filter-catheter was placed as prophylaxis in 51 patients (85%) and as treatment in the 9 patients (15%) with venous thromboembolic event. The devices were inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopic guidance in 54 patients (90%) and within a median of 4 days after hospital admission. They were left in place for a mean of 6 days (4-8 days). One patient developed a PE, without hemodynamic compromise; two PEs were averted. No serious adverse events were reported. Early bedside placement of an IVC filter-catheter is possible, and our results suggest that this is a safe, effective alternative to short-term PE prophylaxis for high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. Therapeutic study, level V.

  17. Antimicrobial Sysceptibility Pattern of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC in Paediatric Diarrhoeal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimu Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC mediated infantile diarrhoea among children is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of EPEC strains isolated from children under 5 years of age was studied. Stool samples from 272 patients with diarrhoea were collected from two tertiary care hospitals. Out of 272 stool samples, 20 (7.35% isolates were identified as EPEC on the basis of presence of bfpA gene detected by polymerase chain reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on these EPEC strains by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that the EPEC isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin (100%, nalidixic acid (95% and tetracycline (95% and were sensitive to ceftazidime (95%, cefotaxime (90%, ceftriaxone (95%, imipenem (100% and levofloxacin (85%. Isolation of EPEC is of great importance since they are responsible for acute diarrhoeal diseases in large number of children under the age of five years. The high antimicrobial resistance observed in our study indicates indiscriminate or improper use of antimicrobials, besides the risks of self-medication. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2014; 8(1: 12-16

  18. A novel adjuvanted capsule based strategy for oral vaccination against infectious diarrhoeal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Christopher J H; McNeela, Edel A; Longet, Stephanie; Tobias, Joshua; Aversa, Vincenzo; McEntee, Craig P; Rosa, Monica; Coulter, Ivan S; Holmgren, Jan; Lavelle, Ed C

    2016-07-10

    Diarrhoeal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and cholera imposing a significant global burden. There is currently no licensed vaccine for ETEC. Development of new nonliving oral vaccines has proven difficult due to the physicochemical and immunological challenges associated with the oral route. This demands innovative delivery solutions to protect antigens, control their release and build in immune-stimulatory activity. We describe the Single Multiple Pill® (SmPill®) vaccine formulation which combines the benefits of enteric polymer coating to protect against low gastric pH, a dispersed phase to control release and aid the solubility of non-polar components and an optimized combination of adjuvant and antigen to promote mucosal immunity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this system with whole cell killed E. coli overexpressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), JT-49. Alpha-galactosylceramide was identified as a potent adjuvant within SmPill® that enhanced the immunogenicity of JT-49. The bacteria associated with the dispersed phase were retained within the capsules at gastric pH but released at intestinal pH. Vaccination with an optimized SmPill® formulation promoted CFA/I-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in the intestinal mucosa in addition to serum IgG and a solubilized adjuvant was indispensable for efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do preventive interventions for children of mentally ill parents work? Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanhäuser, Martina; Lemmer, Gunnar; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Christiansen, Hanna

    2017-07-01

    The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most significant causes of psychiatric morbidity. Several risk factors for children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) have been identified in numerous studies and meta-analyses. Many interventions have been developed for this high-risk group, but data about their efficacy are heterogeneous. The current meta-analysis reports on 96 articles including 50 independent samples from randomized controlled trials quantifying effects of preventive interventions for COPMI. Random effect models resulted in small, though significant Effect Sizes (ES) for programs enhancing the mother-infant interaction (ES = 0.26) as well as mothers' (ES = 0.33) and children's (ES = 0.31) behavior that proved to be stable over the 12-month follow-up, except for infants' behavior. Interventions for children/adolescents resulted in significant small effects for global psychopathology (ES = 0.13), as well as internalizing symptoms (ES = 0.17), and increased significantly over time, with externalizing symptoms reaching significance in the follow-up assessments as well (ES = 0.17). Interventions addressing parents and children jointly produced overall larger effects. Higher study quality was associated with smaller effects. There is a dearth of high quality studies that effectively reduce the high risk of COPMI for the development of mental disorders.

  20. Knowledge, perception, and management skills of mothers with under-five children about diarrhoeal disease in indigenous and resettlement communities in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-03-01

    As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea.

  1. Correlates of Mental Illness and Wellbeing in Children: Are They the Same? Results From the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fitzsimons, Emla

    2016-09-01

    To investigate a framework of correlates of both mental illness and wellbeing in a large, current, and nationally representative sample of children in the United Kingdom. An ecologic framework of correlates including individual (sociodemographic and human capital), family, social, and wider environmental factors were examined in 12,347 children aged 11 years old from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Mental illness and wellbeing scores were standardized to allow comparisons, and the variance explained by the different predictors was estimated. Mental illness and wellbeing were weakly correlated in children (r = 0.2), and their correlates were similar in some instances (e.g., family structure, sibling bullying, peer problems) but differed in others (e.g., family income, perceived socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, health status, neighborhood safety). The predictors included in the study explained 47% of the variance in symptoms of mental illness, with social relationships, home environment, parent health, cognitive ability, socioeconomic status, and health factors predicting large amounts of variance. A comparatively lower 26% of the variance in wellbeing was explained by the study variables, with wider environment, social relationships, perceived socioeconomic status, and home environment predicting the most variance. Correlates of children's mental illness and wellbeing are largely distinct, stressing the importance of considering these concepts separately and avoiding their conflation. This study highlights the relevance of these findings for understanding social gradients in mental health through the life course and the conceptualization and development of mental illness and wellbeing in childhood as precursors to lifelong development in these domains. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of employment for people with severe mental illness : results of an international six-centre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catty, Jocelyn; Lissouba, Pascale; White, Sarah; Becker, Thomas; Drake, Robert E.; Fioritti, Angelo; Knapp, Martin; Lauber, Christoph; Roessler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Van Busschbach, Jooske; Wiersma, Durk; Burns, Tom; Rossler, W.

    Background An international six-centre randomised controlled trial comparing individual placement and support (IPS) with usual vocational rehabilitation for people with serious mental illness found IPS to be more effective for all vocational outcomes. Aims To determine which patients with severe

  3. A Review of the Mechanism of Injury and Treatment Approaches for Illness Resulting from Exposure to Water-Damaged Buildings, Mold, and Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Hope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are increasingly being asked to diagnose and treat people made ill by exposure to water-damaged environments, mold, and mycotoxins. In addition to avoidance of further exposure to these environments and to items contaminated by these environments, a number of approaches have been used to help persons affected by exposure to restore their health. Illness results from a combination of factors present in water-damaged indoor environments including, mold spores and hyphal fragments, mycotoxins, bacteria, bacterial endotoxins, and cell wall components as well as other factors. Mechanisms of illness include inflammation, oxidative stress, toxicity, infection, allergy, and irritant effects of exposure. This paper reviews the scientific literature as it relates to commonly used treatments such as glutathione, antioxidants, antifungals, and sequestering agents such as Cholestyramine, charcoal, clay and chlorella, antioxidants, probiotics, and induced sweating.

  4. Recruitment, Methods, and Descriptive Results of a Physiologic Assessment of Latino Farmworkers: The California Heat Illness Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane C; Castro, Javier; Armitage, Tracey L; Vega-Arroyo, Alondra J; Moyce, Sally C; Tancredi, Daniel J; Bennett, Deborah H; Jones, James H; Kjellstrom, Tord; Schenker, Marc B

    2017-07-01

    The California heat illness prevention study (CHIPS) devised methodology and collected physiological data to assess heat related illness (HRI) risk in Latino farmworkers. Bilingual researchers monitored HRI across a workshift, recording core temperature, work rate (metabolic equivalents [METs]), and heart rate at minute intervals. Hydration status was assessed by changes in weight and blood osmolality. Personal data loggers and a weather station measured exposure to heat. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect demographic and occupational information. California farmworkers (n = 588) were assessed. Acceptable quality data was obtained from 80% of participants (core temperature) to 100% of participants (weight change). Workers (8.3%) experienced a core body temperature more than or equal to 38.5 °C and 11.8% experienced dehydration (lost more than 1.5% of body weight). Methodology is presented for the first comprehensive physiological assessment of HRI risk in California farmworkers.

  5. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  6. How effective is good domestic kitchen hygiene at reducing diarrhoeal disease in developed countries? A systematic review and reanalysis of the UK IID study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Clare

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess whether domestic kitchen hygiene is an important contributor to the development of diarrhoea in the developed world. Methods Electronic searches were carried out in October 2006 in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane central register of clinical trials and CINAHL. All publications, irrespective of study design, assessing food hygiene practices with an outcome measure of diarrhoea were included in the review. All included studies underwent data extraction and the data was subsequently analysed. The analysis was conducted by qualitative synthesis of the results. Given the substantial heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures meta-analysis was not done. In addition the existing dataset of the UK IID study was reanalysed to investigate possible associations between self-reported diarrhoea and variables indicative of poor domestic kitchen hygiene Results Some 14 studies were finally included in subsequent analyses. Of the 14 studies included in this systematic review, 11 were case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional surveys, and 1 RCT. Very few studies identified any significant association with good environmental kitchen hygiene. Although some of the variables in the reanalysis of the UK IID study were statistically significant no obvious trend was seen. Conclusion The balance of the available evidence does not support the hypothesis that poor domestic kitchen hygiene practices are important risk factors for diarrhoeal disease in developed countries.

  7. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Hulbert, Sabina; Cheung, Eric; Bradford, Stephen; Gray, Richard

    2014-02-27

    People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. ISRCTN12582470.

  8. The joint effects of water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease: a multicountry analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Westphal, Joslyn A; Kenney, Brooke; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-03-01

    To assess whether the joint effects of water and sanitation infrastructure, are acting antagonistically (redundant services preventing the same cases of diarrhoeal disease), independently, or synergistically; and to assess how these effects vary by country and over time. We used data from 217 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 74 countries between 1986 and 2013. We used modified Poisson regression to assess the impact of water and sanitation infrastructure on the prevalence of diarrhoea among children under 5. The impact of water and sanitation varied across surveys, and adjusting for socio-economic status drove these estimates towards the null. Sanitation had a greater effect than water infrastructure when all 217 surveys were pooled; however, the impact of sanitation diminished over time. Based on survey data from the past 10 years, we saw no evidence for benefits in improving drinking water or sanitation alone, but we estimated a 6% reduction of both combined (prevalence ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence limit 0.91-0.98). Water and sanitation interventions should be combined to maximise the number of cases of diarrhoeal disease prevented in children under 5. Further research should identify the sources of variability seen between countries and across time. These national surveys likely include substantial measurement error in the categorisation of water and sanitation, making it difficult to interpret the roles of other pathways. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Best candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions in chronic low back pain: results of a theory-driven predictor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemonsma, Petra C; Stuvie, Ilse; Roorda, Leo D; Vollebregt, Joke A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Lettinga, Ant T

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify treatment-specific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic non-specific low back pain rehabilitation aim to reduce the heterogeneity of the population of patients who are suitable for rehabilitation treatment in general. Three treatment-specific predictors were studied in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain receiving cognitive treatment of illness perceptions: a rational approach to problem-solving, discussion skills and verbal skills. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to assess their predictive value. Short-term changes in physical activity, measured with the Patient-Specific Functioning List, were the outcome measure for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions effect. A total of 156 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain participated in the study. Rational problem-solving was found to be a significant predictor for the change in physical activity. Discussion skills and verbal skills were non-significant. Rational problem-solving explained 3.9% of the total variance. The rational problem-solving scale results are encouraging, because chronic non-specific low back pain problems are complex by nature and can be influenced by a variety of factors. A minimum score of 44 points on the rational problem-solving scale may assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions.

  10. Existing equations to estimate lean body mass are not accurate in the critically ill: Results of a multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisey, Lesley L; Mourtzakis, Marina; Kozar, Rosemary A; Compher, Charlene; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-12-01

    Lean body mass (LBM), quantified using computed tomography (CT), is a significant predictor of clinical outcomes in the critically ill. While CT analysis is precise and accurate in measuring body composition, it may not be practical or readily accessible to all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we assessed the agreement between LBM measured by CT and four previously developed equations that predict LBM using variables (i.e. age, sex, weight, height) commonly recorded in the ICU. LBM was calculated in 327 critically ill adults using CT scans, taken at ICU admission, and 4 predictive equations (E1-4) that were derived from non-critically adults since there are no ICU-specific equations. Agreement was assessed using paired t-tests, Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median LBM calculated by CT was 45 kg (IQR 37-53 kg) and was significantly different (p LBM (error ranged from 7.5 to 9.9 kg), compared with LBM calculated by CT, suggesting insufficient agreement. Our data indicates a large bias is present between the calculation of LBM by CT imaging and the predictive equations that have been compared here. This underscores the need for future research toward the development of ICU-specific equations that reliably estimate LBM in a practical and cost-effective manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...

  12. Is the apparent decrease in injury and illness rates in construction the result of changes in reporting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Laura S; Dong, Xiuwen; Carre, Francoise; Ringen, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Injury rates in all industries and in construction in particular have been declining. Inconsistencies in the information suggest some of the apparent decrease may be due to changes in the ways injuries are treated, misclassification of employees, or underreporting. Lost-time injury rates for the largest construction employers declined by as much as 92% between 1988 and 1999. Yet the rate for cases with restricted work activity actually increased from 0.7 to 1.2 per 100 full-time workers between 1990 and 2000, and fatalities among construction workers remain high. In Massachusetts, at least 14% of construction employers misclassified workers as independent contractors, with the effect that injuries to these workers are not recordable. Studies that compare OSHA logs with other data sources find that the OSHA logs do not include a significant proportion of injuries and illnesses identified elsewhere.

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  14. Insomnia, Nightmares, and Chronotype as Markers of Risk for Severe Mental Illness: Results from a Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaves, Bryony; Porcheret, Kate; Tsanas, Athanasios; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel; Harrison, Paul J; Wulff, Katharina; Goodwin, Guy M

    2016-01-01

    To group participants according to markers of risk for severe mental illness based on subsyndromal symptoms reported in early adulthood and evaluate attributes of sleep across these risk categories. An online survey of sleep and psychiatric symptomatology (The Oxford Sleep Survey) was administered to students at one United Kingdom university. 1403 students (undergraduate and postgraduate) completed the survey. The median age was 21 (interquartile range = 20-23) and 55.60% were female. The cross-sectional data were used to cluster participants based on dimensional measures of psychiatric symptoms (hallucinations, paranoia, depression, anxiety, and (hypo)mania). High, medium, and low symptom groups were compared across sleep parameters: insomnia symptoms, nightmares, chronotype, and social jet lag. Insomnia symptoms, nightmares frequency, and nightmare-related distress increased in a dose-response manner with higher reported subsyndromal psychiatric symptoms (low, medium, and high). The high-risk group exhibited a later chronotype (mid sleep point for free days) than the medium- or low-risk group. The majority of participants (71.7%) in the high-risk group screened positive for insomnia and the median nightmare frequency was two per 14 days (moderately severe pathology). Insomnia, nightmares, and circadian phase delay are associated with increased subsyndromal psychiatric symptoms in young people. Each is a treatable sleep disorder and might be a target for early intervention to modify the subsequent progression of psychiatric disorder. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Animal models of cachexia and sarcopenia in chronic illness: Cardiac function, body composition changes and therapeutic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Saitoh, Masakazu; Doehner, Wolfram; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Markus; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness that is characterized by the loss of body weight consisting of muscle and fat mass wasting. Sarcopenia is defined as the ageing related loss of muscle mass in health and disease that may not have an effect on body weight. As millions of patients are in cachectic or sarcopenic states, both conditions contribute to high numbers to death worldwide. A number of treatments have been proposed for cachexia and sarcopenia, but these are either in the preclinical stage or in clinical trials and hence not available to the general population. Particularly in cachexia there is a massive problem of recruiting patients for trials and also with the follow-up, due to the seriousness of the disease. This underlines the importance of well-characterized animal models. Obviously, most of the widely used cachexia and sarcopenia animal models have limitations in reproducibility of the condition and novel models are warranted in this context. The key findings of developing models in the field of cachexia and sarcopenia are that more types of the conditions have been taken into the researchers' interest. In cardiac cachexia, technical issues, which limit the preciseness and reproducibility in surgical heart failure models, have been overcome by a combination of surgery and the use of transgenic mouse models or salt sensitive rat models. Fatigue is the most pronounced symptom of cachexia and may be caused by reduced cardiac function independent of the underlying disease. Sarcopenia models often suffer from the use of young animals, due to the limited availability and very high costs of using aged animals. This review will focus on rodent models designed to mimic cachexia and sarcopenia including co-morbidities such as cancer, heart failure, as well as other diseases and conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Work Outcome in Supported Employment for Serious Mental Illness: Results From 2 Independent Studies of Errorless Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F

    2018-01-13

    Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  17. Three novel, multiple recombinant types of species of human mastadenovirus D (HAdV-D 73, 74 & 75) isolated from diarrhoeal faeces of immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Elias; Dhingra, Akshay; Liebert, Uwe G; Bergs, Sandra; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Heim, Albert

    2017-11-02

    Species D is the largest of the seven species of human mastadenoviruses (HAdV), but few of its multiple types are associated with asevere disease, e.g. epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. Many other types are hardly ever associated with significant diseases in immunocompetent patients, but have been isolated from the diarrhoeal faeces of terminal AIDS patients suggesting their role as opportunistic pathogens. Three novel HAdV-D strains were isolated from the faeces of three immunocompromised adult patients (clinical diagnoses: lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome and AIDS CDC3B, respectively). These strains were not typeable by imputed serology of the hexon and fibre gene and therefore complete genomic sequences were generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). All three strains were multiple recombinants and fulfilled the criteria for designation as types 73, 74 and 75 with the penton/hexon/fibre genotype codes P67H45F27, P70H74F51 and P75H26F29, respectively. A novel genomic backbone and also a novel hexon neutralization epitope sequence were discovered in type 74, and a novel penton sequence in type 75. At the complete genome level, types 73, 74 and 75 were closely related neither to each other nor to type 70, which was previously isolated in the same region. However, these four HAdV-D types were closely related to each other in single genes and gene regions, e.g. penton, E1 and E4 due to recombination events in their phylogeny. In conclusion, regional co-circulation of opportunistic HAdV-D types facilitated co- and super-infections, which are essential for homologous recombination, and thus resulted in the evolution of novel genotypes by lateral gene transfer.

  18. Risk factors and structure of obstetric and perinatal complications in woman, which ill of pyelonephritis (Review of literature and results of own researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Golubenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. Morbidity on a pyelonephritis and complication of motion of pregnancy is the important indicators of the state of health of woman population and baby that determines social meaningfulness of this problem. Research aim. To learn data of anamnesis of illness, life, professional features, domestic and surrounding environment, data of somatic status and to set forth leading risk of origin of placenta disfunction factors for pregnant, patients with a pyelonephritis. Material and methods. On the basis of retrospective analysis there are 20779 histories of illnesses of women, patients with a pyelonephritis, the study of risk of forming of somatic pathology of women and development of placenta disfunction factors is conducted with the aim of warning of complications of pregnancy and pathology of fetal and child. Results of researches. Research of the somatic state of pregnant that are ill a chronic pyelonephritis showed the presence of concomitant pathology in 100% cases, from that the diseases of the cardiovascular system laid down 61,5%, endocrine violations 50,2%, the dyspepsia phenomena and gastroenterology pathology 40,5%. The structure of obstetric, perinatal complications for women with a chronic pyelonephritis (20779 supervisions included: early toxicosis (65,5%, placental dysfunction (73,3%, an eclampsia (78,3%, threat of abortion (76,1% and premature luing-ins (56,2%, subzero placentation (76,1%, high water-level (76,7%, gestational anaemia (67,8%, delay of height of fetal (17,1%, chronic fetal distress (21,3%, premature removing layer by layer of placenta (26,3%; in luing-ins: premature outpouring of  near of fetal waters (22,4%, weakness of childbirth (72,3%, obstetric bleeding (47,1%; in a puerperium: subinvolution of uterus (26,3%. Conclusion. Thus, executed by us research in relation to the study of morbidity and prevalence of pyelonephritis among pregnant allowed to set the following: placenta disfunction in the period of

  19. The importance of illness duration, age at diagnosis and the year of diagnosis for labour participation chances of people with chronic illness: results of a nationwide panel-study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Mieke; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Schippers, Joop; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-09-04

    Compared to participation rates among general populations, participation of people with chronic illness in the labour market lags behind. This is undesirable, both from the perspective of individuals' well-being as from a macro-economic perspective for western countries where concerns exist about labour supply and sustainability of social security in the near future. To help develop successful policy measures to prevent early drop-out and support reintegration, we aimed to gain insight into the role of three age related characteristics that may relate to labour participation chances of people with chronic illness: the duration of their illness, how old they were when the chronic disease was diagnosed and the historical year in which the diagnosis was established. We analyzed data of one (first) measurement of several cohorts of people diagnosed with a somatic chronic disease, who (had) participated in the Dutch 'National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability' since 1998 (N = 4634 in total). Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate random effects of the age at diagnosis and the year of diagnosis and fixed effects of illness duration on labour participation, while correcting for the effects of socio-demographic and disease characteristics and socio-economic indicators. A significant part of the variation in labour participation among people with chronic illness relates to the age they had when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, a longer illness duration is significantly associated with a lower chance of being economically active. This is more the case for men than for women. Labour participation of cancer survivors depends on the phase of the illness they find themselves in. No evidence was found that the year in which the diagnosis was established matters for employment chances later in life. Age at diagnosis and illness duration relate to chronically ill people's chances to participate in the labour market, but how and how

  20. Does a Physician's Attitude toward a Patient with Mental Illness Affect Clinical Management of Diabetes? Results from a Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Lisa C; Litman, Heather J; Borba, Christina P C; Vincenzi, Brenda; Henderson, David C

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether physician's attitudes toward patients with comorbid mental illness affect management of a chronic disease. A total of 256 primary care physicians interviewed in 2010. This randomized factorial experiment entailed physicians observing video vignettes of patient-actors with poorly controlled diabetes. Patients were balanced across age, gender, race, and comorbidity (schizophrenia with bizarre or normal affect, depression, eczema). Physicians completed structured and semistructured interviews plus chart notes about clinical management and attitudes. Physicians reported more negative attitudes for patients with schizophrenia with bizarre affect (SBA). There were few differences in clinical decisions measured quantitatively or in charting, but qualitative data revealed less trust of patients with SBA as reporters, with more reliance on sources other than engaging the patient in care. Physicians often alerted colleagues about SBA, thereby shaping expectations before interactions occurred. Results are consistent with common stereotypes about people with serious mental illness. Vignettes did not include intentional indication of unreliable reporting or danger. Reducing health care disparities requires attention to subtle aspects of managing patients--particularly those with atypical affect--as seemingly slight differences could engender disparate patient experiences over time. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Caregivers and Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toll on you. You may experience distress, anxiety, depression, exhaustion, and worsening of your own physical and emotional well-being. As a result of these types of stress, your health can suffer. FAMILIES AND SERIOUS ILLNESS You are ...

  2. Insomnia as a risk factor for ill health: results from the large population-based prospective HUNT Study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Lallukka, Tea; Salo, Paula; Pallesen, Ståle; Hysing, Mari; Krokstad, Steinar; Simon Øverland

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia co-occurs with many health problems, but less is known about the prospective associations. The aim of the current study was to investigate if insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of mental and physical conditions. Prospective population-based data from the two last Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT2 in 1995–97 and HUNT3 in 2006–08), comprising 24 715 people in the working population, were used to study insomnia as a risk factor for incidence of physical and mental conditions. Insomnia was defined according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Insomnia at HUNT2 was a significant risk factor for incidence of a range of both mental and physical conditions at HUNT3 11 years later. Most effects were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for confounding factors, and insomnia remained a significant risk factor for the following conditions in the adjusted analyses: depression [odds ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.91–2.98], anxiety (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63–2.64), fibromyalgia (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.51–2.79), rheumatoidarthritis (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.29–2.52), whiplash (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.21–2.41), arthrosis (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.43–1.98), osteoporosis (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.14–2.01, headache (OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16–1.95,asthma (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.86 and myocardial infarction (OR:1.46, 95% CI: 1.06–2.00). Insomnia was also associated significantly with incidence of angina, hypertension, obesity and stroke in the crude analyses, but not after adjusting for confounders. We conclude that insomnia predicts cumulative incidence of several physical and mental conditions. These results may have important clinical implications, and whether or not treatment of insomnia would have a preventive value for both physical and mental conditions should be studied further.

  3. The importance of illness duration, age at diagnosis and the year of diagnosis for labour participation chances of people with chronic illness: Results of a nationwide panel-study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Schippers, J.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to participation rates among general populations, participation of people with chronic illness in the labour market lags behind. This is undesirable, both from the perspective of individuals’ well-being as from a macro-economic perspective for western countries where concerns

  4. The importance of illness duration, age at diagosis and the year of diagnosis for labour participation chances of people with chronic illness: results of a nationwide panel-study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Schippers, J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Compared to participation rates among general populations, participation of people with chronic illness in the labour market lags behind. This is undesirable, both from the perspective of individuals' well-being as from a macro-economic perspective for western countries where concerns

  5. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients

  6. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  7. Emerging nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from patients having acute diarrhoeal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panhotra, B.R.; Saxena, A.K.; Al-Arabi, Ali M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are one of the key etiological agents of diarrhoeal disease. The appearence of multiple drung resistance along with resistance to quinolones in this bacterium poses a serious therapeutic problem. We determined the prevalence of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhodial Salmonella isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute diarroheal disease attending the outpatient and inpatient department of a hospital in Saudi Arabia during the years 1999 to 2002. Non-typhodial Salmonella were isolated from faecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disc diffusion test. MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacinwere determined by the agar dilution method. During the study period , 524 strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated. Strains belonging to serogroup C1were the commonest (41.4%) followed by serogroups B and D (15.6% and 14.5%, respectively). Resistance to ampicillin was observed in 22.9% and to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole in 18.5%of the strains. Nalidixic acid resistance was encounterd in 9.9% and ciprofloxacin esistance in 2.3% of the strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid significantly increased from 0.1% in 1999 to 5.51% in 2002 ( p=0.0007)and ciprofloxacin resistance increased significantly from 0.1% in 1999 to 0.9% in 2002( p=0.0001). MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were determined among 29 nalidixic acid-resistant strains of non-typhoidal salmonella isolated during 2002. The MIC was >256 ug /ml to nalidixic acid and 8 to 16 ug/ml to ciprofloxacin. The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance encountered among non-tyophoidal Salmonella necessiate the judicious use of these drugs in humans. Moreover, these findings support the concern that the use of quinolones in animal feed may lead to an increasein resistance and should should be restricted. (author)

  8. The use of diarrhoeal management counselling cards for community health volunteer training in Indonesia: the HealthCom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J P; Louis, T; Sutisnaputra, O; Sulaeiman, N S; Ware, L; Shaw, W; de Moor, C; Graeff, J

    1992-10-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Health relies on a network of over a million kader (community health volunteers) to bring primary health care to the village level. In West Java, the Department of Health's Control of Diarrhoeal Disease (CDD) Program recently carried out an extensive research and development effort to produce effective job aids for the kader in CDD and a training programme to teach their use. A set of counselling cards was produced to provide kader with a tool to diagnose and treat diarrhoea and teach the proper use of ORS. Researchers conducted a controlled evaluation in which they measured the cards' effectiveness through observations of kader performance and interviews with mothers they had counselled. In the intervention group, 15 kader underwent two days training in the use of the cards when diagnosing and advising treatment for cases of diarrhoea in their villages. The 16 control kader received comparable CDD training without the cards. Each group provided lists of local mothers they pledged to counsel during the coming weeks. Follow-up interviews were held with these mothers to test their level of knowledge on CDD and to observe their ability to mix ORS properly. Significant performance differences between the intervention kader and mothers, and the control kader and mothers, were demonstrated. The intervention kader were consistently more accurate in their diagnoses and recommendations for treatment with a mean of 83% accuracy vs 68% for the control kader. Mothers counselled by the intervention kader also prepared ORS significantly better than the mothers counselled by the control kader, with 97 vs 74% accuracy.

  9. Neutrophils in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Braedon

    2018-03-01

    During critical illness, dramatic alterations in neutrophil biology are observed including abnormalities of granulopoeisis and lifespan, cell trafficking and antimicrobial effector functions. As a result, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. In this article, the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of critical illness (sepsis, trauma, burns and others) will be explored, including pathological changes to neutrophil function during critical illness and the utility of monitoring aspects of the neutrophil phenotype as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication. Lastly, we review findings from clinical trials of therapies that target the harmful effects of neutrophils, providing a bench-to-bedside perspective on neutrophils in critical illness.

  10. A controlled study to investigate anti-diarrhoeal effect of the stem-bark fractions of Terminalia avicennioides in laboratory animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Suleiman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the shortcomings associated with modern synthetic antidiarrhoeal drugs, it is important to find newer, safer and cheaper antidiarrhoeal agents from natural sources. The study was conducted to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the fractions of the stem-bark of Terminalia avicennioides in laboratory animal models. The effect of different concentrations (1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 4.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mg/mL of the aqueous methanol (AMF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hexane (HXF fractions of T. avicennioides were tested against spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum as well as on histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum. Similarly, the effects of the AMF on gastro-intestinal transit time, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and castor oil-induced enteropooling were evaluated. The AMF, EAF and HXF at concentrations of 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 4.0 × 10−3 and 8.0 × 10−3 mg/mL attenuated the contractile effects of both the spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit jejunum and that of histamine-induced contraction of guinea pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner. The AMF at doses of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p < 0.05 reductions in gastrointestinal transit time of charcoal and incidence of castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice relative to the untreated control. Similarly, at doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg, AMF significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the weight and volume of intestinal fluid in the treated mice when compared to the untreated animals. The results of this study showed that the stem-bark of T. avicennioides possesses spasmolytic effect and could be a potential antidiarrhoeal agent. However, detailed pharmacological trials are required to justify the clinical use of the plant for treating diarrhoea.

  11. Enhancing psychosocial and spiritual palliative care: Four-year results of the program of comprehensive care for people with advanced illnesses and their families in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Mateo-Ortega, Dolors; Lasmarías, Cristina; Novellas, Anna; Espinosa, Jose; Beas, Elba; Ela, Sara; Barbero, Javier

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the overall quantitative and qualitative results of a "La Caixa" Foundation and World Health Organization Collaborating Center Program entitled "Comprehensive Care for Patients with Advanced Illnesses and their Families" after four years of experience. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to assess the program. Quasiexperimental, prospective, multicenter, single-group, and pretest/posttest methods were utilized to assess the quantitative data. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions was assessed at baseline (visit 1) and after four follow-up visits. The following dimensions were assessed: mood state, discomfort, anxiety, degree of adjustment or adaptation to disease, and suffering. We also assessed the four dimensions of the spiritual pain scale: faith or spiritual beliefs, valuable faith or spiritual beliefs, meaning in life, and peace of mind/forgiveness. Qualitative analyses were performed via surveys to evaluate stakeholder satisfaction. We built 29 psychosocial support teams involving 133 professionals-mainly psychologists and social workers. During the study period, 8,964 patients and 11,810 family members attended. Significant improvements were observed in the psychosocial and spiritual dimensions assessed. Patients, family members, and stakeholders all showed high levels of satisfaction. This model of psychosocial care could serve as an example for other countries that wish to improve psychosocial and spiritual support. Our results confirm that specific psychosocial interventions delivered by well-trained experts can help to ease suffering and discomfort in end-of-life and palliative care patients, particularly those with high levels of pain or emotional distress.

  12. Foodborne Illness

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Renjie

    2008-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses are a significant public health challenge in the world. Preventing foodborne disease in meat processing is an essential point to insure food safety and quality. HACCP systems currently are used for food processor to identify food safety hazards and prevent food is contaminated. By the introducing HACCP system into China in 1990s, Chinese government and enterprises have took more attention to control and monitoring the flow of food to insure food quality in processors. Meat...

  13. Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    contaminate different dietary constituents. These toxins may be of biologic origin (microbial. plant, or animal toxins) or they may be inorganic or...food mine if similar illness has occurred concomitantly poisoning for planning specific therapy, for esti- in companions or family members. Seek to...gin 4 to 8 hours after ingestion of the toxin and speciated botulinum immunoglobulin of equine include severe retching, vomiting, diarrhea, and

  14. Water risk factors pre-disposing the under five children to diarrhoeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often times, the water sources were not available throughout the year and the residents mainly depended on the river during times of drought. The river was as a result a major avenue for contamination. Most of the water sources were close to the households, but they used crude methods in transporting the water to the ...

  15. Prolonged breast feeding, diarrhoeal disease, and survival of children in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, K; Gottschau, A; Aaby, P

    1994-01-01

    were recorded for three years. SETTING: 301 randomly selected houses in a semiurban area in the capital, Bissau. SUBJECTS: 849 children aged less than 3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and duration of diarrhoea, weight for age, and death of a child. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea...... children (P = 0.001). Independent of the age of weaning, a similar increase was found in an analysis comparing, for each child, the rate and duration of diarrhoea one month before and one month after weaning. Children with low weight for age were breast fed longer than the better nourished children (P = 0...

  16. Associations between illness duration and health-related quality of life in specified mental and physical chronic health conditions: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Tan, Jeretine; Sanders, Kerrie M

    2017-10-01

    We compared health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in incident (≤1 year since diagnosis), mid-term (>1-5 years since diagnosis), and long-term (>5 years since diagnosis) cases of mental and physical chronic illness with the general population and assessed the modifying effects of age and gender on the association between HRQOL and illness duration. Data from the 2007 Australian National Health and Mental Wellbeing Survey were used. HRQOL was captured by the Assessment of Quality of Life Scale 4D. Multivariable linear regression analyses compared HRQOL of individuals with different duration of illnesses with those who did not have the condition of interest. The 8841 survey respondents were aged 16-85 years (median 43 years, 50.3% female). For the overall sample, worse HRQOL was associated with incident (P = 0.049) and mid-term (P = 0.036) stroke and long-term depression (P illness is most apparent in stroke and mental illness and differs between age groups.

  17. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  18. Enhancing outreach for persons with serious mental illness: 12-month results from a cluster randomized trial of an adaptive implementation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Almirall, Daniel; Goodrich, David E; Lai, Zongshan; Abraham, Kristen M; Nord, Kristina M; Bowersox, Nicholas W

    2014-12-28

    Few implementation strategies have been empirically tested for their effectiveness in improving uptake of evidence-based treatments or programs. This study compared the effectiveness of an immediate versus delayed enhanced implementation strategy (Enhanced Replicating Effective Programs (REP)) for providers at Veterans Health Administration (VA) outpatient facilities (sites) on improved uptake of an outreach program (Re-Engage) among sites not initially responding to a standard implementation strategy. One mental health provider from each U.S. VA site (N = 158) was initially given a REP-based package and training program in Re-Engage. The Re-Engage program involved giving each site provider a list of patients with serious mental illness who had not been seen at their facility for at least a year, requesting that providers contact these patients, assessing patient clinical status, and where appropriate, facilitating appointments to VA health services. At month 6, sites considered non-responsive (N = 89, total of 3,075 patients), defined as providers updating documentation for less than implementation interventions: Enhanced REP (provider coaching; N = 40 sites) for 6 months followed by Standard REP for 6 months; versus continued Standard REP (N = 49 sites) for 6 months followed by 6 months of Enhanced REP for sites still not responding. Outcomes included patient-level Re-Engage implementation and utilization. Patients from sites that were randomized to receive Enhanced REP immediately compared to Standard REP were more likely to have a completed contact (adjusted OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.09-4.19, P = 0.02). There were no differences in patient-level utilization between Enhanced and Standard REP sites. Enhanced REP was associated with greater Re-Engage program uptake (completed contacts) among sites not responding to a standard implementation strategy. Further research is needed to determine whether national implementation of Facilitation results

  19. Raising the Bar for the Care of Seriously Ill Patients: Results of a National Survey to Define Essential Palliative Care Competencies for Medical Students and Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristen G.; Chittenden, Eva H.; Sullivan, Amy M.; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanth S.; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise C.; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Block, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the U.S., to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts. Method Proposed competencies were derived from existing Hospice and Palliative Medicine fellowship competencies, and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains. Results The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate=72%, 71/98). Using predefined cut-off criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains. Conclusions This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community. PMID:24979171

  20. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  1. Dealing with Complex and Ill-Structured Problems: Results of a Plan-Do-Check-Act Experiment in a Business Engineering Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Achenbach, Marlies; Israelsen, Poul; Kyvsgaard Hansen, Poul; Johansen, John; Deuse, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by increased globalisation and fast technological development, we carried out an experiment in the third semester of a global business engineering programme aimed at identifying conditions for training students in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems of forming a new business. As this includes a fuzzy front end, learning…

  2. Developments in patient activation of people with chronic illness and the impact of changes in self-reported health: results of a nationwide longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Jansen, D.; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore how patient activation, i.e. patients’ perceived knowledge, skills and self-confidence to manage their health and healthcare, develops within chronically ill individuals over time, and to estimate the impact of self-rated health on this development. Methods: Linear regression

  3. Best candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions in chronic low back pain : Results of a theory-driven predictor study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, Petra C.; Stuive, Ilse; Roorda, Leo D.; Vollebregt, Joke A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Lettinga, Ant T.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify treatment-specific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic

  4. Best candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions in chronic low back pain: results of a theory-driven predictor study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, P.C.; Stuive, I.; Roorda, L.D.; Vollebregt, J.A.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Lettinga, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify treatment-specific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic non-specific low back

  5. Best Candidates for Cognitive Treatment of Illness Perceptions in Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of A Theory-Driven Predictor Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, P.C.; Stuive, I.; Roorda, L.D.; Vollebregt, J.A.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Lettinga, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify treatmentspecific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic

  6. Burden of illness associated with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy among adults seeking treatment in the US: results from a retrospective chart review and cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alesia Sadosky,1 Caroline Schaefer,2 Rachael Mann,3 Felicia Bergstrom,2 Rebecca Baik,2 Bruce Parsons,1 Srinivas Nalamachu,4 Edward Nieshoff,5 Brett R Stacey,6 Alan Anschel,7 Michael Tuchman81Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 2Covance Market Access Services Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, 3Covance Market Access Services Inc, San Diego, CA, 4International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 5Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 6Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, 7Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 8Palm Beach Neurological Center, Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to characterize the burden of illness among adult subjects with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN seeking treatment in the US.Methods: This observational study recruited 112 subjects with pDPN during routine visits from general practitioner and specialist sites. Subjects completed a one-time questionnaire, which included demographics, symptom duration, health care resource use, out-of-pocket costs, employment status, and validated measures that assessed pain, functioning, sleep, anxiety and depression, health status, and productivity. Investigators completed a case report form based on a 6-month retrospective chart review to capture clinical information, pDPN-related treatments, and other pDPN-related health care resource use over the past 6 months. Annualized costs were extrapolated based on reported 6-month health care resource use.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 61.1 years, 52.7% were female, and 17.9% were in paid employment. The most common comorbid conditions were sleep disturbance/insomnia (43.8%, depressive symptoms (41.1%, and anxiety (35.7%. The mean pain severity score was 5.2 (0–10 scale, and 79.5% reported moderate or severe pain. The mean pain interference with function score was 5.0 (0–10 scale overall, with 2.0 among mild, 5.1 among moderate, and 7

  7. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhe Lulu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27

  8. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  9. Nurse management of 'same day' consultation for patients with minor illnesses: results of an extended programme in primary care in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrellas, Núria; Vidal, Angel; Amat, Gemma; Lejardi, Yolanda; del Puig Deulofeu, Maria; Buendia, Carmen

    2011-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a programme of nurse management for patients requesting same day consultation for minor illnesses in primary care. The efficacy of such programmes has been demonstrated in randomized studies but there is little information on these programmes in highly populated areas. Patients seeking same day consultation for one of 23 preselected minor illnesses (16 for adults, 7 for paediatric patients) from March 2009 to April 2010 were seen by trained nurses who followed predefined algorithms. If signs of alarm were detected, patients were referred to a general practitioner. A total of 629,568 consultations were performed, 575,189 in adults and 54,379 in paediatric patients. Case resolution was achieved in 61.8% of adult and 75.6% of paediatric patients. In adults, the highest resolution rates (>90%) were obtained for burns, skin injury and emergency contraception, and the lowest for lower urinary symptoms (46.7%), sore throat (45.7%), pink eye (45.5%) and upper respiratory symptoms (41.4%). In paediatric patients, the highest resolution rates (>90%) were obtained for stomach cramps and burns and the lowest for cough (36.2%). A return to consultation during a 7-day period for the same reason as the first consultation was low, 4% for adults and 2.4% for paediatric patients. An extended programme of nurse management for same day consultation of patients with minor illnesses showed an acceptably high rate of resolution and low rate of return to consultation. The application of such programmes in extensive areas is feasible and effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. High altitude illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Bogumił

    High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber. Because of the popularity of high-mountain sports and tourism better education of the population at risk is essential.

  11. Process of determining the value of belief about jinn possession and whether or not they are a result of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Elspeth; Abraham, Seri; Nawaz, Shahzada

    2016-02-02

    We present the case of a 28-year-old Afghan woman who presented perinatally with concerns of being possessed by jinns. She was noted to have third person auditory hallucinations, delusions of control and somatic passivity. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia and was treated with antipsychotic medications with a positive outcome. Her husband also believed that his wife was possessed and believed that her jinns talked through his wife on occasions. He did not experience any psychotic symptoms himself. In the Muslim faith, beliefs about jinns are widely held by people with and without any signs of mental illness. We feel that the patient's interpretation of her symptoms was influenced by her and her husband's religious and cultural beliefs, leading to a delay in receiving appropriate treatment. Awareness among mental health professionals about widely held religious and cultural beliefs will enhance the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of similar presentations. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Is it useful to ask "Está deprimido?" ("Are you depressed?") to terminally-ill Portuguese patients? Results from outpatient research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julião, Miguel; Nunes, Baltazar; Sobral, Maria Ana; Dias, Daniela; Inocêncio, Inês; Barbosa, António

    2016-04-01

    Depression is a serious psychological problem in the palliative care setting. Brief screening tools for depression are lacking and need to be brief and acceptable. This study aimed to identify the properties of the single Portuguese question "Está deprimido?" ("Are you depressed?") to screen for depression. Retrospective study from 100 patient's medical records identifying the answers on the single Portuguese question for depression "Está deprimido?" ("Are you depressed?") and the HADS depression sub-scale, using a score ≥11 on the latter as the gold standard for clinically significant depressive symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative values were calculated. Response rate for the single Portuguese question for depression was 100%. Prevalence of depression symptoms (HADS-d ≥ 11) was 43%. To the question "Está deprimido?" 60 patients responded "yes." Sixteen patients who replied "no" to the single question had clinically significant depressive symptoms based on the HADS depression sub-scale. The single tool had 65.2% sensitivity, 49.2% specificity and 50.0% and 64.4% of positive predictive and negative values, respectively. In this first preliminary retrospective Portuguese study, the single question for depression has shown poor screening properties. Future research in larger and mixed patientś samples of Portuguese terminally ill is necessary to find more accurate and robust properties of this brief tool.

  13. Dealing with complex and ill-structured problems: results of a Plan-Do-Check-Act experiment in a business engineering semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Achenbach, Marlies; Israelsen, Poul; Kyvsgaard Hansen, Poul; Johansen, John; Deuse, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    Challenged by increased globalisation and fast technological development, we carried out an experiment in the third semester of a global business engineering programme aimed at identifying conditions for training student in dealing with complex and ill-structured problems of forming a new business. As this includes a fuzzy front end, learning cannot be measured in traditional, quantitative terms; therefore, we have explored the use of reflection to convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. The experiment adopted a Plan-Do-Check-Act approach and concluded with developing a plan for new learning initiatives in the subsequent year's semester. The findings conclude that (1) problem-based learning develops more competencies than ordinarily measured at the examination, especially, the social/communication and personal competencies are developed; (2) students are capable of dealing with a complex and ambiguous problem, if properly guided. Four conditions were identified; (3) most students are not conscious of their learning, but are able to reflect if properly encouraged; and (4) improving engineering education should be considered as an organisational learning process.

  14. Contribution to diagnosis and treatment of bone marrow aspirate results in critically ill patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration: a retrospective study of 193 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Laure; Pereira, Bruno; Sapin, Anne-Françoise; Mareynat, Gabrielle; Lautrette, Alexandre; Souweine, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to assess the contribution to diagnosis and/or treatment (CDT) of bone marrow aspiration (BMA) in the critically ill patient. The retrospective study included 193 patients. On the basis of BMA findings, contribution to diagnosis was defined by one of four previously unestablished diagnoses (maturation arrest of granulocyte precursors, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, hematological malignancy, marrow infiltration with cancer cells) and to treatment as the initiation or withdrawal of a specific treatment including the decision to forgo life-sustaining treatment (DFLST). A CDT of BMA was observed in 40/193 patients (20.7%). BMA contributed to diagnosis in 37 cases (granulocyte precursor maturation arrest, N  = 10; hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, N  = 12; hematological malignancy, N  = 15) and to treatment in 14, including three DFLSTs. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a CDT were hematological malignancy, cancer or non-malignant hematological abnormality known on admission, indication for BMA excluding isolated thrombocytopenia, higher pre-BMA HScore (calculated prior to BMA), and higher SOFA score with or without platelet-count SOFA subscore. In the 160 patients without hematological malignancy or cancer known on admission, non-malignant hematological abnormality known on admission, indication for BMA excluding isolated thrombocytopenia, higher pre-BMA HScore, and higher SOFA score calculated with or without platelet-count SOFA subscore were independently associated with a CDT of BMA. BMA can have a significant CDT in ICU patients with or without a known hematological malignancy or cancer on admission. An HScore calculated before BMA can be a valuable tool for predicting a CDT of BMA.

  15. Mental disorders in primary care: prevalence and co-morbidity among disorders. results from the functional illness in primary care (FIP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Tomas; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Christensen, Kaj; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Olesen, Frede

    2005-08-01

    Prevalence and co-occurrence of mental disorders is high among patients consulting their family general practitioner (GP) for a new health problem, but data on diagnostics and socio-demographics are sketchy. A cross-sectional two-phase epidemiological study. A total of 1785 consecutive patients with new complaints, aged 18-65 years, consulting 28 family practices during March-April 2000 in Aarhus County, Denmark were screened, in the waiting room, for mental and somatic symptoms with SCL-8 and SCL-Somatization questionnaires, for illness worry with Whitely-7 and for alcohol dependency with CAGE. In a stratified random sample of 701 patients, physician interviewers established ICD-10 diagnoses using the SCAN interview. Prevalence was calculated using weighted logistic regression, thus correcting for sample skewness. Half of the patients fulfilled criteria for an ICD-10 mental disorders and a third of these for more than one group of disorders. Women had higher prevalence of somatization disorder and overall mental disorders than men. Men had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse and hypochondriasis than women. Psychiatric morbidity tended to increase with age. Prevalence of somatoform disorders was 35.9% (95% CI 30.4-41.9), anxiety disorders 164% (95% CI 12.7-20.9), mood disorders 13.5% (95% CI 11.1-16.3), organic mental disorders 3.1% (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and alcohol abuse 2.2% (95% CI 1.5-3.1). Co-morbidities between these groups were highest for anxiety disorders, where 89% also had another mental diagnosis, and lowest for somatoform disorders with 39%. ICD-10 mental disorders are very prevalent in primary care and there is a high co-occurrence between most disorders. Somatoform disorders, however, more often than not exist without other mental disorders.

  16. Raising the bar for the care of seriously ill patients: results of a national survey to define essential palliative care competencies for medical students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristen G; Chittenden, Eva H; Sullivan, Amy M; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanth S; Morrison, Laura J; Carey, Elise C; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Block, Susan D

    2014-07-01

    Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the United States, to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts. Proposed competencies were derived from existing hospice and palliative medicine fellowship competencies and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a Web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains. The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate = 72%, 71/98). Using predefined cutoff criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains. This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community.

  17. Cost of illness and illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Vera M; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Cats, Hans A; van Helmond, Toon; van der Laan, Willemijn H; Geenen, Rinie; van den Ende, Cornelia H

    2016-01-01

    The disease impact and economic burden of fibromyalgia (FM) are high for patients and society at large. Knowing potential determinants of economic costs may help in reducing this burden. Cognitive appraisals (perceptions) of the illness could affect costs. The present study estimated costs of illness in FM and examined the association between these costs and illness perceptions. Questionnaire data of FM severity (FIQ), illness perceptions (IPQ-R-FM), productivity losses (SF-HLQ) and health care use were collected in a cohort of patients with FM. Costs were calculated and dichotomised (median split). Univariate and hierarchic logistic regression models examined the unique association of each illness perception with 1) health care costs and 2) costs of productivity losses. Covariates were FM severity, comorbidity and other illness perceptions. 280 patients participated: 95% female, mean age 42 (SD=12) years. Annualised costs of FM per patient were €2944 for health care, and €5731 for productivity losses. In multivariate analyses, a higher disease impact (FIQ) and two of seven illness perceptions (IPQ-R-FM) were associated with high health care costs: 1) high scores on 'cyclical timeline' reflecting a fluctuating, unpredictable course and 2) low scores on 'emotional representations', thus not perceiving a connection between fibromyalgia and emotions. None of the variables was associated with productivity losses. Our study indicates that perceiving a fluctuating course and low emotional representation, which perhaps reflects somatic fixation, are associated with health care costs in FM. Future studies should examine whether targeting these illness perceptions results in reduction of costs.

  18. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Wishes Visiting The ER Who Takes Care Of You In An Emergency? Checking Into ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  19. Protocol for a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial assessing the impact of a community-level hygiene intervention and a water intervention using riverbank filtration technology on diarrhoeal prevalence in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Sarah L; O'Toole, Joanne E; Boving, Thomas B; Forbes, Andrew B; Sinclair, Martha; Gautam, Sumit K; Leder, Karin

    2017-03-17

    Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death globally, mostly occurring as a result of insufficient or unsafe water supplies, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Our study aims to investigate the impact of a community-level hygiene education program and a water quality intervention using riverbank filtration (RBF) technology on diarrhoeal prevalence. We have designed a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial to estimate the health impacts of our intervention in 4 rural villages in Karnataka, India. At baseline, surveys will be conducted in all villages, and householders will receive hygiene education. New pipelines, water storage tanks and taps will then be installed at accessible locations in each village and untreated piped river water will be supplied. A subsequent survey will evaluate the impact of hygiene education combined with improved access to greater water volumes for hygiene and drinking purposes (improved water quantity). Villages will then be randomly ordered and RBF-treated water (improved water quality) will be sequentially introduced into the 4 villages in a stepwise manner, with administration of surveys at each time point. The primary outcome is a 7-day period prevalence of self-reported diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes include self-reported respiratory and skin infections, and reported changes in hygiene practices, household water usage and water supply preference. River, tank and tap water from each village, and stored water from a subset of households, will be sampled to assess microbial and chemical quality. Ethics approval was obtained from the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee in Australia and The Energy and Resources Institute Institutional Ethics Committee in India. The results of the trial will be presented at conferences, published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated to relevant stakeholders. This study is funded by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) project grant. ACTRN12616001286437; pre-results

  20. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  1. Decompression illness - critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Mohanty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Decompression illness is caused by intravascular or extravascular bubbles that are formed as a result of reduction in environmental pressure (decompression. The term covers both arterial gas embolism, in which alveolar gas or venous gas emboli (via cardiac shunts or via pulmonary vessels are introduced into the arterial circulation, and decompression sickness, which is caused by in-situ bubble formation from dissolved inert gas. Both syndromes can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators, and astronauts, but arterial gas embolism also arises from iatrogenic causes unrelated to decompression. Risk of decompression illness is affected by immersion, exercise, and heat or cold. Manifestations range from itching and minor pain to neurological symptoms, cardiac collapse, and death. First-aid treatment is 1 0 0 % oxygen and definitive treatment is recompression to increased pressure, breathing 1 0 0 % oxygen. Adjunctive treatment, including fluid administration and prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in paralysed patients, is also recommended Treatment is, in most cases, effective although residual deficits can remain in serious cases, even after several recompressions.

  2. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  3. Factors driving customers to seek health care from pharmacies for acute respiratory illness and treatment recommendations from drug sellers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fahmida Chowdhury,1 Katharine Sturm-Ramirez,1,2 Abdullah Al Mamun,1 A Danielle Iuliano,2 Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan,1 Mohammod Jobayer Chisti,1 Makhdum Ahmed,1 Sabbir Haider,3 Mahmudur Rahman,3 Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner2 1Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome.Results: We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62% sought care for themselves and 116 (38% sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71% were males. The majority (90% of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6% had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4% from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%, lower cost (46%, availability of medicine (33%, knowing the drug seller (20%, and convenient hours of operation (19%. The most commonly recommended drugs were

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age presenting with diarrhoeal diseases to two public health facilities in Hawassa, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatu, Getamesay; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Debalke, Serkadis; Beyene, Getenet

    2015-11-04

    Diarrhoea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age in developing countries, including Ethiopia. It is caused by a wide range of pathogens, including parasites, bacteria and viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites (IPs) (and types) among children under 5 years of age with diarrhoeal diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Adare Hospital and Millennium Health Centre, both located in Hawassa, South Ethiopia, from June 6 to October 28, 2011. Children under 5 years of age with diarrhoea who visited these health facilities during the study period were included in the study. Data relating to demography and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Single, fresh stool specimens were examined for IPs using the direct wet mount examination, followed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining of formol-ether concentrated samples, as per standard procedures. Data were analysed using SPSS Statistics 20 software. A total of 158 children (51.3 % male and 48.7 % female) participated in the study. Overall, the prevalence of IPs was 26.6 % (42/158). Two species of IPs were detected in six children (3.8 %). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the predominant parasite identified (11.4 %), followed by Giardia duodenalis (7.0 %). The multivariable analysis revealed that the age group ≥24 months was significantly associated (AOR = 0.221, 95 %CI: 0.085-0.576) with prevalence of IPIs. This study found that intestinal parasites are common among children with diarrheal diseases. The most frequently detected species was E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii. Health information about how to prevent diarrheal diseases in general and IPIs in particular should be provided to parents of young children.

  5. Five dramas of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    First-person narratives of illness experience are dramatic: the narrator, who is also the sufferer, is caught in conflicts of forces that permit understanding more than control. Among the dramas of illness, five occur frequently in autobiographical accounts of illness. These dramas overlap and have varying emphases in different people's stories. They are the drama of genesis (what instigated the illness); the drama of emotion work (what emotional displays are required or prohibited); the drama of fear and loss; the drama of meaning; and finally, the drama of self. This five-drama framework can focus critical and clinical attention on which conflicting forces the ill person is working to reconcile, what makes that work difficult, and how conceiving of one's illness as a drama can be a source of meaning and value.

  6. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  7. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  8. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  9. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What Causes Food Poisoning? Many different disease-causing germs can contaminate ... email address: Enter Email Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button ... of Foodborne Illness in the U.S. Food Safety is a CDC Winnable Battle Foodborne Illness ...

  10. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  11. Inequality in the social consequences of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Whitehead, M; Lindholm, C

    2000-01-01

    those people with chronic illness. The study tests two opposing hypotheses: (1) the increasingly flexible, deregulated labor market in Britain would result in an increased number of new jobs, and thus better employment opportunities for unskilled workers, including those with chronic illness; (2...

  12. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  13. Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on malaria and diarrhoeal morbidity in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Zinc is important for innate and adaptive immune responses
    to infection. Preventive zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce
    the incidence of acute diarrhoea by 20%. Few trials have evaluated its effect
    against malaria. Because trial results for both outcomes are

  14. Frequency of diarrhoea as a predictor of elevated blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Juan Jaime; Davies, Alisha R.; Smith, George Davey; Smeeth, Liam; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H.; García, Héctor H.; Ortega, Ynes R.; Cama, Vitaliano A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal illness is a major public health problem for children worldwide, particularly among developing countries, and is a proxy condition for severe dehydration. It has been hypothesized that severe dehydration in the first 6 months of life could be associated with increased blood pressure later in life. This study aimed to explore whether frequency of diarrhoea is associated with elevated blood pressure in children in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease. Methods The present study is a cross-sectional study of blood pressure among children from a longitudinal child diarrhoeal disease cohort in Lima, Peru. From 2001 to 2006, daily diarrhoeal surveillance was made. Children were revisited in 2006 and blood pressure was measured. Diarrhoeal exposures were evaluated in terms of total number of diarrhoea days, number of episodes of diarrhoea, persistent diarrhoeal episodes and by the quartiles of daily incidence and episode incidence of diarrhoea. Results The overall incidence of diarrhoeal episodes at age under 1 year was 4.35 (95% confidence interval: 3.79-4.98) and under 5 years was 2.80 (95% confidence interval: 2.69-2.92). No association was observed between the total number of diarrhoeal days, diarrhoeal episodes or diarrhoeal incidence rates with childhood blood pressure. There was weak evidence that hospital admission due to severe dehydration in the first year of life showed a gradient towards an increase in both, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion In the first study to date to examine the association in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease, diarrhoeal frequency did not show an association with increased blood pressure. Our observations of elevated levels of blood pressure among those admitted into hospitals in the first year of life are in line with the original hypothesis of dehydration in early infancy and high blood pressure. However, the effect of episodes of severe dehydration on later blood

  15. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Pharmacology Studies in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Nilay; Salerno, Sara; Hornik, Christoph P.; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Developmental and physiological changes in children contribute to variation in drug disposition with age. Additionally, critically ill children suffer from various life-threatening conditions that can lead to pathophysiological alterations that further affect pharmacokinetics (PK). Some factors that can alter PK in this patient population include variability in tissue distribution caused by protein binding changes and fluid shifts, altered drug elimination due to organ dysfunction, and use of medical interventions that can affect drug disposition (e.g., extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy). Performing clinical studies in critically ill children is challenging because there is large inter-subject variability in the severity and time course of organ dysfunction; some critical illnesses are rare, which can affect subject enrollment; and critically ill children usually have multiple organ failure, necessitating careful selection of a study design. As a result, drug dosing in critically ill children is often based on extrapolations from adults or non-critically ill children. Dedicated clinical studies in critically ill children are urgently needed to identify optimal dosing of drugs in this population. This review will summarize the effect of critical illness on pediatric PK, the challenges associated with performing studies in this vulnerable subpopulation, and the clinical PK studies performed to date for commonly used drugs. PMID:27585904

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  18. Heat Related Illnesses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...

  19. Obesity and Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.

  20. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is spread by ingestion of contaminated food or water. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, ...

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your ... Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be ...

  3. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness show us how stress affects us. Think of how stage fright can cause nausea, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, a racing heart, a stomachache, or diarrhea. ...

  4. The prevalence and illness characteristics of DSM-5-defined "mixed feature specifier" in adults with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder: Results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Soczynska, Joanna K; Cha, Danielle S; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Dale, Roman S; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Gallaugher, Laura Ashley; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Muzina, David J; Carvalho, Andre; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-02-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals with mood disorders present with sub-syndromal hypo/manic features. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and illness characteristics of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Version-5 (DSM-5) - defined mixed features specifier (MFS) in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Data from participants who met criteria for a current mood episode as part of MDD (n=506) or BD (BD-I: n=216, BD-II: n=130) were included in this post-hoc analysis. All participants were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP): a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Mixed features specifier was operationalized as a score ≥ 1 on 3 or more select items on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) or ≥ 1 on 3 select items of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) during an index major depressive episode (MDE) or hypo/manic episode, respectively. A total of 26.0% (n=149), 34.0% (n=65), and 33.8% (n=49) of individuals met criteria for MFS during an index MDE as part of MDD, BD-I and BD-II, respectively. Mixed features specifier during a hypo/manic episode was identified in 20.4% (n=52) and 5.1% (n=8) in BD-I and BD-II participants, respectively. Individuals with MDE-MFS as part of BD or MDD exhibited a more severe depressive phenotype (p=0.0002 and pdefined MFS is common during an MDE as part of MDD and BD. The presence of MFS identifies a subgroup of individuals with greater illness complexity and possibly a higher rate of cardiovascular comorbidity. The results herein underscore the common occurrence of MFS in adults with either BD or MDD. Moreover, the results of our analysis indicate that adults with mood disorders and MFS have distinct clinical characteristics and comorbidity patterns. Copyright

  5. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  4. ILL Annual report 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2π image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron β-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL's neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  5. The illness/non-illness model: hypnotherapy for physically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Shaul

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.

  6. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimidis Steven

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes

  7. Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can

    2007-07-24

    People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different

  8. Illness Perceptions and Fatigue in Systemic Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Amudala, Naomi A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Leduc, Renée L.; Shereff, Denise; Richesson, Rachel; Fraenkel, Liana; Merkel, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare illness perceptions among patients with different forms of vasculitis, identify risk factors for negative illness perceptions, and determine the association between illness perceptions and fatigue. Methods Participants were recruited from an online registry in vasculitis to complete the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Mean scores on each IPQ-R dimension were compared across types of vasculitis. Cluster analysis and stepwise regression identified predictors of negative illness perception. Fatigue was measured using the general subscale of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Patient-reported measures of disease activity and IPQ-R dimensions were assessed in relation to MFI scores using linear regression in sequential, additive models with model-fit comparisons. Results 692 participants with 9 forms of vasculitis completed the IPQ-R. For 6 out of 8 IPQ-R dimensions, there were no significant differences in mean scores between the different vasculitides. Scores in identity and cyclical dimensions were significantly higher in Behçet’s disease compared to other types of vasculitis (13.5 vs 10.7; 4.0 vs 3.2, pvasculitis, and younger age is a risk factor for negative illness perceptions. Illness perceptions explain differences in fatigue scores beyond what can be explained by measures of disease activity. PMID:23861259

  9. Mental illness in Disney animated films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrea; Fouts, Gregory

    2004-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of verbalizations about mental illness in the animated feature films of The Walt Disney Company (TWDC). We discuss the results within the context of children's repeated exposure to popular animated movies and their learning of labels and stereotypes associated with mental illness. We recommend further research on this topic. We coded 34 animated feature films produced by TWDC for mental illness references (for example, "crazy" or "nuts"). We developed a coding manual to systematize the content analysis, to ensure accuracy of the data, and to ascertain intercoder reliability. Most of the films (that is, 85%) contain verbal references to mental illness, with an average of 4.6 references per film. The references were mainly used to set apart and denigrate the characters to whom they referred. Twenty-one percent of the principal characters were referred to as mentally ill. We discuss the contributions and limitations of the study. The findings have implications for child viewers in terms of their potentially learning prejudicial attitudes and distancing behaviours toward individuals perceived as being mentally ill. To further verify this connection, an assessment of the incidence of Disney film exposure and attitudes toward people with a mental illness, using a sample of school-aged children, is needed.

  10. On being Credibly Ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2011-01-01

    unexplained symptoms. The study is conducted in Denmark using qualitative interviews with welfare officers and clients. The paper's focus is on how issues of gender and class intersect in the negotiation of illness among welfare officers and clients. The particular client group in question consists...... of individuals that are defined by their lack of a bio-medical diagnosis. Their ‘lack’ of identity accentuates how gender and class become central in the categorisation practices, constructing the ill person as either bio-medically sick or as a person who may be suffering but only from diffuse psychological...

  11. Study about Illness: Through the Narrative of "Illness Image"

    OpenAIRE

    岩城, 晶子

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the meaning of the illness was studied from the perpective of Image. From listening to the narrative about two types of Illness Image, i.e., "my illness" and "A's illness, " we found that there was a characteristic that the Illness Image was similar to the real image. In addition, there were several differences between 2 images, which indicated that distance between the narrator and these images had an influence. From the syudy of two cases, it was indicated that Illness Ima...

  12. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S; Morris, Peter E; Dhar, Sanjay; Callahan, Leigh Ann

    2018-04-01

    The diaphragm is the major muscle of inspiration, and its function is critical for optimal respiration. Diaphragmatic failure has long been recognized as a major contributor to death in a variety of systemic neuromuscular disorders. More recently, it is increasingly apparent that diaphragm dysfunction is present in a high percentage of critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In these patients, diaphragm weakness is thought to develop from disuse secondary to ventilator-induced diaphragm inactivity and as a consequence of the effects of systemic inflammation, including sepsis. This form of critical illness-acquired diaphragm dysfunction impairs the ability of the respiratory pump to compensate for an increased respiratory workload due to lung injury and fluid overload, leading to sustained respiratory failure and death. This review examines the presentation, causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result in acquired diaphragm dysfunction during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Illness perception in eating disorders and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Terol Cantero, Ma Carmen; Romero Escobar, Cristina; Pagán Acosta, Gonzalo

    2007-09-01

    The current study is based on the framework of the Self-Regulatory Model of Illness (SRM). The aim of this work was to examine perception of illness in eating disorder (ED) patients and investigate whether illness perception is related to psychosocial adaptation in these patients. A total of 98 female ED patients completed the specific eating disorders Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a range of adjustment variables including the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). ED patients reported a moderate number of physical symptoms, and perceived their illness as controllable, treatable, highly distressing, as a chronic condition and with serious consequences. Emotional representation was the most significant dimension related to emotional adjustment. Illness identity and cure dimensions were the most significant dimensions associated with psychosocial adaptation. This study shows that patients' illness perceptions are related to illness adaptation. Illness identity was associated with emotional and psychosocial adjustment, and having faith that treatment may control the illness was related to positive benefits for ED. These results suggest that a psychological intervention, which addresses patients' illness representations, may assist in their adjustment to ED. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  14. Disaster related heat illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-01-01

    Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)

  15. The Course of Skin and Serum Biomarkers of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Its Association with Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, Disease Severity, and Mortality during ICU Admission in Critically Ill Patients : Results from a Prospective Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, John H.; Nienhuis, Hans L; Lefrandt, Joop D; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Smit, Andries J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in multiple organ failure, predominantly via their cellular receptor (RAGE) in preclinical studies. Little is known about the time course and prognostic relevance of AGEs in critically ill human patients, including those with

  16. Illness management and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Waldemar, Anna Kristine; Korsbek, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a psychosocial intervention with a recovery-oriented approach. The program has been evaluated in different settings; however evidence for the effects of IMR is still deficient. The aim of this trial was to investigate the benefits and harms...

  17. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease, for example. Research also suggests that people with depression are at higher risk for osteoporosis relative to others. The reasons are not yet clear. One factor with some of these illnesses is that many ...

  18. Conceptualizing Health and Illness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 59-80 ISSN 0047-2662 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090603; GA ČR(CZ) GP401/07/P293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : health * illness * existence * finitude Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  20. Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine F Houlihan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV. Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016.We used snowball sampling to identify responders who had returned to the UK or Ireland, and used an online consent and questionnaire to determine their exposure to EBOV and their experience of illness. Oral fluid collection devices were sent and returned by post, and samples were tested using an EBOV IgG capture assay that detects IgG to Ebola glycoprotein. Blood was collected from returnees with reactive samples for further testing. Unexposed UK controls were also recruited. In all, 300 individuals consented, of whom 268 (89.3% returned an oral fluid sample (OFS. The majority had worked in Sierra Leone in clinical, laboratory, research, and other roles. Fifty-three UK controls consented and provided samples using the same method. Of the returnees, 47 (17.5% reported that they had had a possible EBOV exposure. Based on their free-text descriptions, using a published risk assessment method, we classified 43 (16% as having had incidents with risk of Ebola transmission, including five intermediate-risk and one high-risk exposure. Of the returnees, 57 (21% reported a febrile or diarrhoeal illness in West Africa or within 1 mo of return, of whom 40 (70% were not tested at the time for EBOV infection. Of the 268 OFSs, 266 were unreactive. Two returnees, who did not experience an illness in West Africa or on return, had OFSs that were reactive on the EBOV IgG capture assay, with

  1. Oxygen supplementation for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Schjørring, O L; Jakobsen, J C

    2018-01-01

    . The objective of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of higher versus lower inspiratory oxygen fractions or targets of arterial oxygenation in critically ill adult patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials in major......BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, hypoxaemia is a common clinical manifestation of inadequate gas exchange in the lungs. Supplemental oxygen is therefore given to all critically ill patients. This can result in hyperoxaemia, and some observational studies have identified harms with hyperoxia...... in international guidelines despite lack of robust evidence of its effectiveness. To our knowledge, no systematic review of randomised clinical trials has investigated the effects of oxygen supplementation in critically ill patients. This systematic review will provide reliable evidence to better inform future...

  2. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  3. Comorbidities and psychotic illness. Part 1: Philosophy and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Aquilina, Francesca Falzon

    2014-11-01

    This article aims at addressing the implications of defining 'comorbidity' within the field of psychiatry. We have looked at the standard definition of comorbidity and then discussed whether this definition can be applied to comorbidities in psychiatry. While comorbidities in physical illness are clearly the coexistence of two independent illnesses, Comorbidities in Mental illness are the result of the polygenic nature of mental illnesses, especially in psychotic illness whether schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. As a consequence, often the comorbidities of psychiatric illness are caused by two conditions which have in common the presence of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps), which regulate the metabolism of neurotransmitters or the presence of neurotrophic factors . Thus inevitably, many such comorbidities are inextricably linked. We discuss the consequences of this form of comorbidity for the description, classification, and risk profile of mental illness.

  4. ILL. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 the three major functions of ILL continued to be generally satisfactorily performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, establishment of a forum). The implementation of the programme of measurements approved by the Scientific Council was again given absolute priority. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1976, and of the main technical and administrative activities of the Institute Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments

  5. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  6. ILL. Annual report 1979. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This second volume, entitled 'Annex to the Annual Report' deals in more detail with the scientific work of the I.L.L. The scientific activity of theoreticians at the I.L.L. for 1979 is described. The experimental reports giving details on the experiments performed at the I.L.L. up to October 1, 1979 have been compiled. They are published here under their proposal number within the classification cheme in use at the I.L.L

  7. Correlates of illness severity in infectious mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odame, John; Robinson, Joan; Khodai-Booran, Nasser; Yeung, Simon; Mazzulli, Tony; Stephens, Derek; Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and laboratory correlates of illness severity among infants, children and youth with infectious mononucleosis (IM). METHODS: Study subjects with confirmed IM were prospectively enrolled. Illness severity was assessed at baseline and at six weeks using a scoring tool. Peripheral blood viral loads served as a measure of viral burden. RESULTS: Among 32 children and young adults with IM, the median age was 16 years (range two to 24 years). The predominant clinical findings were lymphadenopathy (23 of 32 [72%]), pharyngitis (16 of 32 [50%]), fever (nine of 32 [28%]) and splenomegaly (six of 32 [19%]). With respect to symptoms or signs that persisted to at least six weeks after illness onset, the predominant complaint was lymphadenopathy in 35% of subjects available for reassessment. Deranged liver function tests were present at presentation in up to 44% of subjects. Patients with the highest viral loads at presentation had significantly higher illness severity scores associated with fatigue (P=0.02). Other than the scores associated with fatigue, viral load values were not significantly correlated with the illness severity scores at baseline and at six weeks. CONCLUSION: In IM, viral loads are not necessarily correlated with illness severity, with the exception of fatigue. EBV-related hepatitis is common in IM, confirming the status of this virus as a relatively common cause of transient hepatitis in children and youth. This entity is not necessarily a marker of disease severity. PMID:25371691

  8. The changing face of newspaper representations of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Neil A; Fatoye, Francis; Wibberley, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Negative stereotypes presented in the media may contribute to the stigma associated with mental illness. People's attitudes towards the mentally ill are initially influenced and subsequently maintained in part by the frequent media presentation of negative stereotypes of mental illness. This could result in social rejection of individuals with mental illnesses. To explore how four main U.K. national newspapers reported on mental health/mental illness stories over a 10-year period. This study utilised content analysis to identify words, themes and trends of representation related to the mentally ill in articles from the four newspapers. The findings indicated that there was an increase in the number of articles related to mental health/illness over the time of the study. The rate of increase was far greater than that for the increase in the total number of articles carried in the press over this time period. It was also identified that pejorative terms were used, in a number of the articles, to describe the mentally ill person. Many of the newspaper reports highlighted the need for protection of the general public from the mentally ill, and that the mentally ill were in some way different to the general public. In particular, both the words "violence" and "drugs" were linked to mental health/mental illness in these articles.

  9. Colorectal cancer patient's self-efficacy for managing illness-related problems in the first 2 years after diagnosis, results from the ColoREctal Well-being (CREW) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, Chloe; Haviland, Joanne; Winter, Jane; Calman, Lynn; Din, Amy; Richardson, Alison; Smith, Peter W F; Foster, Claire

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing emphasis on self-management of cancer aftercare. Little is known about patient's self-efficacy (confidence) to manage illness-related problems and how this changes over time. This paper describes the patterns of self-efficacy for managing illness-related problems amongst colorectal cancer patients in the 2 years following diagnosis. In this prospective cohort study, questionnaires were administered at baseline (pre-surgery), 3, 9, 15 and 24 months to 872 colorectal cancer patients. Self-efficacy (confidence to manage illness-related problems), anxiety, social support, affect, socio-demographics, physical symptoms and clinical and treatment characteristics were assessed. Group-based trajectory analysis identified trajectories of self-efficacy up to 24 months and predictors. Four trajectories of self-efficacy were identified: group 1 (very confident) 16.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.7-21.3%), group 2 (confident) 45.6% (95% CI 40.3-51.0%), group 3 (moderately confident) 29.5% (95% CI 25.1-33.8%) and group 4 (low confidence) 8.9% (95% CI 6.4-11.4%). Greater deprivation, domestic status, more co-morbidities, worse fatigue and pain, lower positivity and greater negativity were significantly associated with lower self-efficacy. There was an increase in mean scores for self-efficacy over time for the whole sample, but this did not reach the cut-off for minimally important differences. At 2 years, the lowest level of confidence to manage was for symptoms or health problems. Around 40% of patients had suboptimal levels of confidence to manage illness-related problems with little change from the time of diagnosis across the four groups. Screening for self-efficacy at diagnosis would enable targeted, early intervention which could in turn enhance health-related quality of life.

  10. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques [fr

  11. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  12. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  13. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  14. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  15. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  16. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. ILL. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977 the three major functions of ILL continued to be performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, workshop organization). An integrated programme of improvement to the existing instruments and of new instrument construction, was carried out. A high priority was given to finishing instruments in the course of construction and both the ultra cold neutron source, PN5, and spin echo spectrometer, IN11, came into operation. No new instrument construction was started; even so, the completion of D18 (the interferometer) and IN12 (the cold three-axis machine) was delayed until 1978. Some advantage was taken of the delay to implement a new system of three-axis drive mechanics and interfacing electronics. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1977, and of the main technical and administrative activites of the Institute. Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures, liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments [fr

  11. Illness Identity in Adults with a Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oris, Leen; Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Goubert, Liesbet; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Arat, Seher; Vandenberghe, Joris; Westhovens, René; Moons, Philip

    2018-02-21

    The present study examines the concept of illness identity, the degree to which a chronic illness is integrated into one's identity, in adults with a chronic illness by validating a new self-report questionnaire, the Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQ). Self-report questionnaires on illness identity, psychological, and physical functioning were assessed in two samples: adults with congenital heart disease (22-78 year old; n = 276) and with multisystem connective tissue disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic sclerosis; 17-81 year old; n = 241). The IIQ could differentiate four illness identity states (i.e., engulfment, rejection, acceptance, and enrichment) in both samples, based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. All four subscales proved to be reliable. Rejection and engulfment were related to maladaptive psychological and physical functioning, whereas acceptance and enrichment were related to adaptive psychological and physical functioning. The present findings underscore the importance of the concept of illness identity. The IIQ, a self-report questionnaire, is introduced to measure four different illness identity states in adults with a chronic illness.

  12. Perceived Social Support among Mentally Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pokharel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.

  13. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation...... in critically ill patients are unknown. This review was published in 2008 and updated in 2015.  Objectives: To examine: 1. The effect of AT III on mortality in critically ill participants. 2. The benefits and harms of AT III. We investigated complications specific and not specific to the trial intervention......, bleeding events, the effect on sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital in general.  Search methods: We searched the following databases from inception to 27 August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...

  14. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored......Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  15. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all

  16. Illness beliefs and psychological outcome in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Lekwuwa, Godwin; Crawford, Trevor

    2013-06-01

    Illness beliefs are important predictors of psychological outcome in people with chronic illness and evidence suggests these could also be significant in furthering our understanding of psychological functioning in people with Parkinson's disease. Illness beliefs are specific, dynamic representations of an illness and cover dimensions such as cause, identity, consequences and controllability. Eighty-one people with Parkinson's disease completed a series of questionnaires to provide demographic, clinical and psychosocial data, which were then used to assess the relative impact of illness beliefs on their psychological functioning. Psychological functioning was assessed by measuring levels of depression, anxiety, stress, positive affect and emotional well-being. Hierarchical block regression indicated that illness beliefs were important independent predictors across some but not all outcomes and the results emphasised the importance of testing new predictors against more established predictors of outcome such as physical functioning and self-esteem. The illness beliefs most important in psychological outcome in people with PD were causal beliefs (particularly in psychosocial causes) and illness coherence (the level of understanding of the illness). The therapeutic potential of psychosocial variables was discussed given that these can be modified during therapy and this change can positively influence psychological outcome.

  17. Insight and illness perception in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2015-03-01

    Insight and illness perception are two concepts of interest in the study of factors related to clinical outcome in patients with psychosis. Insight implies a risk of emotional distress for the patient. Illness perceptions, regardless of their accuracy, might be favorable or not to illness. Literature provides evidence of significant correlates of these factors with clinical outcome, but they are rarely included in a single study. 1) assessing insight and illness perception in a sample of Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and, 2) analyzing how insight and illness perception relate to each other and how they relate to clinical status (i.e., positive, negative, and general psychopathology, depression, and anxiety). Sixty-one participants (55.7% females) were recruited from a public psychiatric hospital; insight and illness perceptions were assessed with the SUMD and the Brief-IPQ, respectively. Clinical status was assessed with the PANSS, CDS and BAI scales. Participants showed good insight, favorable illness perceptions for the cognitive and comprehension dimensions, but unfavorable for the emotional dimension. Clinical status of sample was characterized by mild symptoms. Poor insight related to positive symptoms and general psychopathology. Cognitive and emotional perceptions of illness were significantly associated to most clinical status parameters, whereas comprehension showed no significant results. The study not only replicates the significant association on insight and illness perception with clinical outcome, but shows how their patterns of interactions are different, reinforcing the idea that they are two distinct factors worthy of being habitually acknowledged in research and clinical practice.

  18. Illness perceptions among cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fielding, Richard; Soong, Inda; Chan, Karen K K; Tsang, Janice; Lee, Victor; Lee, Conrad; Ng, Alice; Sze, Wing Kin; Tin, Pamela; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to document in Hong Kong Chinese cancer survivors cross-sectional associations between illness perceptions, physical symptom distress and dispositional optimism. A consecutive sample of 1036 (response rate, 86.1%, mean age 55.18 years, 60% female) survivors of different cancers recruited within 6 months of completion of adjuvant therapy from Hong Kong public hospitals completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Chinese version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short-Form (MSAS-SF), and the revised Chinese version of Life Orientation Test (C-LOT-R), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analyses examined adjusted associations. IPQ seriousness, symptom identity, illness concern, and emotional impact scores varied by cancer type (p Stress-related, lifestyle, environment, psychological/personality, and health-related factors were most frequently attributed causes of cancer. After adjustment for sample differences, physical symptom distress was significantly associated with all illness perception dimensions (p differences by cancer type were eliminated by adjustment for sample characteristics. Illness perceptions did not differ by cancer type. Greater physical symptom distress and lower levels of optimism were associated with more negative illness perceptions. Understanding how cancer survivors make sense of cancer can clarify an important aspect of adaptation. This in turn can inform interventions to facilitate adjustment. Knowledge contributions include evidence of physical symptom distress correlating with most dimensions of illness perception. Optimism was also associated with cancer survivors' illness perceptions.

  19. The prevalence and severity of mental illnesses handled by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of 387 respondents, 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Of the diagnosable current mental illnesses, 29.7% were Psychosis; 5.4% Major depressive episode; 5.6% Anxiety disorders; 3.6% mixed. Anxiety-Depression; and 3.9% Suicidality. In terms of ...

  20. "Rationality" as a Moderator Between Life Events and Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarik, Gene

    1986-01-01

    The author examined the theory of rational beliefs as a moderator between life events and illness using a sample of 283 college students. Results suggested that rationality functioned to prevent stress and illness when there were few stressors, but did not reduce the effect of high levels of life events. (Author/MT)

  1. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  2. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Role of Glucagon in Catabolism and Muscle Wasting of Critical Illness and Modulation by Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, Steven E; Derde, Sarah; Derese, Inge

    2017-01-01

    of glucagon and its metabolic role during critical illness is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether macronutrient infusion can suppress plasma glucagon during critical illness and study the role of illness-induced glucagon abundance in the disturbed glucose, lipid, and amino acid homeostasis and in muscle...... wasting during critical illness. METHODS: In human and mouse studies, we infused macronutrients and manipulated glucagon availability up and down to investigate its acute and chronic metabolic role during critical illness. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In critically ill patients, infusing glucose...

  4. Terminally Ill Taiwanese Cancer Patients' and Family Caregivers' Agreement on Patterns of Life-Sustaining Treatment Preferences Is Poor to Fair and Declines Over a Decade: Results From Two Independent Cross-Sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsang-Wu; Wen, Fur-Hsing; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chen, Jen-Shi; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Tang, Siew Tzuh

    2017-07-01

    Temporal changes have not been examined in patient-caregiver agreement on life-sustaining treatment (LST) preferences at end of life (EOL). We explored the extent of and changes in patient-caregiver agreement on LST-preference patterns for two independent cohorts of Taiwanese cancer patient-family caregiver dyads recruited a decade apart. We surveyed preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, intensive care unit care, cardiac massage, intubation with mechanical ventilation, intravenous nutritional support, tube feeding, and dialysis among 1049 and 1901 dyads in 2003-2004 and 2011-2012, respectively. LST-preference patterns were examined by multi-group latent class analysis. Extent of patient-caregiver agreement on LST-preference patterns was determined by percentage agreement and kappa coefficients. For both patients and family caregivers, we identified seven distinct LST-preference classes. Patient-caregiver agreement on LST-preference patterns was poor to fair across both study cohorts, indicated by 24.4%-43.5% agreement and kappa values of 0.06 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.09) to 0.27 (0.23, 0.30), and declined significantly over time. Agreement on LST-preference patterns was most likely when both patients and caregivers uniformly rejected LSTs. When patients disagreed with caregivers on LST-preference patterns, discrepancies were most likely when patients totally rejected LSTs but caregivers uniformly preferred LSTs or preferred nutritional support but rejected other treatments. Patients and family caregivers had poor-to-fair agreement on LST-preference patterns, and agreement declined significantly over a decade. Encouraging an open dialogue between patients and their family caregivers about desired EOL care would facilitate patient-caregiver agreement on LST-preference patterns, thus honoring terminally ill cancer patients' wishes when they cannot make EOL-care decisions. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  6. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Caring for a Seriously Ill Child KidsHealth / For Parents / Caring for a Seriously Ill ... helping hand. Explaining Long-Term Illness to a Child Honest communication is vital to helping a child ...

  7. Children's understanding of mental illness: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C; Buchanan-Barrow, E; Barrett, M

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate children's thinking about mental illness by employing a well-established framework of adult illness understanding. The study adopted a semistructured interview technique and a card selection task to assess children's responses to causes, consequences, timeline and curability of the different types of mental illness. The children were aged between 5 and 11 years. Results indicated a developmental trend in the children's thinking about mental illness; there was an increase in the children's understanding of the causes, consequences, curability and timeline of mental illness with age. The older children demonstrated a more sophisticated and accurate thinking about mental illness compared with the younger children, who tended to rely on a medical model in order to comprehend novel mental illnesses. Furthermore, the girls exhibited more compassion, showing greater social acceptance compared with the boys. The Leventhal model provides a useful framework within which to investigate children's knowledge and understanding of mental illness. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.

  8. Rumination, depressive symptoms and awareness of illness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ribaux, Darryl; Phillips, Lisa J

    2014-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia. Previous studies have observed that depressive symptoms are associated with both insight and negative appraisals of illness, suggesting that the way in which the person thinks about their illness may influence the occurrence of depressive responses. In affective disorders, one of the most well-established cognitive processes associated with depressive symptoms is rumination, a pattern of perseverative, self-focused negative thinking. This study examined whether rumination focused on mental illness was predictive of depressive symptoms during the subacute phase of schizophrenia. Forty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and in a stable phase of illness completed measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, awareness of illness, and positive and negative symptoms. Depressive symptoms were correlated with rumination, including when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. The content of rumination frequently focused on mental illness and its causes and consequences, in particular social disability and disadvantage. Depressive symptoms were predicted by awareness of the social consequences of mental illness, an effect that was mediated by rumination. Results suggest that a process of perseveratively dwelling upon mental illness and its social consequences may be a factor contributing to depressive symptoms in people with chronic schizophrenia.

  9. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-07

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  10. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  11. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  12. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  13. A review of the economic impact of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Kinchin, Irina

    2017-11-13

    Objective To examine the impact and cost associated with mental illness. Methods A rapid review of the literature from Australia, New Zealand, UK and Canada was undertaken. The review included literature pertaining to the cost-of-illness and impact of mental illness as well as any modelling studies. Included studies were categorised according to impact on education, labour force engagement, earlier retirement or welfare dependency. The well-accepted Drummond 10-point economic appraisal checklist was used to assess the quality of the studies. Results A total of 45 methodologically diverse studies were included. The studies highlight the significant burden mental illness places on all facets of society, including individuals, families, workplaces and the wider economy. Mental illness results in a greater chance of leaving school early, a lower probability of gaining full-time employment and a reduced quality of life. Research from Canada suggests that the total economic costs associated with mental illness will increase six-fold over the next 30 years with costs likely to exceed A$2.8 trillion (based on 2015 Australian dollars). Conclusions Mental illness is associated with a high economic burden. Further research is required to develop a better understanding of the trajectory and burden of mental illness so that resources can be directed towards cost-effective interventions. What is known about the topic? Although mental illness continues to be one of the leading contributors to the burden of disease, there is limited information on the economic impact that mental illness imposes on individuals, families, workplaces and the wider economy. What does this paper add? This review provides a summary of the economic impact and cost of mental illness. The included literature highlights the significant burden mental illness places on individuals, families, workplaces, society and the economy in general. The review identified several areas for improvement. For example, only

  14. Parasitic Diseases and Psychiatric Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing parasitic diseases from other infections and tropical medical disorders based on microbiological classification is a matter of convenience. Organic brain syndromes are associated with both protozoan and helminthic infections; side-effects of drugs commonly used to treat parasitoses may impair mood and cause anxiety, agitation or psychosis. Emotional states may in turn affect the experience of medical illness. Psychiatrically significant features of medical illness are determine...

  15. Cost-of-illness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, Gary M

    2003-01-01

    Cost-of-illness studies measure the overall economic impact of a disease on society. Such studies are important in setting public health priorities and for economic evaluation of new treatments. These studies should take the societal perspective and include both direct and indirect costs. Often indirect costs exceed direct costs. Comparison of cost-of-illness studies from different countries is difficult because of differences in population, currency, the way health care is provided, and other social and political factors.

  16. Is quality of life related to illness and acceptance of illness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kocjan

    2015-06-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Although, that the general well-being is extensively studied in wide range of contexts, still little place is devoting to relationship between acceptance of illness (AIS and quality of life (QoL, especially among cardiac patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to: (1 determine an association between these two variables; (2 examine relationship between selected variables (age, sex, education level, NYHA class, time since CVDs diagnosis, cardiosurgery intervention and presence of comorbid diseases and quality of life. Material and methods: The study included 172 patients with diagnose cardiac disease. All participants were examined used standardized questionnaires: Short Form of health survey (SF-36 questionnaire and Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS. Results: The patients presented moderate level of illness acceptance and quality of life level. Over than half of participants did not accept their illness. Significant, positive relatioship between AIS and QoL were noted. NYHA class, number of cardiac hospitalization and time since cardiovascular disease diagnosis was negatively correlated with QoL. Conclusions: Findings presented in this study demonstrated, that AIS is strongly related with QoL.    Key words: illness acceptance, quality of life, AIS, QoL, cardiac diseases.

  17. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  18. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  19. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  20. Do informal caregivers in mental illness feel more burdened? A comparative study of mental versus somatic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Lene H; Van Den Berg, Bernard; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2011-08-01

    This study investigates a possible added subjective burden among informal caregivers to care recipients with a mental illness or a combination of mental and somatic illnesses compared with caregivers to care recipients with a somatic illness. The study also investigates the subjective caregiver burden by caregivers' characteristics and objective burden. The association between subjective caregiver burden and socio-demographic factors, objective burden, and health-related quality of life was analyzed in a population of 865 Dutch informal caregivers, using multiple linear regression analysis. Controlling for other factors in the analysis, we found that caring for a recipient with mental illness or a combination of mental and somatic illness was associated with an extra subjective caregiver burden (measured by Caregiver Strain Index). Objective burden, in terms of more than 50 hours of care provision per week, less than three years of caregiving, or living together with the care recipients was associated with higher subjective caregiver burden. Other factors associated with higher subjective caregiver burden were being partners or a child of care recipient, having a paid job, a low health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), or having an illness. This study suggests that caregivers to care recipients with a mental and especially a combination of mental and somatic illnesses have a higher subjective caregiver burden compared with caregivers to care recipients with a somatic illness. Because the study is not representative of all caregivers, more research focusing on identifying and contacting informal caregivers is needed to confirm the result.

  1. [Illness concepts of children. Validation of a modified locus of control test in illness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Altmann-Herz, U

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the health and illness concepts of 53 healthy children aged 8 to 14 years using a modified illness and health locus of control scale (KKG, Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) with the scales internal, external-p (powerful others) and external-c (chance). A comparison of the results with those on self-esteem (FSK 4-6), anxiety (CMAS-R) and hopelessness (HSC) scales showed a decrease in externality, but not an increase in internality, with increasing age and a correlation between self-confidence and a more internal locus of control. The influence of children's health locus of control on treatment compliance is discussed.

  2. National Estimates of Recovery-Remission From Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Mark S; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Townley, Greg

    2018-05-01

    A broad range of estimates of recovery among previously institutionalized persons has been reported, but no current, community-based national estimate of recovery from serious mental illness exists. This study reports recovery rate results, based on a remission definition, and explores related demographic factors. A national, geographically stratified, and random cross-sectional survey conducted from September 2014 to December 2015 resulted in responses from more than 41,000 individuals. Lifetime prevalence of serious mental illness was assessed by asking about receipt of a diagnosis (major depression, bipolar disorder, manic depression, and schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and hospitalization and impairment associated with the diagnosis. Recovery was determined by asking about impairments over the past 12 months. Almost 17% reported receiving one of the diagnoses in their lifetime, 6% had a lifetime rate of a serious mental illness, and nearly 4% continued to experience interference associated with serious mental illness. One-third of those with a lifetime serious mental illness reported having been in remission for at least the past 12 months. Recovery rates were low until age 32 and then progressively increased. Lifetime estimates of diagnosed illness and current prevalence of serious mental illness are consistent with previous research. Results indicate that recovery is possible and is associated with age. Further research is needed to understand factors that promote recovery, and sustained evaluation efforts using similar parsimonious approaches may be useful in conducting timely assessments of national and local mental health policies.

  3. Routine pre-admission screening for a medical illness in aggressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-03

    Oct 3, 2009 ... can be a symptom of a psychiatric illness or a medical illness.2,3. Psychiatric .... reported a 27.2% prevalence of physical illness in psychiatric inpatients in Nigeria, Janse ..... Results in a state mental health system. Arch Gen ...

  4. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. (Erasme Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Compensation neurosis: financial reward for illness as nocebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, R

    1997-03-01

    Results of medical treatment are notoriously poor in patients with pending litigation after personal injury or disability claims, and for those covered by workers' compensation programs. Although some instances of overt malingering are documented by surveillance videos, most exaggerated illness behavior in compensation situations takes place because of a combination of suggestion, somatization, and rationalization. A distorted sense of justice, victim status, and entitlement may further the exaggerated sick role. Adversarial administrative and legal systems challenging the claimant to prove repeatedly he or she is permanently ill harden the conviction of illness and the individual's defense of the claim. Unfortunately, after advocating for one's injury before a sometimes doubting public for the several years required to resolve such claims, care eliciting behavior too often remains permanent. Because any improvement in the claimant's health condition may result in denial of disability status in the future, the claimant is compelled to guard against getting well and is left with no honorable way to recover from illness. Financial reward for illness thus functions as a powerful nocebo, a nonspecific force creating and exacerbating illness. Solutions require recognition that judging disability and work incapacity in others is an unscientific process and that adversarial systems rewarding permanent illness or injury, particularly self reported pain, are often permanently harmful. The remainder of the solution must be political.

  1. [Health problems and illness of female workers in textile industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorndhada, K

    1989-07-01

    This paper examines 3 major health-related issues: 1) existing health problems and illnesses resulting from physical environmental conditions at workplaces; 2) female workers' perception on illness and health protection; and 3) the relationship between illness and risk factors. The study area is textile factories in Bangkok and its peripheries. Data are drawn from the 1987 Survey of Occupational Health and Textile Industrial Development in Thailand: Effect on Health and Socioeconomics of Female Migrant Workers. This study shows that about 20% of female workers have ill-health problems and illness after a period of working mainly due to high levels of dust and noise, and inadequate light. These conditions are hazardous to the respiratory system (resulting in cough and chest tightness), the hearing system (pains as well as impaired and hearing loss), eye systems (irritation, reduced visual capacity) and skin allergy. Such illnesses are intensified in the long- run. The analysis of variances reveals that education, section of work, perception (particularly mask and ear plug) significantly affect these illnesses. This study concludes that health education and occupational health should be provided in factories with emphasis on health prevention and promotion.

  2. Psychodynamics in medically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sara Siris; Kent, Laura K; Muskin, Philip R

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of psychodynamics as it applies to the understanding and treatment of medically ill patients in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting. It provides historical background that spans the eras from Antiquity (Hippocrates and Galen) to nineteenth-century studies of hysteria (Charcot, Janet, and Freud) and into the twentieth century (Flanders Dunbar, Alexander, Engle, and the DSM). The article then discusses the effects of personality on medical illness, treatment, and patients' ability to cope by reviewing the works of Bibring, Kahana, and others. The important contribution of attachment theory is reviewed as it pertains the patient-physician relationship and the health behavior of physically ill patients. A discussion of conversion disorder is offered as an example of psychodynamics in action. This article highlights the important impact of countertransference, especially in terms of how it relates to patients who are extremely difficult and "hateful," and explores the dynamics surrounding the topic of physician-assisted suicide, as it pertains to the understanding of a patient's request to die. Some attention is also given to the challenges surrounding the unique experience of residents learning how to treat medically ill patients on the consultation-liaison service. Ultimately, this article concludes that the use and understanding of psychodynamics and psychodynamic theory allows consultation-liaison psychiatrists the opportunity to interpret the life narratives of medically ill patients in a meaningful way that contributes importantly to treatment.

  3. BURDEN AND QUALITY OF LIFE– A COMPARISON OF THOSE CARING FOR PSYCHIATRICALLY ILL AND MEDICALLY ILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Rupendu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Despite epidemiological transitions, communicable diseases are widely prevalent world over, concomitantly non-communicable diseases are also on the rise. Mental and behavioural disorders account for 12% of the global burden of disease. Caregiving for both groups of patients, rests with an identified primary caregiver. Caregiving lays a great deal of burden on the caregiver, adversely affecting his quality of life. These factors influence the quality of caregiving, and thereby the long-term well-being of the patient. Differences between the two groups of caregivers has not been studied, more so in the Indian context. MATERIALS AND METHODS 60 caregivers of psychiatrically ill and 63 caregivers of the medically ill were studied. Burden of care was assessed using Elmstahl burden scale, and quality of life (QOL using WHOQOL BREF. RESULTS The socio demographic profile of both groups was similar. All subjects experienced a burden of care, with those caring for the psychiatrically ill experiencing a greater burden. QOL was poorer in the care givers of the psychiatrically ill, especially in those married, employed, and in a lower income group. The female care giver, mostly the spouse, experienced a greater burden of care and a poorer QOL. CONCLUSION Chronicity, stigma, poor insight and disabling dependence of the psychiatrically ill, are probably contributory. A higher caregiver burden and a lower QOL will influence quality of caregiving, and have an adverse effect on the course and prognosis of the illness. There is thus a need for routine assessment of the caregiver, and planned intervention for the same.

  4. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  5. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality.

  6. Mental illness from the perspective of theoretical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical neuroscience, which characterizes neural mechanisms using mathematical and computational models, is highly relevant to central problems in the philosophy of psychiatry. These models can help to solve the explanation problem of causally connecting neural processes with the behaviors and experiences found in mental illnesses. Such explanations will also be useful for generating better classifications and treatments of psychiatric disorders. The result should help to eliminate concerns that mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia are not objectively real. A philosophical approach to mental illness based on neuroscience need not neglect the inherently social and historical nature of mental phenomena.

  7. Sleep quality in patients with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Mary; O'Toole, Sinead; O'Toole, Conor

    2016-11-01

    To explore sleep quality in patients with chronic illness in primary care. Many people suffer from chronic illness with the numbers increasing. One common issue arises from problems that people have with their quality of sleep: a largely under-researched topic. This study exploring poor quality sleep allowed patients to describe their daily struggles with poor sleep in their own lives. This allowed the development of a deeper understanding of what it means to sleep poorly and find out how participants cope with not sleeping well. A qualitative approach enabling a deep exploration of patient's experiences of sleep quality was used. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine participants from a primary care clinic. Analysis utilised an interpretative approach. Data analysed produced four recurrent themes that were grouped into two categories. First, themes that identified the recognition by participants that 'something was wrong' were abrupt beginning and impact on their life. Second, themes that identified that the participants considered there was 'nothing wrong' were I am fine and I just carry on. Data revealed that poor quality sleep can have a profound effect on quality of life. Participants lived without good quality sleep for years. They had come to accept two seemingly irreconcilable ideas that not being able to sleep is an enduring problem with a distinct starting point, and paradoxically, this is not a problem that deserves much professional attention. Important original data were generated on the impact of poor quality sleep indicating that chronically disturbed sleep can increase the disease burden on patients with chronic illness. The results of this study suggest healthcare professionals need to understand how sleep quality issues impact on patient's experience of chronic illness. Data from this study will help nurses and other health professionals to deepen their understanding of the profound impact of poor quality sleep on patients with

  8. Modernization of ILL instrument electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, F.

    1999-01-01

    We have built new general purpose cards for data acquisition taking advantage of recent developments in electronics. At the end of the year, most scheduled instruments at the ILL will be running under UNIX with VME electronics front-end. As the VME electronics of the ILL was designed at the beginning of the eighties, the instrument control section (SCI) at ILL has prepared a renewal plan for two reasons: - first, all the processor cards of the Institute are based on MIZAR processor boards and MIZAR stopped the production of this card last year, as the market was shrinking; - in addition, processors and programmable electronics are now 10 times faster. The electronics services want to take full advantage of these new performances. (author)

  9. A false dichotomy? Mental illness and lone-actor terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.

  10. Cultural expressions of bodily awareness among chronically ill Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gay

    2003-01-01

    To describe Filipino Americans' cultural traditions surrounding bodily awareness, especially how the principle of balance informs their views, and the link to self-management of chronic illness. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with 85 Filipino Americans between the ages of 46 and 97 years. Volunteers were recruited from numerous health care sites in 1 geographic location in the United States. Respondents had 1 or more chronic illnesses. Taped and transcribed interviews were coded and evaluated for themes. The concept of balance was central to Filipino Americans' portrayal of bodily awareness of signs and symptoms related to chronic illnesses, as well as to actions they took to manage their chronic illnesses. Efforts were made to control chronic illnesses through a variety of self-care practices. Diet posed a particular challenge because of the symbolic importance of food in Filipino culture and its use in the maintenance of social relationships. The ways in which Filipino Americans combine attention to the body, values of balance and harmony, and emphasis on social well-being result in heightened attention to bodily processes. Filipino Americans' emphasis on bodily awareness suggests that this particular cultural strength can be used to enhance chronic illness management. Awareness of the cultural traditions of Filipino Americans can facilitate patient education about how to manage chronic illnesses.

  11. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

  12. Perception of stigma toward mental illness in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika T Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigma associated with mental illnesses is one of the principal causes for mentally ill people not receiving adequate mental health care and treatment. The study was conducted to assess the extent of stigma associated with mental illness and knowledge of mental illness among the community. Materials and Methods: Community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 445 respondents from Udupi district; the community attitude toward the mentally ill (CAMI scale was used to assess stigma. The probability proportional to sampling size technique was adopted to select the wards/blocks. Household from blocks/wards were selected using convenience sampling. Self- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Results: Of the total 445 respondents, the prevalence of stigma toward mentally ill people was 74.61% (95% confidence interval, 0.7057, 0.7866. The prevalence of stigma was high under all the four domains of CAMI scale. High prevalence of stigma was seen among females and people with higher income. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of stigma toward PWMI was found to be high. The stigma toward PWMI was associated with gender with respect to AU, BE and CMHI. Hence, the study suggests that there is a strong need to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness to improve the mental health status of the region.

  13. Ill-posedness in modeling mixed sediment river morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarrías, Víctor; Stecca, Guglielmo; Blom, Astrid

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the Hirano active layer model used in mixed sediment river morphodynamics concerning its ill-posedness. Ill-posedness causes the solution to be unstable to short-wave perturbations. This implies that the solution presents spurious oscillations, the amplitude of which depends on the domain discretization. Ill-posedness not only produces physically unrealistic results but may also cause failure of numerical simulations. By considering a two-fraction sediment mixture we obtain analytical expressions for the mathematical characterization of the model. Using these we show that the ill-posed domain is larger than what was found in previous analyses, not only comprising cases of bed degradation into a substrate finer than the active layer but also in aggradational cases. Furthermore, by analyzing a three-fraction model we observe ill-posedness under conditions of bed degradation into a coarse substrate. We observe that oscillations in the numerical solution of ill-posed simulations grow until the model becomes well-posed, as the spurious mixing of the active layer sediment and substrate sediment acts as a regularization mechanism. Finally we conduct an eigenstructure analysis of a simplified vertically continuous model for mixed sediment for which we show that ill-posedness occurs in a wider range of conditions than the active layer model.

  14. Cost of illness and illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, V.M.C.; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Olde Hartman, T.C.; Cats, H.A.; van Helmond, T.; Van der Laan, W.H.; Geenen, R.; Van den Ende, C.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The disease impact and economic burden of fibromyalgia (FM) are high for patients and society at large. Knowing potential determinants of economic costs may help in reducing this burden. Cognitive appraisals (perceptions) of the illness could affect costs. The present study estimated

  15. Mental illness--stigma and discrimination in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.

  16. Sports injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman

    2012-09-01

    Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.

  17. Energy expenditure of acutely ill hospitalised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gariballa Salah

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To measure energy expenditure of acutely ill elderly patients in hospital and following discharge in the community. Design Sixty-three consecutive hospitalised acutely ill elderly patients were recruited. Eight patients were studied to assess the reliability of the Delta Tract Machine as a measure of energy expenditure; 35 patients had their energy expenditure studied in hospital on two occasions and 20 patients had their energy expenditure measured in hospital and at 6 weeks in the community Results Men had higher basal energy expenditure (BMR values compared to women however the difference was not statistically significant [Men, mean (SD 1405 (321 Kcal, women 1238 (322 kcal; mean difference (95% CI 166 kcal (-17 to 531, p = 0.075]. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index both medication and C-reactive protein (CRP, concentrations showed significant correlation with measured energy expenditure in hospital, (r = -0.36, "p Conclusion Tissue inflammation and medications were associated with change in measured energy expenditure in acutely ill patients.

  18. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  19. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. A pill for every ill?

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the US, non-medical use of prescription drugs is second only to marijuana. Marc Buhagiar meets up with Prof. Marilyn Clark to investigate just how dangerous this problem is around Europe. Illustrations by Sonya Hallett. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/a-pill-for-every-ill/

  1. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  2. New chopper control at ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, F [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Proper phasing is an essential characteristic of the chopper systems used at ILL. A wide variety of choppers and selectors differing in weight, speed and bearing types are controlled by a unique electronic card performing digital adaptative filtering. The chopper regulation system is described. (author).

  3. Perceptions of mental illness and related stigma among Vietnamese populations: findings from a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul

    2014-12-01

    Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups.

  4. Illness cognitions as a pathway between religiousness and subjective health in chronic cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of illness cognitions as a possible pathway between religiousness and subjective health in chronic illness. A sample of 135 chronic cardiac patients completed questionnaires about intrinsic religiousness, frequency of church service attendance, basic illness cognitions (i.e., helplessness, illness acceptance, perceived benefits), and physical and emotional well-being. According to the results, religiousness was significantly associated with subjective health. However, this relationship was indirect, with helplessness and illness acceptance serving as mediators between intrinsic religiousness and health. This finding is significant for understanding the complex relation of religiousness to chronic patients' well-being.

  5. Concepts of Illness Among the Swahili of Lamu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Rebecca; Abdulrehman, Munib Said

    2014-07-01

    The Swahili of Lamu, Kenya, understand illness as the result of a spiritual imbalance caused by personal transgression or an attack by harmful forces directed by an envious person. Another underlying component of the Swahili concept of illness is that each person's physical body operates in conjunction with personal attributes that are fixed at birth and determine moral character, behavior, and predisposition to ailments. When physical symptoms occur, the Swahili focus on identifying the human or supernatural entity that caused the illness in consultation with a range of healers who specialize in a variety of curing strategies. Two case studies illustrate how culturally congruent nursing care can be achieved when health care providers understand the Swahili framework of diagnosing and treating illness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. The Injury/Illness Performance Project (IIPP): A Novel Epidemiological Approach for Recording the Consequences of Sports Injuries and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Background. Describing the frequency, severity, and causes of sports injuries and illnesses reliably is important for quantifying the risk to athletes and providing direction for prevention initiatives. Methods. Time-loss and/or medical-attention definitions have long been used in sports injury/illness epidemiology research, but the limitations to these definitions mean that some events are incorrectly classified or omitted completely, where athletes continue to train and compete at high levels but experience restrictions in their performance. Introducing a graded definition of performance-restriction may provide a solution to this issue. Results. Results from the Great Britain injury/illness performance project (IIPP) are presented using a performance-restriction adaptation of the accepted surveillance consensus methodologies. The IIPP involved 322 Olympic athletes (males: 172; female: 150) from 10 Great Britain Olympic sports between September 2009 and August 2012. Of all injuries (n = 565), 216 were classified as causing time-loss, 346 as causing performance-restriction, and 3 were unclassified. For athlete illnesses (n = 378), the majority (P < 0.01) resulted in time-loss (270) compared with performance-restriction (101) (7 unclassified). Conclusions. Successful implementation of prevention strategies relies on the correct characterisation of injury/illness risk factors. Including a performance-restriction classification could provide a deeper understanding of injuries/illnesses and better informed prevention initiatives. PMID:26464883

  7. Panorama of acute diarrhoeal diseases in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, E; Hernández, J E; Venczel, L; Hurtado, M

    1999-09-01

    We examined the recent panorama of ADD related deaths in Mexico in an effort to assess the overall impact of control measures that may vary in space and time. We pay particular attention to mortality rates recorded between 1985-1995, that is, before and after the cholera emergency. The aim is to focus on the social groups at risk, using time series data represented in the form of images and produced by a geographic information system (GIS). We show the potential of such methods to define populations at risk and support the decision process.

  8. Illness Severity and Work Productivity Loss Among Working Adults With Medically Attended Acute Respiratory Illnesses: US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Joshua G; Cheng, Caroline; Malosh, Ryan E; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L; King, Jennifer P; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Benoit, Joyce; Robertson, Anne; Thaker, Swathi N; Monto, Arnold S; Ohmit, Suzanne E

    2016-02-15

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality, with considerable economic costs, including lost work productivity. Influenza vaccines may reduce the economic burden through primary prevention of influenza and reduction in illness severity. We examined illness severity and work productivity loss among working adults with medically attended acute respiratory illnesses and compared outcomes for subjects with and without laboratory-confirmed influenza and by influenza vaccination status among subjects with influenza during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Illnesses laboratory-confirmed as influenza (ie, cases) were subjectively assessed as more severe than illnesses not caused by influenza (ie, noncases) based on multiple measures, including current health status at study enrollment (≤7 days from illness onset) and current activity and sleep quality status relative to usual. Influenza cases reported missing 45% more work hours (20.5 vs 15.0; P productivity as impeded to a greater degree (6.0 vs 5.4; P productivity loss were noted for vaccinated subjects. Influenza illnesses were more severe and resulted in more missed work hours and productivity loss than illnesses not confirmed as influenza. Modest reductions in illness severity for vaccinated cases were observed. These findings highlight the burden of influenza illnesses and illustrate the importance of laboratory confirmation of influenza outcomes in evaluations of vaccine effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Life skills programmes for chronic mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Most people with schizophrenia have a cyclical pattern of illness characterised by remission and relapses. The illness can reduce the ability of self-care and functioning and can lead to the illness becoming disabling. Life skills programmes, emphasising the needs associated with independent functioning, are often a part of the rehabilitation process. These programmes have been developed to enhance independent living and quality of life for people with schizophrenia. Objectives To review the effects of life skills programmes compared with standard care or other comparable therapies for people with chronic mental health problems. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010). We supplemented this process with handsearching and scrutiny of references. We inspected references of all included studies for further trials. Selection criteria We included all relevant randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials for life skills programmes versus other comparable therapies or standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a random-effects model. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again based on a random-effects model. Main results We included seven randomised controlled trials with a total of 483 participants. These evaluated life skills programmes versus standard care, or support group. We found no significant difference in life skills performance between people given life skills training and standard care (1 RCT, n = 32, MD −1.10; 95% CI −7.82 to 5.62). Life skills training did not improve or worsen study retention (5 RCTs, n = 345, RR 1.16; 95% CI 0.40 to 3.36). We found no significant difference in PANSS positive, negative or total scores between life skills intervention and

  10. A care-full diagnosis: three Vietnamese Australian women and their accounts of becoming "mentally ill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Ben; Kokanovic, Renata; Tran, Huong; Dowrick, Chris

    2010-03-01

    It is often argued that Western medical responses to illness take illness out of the intimate social contexts within which illness becomes meaningful for people and that, as a result, Western medicine can often constitute an ineffective or, at worst, a disempowering response to illness. While not wishing to challenge such arguments, we seek in this article to present material that might serve as a useful caveat to them. Drawn from interviews conducted as part of an Australian study exploring cross-cultural understandings and experiences of mental illness, we present the accounts of three Vietnamese Australian women. In these accounts, the diagnoses of mental illness that these women had received from their Australian doctors were not presented as being meaningless or disempowering. Rather, as the women presented it, being seen and treated as mentally ill had precipitated and continued to precipitate a sense of belonging and self-worth.

  11. Do biogenetic causal beliefs reduce mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and in mental health professionals? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkings, Josephine S; Brown, Patricia M

    2018-06-01

    Viewing mental illness as an 'illness like any other' and promoting biogenetic causes have been explored as a stigma-reduction strategy. The relationship between causal beliefs and mental illness stigma has been researched extensively in the general public, but has gained less attention in more clinically-relevant populations (i.e. people with mental illness and mental health professionals). A systematic review examining whether endorsing biogenetic causes decreases mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and mental health professionals was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Multiple databases were searched, and studies that explored the relationship between biogenetic causal beliefs and mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals were considered. Studies were included if they focussed on depression, schizophrenia, or mental illness in general, were in English, and had adult participants. The search identified 11 journal articles reporting on 15 studies, which were included in this review. Of these, only two provided evidence that endorsing biogenetic causes was associated with less mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals. The majority of studies in the present review (n = 10) found that biogenetic causal beliefs were associated with increased stigma or negative attitudes towards mental illness. The present review highlights the lack of research exploring the impacts of endorsing biogenetic causes in people with mental illness and mental health professionals. Clinical implications associated with these results are discussed, and suggestions are made for further research that examines the relationship between causal beliefs and treatment variables. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. Correlates of Illness Severity in Infectious Mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Odame

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the spectrum and frequencies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV complications and markers of illness severity in immunocompetent patients with primary EBV infection will inform management of patients with EBV-related illnesses.

  13. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...

  14. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  15. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  16. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  17. Anxiety in Medically Ill Children/Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or i...

  18. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M

    2013-03-01

    Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.

  19. Attitude toward mental illness amongst urban nonpsychiatric health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Pande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.

  20. Gender roles, illness orientation and use of medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R

    1983-01-01

    The study investigates illness orientation as a factor which may account for sex differences in the utilization of medical care. First, sex differences in the way symptoms are perceived, evaluated and acted upon (illness orientation) are analyzed. Then gender role factors which may account for sex differences in illness orientation are examined. Finally, the degree to which gender role factors and illness orientation account for sex differences in medical care utilization are assessed. The study population includes 1648 adults between the ages of 18 and 59. Medical record data covering 7 years of outpatient services are linked with survey data on the respondents. The findings show that while females are more likely to perceive symptoms than males, there is no apparent sex difference in a tendency to adopt the sick role when ill. In addition, results indicate that gender role factors such as level and type of role responsibility and concern with health are related to female though not male symptom reports. Illness orientation variables are related to rates of medical utilization for both sexes. However, it is primarily the perception of symptoms and an interest and concern with health which contributes to sex differences in utilization rates. When examining respondents who report either a very low or very high number of symptoms, sex differences in utilization rates fall below statistical significance.

  1. Attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Poreddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.

  2. Research using ultracold neutrons at the ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this talk I will make no effort to give an exhaustive, detailed description of the well-published results of recent work with ultracold neutrons (UCN) at the ILL. Instead, there will be a biased selection of some topics in which author happens to be most interested, though in some cases as a spectator from a considerable distance than as an actor. The selection includes the recent lifetime experiment using a Fomblin-coated bottle, the continuing search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron and some ideas on high precision neutron optics experiments

  3. Ill Posedness Results for Generalized Water Wave Models

    OpenAIRE

    Teyekpiti, Vincent Tetteh

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of the study, the weak asymptotic method is used to find singular solutions of the shallow water system in both one and two space dimensions. The singular solutions so constructed are allowed to contain Dirac-delta; distributions (Espinosa & Omel'yanov, 2005). The idea is to con- struct complex-valued approximate solutions which become real-valued in the distributional limit. The approach, which extends the range f possible singular solutions, is used to construct solutions ...

  4. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  5. Illness cognitions and family adjustment: psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire for parents of a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sint Nicolaas, Simone M; Schepers, Sasja A; van den Bergh, Esther M M; Evers, Andrea W M; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2016-02-01

    Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. Participants were recruited from two multicenter studies: sample 1 included 128 parents of a child diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (response rate 82 %) and sample 2 included 114 parents of a child diagnosed with cancer (response rate 74 %). Parents completed an adapted version of the ICQ (Illness Cognition Questionnaire-Parent version (ICQ-P)), together with the Profile of Mood States (POMS; sample 1) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; sample 2). The factor structure of the ICQ-P was examined by means of principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha for each subscale and correlations between the ICQ-P scales and the HADS and POMS were calculated. The illness cognitions of parents with and without psychological distress were compared. Factor analysis confirmed the hypothesized structure of the ICQ-P in our sample (n = 242). The three scales Helplessness, Acceptance, and Perceived Benefits explained 9.8, 31.4, and 17.9 % of the variance, respectively. Cronbach's alpha showed adequate internal consistency (.80-.88). Concurrent and criterion-related validity were appropriate. The results confirm that the ICQ-P reliably assesses the illness cognitions of the parents of a child with cancer. Psychologically distressed parents showed less acceptance and more helplessness. The availability of a short and valid illness cognition questionnaire will help clinicians gain insight into parental cognitions regarding the illness of their child, information that might be helpful for targeting interventions.

  6. Illness perceptions of cancer patients: relationships with illness characteristics and effects on coping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, E.P.C.; Rijken, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Illness perceptions have proven to be predictive of coping and adjustment in many chronically ill patients. Insights into illness perceptions of cancer patients are however scarce. The purpose of the present study was to explore how people with cancer perceive their illness. Moreover, we

  7. Illness perceptions of leprosy-cured individuals in Surinam with residual disfigurements - "I am cured, but still I am ill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Mark Ac; Reyme, Melinda; Lawrence, Maggie; Menke, Jack; Kaptein, Ad A

    2017-06-01

    Objective Leprosy has rarely been the subject of health psychology research despite its substantial impact. Our aim was to explore illness perceptions in patients and their health care providers in Surinam. The Common Sense Model (CSM) was the guiding theoretical model. Design Patients with biomedically cured leprosy and their health care providers completed the B-IPQ and took part in semi-structured interviews. The literature on illness perceptions in patients with leprosy was reviewed. Main outcome measures Patients' B-IPQ scores were compared with samples of patients with other (chronic) illnesses, and with health care providers completing the questionnaire as if they were visibly disfigured patients. Quotations from the semi-structured interviews were used to contextualise the illness perceptions. Results Patients' B-IPQ scores reflected the chronic nature of leprosy and were comparable with those with other chronic illnesses. Health care providers perceived leprosy to have a greater negative impact than did the patients. Perceived understanding of causes differed considerably between patients and health care providers. Conclusion Leprosy continues to be experienced as an illness with major psychological and social consequences such as stigmatisation, even after biomedical cure. Interventions that target patients, health care providers, and society at large may help reduce perceived shame and stigma. The CSM is a helpful theoretical model in studying this population.

  8. Illness progression in chronic fatigue syndrome: a shifting immune baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lindsey; Broderick, Gordon; Taylor, Renee; Fernandes, Henrique; Harvey, Jeanna; Barnes, Zachary; Smylie, AnneLiese; Collado, Fanny; Balbin, Elizabeth G; Katz, Ben Z; Klimas, Nancy G; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2016-03-10

    Validation of biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) across data sets has proven disappointing. As immune signature may be affected by many factors, our objective was to explore the shift in discriminatory cytokines across ME/CFS subjects separated by duration of illness. Cytokine expression collected at rest across multiple studies for female ME/CFS subjects (i) 18 years or younger, ill for 2 years or less (n = 18), (ii) 18-50 years of age, ill for 7 years (n = 22), and (iii) age 50 years or older (n = 28), ill for 11 years on average. Control subjects were matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Data describing the levels of 16 cytokines using a chemiluminescent assay was used to support the identification of separate linear classification models for each subgroup. In order to isolate the effects of duration of illness alone, cytokines that changed significantly with age in the healthy control subjects were excluded a priori. Optimal selection of cytokines in each group resulted in subsets of IL-1α, 6, 8, 15 and TNFα. Common to any 2 of 3 groups were IL-1α, 6 and 8. Setting these 3 markers as a triple screen and adjusting their contribution according to illness duration sub-groups produced ME/CFS classification accuracies of 75-88 %. The contribution of IL-1α, higher in recently ill adolescent ME/CFS subjects was progressively less important with duration. While high levels of IL-8 screened positive for ME/CFS in the recently afflicted, the opposite was true for subjects ill for more than 2 years. Similarly, while low levels of IL-6 suggested early ME/CFS, the reverse was true in subjects over 18 years of age ill for more than 2 years. These preliminary results suggest that IL-1α, 6 and 8 adjusted for illness duration may serve as robust biomarkers, independent of age, in screening for ME/CFS.

  9. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-10-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.

  10. Patients' Illness Perception as a Tool to Improve Individual Disease Management in Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkert, Stefanie; Lehner-Baumgartner, Eva; Valencak, Julia; Knobler, Robert; Riedl, Elisabeth; Jonak, Constanze

    2018-02-07

    The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) has been shown to assess illness perception reproducibly in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Illness perception reflects patients' individual concepts of understanding and interpretation of the disease, influencing illness behaviour and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study investigated the clinical relevance of the relationships between illness perception, illness behaviour, and HRQOL in CTCL and cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL). A total of 92 patients completed the IPQ-R, the Scale for the Assessment of Illness Behavior (SAIB), and a skin-specific HRQOL tool (Skindex-29). Data on illness behaviour were not evidently related to illness perception, whereas illness perception was significantly associated with HRQOL. Both, IPQ-R and HRQOL results correlated with disease entity, stage, and socio-demographics. Only IPQ-R results provided practical information on patients' needs to train personal coping strategies. IPQ-R assessment in CTCL and CBCL might be a useful instrument to improve individual disease management.

  11. Illness Perception of Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-na Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the illness perception characteristics of Chinese patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID, and the mediating role between symptoms, psychopathology, and clinical outcomes.MethodsSix illness groups from four outpatient departments of a general hospital in China were recruited, including the FGID patient group. The modified and validated Chinese version of the illness perception questionnaire-revised was utilized, which contained three sections: symptom identity, illness representation, and causes. The 12-item short-form health survey was utilized to reflect the physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The Toronto alexithymia scale was used to measure the severity of alexithymia. Additional behavioral outcome about the frequency of doctor visits in the past 12 months was measured. Pathway analyses with multiple-group comparisons were conducted to test the mediating role of illness perception.ResultsOverall, 600 patients were recruited. The illness perceptions of FGID patients were characterized as with broad non-gastrointestinal symptoms (6.8 ± 4.2, a negative illness representation (more chronic course, worse consequences, lower personal and treatment control, lower illness coherence, and heavier emotional distress, and high numbers of psychological and culture-specific attributions. Fit indices of the three hypothesized path models (for physical and mental HRQoL and doctor-visit frequency, respectively supported the mediating role of illness perceptions. For example, the severity of alexithymia and non-gastrointestinal symptoms had significant negative effect on mental quality of life through both direct (standardized effect: −0.085 and −0.233 and indirect (standardized effect: −0.045 and −0.231 influence via subscales of consequences, emotional representation, and psychological and risk factor attributions. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed similar

  12. Illness denial questionnaire for patients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ferrario S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Rossi Ferrario,1 Ines Giorgi,2 Paola Baiardi,3 Laura Giuntoli,4 Gianluigi Balestroni,1 Paola Cerutti,1 Marina Manera,2 Paola Gabanelli,2 Valentina Solara,5 Roberta Fornara,6 Michela Luisetti,1 Pierangela Omarini,1 Giovanna Omarini,1 Giulio Vidotto4 1Psychology Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB, Veruno, NO, Italy; 2Psychology Unit, 3Scientific Direction, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri SpA SB, Pavia, Italy; 4Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 5Department of Neurology, ALS Centre, “Maggiore della Carita`” University Hospital, Novara, Italy; 6Psychology Unit, SS Trinità Hospital, Borgomanero, NO, Italy Purpose: Interest in assessing denial is still present, despite the criticisms concerning its definition and measurement. We tried to develop a questionnaire (Illness Denial Questionnaire, IDQ assessing patients’ and caregivers’ denial in relation to their illness/disturbance. Patients and methods: After a preliminary study, a final version of 24 dichotomous items (true/false was selected. We hypothesized a theoretical model with three dimensions: denial of negative emotions, resistance to change, and conscious avoidance, the first two composing the actual Denial and the last representing an independent component of the illness denial behavior. The IDQ was administered to 400 subjects (219 patients and 181 caregivers together with the Anxiety–Depression Questionnaire – Reduced form (AD-R, in order to assess concurrent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α and McDonald’s ω, and test–retest analysis were performed. Results: CFA and internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s α: 0.87–0.96 indicated a clear and meaningful three-factor structure of IDQ, for both patients and caregivers. Further analyses showed good concurrent validity, with Denial and its subscale negatively associated with anxiety and depression and

  13. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  14. Ethics and mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  15. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  16. Foodborne illness: new developments concerning an old problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasowski, Eric J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Sharp, Trueman W

    2002-08-01

    Foodborne illnesses continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, primarily as gastroenteritis but occasionally as other syndromes as well. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of widely known infectious agents, principally viruses, and are probably the result of common mistakes in food handling in the home or in restaurants. The epidemiology of foodborne illness is evolving. Major changes in food production, distribution, and consumption have created opportunities for new pathogens to emerge and for old ones to reemerge, and the potential for widespread outbreaks is increasing. Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens resulting from the widespread use of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry is also an important concern. Clinicians must be aware of the changing epidemiology of foodborne illness to recognize and manage these conditions in the clinical setting. In addition, clinicians are critical in the reporting of recognized or suspected foodborne illness, so that public health authorities are able to investigate, understand, and ultimately better control them. A number of new techniques have been employed, and others under development will improve our ability to recognize and cope with foodborne diseases.

  17. [Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiawa, Maja; Kilian, Reinhold

    2017-10-01

    Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents Mental illness of parents can be a load situation for children. Supporting social relations might be an important source in such a situation. Social relations can be shown by social network analysis. Studies about social networks and mental health indicate differences regarding structure and potential for support when compared with social networks of healthy individuals. If and how mental illness of parents has an impact on their children's network is widely unknown. This systematic review shows methods and results of studies about social networks of children with mentally ill parents. By systematic search in electronic databases as well as manual search, two studies were found who met the target criteria. Both studies were conducted in the USA. Results of studies indicate that parental mental illness affects the state of mental health and social networks of children. Symptomatology of children changed due to perceived social support of network contacts. Impact of social support and strong network contacts seems to depend on age of children and the family situation. That's why support offers should be adapt to children's age. Focusing on social networks as potential resource for support and needs of the family affected seems appropriate during treatment.

  18. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women had higher rates of lifetime diagnosis for each of the anxiety disorders examined, except for social anxiety disorder which showed no gender difference in prevalence. No gender differences were observed in the age of onset and chronicity of the illness. However, women with a lifetime diagnosis of an anxiety disorder were more likely than men to also be diagnosed with another anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, anxiety disorders were associated with a greater illness burden in women than in men, particularly among European American women and to some extend also among Hispanic women. These results suggest that anxiety disorders are not only more prevalent but also more disabling in women than in men. PMID:21439576

  19. Illness Perceptions in Patients of Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Investigation from Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sadia; Imran, Nazish; Hotiana, Usman Amin; Mazhar, Nauman; Asif, Aftab

    2017-01-01

    Patient's perception of their illness influences their healthcare decisions. The objectives of this study were to explore patient's own beliefs about their illness (Schizophrenia) and perceived social support, and its impact on their attitudes toward pharmacological treatment in Lahore, Pakistan. This study was conducted at Mayo Hospital Lahore from March to September 2016. Hundred individuals suffering from Schizophrenia completed four questionnaires; a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Illness Perception Questionnaire for Schizophrenia(IPQ-S), Drug attitude Inventory-10 (DAI) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (PSS). Stress, family problems, lack of friends & financial worries were endorsed strongly by patients as cause of their mental illness. Ambiguity regarding their mental illness duration and personal control was observed. Patients' perceived significant negative consequences, negative emotional response, as well as had poor understanding of their mental illness and treatment effectiveness. Statistically significant gender differences in treatment control and illness coherence subscales of IPQS were observed. Drug attitude inventory was positively correlated with Treatment control subscale (p Illness coherence subscale of IPQS (p consequences subscale and perceived social support was negatively correlated (p illness is predictor of their drug taking attitude and perceived social support. Study results should help to develop new interventions to correct inaccurate beliefs in patients with schizophrenia to improve illness outcome.

  20. Eugenics, genetics, and mental illness stigma in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.

  1. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  2. The relationship between physical ill-health and mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A; Kinnear, D; Allan, L; Smiley, E; Cooper, S-A

    2018-05-01

    People with intellectual disabilities face a much greater burden and earlier onset of physical and mental ill-health than the general adult population. Physical-mental comorbidity has been shown to result in poorer outcomes in the general population, but little is known about this relationship in adults with intellectual disabilities. To identify whether physical ill-health is associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and whether the extent of physical multi-morbidity can predict the likelihood of mental ill-health. To identify any associations between types of physical ill-health and mental ill-health. A total of 1023 adults with intellectual disabilities underwent comprehensive health assessments. Binary logistic regressions were undertaken to establish any association between the independent variables: total number of physical health conditions, physical conditions by International Classification of Disease-10 chapter and specific physical health conditions; and the dependent variables: problem behaviours, mental disorders of any type. All regressions were adjusted for age, gender, level of intellectual disabilities, living arrangements, neighbourhood deprivation and Down syndrome. The extent of physical multi-morbidity was not associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities as only 0.8% of the sample had no physical conditions. Endocrine disease increased the risk of problem behaviours [odds ratio (OR): 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.47], respiratory disease reduced the risk of problem behaviours (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99) and mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92), and musculoskeletal disease reduced the risk of mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.98). Ischaemic heart disease increased the risk of problem behaviours approximately threefold (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.02-10.60). The extent of physical multi-morbidity in the population with intellectual

  3. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  4. Traditional and Alternative Therapy for Mental Illness in Jamaica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that among psychiatric patients more than a third expressed the belief that the overall cause of their mental illness was as a result of supernatural factors. In general, the majority of patients felt that their perception of their problems did not concur with the western practitioner, which in turn caused distress for ...

  5. Dynamics of Conceptions of Health and Illness Among Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I B Bovina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the theory of social studies of the conceptions of health and illness among young people these conceptions undergo a research analysis. The comparison of the actual results with the results of the similar study conducted in 2002 allows us to talk about the dynamics of these conceptions.

  6. Nutritional support for critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari; Anton, Natalie; Lequier, Laurance; Vandermeer, Ben; Tjosvold, Lisa; Larsen, Bodil; Hartling, Lisa

    2016-05-27

    levels. We assessed the trial as having unclear risk of bias. We consider the quality of the evidence to be very low due to there being only one small trial. In the most recent search update we identified a protocol for a relevant randomized controlled trial examining the impact of withholding early parenteral nutrition completing enteral nutrition in pediatric critically ill patients; no results have been published. There was only one randomized trial relevant to the review question. Research is urgently needed to identify best practices regarding the timing and forms of nutrition for critically ill infants and children.

  7. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...

  8. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  18. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can

  7. The development of a model of dignity in illness based on qualitative interviews with seriously ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gennip, Isis E; Pasman, H Roeline W; Oosterveld-Vlug, Mariska G; Willems, Dick L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2013-08-01

    While knowledge on factors affecting personal dignity of patients nearing death is quite substantial, far less is known about how patients living with a serious disease understand dignity. To develop a conceptual model of dignity that illuminates the process by which serious illness can undermine patients' dignity, and that is applicable to a wide patient population. Qualitative interview study. 34 patients with either cancer, early stage dementia, or a severe chronic illness were selected from an extensive cohort study into advance directives. In-depth interviews were carried out exploring the experiences of seriously ill patients with regard to their personal dignity. The interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis and a conceptual model was constructed based on the resulting themes. We developed a two-step dignity model of illness. According to this model, illness related conditions do not affect patients' dignity directly but indirectly by affecting the way patients perceive themselves. We identified three components shaping self-perception: (a) the individual self: the subjective experiences and internally held qualities of the patient; (b) the relational self: the self within reciprocal interaction with others; and, (c) the societal self: the self as a social object in the eyes of others. The merits of the model are two-folded. First, it offers an organizing framework for further research into patients' dignity. Secondly, the model can serve to facilitate care for seriously ill patients in practice by providing insight into illness and dignity at the level of the individual patient where intervention can be effectively targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Illness intrusiveness among survivors of autologous blood and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, A D; Elliott, M E; Abbey, S E; Raiz, L; Keating, A; Beanlands, H J; McCay, E; Messner, H A; Lipton, J H; Devins, G M

    2001-12-15

    Illness-induced disruptions to lifestyles, activities, and interests (i.e., illness intrusiveness) compromise subjective well-being. The authors measured illness intrusiveness in autologous blood and bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) survivors and compared the results with survivors of solid organ transplants. Forty-four of 64 consecutive ABMT survivors referred to the University of Toronto ABMT long-term follow-up clinic completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), the Atkinson Life Happiness Rating (ATKLH), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Mean time from ABMT to evaluation was 4.6 +/- 2.8 years. All patients were in remission or had stable disease at the time of evaluation. Autologous blood and bone marrow transplantation patients' IIRS scores were compared with scores reported by recipients of kidney (n = 357), liver (n = 150), lung (n = 77), and heart (n = 60) transplants. Mean IIRS score for the 44 ABMT patients was 37.2 +/- 17 (maximum possible score, 91; minimum possible score, 13). Higher IIRS scores correlated with lower scores on the ABS (r = -0.54; P work, financial situation, and active recreation. Despite achieving a remission after ABMT, patients continue to experience illness intrusiveness compromising subjective well-being. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  9. Heat-related illness in China, summer of 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shaohua; Huang, Cunrui; Bai, Li; Chu, Cordia; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat events have occurred more frequently in China in recent years, leading to serious impacts on human life and the health care system. To identify the characteristics of individuals with heat-related illnesses in China during the summer of 2013, we collected the data from the Heat-related Illness Surveillance System in Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). A total of 5758 cases were reported in the summer of 2013, mostly concentrated in urban areas around the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. We found a difference in age distribution of percentage of deaths from heat-related illness between males and females. Severe cases in males mostly occurred in the age group 45-74 years but in females mostly in the age group over 75. A distributed lag non-linear model had been used to identify population vulnerabilities in Ningbo and Chongqing. The results show that there was a clear positive relationship between maximum temperature and heat-related illness, and the heat effect was nonlinear and could last for 3 days. The elderly and males in the range of 45-64 years old might be the most vulnerable people of heat-related illness in China. We also highlighted some deficiencies of the surveillance system, such that the reported data were not accurate, comprehensive, or timely enough at this stage.

  10. Barriers to and facilitators of the acceptance process for individuals with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka; Millner, Uma Chandrika

    2014-09-01

    The process of acceptance of mental illness is a central component of recovery and has been linked to functioning, illness management, and quality of life. A number of barriers and facilitators have been theorized as impacting this process. This study was conducted with 30 participants with serious mental illness (a major psychiatric disorder with impairment in multiple areas of functioning) to elicit the barriers to and facilitators of the acceptance of mental illness. Grounded theory methodology was utilized to analyze the 30 semistructured interviews. Results revealed barriers to and facilitators of acceptance of mental illness at the micro level (cognitive, emotional, behavioral, identity-related), meso level (relational), and macro level (cultural, systemic). Clinical and research implications are discussed with regard to facilitating acceptance of mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  12. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2012-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and expli...

  13. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  14. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  15. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  16. Children coping with a serious illness

    OpenAIRE

    Pretzlik, Ursula

    1996-01-01

    A solid empirical base is needed to expand our understanding of coping in children who are seriously ill. The six studies reported were designed to describe the ways seriously ill children cope with their illness and treatment, and to explore factors (both individual and familial) which influence their coping. The choice of instniments and design were influenced by the Lazanis and Folkman transactional model of stress and coping (1984), especially their concept of coping. In the first study t...

  17. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. Nutritional Support of the Critically Ill Pediatric Patient: Foundations and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván José Ardila Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill children require nutritional support that will give them nutritional and non-nutritional support to successfully deal with their disease. In the past few years, we have been able to better understand the pathophysiology of critical illness, which has made possible the establishment of nutritional strategies resulting in an improved nutritional status, thus optimizing the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU stay and decreasing morbidity and mortality. Critical illness is associated with significant metabolic stress. It is crucial to understand the physiological response to stress to create nutritional recommendations for critically ill pediatric patients in the PICU.

  19. Exercise for mental illness: a systematic review of inpatient studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda

    2014-06-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the role of exercise interventions for people with a mental illness. However, much of this literature is conducted using outpatient and community-based populations. We undertook a systematic review examining the effect of exercise interventions on the health of people hospitalized with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders. Eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Several studies show positive health outcomes from short-term and long-term interventions for people hospitalized due to depression. Although positive, the evidence for inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders is substantially less. There is an urgent need to address the paucity of literature in this area, in particular the optimal dose and delivery of exercise for people hospitalized as a result of mental illness. Standardization of reporting exercise programme variables, the assessment of mental illness, and the reporting of adverse events must accompany future studies. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Discontinuing treatment in children with chronic, critical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, M M; Deatrick, J A; McKnight, H J; Mohr, W K

    2000-03-01

    Decisions about optimal treatment for critically ill children are qualitatively different from those related to adults. Technological advances over the past several decades have resulted in myriad treatment options that leave many children chronically, critically ill. These children are often technology dependent. With new technologies and new patient populations comes the responsibility to understand how, when, and why these technologies are applied and when technology should not be used or should be withdrawn. Much has been written about ethical decision making in the care of chronically, critically ill adults and newborns. In this article, relevant factors about the care of children older than neonates are described: standards, decision makers, age of the child, and pain management. A case study is used as a mechanism to explore these issues. Dimensions of futility, discontinuing aggressive treatment, and a consideration of benefits and burdens are integrated throughout the discussion to inform nurse practitioner practice.

  1. Rethinking platelet function: thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in critical illness predicts a poor clinical outcome. Apart from its role in microvascular thrombus formation, it is widely anticipated that this association is indirect rather than causal. Emerging evidence however indicates that platelets are also immune competent cells. Like...... per se results in immunodeficiency through loss of platelet-mediated immune functions, and propose that thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness in part explain the negative predictive value of low or declining platelet count. We propose that rethinking the risks...... of thrombocytopenia to include not only bleeding but also immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation along with the conduct of studies investigating mechanisms contributing to thrombocytopenia induced poor non-hemorrhagic outcome in critical illness, may be means to improve outcome in these patients through...

  2. [Patient-caregiver relationship: when illness blogs step in].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondi, Céline; Berney, Alexandre

    2014-02-12

    The use of social media as a communication tool is rapidly growing in the community, and more specifically in patients, through illness blogs. This has been true for several years in North America, but is becoming a reality in Europe as well. We report here the first results of studies on the putative psychological benefits and risks of illness blogs for their authors. We also explore the possible impact of blogging on the patient-caregiver relationship. Social media are expected to have a growing influence in certain areas of health care. Physicians should therefore stay informed about them, take advantage of their benefits, and anticipate their risks.

  3. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness....

  4. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed the benefits and harms of AT III in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched from inception to 27 August 2015 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB, BIOSIS and CINAHL. We included randomized...... participants). However, for all other outcome measures and analyses, the results did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to support AT III substitution in any category of critically ill participants including those with sepsis and DIC. AT III did not show an impact...

  5. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  7. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  8. [Antibiotics in the critically ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Radmila R

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotics are one the most common therapies administered in the intensive care unit setting. This review outlines the strategy for optimal use of antimicrobial agents in the critically ill. In severely ill patients, empirical antimicrobial therapy should be used when a suspected infection may impair the outcome. It is necessary to collect microbiological documentation before initiating empirical antimicrobial therapy. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, it is recommended to control a focus of infection and to modify factors that promote microbial growth or impair the host's antimicrobial defence. A judicious choice of antimicrobial therapy should be based on the host characteristics, the site of injection, the local ecology, and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of antibiotics. This means treating empirically with broad-spectrum antimicrobials as soon as possible and narrowing the spectrum once the organism is identified (de-escalation), and limiting duration of therapy to the minimum effective period. Despite theoretical advantages, a combined antibiotic therapy is nor more effective than a mono-therapy in curing infections in most clinical trials involving intensive care patients. Nevertheless, textbooks and guidelines recommend a combination for specific pathogens and for infections commonly caused by these pathogens. Avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and optimizing the administration of antimicrobial agents will improve patient outcomes while minimizing risks for the development of bacterial resistance. It is important to note that each intensive care unit should have a program in place which monitors antibiotic utilisation and its effectiveness. Only in this way can the impact of interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use be evaluated at the local level.

  9. Attitudes of undergraduates towards mental illness: A comparison between nursing and business management students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vijayalakshmi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental illness is an important public health issue worldwide; stigmatisation and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness are widespread among the general public. However, little is known about the attitudes of undergraduates to mental illness.  Purpose. To compare the attitudes towards mental illness among undergraduates enrolled in nursing courses v. those enrolled in Bachelor of Business Management (BBM courses.  Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for the present study. A total of 268 undergraduates were selected to complete the Attitude Scale for Mental Illness (ASMI and the Opinions about Mental Illness in the Chinese Community (OMICC questionnaires.  Results. We found significant differences between the number of nursing and BBM students who agreed with statements posed by the questionnaires, e.g., that they would move out of their community if a mental health facility was established there (χ2=16.503, p<0.002, that they were not afraid of treated mentally ill people (χ2=15.279, p<0.004, and that people with mental illness tend to be violent (χ2=14.215, p<0.007 and dangerous (χ2=17.808, p<0.001. Nursing students disagreed that people with mental illness are easily identified (χ2=30.094, p<0.000, have a lower IQ (χ2=70.689, p<0.000 and should not have children (χ2=24.531, p<0.000. Nursing students were more benevolent than BBM students, as they agreed that people with mental illness can hold a job (χ2=49.992, p<0.000 and can return to their former position (χ2=11.596, p<0.021, that everyone faces the possibility of becoming mentally ill (χ2=38.726, p<0.000, and that one should not laugh at the mentally ill (χ2=17.407, p<0.002. Nursing students held less pessimistic attitudes, as they felt that the mentally ill should receive the same pay for the same job (χ2=10.669, p<0.031 and that the public are prejudiced towards people with mental illness (χ2=17.604, p<0.001. Conclusion

  10. Illness Uncertainty and Illness Intrusiveness as Predictors of Depressive and Anxious Symptomology in College Students with Chronic Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Alexandria J.; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L.; Sharkey, Christina M.; Bakula, Dana M.; Tackett, Alayna P.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of psychological functioning in college students with chronic illnesses. Participants: Participants (N = 1413) included 364 students with self-reported diagnoses of asthma or allergies, 148 students with other chronic illnesses (eg, epilepsy, type 1 diabetes), and 901 healthy students. Data were collected between…

  11. Common sense model of mental illness: Understanding the impact of cognitive and emotional representations of mental illness on recovery through the mediation of self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C H; Mak, Winnie W S

    2016-12-30

    The present study applied the common sense model to understand the underlying mechanism of how cognitive and emotional representations of mental illness among people in recovery of mental illness would impact their endorsement of self-stigma, and how that would, in turn, affect clinical and personal recovery. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 376 people in recovery. Participants were recruited from seven public specialty outpatient clinics and substance abuse assessment clinics across various districts in Hong Kong. They were asked to report their perception towards their mental illness, self-stigma, symptom severity, and personal recovery. The results of structural equation modeling partially supported the hypothesized mediation model indicating that controllability, consequences, and emotional concern of mental illness, but not cause, timeline, and identity, were associated with self-stigma, which was subsequently negatively associated with clinical and personal recovery. The present study demonstrated the mediating role of self-stigma in the relationship between individuals' illness representations towards their mental illness and their recovery. Illness management programs aimed at addressing the maladaptive mental illness-related beliefs and emotions are recommended. Implications on developing self-directed and empowering mental health services are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Illness appraisals and health-related quality of life in adolescents and young adults with allergies and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Eddington, Angelica R; Molzon, Elizabeth S; Mullins, Larry L

    2013-01-01

    The current study sought to: 1) assess differences in levels of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQOL), illness uncertainty, and intrusiveness in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with allergies and asthma, as well as 2) examine the effect of illness appraisals on HRQOL. Participants were undergraduate students with self-reported allergies (n=74) and asthma (n=74) who completed the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale (MUIS), the Illness Intrusiveness Scale (IIS), and the SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire. Paired t-tests indicated that AYAs with allergies reported higher levels of illness uncertainty and poorer mental HRQOL than AYAs with asthma; the groups did not differ on reported levels of illness intrusiveness or physical HRQOL. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between illness appraisals and HRQOL. Results revealed that poorer mental HRQOL was associated with higher illness uncertainty in AYAs with allergies and higher illness intrusiveness in AYAs with asthma. Poorer physical HRQOL was associated with higher illness uncertainty in AYAs with asthma and higher illness intrusiveness in AYAs with allergies and asthma. The current examination suggests that illness appraisals may be differentially related to HRQOL in AYAs with allergies compared to those with asthma.

  13. Gulf War illnesses are autoimmune illnesses caused by reactive oxygen species which were caused by nerve agent prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J I

    2012-08-01

    Gulf War illnesses (GWI share many of the features of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and both CFS and GWI may be the result of chronic immune system processes. The main suspected cause for GWI, the drug pyridostigmine bromide (PB), has been shown to cause neuronal damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have been associated with IgM mediated autoimmune responses against ROS induced neoepitopes in depressed patients and this may also apply to CFS. It therefore follows that the drug used in the Gulf War caused ROS, the ROS modified native molecules, and that this trigged the autoimmune condition we refer to as Gulf War illnesses. Similar mechanisms may apply to other autoimmune illnesses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. World survey of mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton

    2016-01-15

    To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Håkanson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony. The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  16. Vascular and Skeletal Muscle Function in Gulf War Veterans Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    DNA, RNA, and protein from muscle tissue samples. Prepare cDNA from RNA samples. 4-28 Pending Complete qPCR and Western Blot to assess genes and...Lab from cDNA samples 24-30 Pending Interpret results and identify candidate genes related to Gulf War Illness 24-30 Pending Milestone: Complete

  17. Public attitudes toward mental illness in Africa and North America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Conclusion: Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public ...

  18. HIV infection and psychiatric illness | Owe-Larsson | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Patients with HIV infection are at an increased risk of psychiatric illness. Major depressive disorder and subsyndromal depressive symptoms, as well as anxiety disorder and substance abuse are more prevalent among HIV infected individuals than among the general population. HIV-associated neurocognitive ...

  19. Individual Differences on Job Stress and Related Ill Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodraga Stefanovska Petkovska

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Employees are exposed to many potential work related stressors which differently affect their job satisfaction and result in ill health. A better understanding of the individual characteristics and potential stressors should subsequently help managers' better deal with this problem. This underlines the need for further research and design of stress reduction interventions.

  20. Treating Mental Illness among Diabetic Black Male Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Andrae; Fields, Lashawnda; O'Dwyer, Curtis; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Joe, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment evidence for Black male adolescents suffering from comorbid mental illness and diabetes mellitus. Method: A review of the studies published in English-language journals was conducted. Results: We found no RCT focused on Black males with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2).…

  1. Liberation From Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gregory A; Girard, Timothy D; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This clinical practice guideline addresses six questions related to liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST). METHODS: A ...

  2. On the ill-posedness of the Gardner equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alejo Plana, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    We present ill-posedness results for the initial value problem (IVP) for the Gardner equation. We measure the regularity of the Cauchy problem in the classical Sobolev spaces Hs, and show the critical Sobolev index under which the local well-posedness of the problem is not present, in the sense t...

  3. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734

  4. Illness perceptions of cancer patients: relationships with illness characteristics and coping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.; Rijken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Illness perceptions have proven to be predictive of coping and adjustment in many chronically ill patients. However, insights into illness perceptions of cancer patients are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to explore how a heterogeneous sample of cancer patients perceive

  5. Beyond attributions: Understanding public stigma of mental illness with the common sense model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y

    2014-03-01

    The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.

  6. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Relationships between perceived diagnostic disclosure, patient characteristics, psychological distress and illness perceptions in Indian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittem, Mahati; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    Non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis is a common practice in many Asian cultures where family-based medical decision making is the norm. The present study sought to compare Indian cancer patients who were aware versus unaware of their cancer diagnosis on a range of patient characteristics, levels of psychological distress and illness perceptions. A sample of 329 Indian cancer patients were interviewed about their understanding of their illness (to assess awareness of a cancer diagnosis) and administered the following measures: the modified Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Demographic and medical details were also obtained. Over half of the sample (54.1%) was unaware of their cancer diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis predicting perceived diagnostic disclosure indicated that awareness of a cancer diagnosis was associated with being involved in medical decisions, receiving multiple treatments, longer treatment durations, greater perceived understanding of one's illness (illness coherence) and citing a cause for one's illness. The results highlight the importance of the context in which decisions about the patient's illness are made (e.g. by whom) as well as illness perceptions relating to patients' understanding of their illness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-05-01

    This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental Health Professionals' Attitudes Toward Offenders With Mental Illness (Insanity Acquittees) in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua

    2018-02-01

    Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.

  10. Experiencing Community: Perspectives of Individuals Diagnosed as Having Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A.; Brekke, John S.; Braslow, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. Methods In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Results Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. Conclusions The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants describe community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness. PMID:23545784

  11. Social support for diabetes illness management: supporting adolescents and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idalski Carcone, April; Ellis, Deborah A; Weisz, Arlene; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this research study was to examine the relationship between 4 sources of social support (support for the adolescent from family, support for the adolescent from friends, support for the caregiver from another adult, and support to the family from the health care provider) and adolescents' diabetes outcomes (illness management behavior and health status) using a diverse sample of urban adolescents. One hundred forty-one adolescents with insulin-managed diabetes and their primary caregivers completed questionnaires assessing social support and illness management behavior. Glucose meters were downloaded and hemoglobin A1c assays were obtained. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model social support informed by social ecological theory. The results of the structural equation modeling indicated that support for the caregiver from another adult was directly and positively related to support for the adolescent from family and indirectly related to better illness management. Support for the adolescent from family was directly related to better diabetes management and, through better management, to better diabetes health. Support to the family from the health care provider was not related to support for the adolescent and support to the adolescent from friends was not related to illness management, as hypothesized. This study identifies a novel target for social support intervention to improve adolescents' illness management behavior-the caregivers of adolescents with diabetes. By enhancing the social support caregivers receive from other adults in their lives, caregivers' ability to support their adolescent children with diabetes might also be improved which, in turn, improves adolescents' illness outcomes.

  12. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  14. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  15. Mental illness among journalists: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Malcolm, Estelle; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Mass media depictions of people with mental illness have a strong influence on public attitudes, to the extent that changes in these depictions can reduce public stigmatization of people with such illness. Journalists' mental health may influence their depiction of those with mental illness, but little is known about this. To investigate mental illness among journalists in five key areas: (1) journalists' mental health status; (2) journalists' personal attitudes towards mental illness; (3) attitudes and support journalists expect or have experienced from colleagues when they have a mental health problem; (4) effect of journalism's professional culture on the course of mental illness; and (5) effect of journalism's professional culture on mass media depictions of people with mental illness. We performed a systematic screening of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library regarding the study aims. We identified 19, 12, seven and four studies for aims 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No articles were found for aim 5. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among journalists is higher than that among the general population. Journalists have positive personal attitudes towards mental illness, but there are perceived workplace disincentives to disclose mental health problems.

  16. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.

  17. Nutrition, Illness, and Injury in Aquatic Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of

  18. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  19. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...

  20. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  1. Illness in Children and Parental Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMost children suffer from illnesses from time to time. In only a small part of these ill children parents decide to seek professional help. So, most child health care is carried out by parents. In general, this phenomenon is called the iceberg of symptoms. The part of the iceberg under

  2. Illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ittersum, M. W.; van Wilgen, C. P.; Hilberdink, W. K. H. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Objective: Former studies in chronic diseases showed the importance of patients' beliefs and perceptions. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire was developed to assess these illness perceptions. Our goal was to investigate psychometric properties of the IPQ-R for Fibromyalgia Dutch language

  3. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their illness on the one side, and widespread stigma and discrimination on the other. Evidence from North America and paralleling findings from research in Western Europe suggest that stigma and discrimination are major problems in the community, with negative attitudes and behaviour towards people with mental illness ...

  4. Body Consciousness, Illness-Related Impairment, and Patient Adherence in Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the joint effects of private body consciousness (PBC) and degree of illness-related physical impairment on treatment regimen adherence in a sample of 52 hemodialysis patients. Predicted the effect of PBC on adherence would vary as a function of patients' level of illness-related physical impairment. Results are discussed in terms of…

  5. Search Results | Page 15 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Results 141 - 150 of 1310 ... Smoking, poverty and ill-health in China. Published date. January 1, 2008. Papers. TELECOMMUNICATIONS EDUCATION ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT HEALTH ECONOMICS ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION GOVERNMENT ...

  6. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Patients' and partners' perspectives of chronic illness and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Venetis, Maria K

    2012-06-01

    This study is framed in theories of illness uncertainty (Babrow, A. S., 2007, Problematic integration theory. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 181-200). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Babrow & Matthias, 2009; Brashers, D. E., 2007, A theory of communication and uncertainty management. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 201-218). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Hogan, T. P., & Brashers, D. E. (2009). The theory of communication and uncertainty management: Implications for the wider realm of information behavior. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications, (pp. 45-66). New York, NY: Routledge; Mishel, M. H. (1999). Uncertainty in chronic illness. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 17, 269-294; Mishel, M. H., & Clayton, M. F., 2003, Theories of uncertainty. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (pp. 25-48). New York, NY: Springer) and health information management (Afifi, W. A., & Weiner, J. L., 2004, Toward a theory of motivated information management. Communication Theory, 14, 167-190. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00310.x; Greene, K., 2009, An integrated model of health disclosure decision-making. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications (pp. 226-253). New York, NY: Routledge) and examines how couples experience uncertainty and interference related to one partner's chronic health condition. Specifically, a model is hypothesized in which illness uncertainty (i.e., stigma, prognosis, and symptom) and illness interference predict communication efficacy and health condition management. Participants include 308 dyads in which one partner has a chronic health condition. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that there

  8. Integrated management of childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Millones de defunciones en niños menores de 5 años se podrían prevenir en países en desarrollo si se aplicaran las medidas de control y los tratamientos eficaces que se usan normalmente en países desarrollados. Conscientes de la necesidad de hacer frente a las principales causas de enfermedad y muerte en la infancia (infecciones respiratorias agudas, enfermedades diarreicas, desnutrición, malaria y enfermedades prevenibles por medio de la vacunación mediante una iniciativa global, la OMS y el UNICEF han desarrollado una estrategia conocida por Atención Integrada de las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, IMCI. Sus oficinas regionales para las Américas, que son la OPS y el UNICEF-TACRO, han aceptado los objetivos y actividades descritos en el presente informe a fin de reorientar su labor y dirigirla hacia el mejoramiento del estado de salud infantil en este hemisferio.

  9. Motor skills, cognition, and work performance of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2018-01-12

    Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.

  10. Factors influencing social distance toward people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2004-06-01

    When identifying ways to reduce stigmatization because of mental illness it is crucial to understand contributing factors. Social distance-the willingness to engage in relationships of varying intimacy with a person--is an indicator of public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Multiple linear regression analysis of the results of a vignette-based opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 594). The level of social distance increases if situations imply 'social closeness.' The vignette describing a person with schizophrenia, attitudes to general aspects of mental health (lay helping, community psychiatry), emotions toward those affected, and the attitude toward consequences of mental illness (medical treatment, medication side effects, negative sanctions, e.g. withdrawal of the driver license) were found to predict social distance. Demographic factors such as age, gender, and the cultural background influence social distance. The explained variance (R2) is 44.8%. Social distance is a multifaceted concept influenced by, e.g., socio-economic and cultural factors, but also by the respondent's general attitude toward (mental) health issues. These results suggest that more knowledge about mental illnesses, especially schizophrenia, may increase social distance. The findings presented here may help to focus anti-stigma campaigns not only on transmission of knowledge, but on integrating different approaches.

  11. Implicit self-stigma in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2010-02-01

    People with mental illness often internalize negative stereotypes, resulting in self-stigma and low self-esteem ("People with mental illness are bad and therefore I am bad, too"). Despite strong evidence for self-stigma's negative impact as assessed by self-report measures, it is unclear whether self-stigma operates in an automatic, implicit manner, potentially outside conscious awareness and control. We therefore assessed (i) negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness and (ii) low implicit self-esteem using 2 Brief Implicit Association Tests in 85 people with mental illness. Implicit self-stigma was operationalized as the product of both implicit measures. Explicit self-stigma and quality of life were assessed by self-report. Greater implicit and explicit self-stigma independently predicted lower quality of life after controlling for depressive symptoms, diagnosis, and demographic variables. Our results suggest that implicit self-stigma is a measurable construct and is associated with negative outcomes. Attempts to reduce self-stigma should take implicit processes into account.

  12. Selective accumulation may account for shellfish-associated viral illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, W; Calci, K R

    2000-04-01

    From 1991 through 1998, 1,266 cases of shellfish-related illnesses were attributed to Norwalk-like viruses. Seventy-eight percent of these illnesses occurred following consumption of oysters harvested from the Gulf Coast during the months of November through January. This study investigated the ability of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to accumulate indicator microorganisms (i.e., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F(+) coliphage) from estuarine water. One-week trials over a 1-year period were used to determine if these indicator organisms could provide insight into the seasonal occurrence of these gastrointestinal illnesses. The results demonstrate that oysters preferentially accumulated F(+) coliphage, an enteric viral surrogate, to their greatest levels from late November through January, with a concentration factor of up to 99-fold. However, similar increases in accumulation of the other indicator microorganisms were not observed. These findings suggest that the seasonal occurrence of shellfish-related illnesses by enteric viruses is, in part, the result of seasonal physiological changes undergone by the oysters that affect their ability to accumulate viral particles from estuarine waters.

  13. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  14. Causal attributions in Brazilian children's reasoning about health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruchovitch Evely

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: At a time when a great number of diseases can be prevented by changing one's habits and life style, investigations have focused on understanding what adults and children believe to be desirable health practices and uncovering the factors associated with successful adherence to such practices. For these, causal attributions for health and illness were investigated among 96 Brazilian elementary school students. METHODS: Ninety six subjects, aged 6 to 14, were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well [healthy] because they are lucky. The relationship between the children's causal attributions and demographic characteristics were also examined. RESULTS: Overall, the results were consistent with previous researches. "Taking care of oneself" was considered the most important cause of good health. "Viruses and germs" and "lack of self-care" were the most selected causes of illness. Analyses revealed significant relationship between subjects' causal attribution and their age, school grade level, socioeconomic status and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities than differences in children's causal attributions for health and illness. Finding ways to help individuals engage in appropriate preventive-maintenance health practices without developing an exaggerated notion that the individuals can control their own health and illness is a challenge which remains to be addressed by further research.

  15. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  16. Transitions Study of predictors of illness progression in young people with mental ill health: study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, R; Jorm, A F; Hickie, I B; Yung, A R; Pantelis, C; Amminger, G P; Glozier, N; Killackey, E; Phillips, L; Wood, S J; Mackinnon, A; Scott, E; Kenyon, A; Mundy, L; Nichles, A; Scaffidi, A; Spiliotacopoulos, D; Taylor, L; Tong, J P Y; Wiltink, S; Zmicerevska, N; Hermens, Daniel; Guastella, Adam; McGorry, P D

    2015-02-01

    An estimated 75% of mental disorders begin before the age of 24 and approximately 25% of 13-24-year-olds are affected by mental disorders at any one time. To better understand and ideally prevent the onset of post-pubertal mental disorders, a clinical staging model has been proposed that provides a longitudinal perspective of illness development. This heuristic model takes account of the differential effects of both genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as markers relevant to the stage of illness, course or prognosis. The aim of the Transitions Study is to test empirically the assumptions that underpin the clinical staging model. Additionally, it will permit investigation of a range of psychological, social and genetic markers in terms of their capacity to define current clinical stage or predict transition from less severe or enduring to more severe and persistent stages of mental disorder. This paper describes the study methodology, which involves a longitudinal cohort design implemented within four headspace youth mental health services in Australia. Participants are young people aged 12-25 years who have sought help at headspace and consented to complete a comprehensive assessment of clinical state and psychosocial risk factors. A total of 802 young people (66% female) completed baseline assessments. Annual follow-up assessments have commenced. The results of this study may have implications for the way mental disorders are diagnosed and treated, and progress our understanding of the pathophysiologies of complex mental disorders by identifying genetic or psychosocial markers of illness stage or progression. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Lay perceptions of current and future health, the causes of illness, and the nature of recovery: explaining health and illness in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Maakip, Ismail; Stanistreet, Debbi; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-09-01

    This study examined beliefs about the causes and determinants of health, illness, and recovery in an opportunistic sample from Malaysia. In all, 371 women and 350 men completed the Health and Illness Scale, a 124-item scale that examined beliefs about current and future health, and beliefs about the causes of illness and recovery. Each of the four subscales of the Health Illness Scale were factor analysed to reveal the underlying structure. Results showed the emergence of a number of distinct factors in the case of each subscale, of which environmental, life-style, psychological, religious, and fate-related factors were fairly stable across subscales. Results also showed a number of differences in beliefs between religious groups, and that religiosity and sex were the strongest predictors of beliefs across the four subscales. The results are discussed in terms of the available cross-cultural literature on lay beliefs about health.

  18. Art promoting mental health literacy and a positive attitude towards people with experience of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.

  19. Stigmatization of people with mental illness among inhabitants of a rural community in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audu, Ishaq A; Idris, Suleiman H; Olisah, Victor O; Sheikh, Taiwo L

    2013-02-01

    Despite the fact that mental illness is a common problem in society, people's perception of the mentally ill and community attitude towards them is still rather poor, making their rehabilitation and reintegration into society an uphill task. To examine the stigmatization of people with mental illness within a rural community and identify the socio-demographic variables involved. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a multi-stage random sampling technique to obtain data through an interviewer-administered questionnaire to 325 adult inhabitants of a rural community in Nigeria. The results showed widespread ignorance about causation, mode of transmission and remedies available for mental illness, with only 0.9% of respondents attributing mental illness to brain disease. The others attributed it to spiritual attack, punishment for evil doing and illicit psychoactive substance use, among other things. Negative views about the mentally ill were also widely expressed resulting in discriminatory practices. Stigmatization of people with mental illness is still rampant in our community. There is a need for adequate public education about the causes and mode of transmission of mental illness and the treatment options available in the community.

  20. Comparison of illness representations dimensions and illness representation clusters in predicting outcomes in the first year following diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Carey, M. E.; Cradock, S.

    2011-01-01

    trial of a self-management education intervention for people with type 2 diabetes, completed measures of illness beliefs (coherence, timeline, impact, seriousness, personal responsibility) and depression along with HbA1c and body mass index (BMI), at baseline 4, 8 and 12 months. The results......This article explores the utility of cluster analysis of illness representations, in comparison to analysing each dimension of the individual's illness representation, to predict an individual's response to diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Participants in a large multi-centre randomised controlled...

  1. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    lateral positioning in critically ill adults. We included manual or automated turns but limited eligibility to studies that included duration of body position of 10 minutes or longer. We examined each lateral position versus at least one comparator (opposite lateral position and/or another body position) for single therapy effects, and the lateral positioning schedule (repeated lateral turning) versus other positioning schedules for repetitive therapy effects. We pre-specified methods to be used for data collection, risk of bias assessment and analysis. Two independent review authors carried out each stage of selection and data extraction and settled differences in opinion by consensus, or by third party adjudication when disagreements remained unresolved. We planned analysis of pair-wise comparisons under composite time intervals with the aim of considering recommendations based on meta-analyses of studies with low risk of bias. We included 24 studies of critically ill adults. No study reported mortality as an outcome of interest. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined lateral positioning for pulmonary morbidity outcomes but provided insufficient information for meta-analysis. A total of 22 randomized trials examined effects of lateral positioning (four parallel-group and 18 cross-over designs) by measuring various continuous data outcomes commonly used to detect adverse cardiopulmonary events within critical care areas. However, parallel-group studies were not comparable, and cross-over studies provided limited data as the result of unit of analysis errors. Eight studies provided some data; most of these were single studies with small effects that were imprecise. We pooled partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) as a measure to detect hypoxaemia from two small studies of participants with unilateral lung disease (n = 19). The mean difference (MD) between lateral positions (bad lung down versus good lung down) was approximately 50 mmHg (MD -49.26 mmHg, 95

  2. ILL experimental reports and theory college activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume is the collection of reports describing experimental work performed at the I.L.L. They have been arranged by subject (from the I.L.L. classification scheme) and are published under their proposal number. (Only those reports received up to Jan. 19, 1987 have been included). In order to have connection between the theory group and the experimental activities of the I.L.L., scientific activity of theoreticians has been included in the form of a personal review of activity. For any further details, readers should contact directly individual scientists

  3. A thematic framework of illness narratives produced by stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, A; Ulatowska, H; Gawron, N; Sobanska, M; Lojek, E

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the impact of stroke on psychosocial functioning of stroke survivors. Data were investigated using interpretative thematic analysis of illness stories produced by 29 patients. Eight themes emerged from the data: Medical Information; Interpersonal Changes; Cognitive, Physical and Emotional Functioning; Strategies of Coping; Social Support; and Information Irrelevant to the Question. The most frequent organization of the themes followed the course of medical intervention and rehabilitation. Narrations of individual patients varied in terms of the presence of particular themes, the amount of information on each topic and organization. The results suggest that the analysis of non-guided illness narratives can be effectively used to identify the thematic areas important to individual stroke patients. The thematic content analysis of stroke stories can allow health professionals to better understand the patient's state of knowledge related to illness as well as his or her socio-psychological functioning which may be useful in the course of planning further assessment and rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Experience of illness and life changes following stroke should be recognized as central to the provision of targeted rehabilitation. To understand the subjective perspective a content analysis of the content narrative is recommended. Our study highlights seven general thematic categories that may be regarded as key. The categories may be useful for clinicians to help individuals to clarify their main concerns following a stroke.

  4. Is refeeding syndrome relevant for critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, Wilhelmina A C; Van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2018-03-01

    To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality. These metabolic derangements in ICU patients differ from otherwise healthy patients with RFS, as there is lack of anabolism. This is because of external stressors inducing a hypercatabolic response among other reasons also reflected by persistent high glucagon despite initiation of feeding. Lack of a proper uniform definition complicates diagnosis and research of RFS. However, refeeding hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered during critical illness. The correlations between risk factors proposed by international guidelines and the occurrence of RFS in ICU patients remains unclear. Therefore, regular phosphate monitoring is recommended. Based on recent trials among critically ill patients, only treatment with supplementation of electrolytes and vitamins seems not sufficient. In addition, caloric restriction for several days and gradual increase of caloric intake over days is recommendable.

  5. Approaches to self-management in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marta; Costantini, Lucia; Schneider, Sabrina; Beanlands, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Management of a chronic medical condition is a complex process and requires coordinated action between healthcare providers and patients. This process is further complicated by the fact that an increasing number of patients suffer from multiple chronic conditions. Self-management involves active participation of the patients in the everyday care of the symptoms of their illness(es) and medical treatments, as well as maintaining general health and prevention of progression of medical conditions. Managing the psychosocial consequences of illness is also an important component of self-management. Data have demonstrated that enhancing self-management improves quality of life, coping, symptom management, disability, and reduces healthcare expenditures and service utilization. To foster self-management, potential barriers to implementation as well as facilitators and supports for this approach must be acknowledged. In this article, we review various aspects of self-management in chronic illness, focusing on chronic kidney disease. Better understanding of these concepts will facilitate patient-provider collaboration, improve patient care with increased patient and staff satisfaction, and may ultimately result in better clinical outcomes and enhanced quality of life for both the patients and their families. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Temperature-Related Death and Illness. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Saha, Shubhayu; Hawkins, Michelle D.; Mills, David M.; Hess, Jeremy; Horton, Radley; Kinney, Patrick; Schwartz, Joel; St. Juliana, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Based on present-day sensitivity to heat, an increase of thousands to tens of thousands of premature heat-related deaths in the summer and a decrease of premature cold-related deaths in the winter are projected each year as a result of climate change by the end of the century. Future adaptation will very likely reduce these impacts (see Changing Tolerance to Extreme Heat Finding). The reduction in cold-related deaths is projected to be smaller than the increase in heat-related deaths in most regions. Days that are hotter than usual in the summer or colder than usual in the winter are both associated with increased illness and death. Mortality effects are observed even for small differences from seasonal average temperatures. Because small temperature differences occur much more frequently than large temperature differences, not accounting for the effect of these small differences would lead to underestimating the future impact of climate change. An increase in population tolerance to extreme heat has been observed over time. Changes in this tolerance have been associated with increased use of air conditioning, improved social responses, and or physiological acclimatization, among other factors. Expected future increases in this tolerance will reduce the projected increase in deaths from heat. Older adults and children have a higher risk of dying or becoming ill due to extreme heat. People working outdoors, the socially isolated and economically disadvantaged, those with chronic illnesses, as well as some communities of color, are also especially vulnerable to death or illness.

  7. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Evan Hy; Klepacz, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students' and psychiatry residents' conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant's formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. If these notions are therefore part of students' and residents' conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  8. Schizophrenia illness severity is associated with reduced loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, James; Buruju, Dheeraj; Perrin, Jennifer S; Reid, Ian C; Steele, J Douglas; Feltovich, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs. The control group demonstrated significantly lower cooperation rates under negative payoffs, compared with the version with only positive payoffs, indicative of loss aversion. The patient group on average showed no loss aversion response. Moreover, the extent of loss aversion in patients was found to be negatively correlated with schizophrenia illness severity, with less ill patients showing loss aversion more similar to controls. Results were found to be robust to the inclusion of potential confounding factors as covariates within rigorous probit regression analyses. Reduced loss aversion is a feature of schizophrenia and related to illness severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  10. An investigation of models of illness in carers of schizophrenia patients using the Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, C; Lobban, F; Hatton, C; Quinn, J

    2001-11-01

    Although carers' reactions to schizophrenic illness in a close family member may have important implications for the patient and for themselves, little is known of factors that influence the way carers respond. In the area of physical health problems, people's models of their illness or illness representations have been found to be related to the ways they react and cope with their illness. This study examines the use of a modified form of the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ) to investigate illness models in a sample of carers of schizophrenia patients. Forty-seven carers participated. The psychometric properties of the modified IPQ were examined, and a number of carer and patient outcomes were investigated in relation to carer scores on the illness identity, consequences, control-cure and timeline subscales of the modified IPQ. These outcomes included measures of carer distress and burden, expressed emotion dimensions, and patient functioning. The modified IPQ was found to be a reliable measure of carers' perceptions of schizophrenia. Carer functioning, the patient-carer relationship and patient illness characteristics were associated with different dimensions of illness perceptions. The findings support the proposal that carer cognitive representations of the illness may have important implications for both carer and patient outcomes in schizophrenia.

  11. Toward a theory of online communication in illness: concept analysis of illness blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilferty, Catherine McGeehin

    2009-07-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of illness blogs and their relevance to nursing research on communication during illness. Blogs are being used by patients and family members to describe the experience of illness, but very little is known about this phenomenon. Seventeen English language databases and one Internet search engine were searched from 1990 to 2007 using the truncated term 'blog*'. Specific illness terms together with 'blog*', for example, blog* and diabetes; and blog* and cancer, were used to expand the search. Reports were included if they were of qualitative or quantitative research that included a definition of blogs or blogging and some identification or description of blog uses pertinent to the discipline. Specific emphasis was placed on blog use by individuals coping with illness experiences. 'Meta' writings by authors about their own blogging intentions and experiences were excluded. An illness blog is the online expression of the narrative of illness. Theoretical and operational definitions, defining attributes, uses, antecedents and consequences were developed. The literature search returned 45 works from 17 disciplines referring to the definition and uses of blogging. Support is offered from the review of literature and analysis of the concept for the development of a theory of online communication during illness. Reading and incorporating illness blogs into care will enhance patient-provider relationships. Analysis of the narratives being created online about the illness experience will contribute significantly to nursing's body of knowledge.

  12. How does illness severity influence depression, health satisfaction and life satisfaction in patients with cardiovascular disease? The mediating role of illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, P; Greco, A; Monzani, D; Politi, A; Gestra, R; Ferrari, G; Malfatto, G; Parati, G

    2013-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have investigated the relationships between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and patients' psychological well-being, with a focus almost exclusively on its dark side. Very little is known on the impact of illness severity on both negative and positive indicators of patients' well-being, as well as on the psychosocial variables that may mediate this association. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of illness severity on depression as well as on health satisfaction and life satisfaction of patients undergoing a cardiovascular rehabilitation. It also aimed at testing the mediation of illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs in managing cardiac risk factors. The study involved 172 patients (mean age = 66.43 years; SD = 9.99 years; 76.2% men). Illness severity was measured in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction at discharge from the cardiology department, whereas all psychological dimensions were assessed one week later. Results showed significant relationships among illness severity, depression and health satisfaction that were fully mediated by illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs, but not significant relation between disease severity and life satisfaction (χ2 (1) = 2.30, p = n.s.). Overall, findings underline the importance of working on illness perception and self-efficacy beliefs to contrast depression and to improve health and life satisfaction in patients with CVD.

  13. [Subjective illness beliefs of Turkish migrants with mental disorders--specific characteristics compared to german patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Lujić, Claudia; Koch, Eckhardt; Wüsten, Bernd; Yürük, Nergüz; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge about culture- and migration-specific characteristics of subjective illness beliefs in Turkish patients is necessary for adequate treatment. Analysis of subjective illness beliefs in Turkish patients (F3; F4; n = 79) in comparison to matched Germans (n = 79) using a modified version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire IPQ-R. Differences were explored by t-tests and chi(2)-tests. Turkish patients believed significantly stronger in a chronical timeline of illness and in negative illness consequences, while German patients believed significantly stronger in treatment control and personal control. Turkish patients more often mentioned external causes of their disease compared to Germans. The results provide explanations of the deficient health care situation for Turkish migrants in Germany.

  14. 'Individualism-collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.

  15. Impact of selected risk factors on expected lifetime without long-standing, limiting illness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud; Davidsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    long-standing, limiting illness was 8-10 years shorter among sedentary than physically active people. Obesity shortened lifetime without illness by 5 years for men and ten years for women. CONCLUSION: The results of this study could be used in health policy-making, as the potential gains in public......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impacts of tobacco smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and overweight on expected lifetime with and without long-standing, limiting illness. METHODS: Life tables for each level of exposure to the risk factors were constructed, mainly on the basis......-olds was 9-10 years shorter for heavy smokers than for those who never smoke, and all the lifetime lost would have been without long-standing, limiting illness. Similarly, all 5 years of expected lifetime lost by men with high alcohol consumption would have been without illness. The expected lifetime without...

  16. Parenting stress among caregivers of children with chronic illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Hazen, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    To critically review, analyze, and synthesize the literature on parenting stress among caregivers of children with asthma, cancer, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, epilepsy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and/or sickle cell disease. Method PsychInfo, MEDLINE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched according to inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 13 studies and qualitative analysis of 96 studies was conducted. Results Caregivers of children with chronic illness reported significantly greater general parenting stress than caregivers of healthy children (d = .40; p = ≤.0001). Qualitative analysis revealed that greater general parenting stress was associated with greater parental responsibility for treatment management and was unrelated to illness duration and severity across illness populations. Greater parenting stress was associated with poorer psychological adjustment in caregivers and children with chronic illness. Conclusion Parenting stress is an important target for future intervention. General and illness-specific measures of parenting stress should be used in future studies.

  17. Agreement between children and parents demonstrated that illness-related absenteeism was validly reported by children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Andersen, Anette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the agreement between children's and parents' reporting of illness-related absenteeism from school and to examine predictors for disagreement between children and parents. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 8,438 schoolchildren aged from 5 to 15 years (grade 0-8) and one...... of 22 weeks. Text messages and questionnaire data were linked at the individual level, leaving 2,269 child-parent pairs in the analysis, corresponding to 27% of the eligible sample. RESULTS: The agreement between children's and parents' reports of illness-related absenteeism was good, with high absolute...... agreement and slight to moderate Ƙ values. Agreement was lowest for 6- to 8-year-olds and highest for 11- to 12-year-olds. Children's reports of illness symptoms and parents' reports of their children's illnesses in the preceding week were strong predictors for children reporting illness-related absenteeism...

  18. Illness perception of dropout patients followed up at bipolar outpatient clinic, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Hulya; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Akyazı, Senem; Yıldızhan, Eren; Kılıc, Kasım Candas; Basyigit, Sehnaz; Ozdemiroglu, Filiz; Akyuz, Fatma; Gokce, Esra; Bag, Sevda; Kurt, Erhan; Oral, Esat Timucin

    2015-06-01

    Dropout is a common problem in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorders (BD). The aim of the present study is to investigate illness perceptions of dropout patients with BD. A cross sectional study was done on the participants who attended the Mood Disorder Outpatient Clinic at least 3 times from January 2003 through June 2008, and then failed to attend clinic till to the last one year, 2009, determined as dropout. Thirty-nine dropout patients and 39 attendent patients with BD were recruited for this study. A sociodemographic form and brief illness perception questionnaire were used to capture data. The main reasons of patients with BD for dropout were difficulties of transport (31%), to visit another doctor (26%), giving up drugs (13%) and low education level (59%) is significant for dropout patients. The dropout patients reported that their illness did not critically influence their lives, their treatment had failed to control their illnesses, they had no symptoms, and that their illness did not emotionally affect them. In conclusion, the nonattendance of patients with serious mental illness can result in non-compliance of therapeutic drug regimens, and a recurrence of the appearance symptoms. The perception of illness in dropout patients with BD may be important for understanding and preventing nonattendance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  20. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  1. Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... conditions, treatment interventions, equipment, and the patient's inability to attend to his or her ... practices for a critically ill patient include assessment of the oral cavity, brushing the teeth, moisturising the lips and mouth and ...

  2. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  3. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  4. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  5. RelaisILL instructions in English

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Cassone

    . RelaisILL is IDRC's document delivery and interlibrary loan request and tracking system. Follow the steps below to order journal articles and books through interlibrary loan. Note: Grantees can only request articles and book chapters, which ...

  6. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [How do mentally ill parents evaluate their children's quality of life? Associations with the parent's illness and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Eva; Bullinger, Monika; Jeske, Jana; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke

    2008-01-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (hrQoL) of children with a mentally ill parent, and its associations with the parent's illness (diagnoses, severity of disease, current symptoms) and family functioning, 51 mentally ill parents rated their children's hrQoL using the KINDL-R, a multidimensional hrQoL questionnaire for children. Parents rated their current psychiatric symptoms on the SCL-14 (Symptom Checklist-14) and family functioning on the FB-A ("Familienbögen"). The parents' therapists (psychologists or psychiatrists) provided psychiatric diagnoses as well as global ratings of disease severity (CGI) and patient's family functioning. Compared to the general population, parents rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower concerning the dimensions "Psychological Well-Being" and "Family': HrQoL ratings were moderately correlated with the parent's current depressive symptoms and moderately to highly correlated with family functioning from the parent's perspective. Lower depression severity and higher family functioning were associated with higher hrQoL ratings. Parents with affective disorders rated their children's hrQoL significantly lower than did parents with a diagnosis of substance abuse. Results show the importance of family functioning for parents' view of children's hrQoL and the influence of psychiatric symptoms on ill parents' reports. These findings are in line with previous results concerning potential psychological and behavioural problems in children of mentally ill parents. Family interventions and multi-informant assessment should be used in this high-risk group.

  9. Physiotherapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ambrosino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU can cause muscle weakness, physical deconditioning, recurrent symptoms, mood alterations and poor quality of life.Physiotherapy is probably the only treatment likely to increase in the short- and long-term care of the patients admitted to these units. Recovery of physical and respiratory functions, coming off mechanical ventilation, prevention of the effects of bed-rest and improvement in the health status are the clinical objectives of a physiotherapy program in medical and surgical areas. To manage these patients, integrated programs dealing with both whole-body physical therapy and pulmonary care are needed.There is still limited scientific evidence to support such a comprehensive approach to all critically ill patients; therefore we need randomised studies with solid clinical short- and long-term outcome measures. Resumo: Uma estadia prolongada na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI pode causar fraqueza muscular, descondicionamento físico, sintomas recorrentes, alterações de humor e má qualidade de vida.A fisioterapia é, provavelmente, o único tratamento com potencial para aumentar nos cuidados a curto e longo prazo aos pacientes internados nestas unidades. A recuperação das funções físicas e respiratórias, retirar a ventilação mecânica, prevenção de efeitos do repouso na cama e melhoria do estado de saúde são objectivos clínicos de um programa de fisioterapia nas áreas médicas e cirúrgicas. Para tratar estes pacientes, são necessários programas integrados que englobem tanto a fisioterapia global como os cuidados respiratórios necessários.A evidência científica para apoiar esta abordagem abrangente para todos os doentes críticos é ainda limitada; portanto, são necessários estudos aleatorizados com medidas de resultados a curto e longo prazo. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Mechanical ventilation, Physiotherapy, Weaning, Palavras-chave: Reabilitação, Ventilação mec

  10. ILL. Annex to the annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first volume of the Annual Report gives a general survey of the activities in the various sections of the ILL, whereas this second volume, deals in more detail with the individual works carried out at the ILL from 1st October 1975 up to 1st October 1976. Main chapters correspond to theory, nuclear physics, excitations, magnetic and crystallographic structures, liquids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology and chemistry. (Only those reports received up to 1st February 1977 have been included)

  11. Economic hardship associated with managing chronic illness: a qualitative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic illness and disability can have damaging, even catastrophic, socioeconomic effects on individuals and their households. We examined the experiences of people affected by chronic heart failure, complicated diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inform patient centred policy development. This paper provides a first level, qualitative understanding of the economic impact of chronic illness. Methods Interviews were conducted with patients aged between 45 and 85 years who had one or more of the index conditions and family carers from the Australian Capital Territory and Western Sydney, Australia (n = 66. Content analysis guided the interpretation of data. Results The affordability of medical treatments and care required to manage illness were identified as the key aspects of economic hardship, which compromised patients' capacity to proactively engage in self-management and risk reduction behaviours. Factors exacerbating hardship included ineligibility for government support, co-morbidity, health service flexibility, and health literacy. Participants who were on multiple medications, from culturally and linguistically diverse or Indigenous backgrounds, and/or not in paid employment, experienced economic hardship more harshly and their management of chronic illness was jeopardised as a consequence. Economic hardship was felt among not only those ineligible for government financial supports but also those receiving subsidies that were insufficient to meet the costs of managing long-term illness over and above necessary daily living expenses. Conclusion This research provides insights into the economic stressors associated with managing chronic illness, demonstrating that economic hardship requires households to make difficult decisions between care and basic living expenses. These decisions may cause less than optimal health outcomes and increased costs to the health system. The findings support the necessity

  12. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    . Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  13. The children of mentally ill parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattejat, Fritz; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2008-06-01

    The children of mentally ill parents have a higher risk of developing mental illnesses themselves over the course of their lives. This known risk must be taken into account in the practical provision of health care. Selective literature review. The increased psychiatric risk for children of mentally ill parents is due partly to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness. Furthermore, adverse factors are more frequent in these families, as well as a higher risk for child abuse. Genetic and psychosocial factors interact with one another. For example, genetic factors moderate environmental effects; that is, the effect of adverse environmental factors depends on the genetic substrate. Preventive measures for children of mentally ill parents urgently need improvement. In this article, positively evaluated programs of preventive measures are discussed. Essential prerequisites for success include appropriate, specialized treatment of the parental illness, psychoeducative measures, and special support (e.g. self-help groups) as indicated by the family's particular needs.

  14. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  15. Palliative pharmacological sedation for terminally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Elaine M; van Driel, Mieke L; McGregor, Leanne; Truong, Shani; Mitchell, Geoffrey

    2015-01-02

    Terminally ill people experience a variety of symptoms in the last hours and days of life, including delirium, agitation, anxiety, terminal restlessness, dyspnoea, pain, vomiting, and psychological and physical distress. In the terminal phase of life, these symptoms may become refractory, and unable to be controlled by supportive and palliative therapies specifically targeted to these symptoms. Palliative sedation therapy is one potential solution to providing relief from these refractory symptoms. Sedation in terminally ill people is intended to provide relief from refractory symptoms that are not controlled by other methods. Sedative drugs such as benzodiazepines are titrated to achieve the desired level of sedation; the level of sedation can be easily maintained and the effect is reversible. To assess the evidence for the benefit of palliative pharmacological sedation on quality of life, survival, and specific refractory symptoms in terminally ill adults during their last few days of life. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to November 2014), and EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), using search terms representing the sedative drug names and classes, disease stage, and study designs. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, non-RCTs, and observational studies (e.g. before-and-after, interrupted-time-series) with quantitative outcomes. We excluded studies with only qualitative outcomes or that had no comparison (i.e. no control group or no within-group comparison) (e.g. single arm case series). Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of citations, and full text of potentially eligible studies. Two review authors independently carried out data extraction using standard data extraction forms. A third review author acted as arbiter for both stages. We carried out no meta-analyses due to insufficient data for pooling on any outcome; therefore, we reported

  16. A regressional analysis of maladaptive rumination, illness perception and negative emotional outcomes in Asian patients suffering from depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanxia; Tang, Catherine; Liow, Chiew Shan; Ng, Winnie Wei Ni; Ho, Cyrus Su Hui; Ho, Roger Chun Mun

    2014-12-01

    Although illness perception has been shown to be associated with illness outcomes in various chronic physical diseases, the association of illness perception and rumination are not well elucidated in mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of adaptive and maladaptive rumination in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions (depression, anxiety and stress) in male and female patients (N=110) suffering from depressive disorders. The results showed that maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions in both male and female depressive patients. However, no mediating effects of adaptive rumination were found in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotion. Maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between perceived identity, chronicity of illness, consequences of illness and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in males. It also mediated the relationship between perceived identity and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in females. The results, possible clinical implications and limitations of this study are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students: insights into the wider English-speaking Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Bachew, Raecho; Bodie, Dalecia; Leach, Richanna; Morris, Kevin; Sherma, Glenderia

    2014-02-01

    Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.

  18. Validation of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being-Expanded (FACIT-Sp-Ex) Across English and Spanish-Speaking Hispanics/Latinos: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brintz, Carrie E; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Merz, Erin L; Penedo, Frank J; Daviglus, Martha L; Fortmann, Adelaide L; Gallo, Linda C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Johnson, Timothy P; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Youngblood, Marston E; Llabre, Maria M

    2017-11-01

    The validity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) has been examined in primarily non-Hispanics/Latinos with chronic illness. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the non-illness, expanded FACIT-Sp (FACIT-Sp-Ex) in 5,163 U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults. Measures were interviewer-administered in English or Spanish. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated four factors: Meaning, Peace, Faith, and Relational. The scale demonstrated measurement invariance across English and Spanish. Subscales displayed adequate internal and test-retest reliability. Scores were positively associated with Duke Religion Index (DUREL) subscales. When all subscales were entered in a single model, Meaning and Peace were inversely associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with HRQOL. Faith was positively associated with depressive symptoms and inversely associated with HRQOL. Relational was not associated with any outcome. FACIT-Sp-Ex subscales were generally more strongly associated than DUREL subscales with well-being. The FACIT-Sp-Ex appears to be a valid measure of spiritual well-being in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos.

  19. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  20. Search Results | Page 56 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 551 - 560 of 8489 ... Exploring and profiling of childhood illnesses in informal settlements in relation to flooding : a case study of Barcelona, Cape Town, South Africa. INTRODUCTION: A significant number of studies have documented illnesses that follow flooding as a result of people coming into contact with ...

  1. Search Results | Page 58 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 571 - 580 of 8531 ... Exploring and profiling of childhood illnesses in informal settlements in relation to flooding : a case study of Barcelona, Cape Town, South Africa. INTRODUCTION: A significant number of studies have documented illnesses that follow flooding as a result of people coming into contact with ...

  2. Structural brain abnormalities in first episode schizophrenia. Is it just illness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rais, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although neuroimaging studies consistently demonstrated brain volume alterations in patients with schizophrenia, confounding factors like age, IQ, duration of the illness, use of antipsychotic medication and drug (ab-)use might partly explain these results. Therefore, the relation between

  3. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  4. Heat-Related Illness among Oregon Farmworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W. Bethel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Farmworkers are particularly vulnerable to climate-sensitive health outcomes such as heat-related illness (HRI given their tasks involve heavy exertion in an outdoor setting. The objectives of the study were to: (1 describe symptoms of HRI experienced by farmworkers and (2 explore factors associated with heat knowledge, level of concern regarding HRI, and comfort level taking breaks at work. Bilingual research staff conducted personal interviews of 100 farmworkers during July and August 2013. Data collected included demographics, work history and current work practices, trainings received, HRI symptoms experienced, health status, and health behaviors. Nearly 30% of participants reported experiencing ≥2 HRI symptoms during the previous work. Few participants had high level of heat knowledge (21.0% and 15.6% of participants reported being “very concerned” about the health effects of working in hot conditions. Participants who were paid by the piece were more likely to have a high heat knowledge score and be “very concerned” about HRI but less likely to be “very comfortable” taking a break compared to workers paid by the hour than those who had not received HRI training. Results suggest several areas in which employers and agencies conducting outreach and education to the workers about HRI can change their practices including providing cooling measures and HRI training about risk factors for HRI.

  5. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Usha; Kedlaya, Prashanth G; Gokulnath

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  6. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  7. Life satisfaction post stroke : The role of illness cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, M. L.; van Heugten, C. M.; Post, M. W. M.; de Kort, P. L. M.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.

    Objective: To describe illness cognitions two months and two years post stroke and to investigate changes in illness cognitions over time. We also examined the associations between illness cognitions and life satisfaction at two months and two years post stroke and investigated if changes in illness

  8. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of linezolid in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazdanovic, Predrag; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Kostic, Marina; Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Stefanovic, Srdjan

    2016-06-01

    Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic active against Gram-positive bacteria, and is most commonly used to treat life-threatening infections in critically ill patients. The pharmacokinetics of linezolid are profoundly altered in critically ill patients, partly due to decreased function of vital organs, and partly because life-sustaining drugs and devices may change the extent of its excretion. This article is summarizes key changes in the pharmacokinetics of linezolid in critically ill patients. The changes summarized are clinically relevant and may serve as rationale for dosing recommendations in this particular population. While absorption and penetration of linezolid to tissues are not significantly changed in critically ill patients, protein binding of linezolid is decreased, volume of distribution increased, and metabolism may be inhibited leading to non-linear kinetics of elimination; these changes are responsible for high inter-individual variability of linezolid plasma concentrations, which requires therapeutic plasma monitoring and choice of continuous venous infusion as the administration method. Acute renal or liver failure decrease clearance of linezolid, but renal replacement therapy is capable of restoring clearance back to normal, obviating the need for dosage adjustment. More population pharmacokinetic studies are necessary which will identify and quantify the influence of various factors on clearance and plasma concentrations of linezolid in critically ill patients.

  10. Nutritional requirements of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L

    2004-02-01

    The presence or development of malnutrition during critical illness has been unequivocally associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people. Recognition that malnutrition may similarly affect veterinary patients emphasizes the need to properly address the nutritional requirements of hospitalized dogs and cats. Because of a lack in veterinary studies evaluating the nutritional requirements of critically ill small animals, current recommendations for nutritional support of veterinary patients are based largely on sound clinical judgment and the best information available, including data from experimental animal models and human studies. This, however, should not discourage the veterinary practitioner from implementing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Similar to many supportive measures of critically ill patients, nutritional interventions can have a significant impact on patient morbidity and may even improve survival. The first step of nutritional support is to identify patients most likely to benefit from nutritional intervention. Careful assessment of the patient and appraisal of its nutritional needs provide the basis for a nutritional plan, which includes choosing the optimal route of nutritional support, determining the number of calories to provide, and determining the composition of the diet. Ultimately, the success of the nutritional management of critically ill dogs and cats will depend on close monitoring and frequent reassessment.

  11. Stress in adolescents with a chronically ill parent: inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Dikkers, A.L.C.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in

  12. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  13. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  14. The Relationship Between Provider Competence, Content Exposure, and Consumer Outcomes in Illness Management and Recovery Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Alan B; White, Dominique A; Bartholomew, Tom; Flanagan, Mindy E; McGrew, John H; Rollins, Angela L; Mueser, Kim T; Salyers, Michelle P

    2017-01-01

    Provider competence may affect the impact of a practice. The current study examined this relationship in sixty-three providers engaging in Illness Management and Recovery with 236 consumers. Improving upon previous research, the present study utilized a psychometrically validated competence measure in the ratings of multiple Illness Management and Recovery sessions from community providers, and mapped outcomes onto the theory underlying the practice. Provider competence was positively associated with illness self-management and adaptive coping. Results also indicated baseline self-management skills and working alliance may affect the relationship between competence and outcomes.

  15. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services.

  16. Newspaper coverage of mental illness in England 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-04-01

    Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.

  17. Scientific evidence of dockworker illness to nursing clinical reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Capa Verde de Almeida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify scientific evidence of occupational illness of dockworkers published in the literature. METHOD systematic review of the literature, developed according to the Cochrane method. The databases searched were: Cochrane, LILACS, MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL and SciELO. Studies from 1988 to 2014 were selected. The data were analyzed according to the level of evidence and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. RESULTS We included 14 studies, in which 11 (78.6% were from international journals. The year of 2012 showed greater number of studies. All studies were classified as: Level of Evidence 4, highlighting lung cancer, musculoskeletal and ischemic diseases, causal link in chemical risks. CONCLUSION The development of preventive measures should especially include chemical exposure of workers applying the clinical reasoning of nurses' environmental knowledge to care for illnesses.

  18. Oxygen in the critically ill: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Elisa; Donati, Abele; Girardis, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections. Hyperoxemia causes vasoconstriction, reduction in coronary blood flow and cardiac output and may alter microvascular perfusion. Observational studies showed a close relationship between hyperoxemia and increased mortality in several subsets of critically ill patients. In absence of hypoxemia, the routine use of oxygen therapy in patients with myocardial infarction, stroke, traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest and sepsis, showed no benefit but rather it seems to be harmful. In patients admitted to intensive care unit, a conservative oxygen therapy aimed to maintain arterial oxygenation within physiological range has been proved to be well tolerated and may improve outcome. Liberal O2 use and unnecessary hyperoxia may be detrimental in critically ill patients. The current evidence supports the use of a conservative strategy in O2 therapy to avoid patient exposure to unnecessary hyperoxemia.

  19. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Krishna Tarafder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls’ high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls’ high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%, headache (73%, chest pain (69%, body ache (63%, nausea (69%, and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%. Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes.

  20. Mass Psychogenic Illness: Demography and Symptom Profile of an Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Binoy Krishna; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Imran; Islam, Md. Tanvir; Mahmud, Sheikh Abdullah Al; Sarker, Md. Humayun Kabir; Faruq, Imtiaz; Miah, Md. Titu; Arafat, S. M. Yasir

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mass psychogenic illness has been a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh over recent times. Objectives. This study was aimed at investigating the demographic characteristics and symptom profile of an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurring in a girls' high school. Methods and Materials. In 14 April 2013, a total of 93 students of a girls' high school suddenly developed various symptoms following intake of tiffin cake which resulted in panic and hospital admission. A descriptive, cross-sectional observational survey was done to define various characteristics of the outbreak. Results. No organic explanation for the reported illnesses was found. 93 female students were included who were hospitalized during the incident. Trigger factor was found in 98% of students. Most of the students were 13 years old. Average interval between exposure to the trigger and onset of symptoms was 151.5 minutes. Commonest symptoms were abdominal pain (83%), headache (73%), chest pain (69%), body ache (63%), nausea (69%), and generalized weakness and fatigue (61%). Hospital stay following the incident was about 12 hours on average. Conclusion. To avoid unnecessary panic in the community a prompt, coordinated response is important in resolving widespread community anxiety surrounding these episodes. PMID:27294104

  1. Attitudes of Malaysian general hospital staff towards patients with mental illness and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midin Marhani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented

  2. Household out-of-pocket payments for illness: Evidence from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janlert Urban

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, illnesses create high out-of-pocket health care expenditures for households. In this study, the burden of illness in the Bavi district, Vietnam is measured based upon individual household health expenditures for communicable and non-communicable illnesses. The focus of the paper is on the relative effect of different illnesses on the total economic burden of health care on households in general and on households that have catastrophic health care spending in particular. Methods The study was performed by twelve monthly follow-up interviews of 621 randomly selected households. The households are part of the FilaBavi project sample – Health System Research Project. The heads of household were interviewed at monthly intervals from July 2001 to June 2002. Results For the population in the Bavi district, communicable illnesses predominate among the episodes of illness and are the reason for most household health care expenditure. This is the case for almost all groups within the study and for the study population as a whole. However, communicable illnesses are more dominant in the poor population compared to the rich population, and are more dominant in households that have very large, or catastrophic, health care expenditure, compared to those without such expenditures. Conclusion The main findings indicate that catastrophic health care spending for a household is not usually the result of one single disastrous event, but rather a series of events and is related more to "every-day illnesses" in a developing country context than to more spectacular events such as injuries or heart illnesses.

  3. Clinical characteristics of 385 illnesses of athletes with impairment reported on the WEB-IISS system during the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin; Jordaan, Esme

    2014-08-01

    Prevention of illness is important for a team physician. However, there are few studies that reported clinical aspects of illness of athletes with impairment. To describe the clinical characteristics of the 385 illnesses reported on the a novel Web-based electronic injury and illness capturing system (WEB-IISS) during the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Part of a large prospective cohort study. London 2012 Paralympic Games. Team physicians of 78 delegations (3329 athletes over 14 days) used WEB-IISS. Each day, information was recorded, which included daily team size and illness details, system affected, final diagnosis, type and onset of symptoms, training and/or competition days lost, and suspected cause. Incidence of illness (illness per 1000 athlete days). The incidence of illness in the cohort was 8.3 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 7.5-9.1) athlete days, and the percentage of athletes with an illness in this study was 9.2%. Respiratory system illnesses were the most common (39.4%), followed by the digestive system (15.8%), skin and subcutaneous system (11.8%), genitourinary system (8.8%), and nervous system (7.3%). Urinary tract illness was more common in athletes with spinal cord injury (22%) compared with the athletes with other impairments (0%-5%). Skin and subcutaneous illness varied from 0%-18% between impairment categories and was highest for athletes with spinal cord injury. Infections accounted for 40.8% of all illness and 19.5% of illness that resulted in a time loss of ≥1 day. In 34% of illnesses, symptoms were present for ≥1 day before being reported to the team physician. The majority of illnesses affected the respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin and subcutaneous, and genitourinary systems, and were mostly infective in nature. The highest number of all illnesses, including skin and subcutaneous illnesses, and urinary tract illnesses, were of athletes with spinal cord injury. Although most illnesses were not time-loss illnesses, 19.5% of

  4. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  5. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-08-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive effect was observed for smoking and duration of employment as a painter. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between years worked as a painter and a decrement in FEV1 equal to about 11 ml for each year worked. This association was larger among painters who had smoked. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with increased use of spray application methods.

  6. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  7. Feelings of children when witnessing parents' illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question:    "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.

  8. Witchcraft illness in the Evuzok nosological system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimera, L M

    1978-12-01

    The Evuzok nosological system is structured with respect to two frames of reference, one designating illness as an empirical reality (descriptive subsystem), the other designating it according to its religious, magical and social significance (etiological subsystem). The articulation of these two subsystems is brought about in the process of diagnosis. Having examined this system as a whole, the author devotes his attention to a particular set of etiological categories, those which associate illness with witchcraft (nocturnal illnesses). He attempts to define their distinctive traits and, from this, to determine their common elemental structure. This study, based on a number of years of fieldwork, is part of an ongoing research program on African folk-medicine pursued by the Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative of the Université de Paris X.

  9. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  10. The costs of repatriating an ill seafarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby, Mads D; Jensen, Olaf C; Hjarnoe, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    ) mainly due to large variations in the average direct costs which ranged between 9560 euro in the malaria case and 77,255 in the AMI case. Repatriating an ill seafarer is a costly operation and employers have a financial interest in promoting the health of seafarers by introducing or further strengthen......Seafarers sail the high seas around the globe. In case of illness, they are protected by international regulations stating that the employers must pay all expenses in relation to repatriation, but very little is known about the cost of these repatriations. The objective of this study...... was to estimate the financial burden of repatriations in case of illness. We applied a local approach, a micro-costing method, with an employer perspective using four case vignettes: I) Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), II) Malignant hypertension, III) Appendicitis and IV) Malaria. Direct cost data were derived...

  11. Stigmatising of persons with a mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.......Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...

  12. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boruchovitch Evely

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES, gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. METHODS: Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  13. Cross-cultural differences in children's concepts of health and illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evely Boruchovitch

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In spite of general agreement that cross-cultural research is needed in the health area, most existing investigations of children's development of health and illness-related concepts have involved samples from developed countries. The study examined the development of the concepts of health and illness as a function of subject's age, socio-economic status (SES, gender and grade level in a Brazilian sample of 96 elementary and junior high school students. METHODS: Subjects were interviewed individually and their ideas of health and illness were assessed through open-ended questions. Participants' answers were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Chi-square analyses revealed significant age, school grade and SES-related differences in participants' concepts of health and illness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The themes employed by subjects to define both health and illness were broadly consistent with those found by previous research. The study showed a predictable relationship between subject's age and school grade level and increasingly more highly differentiated and multidimensional concepts of health and illness. This investigation suggests that, for the most part, cross-cultural similarities in children's concepts of health and illness may be more striking than the differences.

  14. Reporting of Foodborne Illness by U.S. Consumers and Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mandernach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC (2013. However, in a 2011 CDC report, Scallan et al. estimated about 48 million people contract a foodborne illness annually in the United States. Public health officials are concerned with this under-reporting; thus, the purpose of this study was to identify why consumers and healthcare professionals don’t report foodborne illness. Focus groups were conducted with 35 consumers who reported a previous experience with foodborne illness and with 16 healthcare professionals. Also, interviews with other healthcare professionals with responsibility of diagnosing foodborne illness were conducted. Not knowing who to contact, being too ill, being unsure of the cause, and believing reporting would not be beneficial were all identified by consumers as reasons for not reporting foodborne illness. Healthcare professionals that participated in the focus groups indicated the amount of time between patients’ consumption of food and seeking treatment and lack of knowledge were barriers to diagnosing foodborne illness. Issues related to stool samples such as knowledge, access and cost were noted by both groups. Results suggest that barriers identified could be overcome with targeted education and improved access and information about the reporting process.

  15. Perception and beliefs about mental illness among adults in Karfi village, northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Mohammed

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to examine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about causes, manifestations and treatment of mental illness among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 250 adults residing in Karfi village, northern Nigeria. Results The most common symptoms proffered by respondents as manifestations of mental illness included aggression/destructiveness (22.0%, loquaciousness (21.2%, eccentric behavior (16.1% and wandering (13.3%. Drug misuse including alcohol, cannabis, and other street drugs was identified in 34.3% of the responses as a major cause of mental illness, followed by divine wrath/ God's will (19%, and magic/spirit possession (18.0%. About 46% of respondents preferred orthodox medical care for the mentally sick while 34% were more inclined to spiritual healing. Almost half of the respondents harbored negative feelings towards the mentally ill. Literate respondents were seven times more likely to exhibit positive feelings towards the mentally ill as compared to non-literate subjects (OR = 7.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.8–15.1. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the need for community educational programs in Nigeria aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the public would allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization towards such persons.

  16. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha; Dolan, Mike; Ali, Yusuf; Cline, Mojee

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between hand sanitization and infection control in numerous settings such as extended care facilities, schools, and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of both a hand-hygiene message campaign and the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in decreasing the incidence of upper-respiratory illness among students living in university residence halls. This study involved a total of 430 students recruited from 4 residence halls during the fall semester at the University of Colorado at the Boulder campus. Dormitories were paired into control and product groups. In the product groups, alcohol gel hand-sanitizer dispensers were installed in every room, bathroom, and dining hall. The data were statistically analyzed for the differences between product and control groups in reported symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism from classes. The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school/work days. Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of handwashing through increasing awareness of the importance of hand hygiene, and the use of alcohol gel hand sanitizer in university dormitories. This resulted in fewer upper respiratory-illness symptoms, lower illness rates, and lower absenteeism.

  17. South African Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental illness: understanding, aetiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Yaseen; Laher, Sumaya

    2008-03-01

    The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession--all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness in terms of their understanding of the distinctions between the two, the aetiologies and the treatments thereof. Six Muslim Healers in the Johannesburg community were interviewed and thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. From the results it is clear that the faith healers were aware of the distinction between mental and spiritual illnesses. It was also apparent that Islam has a clear taxonomy that distinguishes illness and the causes thereof. Treatments are then advised accordingly. Thus this paper argues that the predominant Western view of the aetiology and understanding of mental illness needs to acknowledge the various culturally inclined taxonomies of mental illness so as to better understand and aid clients.

  18. Can illness perceptions predict lower heart rate variability following acute myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Princip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV has been reported to be a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction (MI. Patients’ beliefs and perceptions concerning their illness may play a role in decreased HRV. This study investigated if illness perceptions predict HRV at three months following acute MI. Methods: 130 patients referred to a tertiary cardiology centre, were examined within 48 hours and three months following acute MI. At admission, patients’ cognitive representations of their MI were assessed using the German version of the self-rated Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. At admission and after three months (follow-up, frequency and time domain measures of HRV were obtained from 5-min electrocardiogram (ECG recordings during stable supine resting. Results: Linear hierarchical regression showed that the Brief IPQ dimensions timeline (β coefficient = -0.29; p = .044, personal control (β = 0.47; p = .008 and illness understanding (β = 0.43; p = .014 were significant predictors of HRV, adjusted for age, gender, baseline HRV, diabetes, beta-blockers, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, attendance of cardiac rehabilitation, and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: As patients’ negative perceptions of their illness are associated with lower HRV following acute MI, a brief illness perception questionnaire may help to identify patients who might benefit from a specific illness perceptions intervention.

  19. Search Results | Page 104 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring and profiling of childhood illnesses in informal settlements in relation to flooding : a case study of Barcelona, Cape Town, South Africa. INTRODUCTION: A significant number of studies have documented illnesses that follow flooding as a result of people coming into contact with contaminated water. Published date.

  20. Probiotic (VSL 3) for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0593 TITLE: Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok Tuteja, M.D. M.P.H. CONTRACTING...NUMBER Probiotic (VSL#3) for Gulf War Illness. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0593 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ashok...intestinal symptoms (fatigue, joint pain, insomnia, general stiffness and headache) associated with IBS. All of these symptoms are part of the Gulf War