WorldWideScience

Sample records for diamond-like carbon coatings

  1. Diamond-like carbon coated ultracold neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heule, S.; Atchison, F.; Daum, M.; Foelske, A.; Henneck, R.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Lippert, T.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Straumann, U.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown recently that diamond-like carbon (DLC) with a sp 3 fraction above 60% is a better wall coating material for ultracold neutron applications than beryllium. We report on results of Raman spectroscopic and XPS measurements obtained for diamond-like carbon coated neutron guides produced in a new facility, which is based on pulsed laser deposition at 193 nm. For diamond-like carbon coatings on small stainless steel substrates we find sp 3 fractions in the range from 60 to 70% and showing slightly increasing values with laser pulse energy and pulse repetition rate

  2. Flexible diamond-like carbon film coated on rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Pal, J.P. van der; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  3. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, ...

  4. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  5. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  6. Biomedical applications of diamond-like carbon coatings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritwik Kumar; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

    2007-10-01

    Owing to its superior tribological and mechanical properties with corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and hemocompatibility, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as a promising material for biomedical applications. DLC films with various atomic bond structures and compositions are finding places in orthopedic, cardiovascular, and dental applications. Cells grew on to DLC coating without any cytotoxity and inflammation. DLC coatings in orthopedic applications reduced wear, corrosion, and debris formation. DLC coating also reduced thrombogenicity by minimizing the platelet adhesion and activation. However, some contradictory results (Airoldi et al., Am J Cardiol 2004;93:474-477, Taeger et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2003;34:1094-1100) were also reported that no significant improvement was observed in the performance of DLC-coated stainless stent or DLC-coated femoral head. This controversy should be discussed based on the detailed information of the coating such as atomic bond structure, composition, and/or electronic structure. In addition, instability of the DLC coating caused by its high level of residual stress and poor adhesion in aqueous environment should be carefully considered. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are thus required to confirm its use for medical devices.

  7. The system of quantum structures coated with the diamond-like carbon for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.P.; Abyzov, A.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Omarov, A.O.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2010-01-01

    The peculiarity of the process of amorphous diamond-like carbon coating deposition on the surface of Si photoelectric cell with quantum filaments, which was irradiated by the electrons and heavy multi-charge ions, have been investigated. The experimental results on the investigations of the optical characteristics of the nitrogen doped hydrogenated diamond-like carbon a-C:(H,N) coatings were presented. The parameters of the process of a-C:(H,N) coating deposition on the surfaces of disordered Si semiconductors structures were optimized for the purpose of minimizing optical reflection coefficient from the front surface of the crystal and supplying its mechanical durability.

  8. Selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnichenko, A.V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning was studied. DLC films was deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, filtered vacuum arc deposition, laser ablation, magnetron sputtering and ion-beam lithography methods. The DLC coatings were...

  9. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 75% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film, by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  10. Plasmon-Organic Fiber Interactions in Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Nanostructured Gold Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such p......Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence...

  11. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Pan, Szu-Jung; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Tai, Chen-Yi; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test

  12. Electrochemical performances of diamond-like carbon coatings on carbon steel, stainless steel, and brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadinata, Samuel-Sudibyo; Lee, Ming-Tsung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Pan, Szu-Jung [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Wen-Ta, E-mail: wttsai@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tai, Chen-Yi [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng [Ocean Energy Research Center, Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto stainless steel, carbon steel and brass by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Atomic arrangement, chemical structure, surface morphology and cross-section microstructure of the DLC coatings were examined by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the DLC coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by performing an open circuit potential (OCP) measurement and a potentiodynamic polarization test. The experimental results showed that properly deposited DLC coatings could cause an increase of OCP by hundreds of millivolts and a reduction of anodic current density by several orders of magnitude as compared to that of the substrate. The results also demonstrated that electrochemical techniques could be used as tools to detect the soundness of the DLC coating by examining OCP and polarization curve, which varied with the form of defect and depended on the type of substrate. - Highlights: ► The substrate could affect the quality of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. ► Defect-free DLC coating exhibited extremely low anodic current density. ► The quality of DLC coating on metal could be evaluated by electrochemical test.

  13. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated on rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are the major source of friction in lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. Our solution is to coat rubbers with flexible diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15.

  14. Effect of substrates on tribological properties of diamond-like carbon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to well investigate the effect of different substrates on the friction and wear of diamond-like carbon (DLC coating, the DLC coatings are deposited on substrates like the high-speed steel (HSS, SiC and 304 stainless steel by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The diamond-like carbon is prepared. The microstructure of the coatings is characterized using SEM, TEM and Raman. The SEM results exhibit that the total thickness of the coatings is about 6.5 μm, and there's apparent interfaces between layers. The TEM results imply that the coatings have an amorphous structure. Raman spectrum exhibits that G and D peaks are observed, which implies that the deposition coatings are diamond-like carbon coating. The results of tribological tests show that the substrates have a significant effect on the friction and wear of the coating. For different substrates, the transfer film is found on the steel counterpart surface, the wear track of the HSS has a lowest width, and the DLC coating that deposited on HSS exhibits the lowest wear and low friction coefficient (about 0.1.The microstructure of different substrates wear track surfaces is analyzed by using Raman spectrum, and the lowest wear of the HSS is attributed to the lower degree of the graphitization. The research provides reference for preparing the DLC coating with excellent tribological properties.

  15. Cell attachment on diamond-like carbon coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    was a better coating with desirable tissue and blood compatibility. Keywords. .... Optical microscopic picture showing the fibroblasts adhering to. DLC coating prepared at 800 eV. ... In other words, the 800 eV CHn+ beam bombarding energy ...

  16. [The change of bacterial adhesion during deposition nitrogen-diamond like carbon coating on pure titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lu; Xiao, Yun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the change of bacterial adhesion on pure titanium coated with nitrogen-diamond like carbon (N-DLC) films and to guide the clinical application. N-DLC was deposited on titanium using ion plating machine, TiN film, anodic oxide film and non-deposition were used as control, then made specimens adhering on the surface of resin denture base for 6 months. The adhesion of Saccharomyces albicans on the titanium surface was observed using scanning electron microscope, and the roughness was tested by roughness detector. The number of Saccharomyces albicans adhering on diamond-like carbon film was significantly less than on the other groups (P DLC film was less than other group (P coated with N-DLC film reduced the adhesion of Saccharomyces albicans after clinical application, thereby reduced the risk of denture stomatitis.

  17. Architectural design of diamond-like carbon coatings for long-lasting joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-07-01

    Surface engineering through the application of super-hard, low-friction coatings as a potential approach for increasing the durability of metal-on-metal replacements is attracting significant attention. In this study innovative design strategies are proposed for the development of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings against the damage caused by wear particles on the joint replacements. Finite element modeling is used to analyze stress distributions induced by wear particles of different sizes in the newly-designed coating in comparison to its conventional monolithic counterpart. The critical roles of architectural design in regulating stress concentrations and suppressing crack initiation within the coatings is elucidated. Notably, the introduction of multilayer structure with graded modulus is effective in modifying the stress field and reducing the magnitude and size of stress concentrations in the DLC diamond-like-carbon coatings. The new design is expected to greatly improve the load-carrying ability of surface coatings on prosthetic implants, in addition to the provision of damage tolerance through crack arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  19. Beam Tests of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Mitigation of Electron Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Backfish, Michael [Fermilab; Kato, Shigeki [KEK, Tsukuba; Tan, Cheng-Yang [Fermilab; Zwaska, Robert [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Our results evaluate the efficacy of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating for the mitigation of electron in the Fermilab Main Injector. The interior surface of the beampipe conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the change in electron cloud flux over time in the DLC coated beampipe and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. The electron flux is measured by retarding field analyzers placed in a field-free region of the Main Injector. We find the DLC coating reduces the electron cloud signal to roughly 2\\% of that measured in the uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  20. Characterization and development of diamond-like carbon coatings for storing ultracold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Grinten, M G D; Shiers, D; Baker, C A; Green, K; Harris, P G; Iaydjiev, P S; Ivanov, S N; Geltenbort, P

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the suitability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) as a material for storing ultracold neutrons to use in neutron electric-dipole moment (EDM) experiments, a number of tests on DLC coatings have been performed. Thin DLC layers deposited on quartz and aluminium substrates by chemical vapour deposition have been characterised by neutron transmission, neutron reflectometry, electron microscopy and neutron and mercury storage and depolarisation lifetime measurements. Two types of DLC have been compared; DLC made by chemical vapour deposition from natural methane and DLC made by chemical vapour deposition from deuterated methane. With these samples we determined the density, hydrogen concentration and Fermi potential of the coatings. DLC coatings made from deuterated methane are now successfully being used in an experiment to measure the EDM of the neutron.

  1. Characterization and development of diamond-like carbon coatings for storing ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinten, M.G.D. van der; Pendlebury, J.M.; Shiers, D.; Baker, C.A.; Green, K.; Harris, P.G.; Iaydjiev, P.S.; Ivanov, S.N.; Geltenbort, P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine the suitability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) as a material for storing ultracold neutrons to use in neutron electric-dipole moment (EDM) experiments, a number of tests on DLC coatings have been performed. Thin DLC layers deposited on quartz and aluminium substrates by chemical vapour deposition have been characterised by neutron transmission, neutron reflectometry, electron microscopy and neutron and mercury storage and depolarisation lifetime measurements. Two types of DLC have been compared; DLC made by chemical vapour deposition from natural methane and DLC made by chemical vapour deposition from deuterated methane. With these samples we determined the density, hydrogen concentration and Fermi potential of the coatings. DLC coatings made from deuterated methane are now successfully being used in an experiment to measure the EDM of the neutron

  2. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J. [Department for Ion Beam Technologies, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2014-07-15

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C{sub 3}H{sub y}{sup +} ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm{sup −3}. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp{sup 3} content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  3. Low-emissivity coating of amorphous diamond-like carbon/Ag-alloy multilayer on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kageyama, Takashi; Oda, Hironori

    2005-01-01

    Transparent low-emissivity (low-e) coatings comprising dielectrics of amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Ag-alloy films are investigated. All films have been prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. An index of refraction of the DLC film deposited in a gas mixture of Ar/H 2 (4%) shows n = 1.80 + 0.047i at 500 nm wavelength. A multilayer stack of DLC (70 nm thick)/Ag 87.5 Cu 12.5 -alloy (10 nm)/DLC (140 nm)/Ag 87.5 Cu 12.5 -alloy (10 nm)/DLC (70 nm) has revealed clear interference spectra with spectra selectivity. This coating performs low emittance less than 0.1 for black body radiation at 297 K, exhibiting a transparent heat mirror property embedded in DLC films

  4. Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Cr-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.; Mohan, L.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, V. Praveen; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anandan, C.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques has been employed to deposit chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel, silicon and glass substrates. The concentrations of Cr in the coatings are varied by changing the parameters of the bipolar pulsed power supply and the argon/acetylene gas composition. The coatings have been studied for composition, morphology, surface nature, nanohardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties. The changes in I D / I G ratio with Cr concentrations have been obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. Ratio decreases with an increase in Cr concentration, and it has been found to increase at higher Cr concentration, indicating the disorder in the coating. Carbide is formed in Cr-doped DLC coatings as observed from XPS studies. There is a decrease in sp 3/ sp 2 ratios with an increase in Cr concentration, and it increases again at higher Cr concentration. Nanohardness studies show no clear dependence of hardness on Cr concentration. DLC coatings with lower Cr contents have demonstrated better corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move toward nobler (more positive) values. A low coefficient of friction (0.15) at different loads is observed from reciprocating wear studies. Lower wear volume is found at all loads on the Cr-doped DLC coatings. Wear mechanism changes from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear on the coating.

  5. Influence of load on the dry frictional performance of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, D. Martinez; Nohava, Jiri; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of applied load on the frictional behavior of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond- like carbon films is studied at dry conditions. The performance of two coatings with very different microstructure (patched vs. continuous film) is compared with the

  6. Cavitation erosion resistance of diamond-like carbon coating on stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Feng; Jiang, Shuyun, E-mail: jiangshy@seu.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Two diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are prepared on stainless steel 304 by cathodic arc plasma deposition technology at different substrate bias voltages and arc currents (−200 V/80 A, labeled DLC-1, and −100 V/60 A, labeled DLC-2). Cavitation tests are performed by using a rotating-disk test rig to explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the DLC coating. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the specimens after cavitation tests are examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the DLC-2 coatings can elongate the incubation period of stainless steel, leading to an excellent cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated stainless steel specimens. After duration of 100 h cavitation test, serious damaged surfaces and plenty of scratches can be observed on the surfaces of the stainless steel specimens, while only a few grooves and tiny pits are observed on the DLC-2 coatings. It is concluded that, decreasing micro defects and increasing adhesion can reduce the delamination of DLC coating, and the erosion continues in the stainless steel substrate after DLC coating failure, and the eroded surface of the substrate is subjected to the combined action from cavitation erosion and slurry erosion.

  7. Characterization of diamond-like carbon coatings prepared by pulsed bias cathodic vacuum arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jinbao; Chang, J.-J.; Li, M.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.; Li, A.-K.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited on Si(100) and stainless steel substrates by cathodic vacuum arc plasma deposition with pulse voltage. Adherent deposits on silicon can be obtained through applying gradient Ti/TiC/DLC layers. A pulse bias of - 100 V was applied to the substrate in order to obtain a denser structure of DLC coating approximately 1 μm thick. The microstructure and hardness value of DLC films were analyzed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nano-indenter. The experimental results show that the duty cycle strongly influenced the hardness and sp 3 content of the DLC coatings. We observed that when the duty cycle was raised from 2.5% to 12.5%, the hardness increased from 26 GPa to 49 GPa, and the sp 3 fraction of the DLC films measured by XPS increased from 39% to 50.8 % as well. But at constant duty cycle, say 12.5%, the hardness is dropped from 49 to 14 GPa in proportion to the increase of residual gas pressure from 3 x 10 -3 Pa to 1 Pa. As the residual gas pressure increased, collisional phenomenon will decrease the energy of the ions. Ions with low energy make more graphitic carbon links and result in a low hardness value

  8. Gas barrier properties of diamond-like carbon films coated on PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Nagashima, I.; Ohgoe, Y.; Hirakuri, K.K.; Mukaibayashi, H.; Masuzawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using radio frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD). Before the DLC coating, the PTFE substrate was modified with a N 2 plasma pre-treatment to enhance the adhesive strength of the DLC to the substrate. The influences of the N 2 plasma pre-treatment and process pressure on the gas permeation properties of these DLC-coated PTFE samples were investigated. In the Raman spectra, the G peak position shifted to a lower wave number with increasing process pressure. With scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a network of microcracks was observed on the surface of the DLC film without N 2 plasma pre-treatment. The density of these cracks decreased with increasing process pressure. In the film subjected to a N 2 plasma pre-treatment, no cracks were observed at any process pressure. In the gas barrier test, the gas permeation decreased drastically with increasing film thickness and saturated at a thickness of 0.2 μm. The DLC-coated PTFE with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment exhibited a greater reduction in gas permeation than did the samples without pre-treatment. For both sample types, gas permeation decreased with increasing process pressure.

  9. Adhesion of staphylococcal and Caco-2 cells on diamond-like carbon polymer hybrid coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnari, Teemu J; Soininen, Antti; Esteban, Jaime; Zamora, Nieves; Alakoski, Esa; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; Tiainen, Veli-Matti

    2008-09-01

    Staphylococci cause the majority of the nosocomial implant-related infections initiated by adhesion of planktonic bacteria to the implant surface. It was hypothesized that plasma accelerating filtered pulsed arc discharge method enables combination of the advantageous properties of diamond with the antisoiling properties of polymers. Diamond-like carbon polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) coating was produced. The adhesion of S. aureus ATCC 25923 (10(8) colony-forming units/mL) to surfaces diminished from 2.32%, 2.35%, and 2.57% of high quality DLC, titanium, and oxidized silicon, respectively, to 1.93% of DLC-PTFE-h. For S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 the corresponding figures were 3.90%, 3.32%, 3.47%, and 2.57%. Differences in bacterial adhesion between recombinant DLC-PTFE-h and other materials were statistically significant (p DLC-PTFE-h as to DLC, titanium, or silicon, which were all in the MTT test found to be cytocompatible. DLC-PTFE-h coating can be used to modify the surface properties of any surgical implants and is an unfavorable substrate for staphylococcal cells, but compatible with human Caco-2 cells. DLC-PTFE-h coating may help in the combat against Staphylococcus-related implant infections which usually require both antibiotics and surgical removal of the implant for cure.

  10. Analyses of Biofilm on Implant Abutment Surfaces Coating with Diamond-Like Carbon and Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huacho, Patricia Milagros Maquera; Nogueira, Marianne N Marques; Basso, Fernanda G; Jafelicci Junior, Miguel; Francisconi, Renata S; Spolidorio, Denise M P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface free energy (SFE), wetting and surface properties as well as antimicrobial, adhesion and biocompatibility properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated surfaces. In addition, the leakage of Escherichia coli through the abutment-dental implant interface was also calculated. SFE was calculated from contact angle values; R a was measured before and after DLC coating. Antimicrobial and adhesion properties against E. coli and cytotoxicity of DLC with human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were evaluated. Further, the ability of DLC-coated surfaces to prevent the migration of E. coli into the external hexagonal implant interface was also evaluated. A sterile technique was used for the semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (semi-quantitative PCR). The surfaces showed slight decreases in cell viability (p0.05). It was concluded that DLC was shown to be a biocompatible material with mild cytotoxicity that did not show changes in R a, SFE, bacterial adhesion or antimicrobial properties and did not inhibit the infiltration of E. coli into the abutment-dental implant interface.

  11. Plasmon-organic fiber interactions in diamond-like carbon coated nanostructured gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecki, Paweł Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiuočenko, Oksana; Leißner, Till; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Adam, Jost; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such protective layers on plasmonic interactions in organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. We consider systems, consisting of 1-Cyano-quaterphenylene nanofibers on top of gold nano-square plasmonic arrays, coated with protective layers of varying thickness. We numerically investigate the spectral position of surface plasmon polariton resonances and electric field intensity, as a function of protective layer thickness, using the finite-difference time-domain method. To confirm the numerically indicated field enhancement preservation on top of protective layers, we experimentally map the second harmonic response of organic nanofibers. Subsequently, we characterize the plasmonic coupling between organic nanofibers and underlying substrates, considered as one of the main loss channels for photoluminescence from nanofibers, by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our findings reveal that, for the investigated system, plasmonic interactions are preserved for DLC coatings up to 55 nm. This is relevant for the fabrication of new passive and active plasmonic components with increased durability and hence prolonged lifetime.

  12. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 μm. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces.

  13. Diamond-like carbon coatings with zirconium-containing interlayers for orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Lackner, Juergen; Fleming, Robert A; Goss, Josh; Chen, Jingyi; Zou, Min

    2017-04-01

    Six types of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with zirconium (Zr)-containing interlayers on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) were investigated for improving the biotribological performance of orthopedic implants. The coatings consist of three layers: above the substrate a layer stack of 32 alternating Zr and ZrN sublayers (Zr:ZrN), followed by a layer comprised of Zr and DLC (Zr:DLC), and finally a N-doped DLC layer. The Zr:ZrN layer is designed for increasing load carrying capacity and corrosion resistance; the Zr:DLC layer is for gradual transition of stress, thus enhancing layer adhesion; and the N-doped DLC layer is for decreasing friction, squeaking noises and wear. Biotribological experiments were performed in simulated body fluid employing a ball-on-disc contact with a Si 3 N 4 ball and a rotational oscillating motion to mimic hip motion in terms of gait angle, dynamic contact pressures, speed and body temperature. The results showed that the Zr:DLC layer has a substantial influence on eliminating delamination of the DLC from the substrates. The DLC/Si 3 N 4 pairs significantly reduced friction coefficient, squeaking noise and wear of both the Si 3 N 4 balls and the discs compared to those of the Ti-6Al-4V/Si 3 N 4 pair after testing for a duration that is equivalent to one year of hip motion in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antithrombogenicity of Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Coated Nano Porous Polyethersulfone (PES Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Miki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A nano porous polyethersulfone (PES membrane is widely used for aspects of nanofiltration, such as purification, fractionation and dialysis. However, the low-blood-compatibility characteristic of PES membrane causes platelets and blood cells to stick to the surface of the membrane and degrades ions diffusion through membrane, which further limits its application for dialysis systems. In this study, we deposited the fluorinated-diamond-like-carbon (F-DLC onto the finger like structure layer of the PES membrane. By doing this, we have the F-DLC films coating the membrane surface without sacrificing the membrane permeability. In addition, we examined antithrombogenicity of the F-DLC/PES membranes using a microfluidic device, and experimentally found that F-DLC drastically reduced the amount of blood cells attached to the surface. We have also conducted long-term experiments for 24 days and the diffusion characteristics were found to be deteriorated due to fouling without any surface modification. On the other hand, the membranes coated by F-DLC film gave a consistent diffusion coefficient of ions transfer through a membrane porous. Therefore, F-DLC films can be a great candidate to improve the antithrombogenic characteristics of the membrane surfaces in hemodialysis systems.

  15. Frictional and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like-Carbon Coatings on Polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zeng; Gao Ding; Ba Dechun; Wang Feng; Liu Chunming

    2013-01-01

    In this work, diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films were deposited onto polycarbonate (PC) substrates by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD), and silicon films were prepared between DLC and PC substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition so as to improve the adhesion of the DLC films. The deposited films were investigated by means of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Subsequently, the following frictional and optical properties of the films were measured: the friction coefficient by using a ball-on-disk tribometer, the scratch hardness by using a nano-indenter, the optical transmittance by using a UV/visible spectrometer. The effects of incident power upon the frictional and optical properties of the films were investigated. Films deposited at low incident powers showed large optical gaps, which decreased with increasing incident power. The optical properties of DLC films correlated to the sp 2 content of the coatings. High anti-scratch properties were obtained at higher values of incident power. The anti-scratch properties of DLC films correlated to the sp 3 content of the coatings

  16. Wear and Friction Characteristics of AlN/Diamond-Like Carbon Hybrid Coatings on Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masashi; Kubota, Sadayuki; Suzuki, Hideto; Haraguchi, Tadao

    2015-10-01

    The use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings has the potential to greatly improve the wear resistance and friction of aluminum alloys, but practical application has so far been limited by poor adhesion due to large difference in hardness and elasticity between the two materials. This study investigates the deposition of DLC onto an Al-alloy using an intermediate AlN layer with a graded hardness to create a hybrid coating. By controlling the hardness of the AlN film, it was found that the wear life of the DLC film could be improved 80-fold compared to a DLC film deposited directly onto Al-alloy. Furthermore, it was demonstrated through finite element simulation that creating a hardness gradient in the AlN intermediate layer reduces the distribution of stress in the DLC film, while also increasing the force of adhesion between the DLC and AlN layers. Given that both the DLC and AlN films were deposited using the same unbalanced magnetron sputtering method, this process is considered to represent a simple and effective means of improving the wear resistance of Al-alloy components commonly used within the aerospace and automotive industries.

  17. Antithrombogenicity of Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Coated Nano Porous Polyethersulfone (PES) Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihandana, Gunawan S.; Sanada, Ippei; Ito, Hikaru; Noborisaka, Mayui; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    A nano porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane is widely used for aspects of nanofiltration, such as purification, fractionation and dialysis. However, the low-blood-compatibility characteristic of PES membrane causes platelets and blood cells to stick to the surface of the membrane and degrades ions diffusion through membrane, which further limits its application for dialysis systems. In this study, we deposited the fluorinated-diamond-like-carbon (F-DLC) onto the finger like structure layer of the PES membrane. By doing this, we have the F-DLC films coating the membrane surface without sacrificing the membrane permeability. In addition, we examined antithrombogenicity of the F-DLC/PES membranes using a microfluidic device, and experimentally found that F-DLC drastically reduced the amount of blood cells attached to the surface. We have also conducted long-term experiments for 24 days and the diffusion characteristics were found to be deteriorated due to fouling without any surface modification. On the other hand, the membranes coated by F-DLC film gave a consistent diffusion coefficient of ions transfer through a membrane porous. Therefore, F-DLC films can be a great candidate to improve the antithrombogenic characteristics of the membrane surfaces in hemodialysis systems. PMID:28788333

  18. Characterization of laboratory and industrial CrN/CrCN/diamond-like carbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.J.G., E-mail: francisco.silva@eu.ipp.pt [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica do Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Martinho, R.P. [Departamento de Engenharia da Escola Superior de Estudos Industriais e de Gestão do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal); Baptista, A.P.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    This work reports on laboratorial and experimental wear behaviour studies about a multi-layered film deposited by PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The film consists of three different layers: CrN in the bottom, CrCN as intermediate layer and DLC (diamond-like carbon) on the top. Film characterization was done using techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Scratch-tests, nanoindentation analysis and ball-cratering wear tests were used in order to measure the adhesion critical load, hardness and wear coefficient, respectively. Experimental tests were developed letting one to realise the suitability of this film for mould cavities used on injection moulding machines that produce automotive parts in polypropylene reinforced with 30% (wt.) glass fibres, because this composite material performs severe abrasion on injection moulding which brings important challenges to surface wear resistance. Experimental tests revealed that, after 135,000 injection cycles, multi-layer coating improved significantly the performance previously revealed by uncoated samples. The good results achieved by this film can be partially assigned to DLC top layer due to its low friction coefficient. This paper discusses these results, comparing them with some other PVD coatings already tested in the same conditions. - Highlights: • This coating presents a very good adhesion to the P20 steel substrate. • Surface wear performance is largely improved by the use of this coating. • Coating wear resistance is about 58.2 times higher than the uncoated substrate. • This film presents high suitability for application in mould cavities.

  19. Effect of diamond-like carbon coating on corrosion rate of machinery steel HQ 805

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slat, Winda Sanni; Malau, Viktor; Iswanto, Priyo Tri; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suprapto

    2018-04-01

    HQ 805 is known as a super strength alloys steel and widely applied in military equipment and, aircraft components, drilling device and so on. It is due to its excellent behavior in wear, fatigue, high temperature and high speed operating conditions. The weakness of this material is the vulnerablality to corrosion when employed in sour environments where hydrogen sulfide and chlorides are present. To overcome the problems, an effort should be made to improve or enhance the surface properties for a longer service life. There are varieties of coatings developed and used to improve surface material properties. There are several kinds of coating methods; chemical vapour deposition (CVD), physical vapour deposition (PVD), thermochemical treatment, oxidation, or plasma spraying. This paper presents the research result of the influence of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coating deposited using DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) on corrosion rate (by potentiodynamic polarization method) of HQ 805 machinery steel. As a carbon sources, a mixture of argon (Ar) and methane (CH4) with ratio 76% : 24% was used in this experiment. The conditions of experiment were 400 °C of temperature, 1.2 mbar, 1.4 mbar, 1.6 mbar and 1.8 mbar of pressure of process. Investigated surface properties were hardness (microhardness tester), roughness (roughness test), chemical composition (Spectrometer), microstructure (SEM) and corrosion rate (potentiodynamic polarization). It has been found that the optimum condition with the lowest corrosion rate is at a pressure of 1.4 mbar with a deposition duration of 4 hours at a constant temperature of 400 °C. In this condition, the corrosion rate decreases from 12.326 mpy to 4.487 mpy.

  20. Flexible camphor diamond-like carbon coating on polyurethane to prevent Candida albicans biofilm growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thaisa B; Vieira, Angela A; Paula, Luciana O; Santos, Everton D; Radi, Polyana A; Khouri, Sônia; Maciel, Homero S; Pessoa, Rodrigo S; Vieira, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Camphor was incorporated in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films to prevent the Candida albicans yeasts fouling on polyurethane substrates, which is a material commonly used for catheter manufacturing. The camphor:DLC and DLC film for this investigation was produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using an apparatus based on the flash evaporation of organic liquid (hexane) containing diluted camphor for camphor:DLC and hexane/methane, mixture for DLC films. The film was deposited at a low temperature of less than 25°C. We obtained very adherent camphor:DLC and DLC films that accompanied the substrate flexibility without delamination. The adherence of camphor:DLC and DLC films on polyurethane segments were evaluated by scratching test and bending polyurethane segments at 180°. The polyurethane samples, with and without camphor:DLC and DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical profilometry. Candida albicans biofilm formation on polyurethane, with and without camphor:DLC and DLC, was assessed. The camphor:DLC and DLC films reduced the biofilm growth by 99.0% and 91.0% of Candida albicans, respectively, compared to bare polyurethane. These results open the doors to studies of functionalized DLC coatings with biofilm inhibition properties used in the production of catheters or other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings as Encapsulants for Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pern, F. J.; Panosyan, Zh.; Gippius, A. A.; Kontsevoy, J. A.; Touryan, K.; Voskanyan, S.; Yengibaryan, Y.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality single-layer and bilayer diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are fabricated by two technologies, namely, ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition (IAPED) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) deposition. Deposition on various substrates, such as sapphires and solar cells, has been performed at low substrate temperatures (50 ∼ 80 C). The two deposition technologies allow good control over the growth conditions to produce DLC films with desired optical properties, thickness, and energy bandgap. The bilayer-structured DLC can be fabricated by using IAPED for the bottom layer followed by ECR for the top layer, or just by IAPED for both layers with different compositions. The DLC films have shown good spatial uniformity, density, microhardness, and adhesion strength. They exhibit excellent stability against attack by strong acids, prolonged damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, mechanical scratch, ultrasonication, and irradiation by ultraviolet (UV), protons, and electrons. When deposited on crystalline Si and GaAs solar cells in single-layer and/or bilayer structure, the DLC films not only serve as antireflection coating and protective encapsulant, but also improve the cell efficiencies

  2. Anti-reflection coatings for silicon solar cells from hydrogenated diamond like carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Banerjee, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Aiming towards a specific application as antireflection coatings (ARC) in Si solar cells, the growth of hydrogenated diamond like carbon (HDLC) films, by RF magnetron sputtering, has been optimized through comprehensive optical and structural studies. Various physical properties of the films e.g., (ID/IG) ratio in the Raman spectra, percentage of sp3 hybridization in XPS spectra, H-content in the network, etc., have been correlated with different ARC application properties e.g., transmittance, reflectance, optical band gap, refractive index, surface roughness, etc. The ARC properties have been optimized on unheated substrates, through systematic variations of RF power, gas flow rate, gas pressure and finally controlled introduction of hydrogen to the DLC network at its most favorable plasma parameters. The optimum HDLC films possess (T700)max ∼ 95.8%, (R700)min ∼ 3.87%, (n700)min ∼ 1.62 along with simultaneous (Eg)max ∼ 2.53 eV and ∼75.6% of sp3 hybridization in the C-network, corresponding to a bonded H-content of ∼23 at.%. Encouraging improvements in the ARC properties over the optimized DLC film were obtained with the controlled addition of hydrogen, and the optimum HDLC films appear quite promising for applications in Si solar cells. Systematic materials development has been performed through comprehensive understanding of the parameter space and its optimization, as elaborately discussed.

  3. Surface hardening of optic materials by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma of arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipkov, A. S.; Bashkov, V. M.; Belyaeva, A. O.; Stepanov, R.; Mironov, Y. M.; Galinovsky, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    This article considers the issue of strengthening of optic materials used in the IR spectrum by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma arc discharge. The report shows results of tests of bare and strengthened optical materials such as BaF2, MgF2, Si, Ge, including the testing of their strength and spectral characteristics. Results for the determination of optical constants for the DLC coatings deposited on substrates of Ge and Si, by using separated plasma, are also presented. Investigations showed that surface hardening of optical materials operable in the IR range, by the deposition of diamond like carbon coating onto their surface, according to this technology, considerably improves operational properties and preserves or improves their optic properties.

  4. Coating NiTi archwires with diamond-like carbon films: reducing fluoride-induced corrosion and improving frictional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S Y; Huang, J J; Kang, T; Diao, D F; Duan, Y Z

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to coat diamond-like carbon (DLC) films onto nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires. The film protects against fluoride-induced corrosion and will improve orthodontic friction. 'Mirror-confinement-type electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering' was utilized to deposit DLC films onto NiTi archwires. The influence of a fluoride-containing environment on the surface topography and the friction force between the brackets and archwires were investigated. The results confirmed the superior nature of the DLC coating, with less surface roughness variation for DLC-coated archwires after immersion in a high fluoride ion environment. Friction tests also showed that applying a DLC coating significantly decreased the fretting wear and the coefficient of friction, both in ambient air and artificial saliva. Thus, DLC coatings are recommended to reduce fluoride-induced corrosion and improve orthodontic friction.

  5. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  6. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  7. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  8. Further improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings by N codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changwei; Xie, Wei; Tang, Xiaoshan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen codoping on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite coatings were investigated in detail. Compared with undoped DLC coatings, the Cr-DLC and N/Cr-DLC coatings showed higher root-mean-square (RMS) roughness values. However, from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman results, the fraction of sp2 carbon bonds of N/Cr-DLC coatings increased with increasing N content, which indicated the graphitization of the coatings. The hardness and elastic modulus of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 1.8 at. % N were about 26.8 and 218 GPa, respectively. The observed hardness increase with N codoping was attributed to the incorporation of N in the C network along with the formation of CrC(N) nanoparticles, as confirmed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The internal stress markedly decreased from 0.93 to 0.32 GPa as the N content increased from 0 to 10.3 at. %. Furthermore, N doping significantly improved the high-temperature dry friction behavior of DLC coatings. The friction coefficient of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 8.0 and 10.3 at. % N was kept at about 0.2 during the overall sliding test at 500 °C. These results showed that appropriate N doping could promote the mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-DLC nanocomposite coatings.

  9. Abutment Coating With Diamond-Like Carbon Films to Reduce Implant-Abutment Bacterial Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mayra; Sangalli, Jorgiana; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Ferreira, Leandro Lameirão; da Silva Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2016-02-01

    The influence of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on bacterial leakage through the interface between abutments and dental implants of external hexagon (EH) and internal hexagon (IH) designs was evaluated. Film deposition was performed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Sets of implants and abutments (n = 30 per group, sets of 180 implants) were divided according to connection design and treatment of the abutment base: 1) no treatment (control); 2) DLC film deposition; and 3) Ag-DLC film deposition. Under sterile conditions, 1 μL Enterococcus faecalis was inoculated inside the implants, and abutments were tightened. The sets were tested for immediate external contamination, suspended in test tubes containing sterile culture broth, and followed for 5 days. Turbidity of the broth indicated bacterial leakage. At the end of the period, the abutments were removed and the internal content of the implants was collected with paper points and plated in Petri dishes. After 24-hour incubation, they were assessed for bacterial viability and colony-forming unit counting. Bacterial leakage was analyzed by χ(2) and Fisher exact tests (α = 5%). The percentage of bacterial leakage was 16.09% for EH implants and 80.71% for IH implants (P DLC and Ag-DLC films do not significantly reduce the frequency of bacterial leakage and bacteria load inside the implants.

  10. In vitro and in vivo investigations into the biocompatibility of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M; Myer, B; Rushton, N

    2001-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) shows great promise as a durable, wear- and corrosion-resistant coating for biomedical implants. The effects of DLC coatings on the musculoskeletal system have not been investigated in detail. In this study, DLC coatings were deposited on polystyrene 24-well tissue culture plates by fast-atom bombardment from a hexane precursor. Two osteoblast-like cell lines were cultured on uncoated and DLC-coated plates for periods of up to 72 h. The effects of DLC coatings on cellular metabolism were investigated by measuring the production of three osteoblast-specific marker proteins: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen. There was no evidence that the presence of the DLC coating had any adverse effect on any of the parameters measured in this study. In a second series of experiments, DLC-coated cobalt-chromium cylinders were implanted in intramuscular locations in rats and in transcortical sites in sheep. Histologic analysis of specimens retrieved 90 days after surgery showed that the DLC-coated specimens were well tolerated in both sites. These data indicate that DLC coatings are biocompatible in vitro and in vivo, and further investigations into their long-term biological and tribological performance are now warranted. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Temperature effect on the formation of a relief of diamond-like carbon coatings and its modification by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubshtein, A.P.; Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.; Yugov, V.A.; Vladimirov, A.B.; Plotnikov, S.A.; Ponosov, Yu.S

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of pulsed arc sputtering of a graphite target the diamond-like coatings (DLC) ∼1.5 μm thick are deposited on a steel R6M5 substrate. The relief of the coatings obtained under various temperature conditions is investigated. Variations of carbon DLC surfaces are followed after their bombardment with accelerated argon or chemically active oxygen ions. Argon ion bombardment is established to be preferred for producing a smoothed-out DLC relief. It is shown that a DLC relief should be taken into account when measuring microhardness. It is recommended that transformation of interatomic bonds in irradiated subsurface layers be taken into consideration if information index of methods applied constitutes several monolayers [ru

  12. Laser surface graphitization to control friction of diamond-like carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlenok, Maxim S.; Kononenko, Vitaly V.; Zavedeev, Evgeny V.; Frolov, Vadim D.; Arutyunyan, Natalia R.; Chouprik, Anastasia A.; Baturin, Andrey S.; Scheibe, Hans-Joachim; Shupegin, Mikhail L.; Pimenov, Sergei M.

    2015-11-01

    To study the role of laser surface graphitization in the friction behavior of laser-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, we apply the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the lateral force mode (LFM) which allows to obtain simultaneously the lateral force and topography images and to determine local friction levels in laser-irradiated and original surface areas. Based on this approach in the paper, we report on (1) laser surface microstructuring of hydrogenated a-C:H and hydrogen-free ta-C films in the regime of surface graphitization using UV laser pulses of 20-ns duration and (2) correlation between the structure and friction properties of the laser-patterned DLC surface on micro/nanoscale using SPM/LFM technique. The SPM/LFM data obtained for the surface relief gratings of graphitized microstructures have evidenced lower friction forces in the laser-graphitized regions. For the hydrogenated DLC films, the reversible frictional behavior of the laser-graphitized micropatterns is found to take place during LFM imaging at different temperatures (20 and 120 °C) in ambient air. It is revealed that the lateral force distribution in the laser-graphitized areas is shifted to higher friction levels (relative to that of the unirradiated surface) at temperature 120 °C and returned back to the lower friction during the sample cooling to 20 °C, thus confirming an influence of adsorbed water layers on the nanofriction properties of laser-graphitized micropatterns on the film surface.

  13. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, Masaki, E-mail: m-nakaya@kirin.co.jp [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Shimizu, Mari [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz.

  14. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Masaki; Shimizu, Mari; Uedono, Akira

    2014-01-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz

  15. Transition Metal Ion Implantation into Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings: Development of a Base Material for Gas Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markwitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrometre thick diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings produced by direct ion deposition were implanted with 30 keV Ar+ and transition metal ions in the lower percentage (<10 at.% range. Theoretical calculations showed that the ions are implanted just beneath the surface, which was confirmed with RBS measurements. Atomic force microscope scans revealed that the surface roughness increases when implanted with Ar+ and Cu+ ions, whereas a smoothing of the surface from 5.2 to 2.7 nm and a grain size reduction from 175 to 93 nm are measured for Ag+ implanted coatings with a fluence of 1.24×1016 at. cm−2. Calculated hydrogen and carbon depth profiles showed surprisingly significant changes in concentrations in the near-surface region of the DLC coatings, particularly when implanted with Ag+ ions. Hydrogen accumulates up to 32 at.% and the minimum of the carbon distribution is shifted towards the surface which may be the cause of the surface smoothing effect. The ion implantations caused an increase in electrical conductivity of the DLC coatings, which is important for the development of solid-state gas sensors based on DLC coatings.

  16. Effects of molybdenum dithiocarbamate and zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate additives on tribological behaviors of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Wen; Liu, Chunyue; Fu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chengbiao; Huang, Haipeng; Liu, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • For MoDTC, DLC coating showed better anti-friction and worse anti-wear behaviors. • The improved anti-friction property was due to graphitization and MoS 2 . • Formation of MoO x resulted in a high wear volume. • For ZDDP, DLC coating showed the best anti-wear and the worst anti-friction behaviors. • Absence of friction reducing product and graphitized layer resulted in a higher friction. - Abstract: The tribological behaviors of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings under varied load conditions lubricated with polyalpha olefin (PAO), molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) and zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) additives were investigated in this paper. Hydrogenated DLC coatings were synthesized through the decomposition of acetylene by the ion source. The tribological performances were measured on a SRV tribometer. The morphologies and chemical structures of the DLC coatings were investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectrometer (Raman) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). It was shown that the low friction and high wear were achieved on the hydrogenated DLC coating under MoDTC lubrication, while low wear was found on the hydrogenated DLC coating lubricated by ZDDP. The primary reason was attributed to different tribofilms formed on the contact area and the formation of graphitic layer. Both factors working together leaded to quite different tribological behaviors

  17. Friction and wear performance of bearing ball sliding against diamond-like carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenjiang; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Kar, Satyananda; Li, Dangjuan; Su, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the tribological properties of bearing steel ball (Japan standard, SUJ2) sliding against tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings and amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings. The reciprocating sliding testes are performed with ball-on-plate friction tester in ambient air condition. Analysis of friction coefficient, wear volume and microstructure in wear scar are carried out using optical microscopy, atom force morphology (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show the SUJ2 on ta-C coating has low friction coefficient (around 0.15) but high wear loss. In contrast, the low wear loss of SUJ2 on a-C:H coating with high (around 0.4) and unsteady friction coefficient. Some Fe2O3, FeO and graphitization have been found on the wear scar of SUJ2 sliding against ta-C coating. Nearly no oxide materials exist on the wear scar of SUJ2 against a-C:H coating. The mechanism and hypothesis of the wear behavior have been investigated according to the measurement results. This study will contribute to proper selection and understand the tribological performance of bearing steels against DLC coatings.

  18. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon, boron carbide, and titanium carbide coatings against glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.K.; Brown, D.W.; Kimock, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    Protection of glass substrates by direct ion beam deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings was observed using a commercial pin-on-disk instrument at ambient conditions without lubrication. Ion beam sputter-deposited titanium carbide and boron carbide coatings reduced sliding friction, and provided tribological protection of silicon substrates, but the improvement factor was less than that found for DLC. Observations of unlubricated sliding of hemispherical glass pins at ambient conditions on uncoated glass and silicon substrates, and ion beam deposited coatings showed decreased wear in the order: uncoated glass>uncoated silicon>boron carbide>titanium carbide>DLC>uncoated sapphire. Failure mechanisms varied widely and are discussed. Generally, the amount of wear decreased as the sliding friction decreased, with the exception of uncoated sapphire substrates, for which the wear was low despite very high friction. There is clear evidence that DLC coatings continue to protect the underlying substrate long after the damage first penetrates through the coating. The test results correlate with field use data on commercial products which have shown that the DLC coatings provide substantial extension of the useful lifetime of glass and other substrates. copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  20. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Taposh; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Choudhury, Dipankar; Bin Mamat, Azuddin; Masjuki, H H

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  1. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  2. [Influence of deposition time on chromatics during nitrogen-doped diamond like carbon coating on pure titanium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lu; Yao, Jiang-wu; Xu, De-wen

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to observed the influence of deposition time on chromatics during nitrogen-doped diamond like carbon coating (N-DLC) on pure titanium by multi impulse are plasma plating machine. Applying multi impulse are plasma plating machine to produce TiN coatings on pure titanium in nitrogen atmosphere, then filming with nitrogen-doped DLC on TiN in methane (10-80 min in every 5 min). The colors of N-DLC were evaluated in the CIE1976 L*a*b* uniform color scale and Mussell notation. The surface morphology of every specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When changing the time of N-DLC coating deposition, N-DLC surface showed different color. Golden yellow was presented when deposition time was 30 min. SEM showed that crystallization was found in N-DLC coatings, the structure changed from stable to clutter by varying the deposition time. The chromatics of N-DLC coatings on pure titanium could get golden yellow when deposition time was 30 min, then the crystallized structure was stable.

  3. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance scratch resistance of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty: hard substrates outperform soft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A; Katerberg, Brian J

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings will enhance the scratch resistance of a bearing surface in joint arthroplasty, and that a hard ceramic substrate will further enhance scratch resistance by reducing plastic deformation. We tested these hypotheses by applying a hard DLC coating to medical-grade cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) and magnesia-stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) femoral heads and performing scratch tests to determine the loads required to cause cohesive and adhesive fracture of the coating. Scratch tracks of DLC-coated and noncoated heads were then scanned by optical profilometry to determine scratch depth, width, and pile-up (raised edges), as measures of susceptibility to scratching. DLC-coated CoCr specimens exhibited cohesive coating fracture as wedge spallation at an average load of 9.74 N, whereas DLC-coated Mg-PSZ exhibited cohesive fracture as arc-tensile cracks and chipping at a significantly higher average load of 41.3 N (p coating fracture, DLC-CoCr delaminated at an average load of 35.2 N, whereas DLC-Mg-PSZ fractured by recovery spallation at a significantly higher average load of 46.8 N (p DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ specimens exhibited significantly shallower scratches and less pile-up than did uncoated specimens (p DLC-Mg-PSZ better resisted plastic deformation, requiring significantly higher loads for cohesive and adhesive coating fracture. These findings supported both of our hypotheses. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. AlTiN layer effect on mechanical properties of Ti-doped diamond-like carbon composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xiaolu; Yang Huisheng; Gao Kewei; Wang Yanbin; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2011-01-01

    Ti/Ti-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC composite coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering on W18Cr4V high speed steel substrates. The effect of the AlTiN support layer on the properties of these composite coatings was investigated through microstructure and mechanical properties characterization, including hardness, elastic modulus, coefficient of friction and wear properties measured by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scratch and ball-on-disk friction tests. Ti and AlTiN interlayers have a columnar structure with 50-80 nm grains. The hardness and elastic modulus of Ti/Ti-DLC and Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC coatings is 25.9 ± 0.4, 222.2 ± 6.3 GPa and 19.3 ± 1, 205.6 ± 6.7 GPa, respectively. Adhesion of Ti-DLC, Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC and AlTiN/Ti-DLC coatings expressed as the critical lateral force is 26.5 N, 38.2 N, and 47.8 N, respectively. Substrate coefficient of friction without coatings is 0.44, and it is 0.1 for Ti/Ti-DLC and Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC coatings. Wear resistance of Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC composite coatings is much higher than Ti/Ti-DLC coatings based on the wear track width of 169.8 and 73.2 μm, respectively, for the same experimental conditions.

  5. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  6. Fabrication of nitrogen-containing diamond-like carbon film by filtered arc deposition as conductive hard-coating film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Imai, Takahiro; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yushi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Habuchi, Hitoe; Kiyohara, Shuji; Ito, Mikio; Yick, Sam; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Phil

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, which are amorphous carbon films, have been used as hard-coating films for protecting the surface of mechanical parts. Nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) films are expected as conductive hard-coating materials. N-DLC films are expected in applications such as protective films for contact pins, which are used in the electrical check process of integrated circuit chips. In this study, N-DLC films are prepared using the T-shaped filtered arc deposition (T-FAD) method, and film properties are investigated. Film hardness and film density decreased when the N content increased in the films because the number of graphite structures in the DLC film increased as the N content increased. These trends are similar to the results of a previous study. The electrical resistivity of N-DLC films changed from 0.26 to 8.8 Ω cm with a change in the nanoindentation hardness from 17 to 27 GPa. The N-DLC films fabricated by the T-FAD method showed high mechanical hardness and low electrical resistivity.

  7. Coating of diamond-like carbon nanofilm on alumina by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasatien, Chotiwan; Tonanon, Nattaporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanofilms with thickness varied from under one hundred to a few hundred nanometers have been successfully deposited on alumina substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. To obtain dense continuous DLC nanofilm coating over the entire sample surface, alumina substrates were pre-treated to enhance the nucleation density. Raman spectra of DLC films on samples showed distinct diamond peak at around 1332 cm(-1), and the broad band of amorphous carbon phase at around 1550 cm(-1). Full width at half maximum height (FWHM) values indicated good formation of diamond phase in all films. The result of nano-indentation test show that the hardness of alumina samples increase from 7.3 +/- 2.0 GPa in uncoated samples to 15.8 +/- 4.5-52.2 +/- 2.1 GPa in samples coated with DLC depending on the process conditions. It is observed that the hardness values are still in good range although the thickness of the films is less than a hundred nanometer.

  8. On the performances and wear of WC-diamond like carbon coated tools in drilling of CFRP/Titanium stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccarusso, L.; Durante, M.; Impero, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece; Scherillo, F.; Squillace, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of hybrid structures made of CFRP and titanium alloys is growing more and more in the last years in the aerospace industry due to the high strength to weight ratio. Because of their very different characteristics, the mechanical fastening represent the most effective joining technique for these materials. As a consequence, drilling process plays a key role in the assembly. The one shot drilling, i.e. the contemporary drilling of the stack of the two materials, seems to be the best option both in terms of time saving and assembly accuracy. Nevertheless, due to the considerable different machinability of fiber reinforced plastics and metallic materials, the one shot drilling is a critical process both for the holes quality and for the tools wear. This research was carried out to study the effectiveness of new generation tools in the drilling of CFRP/Titanium stacks. The tools are made of sintered grains of tungsten carbide (WC) in a binder of cobalt and coated with Diamond like carbon (DLC), and are characterized by a patented geometry; they mainly differ in parent WC grain size and binder percentage. Both the cutting forces and the wear phenomena were accurately investigated and the results were analyzed as a function of number of holes and their quality. The results show a clear increase of the cutting forces with the number of holes for all the used drilling tools. Moreover, abrasive wear phenomena that affect initially the tools coating layer were observed.

  9. Atomic force microscopy and tribology study of the adsorption of alcohols on diamond-like carbon coatings and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.; Simič, R.

    2013-01-01

    Polar molecules are known to affect the friction and wear of steel contacts via adsorption onto the surface, which represents one of the fundamental boundary-lubrication mechanisms. Since the basic chemical and physical effects of polar molecules on diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been investigated only very rarely, it is important to find out whether such molecules have a similar effect on DLC coatings as they do on steel. In our study the adsorption of hexadecanol in various concentrations (2–20 mmol/l) on DLC was studied under static conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The amount of surface coverage, the size and the density of the adsorbed islands of alcohol molecules were analyzed. Tribological tests were also performed to correlate the wear and friction behaviours with the adsorption of molecules on the surface. In this case, steel surfaces served as a reference. The AFM was successfully used to analyze the adsorption ability of polar molecules onto the DLC surfaces and a good correlation between the AFM results and the tribological behaviour of the DLC and the steel was found. We confirmed that alcohols can adsorb physically and chemically onto the DLC surfaces and are, therefore, potential boundary-lubrication agents for the DLC coatings. The adsorption of alcohol onto the DLC surfaces reduces the wear of the coatings, but it is less effective in reducing the friction because of the already inherently low-friction properties of DLC. Tentative adsorption mechanisms that include the environmental species effect, the temperature effect and the tribological rubbing effect are proposed for DLC and steel surfaces.

  10. Atomic force microscopy and tribology study of the adsorption of alcohols on diamond-like carbon coatings and steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, Bogišićeva 8, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simič, R. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Tribology and Interface Nanotechnology, Bogišićeva 8, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-04-15

    Polar molecules are known to affect the friction and wear of steel contacts via adsorption onto the surface, which represents one of the fundamental boundary-lubrication mechanisms. Since the basic chemical and physical effects of polar molecules on diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been investigated only very rarely, it is important to find out whether such molecules have a similar effect on DLC coatings as they do on steel. In our study the adsorption of hexadecanol in various concentrations (2–20 mmol/l) on DLC was studied under static conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The amount of surface coverage, the size and the density of the adsorbed islands of alcohol molecules were analyzed. Tribological tests were also performed to correlate the wear and friction behaviours with the adsorption of molecules on the surface. In this case, steel surfaces served as a reference. The AFM was successfully used to analyze the adsorption ability of polar molecules onto the DLC surfaces and a good correlation between the AFM results and the tribological behaviour of the DLC and the steel was found. We confirmed that alcohols can adsorb physically and chemically onto the DLC surfaces and are, therefore, potential boundary-lubrication agents for the DLC coatings. The adsorption of alcohol onto the DLC surfaces reduces the wear of the coatings, but it is less effective in reducing the friction because of the already inherently low-friction properties of DLC. Tentative adsorption mechanisms that include the environmental species effect, the temperature effect and the tribological rubbing effect are proposed for DLC and steel surfaces.

  11. The interaction between diamond like carbon (DLC coatings and ionic liquids under boundary lubrication conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Milewski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse antiwear DLC coatings produced by physical vapour deposition. The a-C:H coatings were deposited on steel elements designed to operate under friction conditions. The coating structure was studied by observing the surface topography with a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a profilometer. The friction and wear properties of the coatings were examined using a ball-on-disc tribotester. The lubricants tested were two types of ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethy-lsulphonyl amide. The experimental data was used to select ionic liquids with the best tribological properties to operate under lubricated friction conditions and interact with DLC coatings.

  12. Evaluation of resistance of diamond-like carbon coating to the corpuscular radiation in outer space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilova, Elizaveta; Bashkov, Valeriy; Mikhalev, Pavel; Fedorchenko, Alexander; Volkova, Yana

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to research the resistance of thin coatings to the effects of corpuscular radiation, as well as evaluation speed etching of diamond-like films with different content of diamond phase. There were two samples of monocrystalline silicon with DLC coating. To evaluate the resistance, two groups of grooves were etched on each sample. The depth was then measured to calculate a relative etching ratio of DLC coating. The resistance was determined to be four times that of silicon.

  13. Optimisation of mechanical properties of plasma deposited graded multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršíková, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav; Fořt, Tomáš; Grossman, Jan; Stoica, A.; Buršík, Jiří; Klapetek, P.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2008), s. 3229-3232 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nanostructured coatings * DLC * hardness * adhesion * intrisic stress * fracture toughness * dynamic impact test Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2008

  14. Progress of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon(DLC films had many unique and outstanding properties such as high thermal conductivity, high hardness, excellent chemical inertness, low friction coefficients and wear coefficients. The properties and combinations were very promising for heat sink, micro-electromechanical devices, radiation hardening, biomedical devices, automotive industry and other technical applications, more research and a lot of attention were attracted in recent years. The research progress of diamond-like films and the nucleation mechanism of film were summarized, and application prospect of DLC films were demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on the research trend of DLC films and the industry applications.

  15. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  16. Friction mechanisms of silicon wafer and silicon wafer coated with diamond-like carbon film and two monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Yoon, Eui Sung; Han, Hung Gu; Kong, Ho Sung

    2006-01-01

    The friction behaviour of Si-wafer, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) and two Self-Assembled Monolayers(SAMs) namely DiMethylDiChlorosilane (DMDC) and DiPhenyl-DiChlorosilane (DPDC) coated on Si-wafer was studied under loading conditions in milli-Newton (mN) range. Experiments were performed using a ball-on-flat type reciprocating micro-tribo tester. Glass balls with various radii 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm and 1 mm were used. The applied normal load was in the range of 1.5 mN to 4.8 mN. Results showed that the friction increased with the applied normal load in the case of all the test materials. It was also observed that friction was affected by the ball size. Friction increased with the increase in the ball size in the case of Si-wafer. The SAMs also showed a similar trend, but had lower values of friction than those of Si-wafer. Interestingly, for DLC it was observed that friction decreased with the increase in the ball size. This distinct difference in the behavior of friction in DLC was attributed to the difference in the operating mechanism. It was observed that Si-wafer and DLC exhibited wear, whereas wear was absent in the SAMs. Observations showed that solid-solid adhesion was dominant in Si-wafer, while plowing in DLC. The wear in these two materials significantly influenced their friction. In the case of SAMs their friction behaviour was largely influenced by the nature of their molecular chains

  17. Adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells on chromium-doped diamond-like carbon coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filova, Elena; Vandrovcova, Marta; Jelinek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Houdkova, Jana; Jan Remsa; Kocourek, Tomas; Stankova, Lubica; Bacakova, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are promising for use in coating orthopaedic, dental and cardiovascular implants. The problem of DLC layers lies in their weak layer adhesion to metal implants. Chromium is used as a dopant for improving the adhesion of DLC films. Cr-DLC layers were prepared by a hybrid technology, using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a graphite target and magnetron sputtering. Depending on the deposition conditions, the concentration of Cr in the DLC layers moved from zero to 10.0 at.%. The effect of DLC layers with 0.0, 0.9, 1.8, 7.3, 7.7 and 10.0 at.% Cr content on the adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was assessed in vitro. The DLC samples that contained 7.7 and 10.0 at.% of Cr supported cell spreading on day 1 after seeding. On day three after seeding, the most apparent vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques were also found on samples with higher concentrations of chromium. On the other hand, the expression of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase at the mRNA and protein level was the highest on Cr-DLC samples with a lower concentration of Cr (0-1.8 at.%). We can conclude that higher concentrations of chromium supported cell adhesion; however DLC and DLC doped with a lower concentration of chromium supported osteogenic cell differentiation.

  18. Fabrication of highly transparent diamond-like carbon anti-reflecting coating for Si solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Amit, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2014-04-24

    ARC grade highly transparent unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were produced, directly from a-C target, using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique, for optoelectronic applications. Optical band gap, transmittance, reflectance, sp{sup 3} fraction, I{sub D}/I{sub G}, density, and refractive index of the films have been estimated with the help of optical tools like Uv-vis spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and micro-Raman. Optimum ARC-qualities have been identified in low-temperature grown DLC films at an Ar pressure of 4 mTorr in the reactor, accomplishing its key requirements for use in silicon solar cells.

  19. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  20. Tensile test of a silicon microstructure fully coated with submicrometer-thick diamond like carbon film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlei; Uesugi, Akio; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the tensile properties of single-crystal silicon (SCS) microstructures fully coated with sub-micrometer thick diamond like carbon (DLC) film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). To minimize the deformations or damages caused by non-uniform coating of DLC, which has high compression residual stress, released SCS specimens with the dimensions of 120 µm long, 4 µm wide, and 5 µm thick were coated from the top and bottom side simultaneously. The thickness of DLC coating is around 150 nm and three different bias voltages were used for deposition. The tensile strength improved from 13.4 to 53.5% with the increasing of negative bias voltage. In addition, the deviation in strength also reduced significantly compared to bare SCS sample.

  1. Wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene against damaged and undamaged stainless steel and diamond-like carbon-coated counterfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkins, P; Hailey, J L; Fisher, J; Lettington, A H; Butter, R

    1998-10-01

    The wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in artificial joints and the resulting wear debris-induced osteolysis remains a major clinical concern in the orthopaedic sector. Third-body damage of metallic femoral heads is often cited as a cause of accelerated polyethylene wear, and the use of ceramic femoral heads in the hip is gaining increasing favour. In the knee prostheses and for smaller diameter femoral heads, the application of hard surface coatings, such as diamond-like carbon, is receiving considerable attention. However, to date, there has been little or no investigation of the tribology of these coatings in simulated biological environments. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been compared to stainless steel in its undamaged form and following simulated third-body damage. The wear of UHMWPE was found to be similar when sliding against undamaged DLC and stainless steel counterfaces. DLC was found to be much more damage resistant than DLC. Under test conditions that simulate third-body damage to the femoral head, the wear of UHMWPE was seven times lower against DLC than against stainless steel (P < 0.05). The study shows DLC has considerable potential as a femoral bearing surface in artificial joints.

  2. Preparation of diamond like carbon thin film on stainless steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diamond-like carbon; buffer layer; plasma CVD; surface characterization; biomedical applications. Abstract. We report the formation of a very smooth, continuous and homogeneous diamond-like carbon DLC thin coating over a bare stainless steel surface without the need for a thin Si/Cr/Ni/Mo/W/TiN/TiC interfacial layer.

  3. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  4. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  5. XPS, XRD and laser Raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, William de Melo; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves, E-mail: williammelosilva@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus [Associate Laboratory of Sensors and Materials, National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment. (author)

  6. XPS, XRD and laser Raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, William de Melo; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves

    2013-01-01

    Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment. (author)

  7. XPS, XRD and laser raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William de Melo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment.

  8. Influence of high temperature annealing on the structure, hardness and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon and TiAlSiCN nanocomposite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.W.; Wang, L.P.; Wang, X.F.; Huang, L.; Lu, Y.; Yan, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and TiAlSiCN nanocomposite coatings were synthesized and annealed at different temperatures in a vacuum environment. The microstructure, hardness and tribological properties of as-deposited and annealed DLC-TiAlSiCN nanocomposite coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, nano-indentation and friction tests. The TEM results reveal that the as-deposited DLC-TiAlSiCN coating has a unique nanocomposite structure consisting of TiCN nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix consisting of a-Si 3 N 4 , a-SiC, a-CN and DLC, and the structure changed little after annealing at 800 °C. However, XPS and Raman results show that an obvious graphitization of the DLC phase occurred during the annealing process and it worsened with annealing temperature. Because of the graphitization, the hardness of the DLC-TiAlSiCN coating after annealing at 800 °C decreased from 45 to 36 GPa. In addition, the DLC-TiAlSiCN coating after annealing at 800 °C has a similar friction coefficient to the as-deposited coating.

  9. Influence of W content on tribological performance of W-doped diamond-like carbon coatings under dry friction and polyalpha olefin lubrication conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Cheng-biao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Yue, Wen; Yu, Xiang; Peng, Zhi-jian; Lin, Song-sheng; Dai, Ming-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • W-doped DLC coating with various W contents was fabricated. • Friction and wear of DLC coated sample was studied. • The lubricant additive was T307. • The influence of W content on friction under lubrication was unveiled. • The influence of W content on wear under lubrication was studied. - Abstract: The influence on tungsten content on the structure, mechanical properties and tribological performance of W-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nano-indentation, scratch test, and ball-on-disk friction test. It was found that with increasing W content, the content of WC and free W in the coatings is increased while the content of sp 3 -C in the coatings is decreased. The effect of W content on the hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings is indistinctive, but there exists the highest critical load of scratch test of above 100 N when W content is 3.08 at.%. With the increase of W content, the friction coefficients of W-doped DLC coatings under dry friction conditions are increased while the friction coefficients of W-doped DLC coatings under polyalpha olefin (PAO) lubrication are decreased. With the increase of W content, the wear rates of the DLC-coated samples under dry friction conditions show a minimum value; under pure PAO lubrication, the influence of W content on the wear rates of the DLC-coated samples is indistinctive when the W content is below 10.73 at.% while the wear rates are increased with increasing W content from 10.73 at.% to 24.09 at.%; when lubricated by PAO + thiophosphoric acid amine (T307) salt, the samples coated with the undoped DLC or the W-doped DLC with high W content exhibit low wear rates

  10. Compositionally modulated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Jingmao; Kwon, Se-Hun; Wang, Qimin

    2017-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping were prepared by a reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering with using a gas mixture of Ar and C2H2 as precursor. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, and mechanical property of the as-deposited DLC coatings were studied systemically by using SEM, XPS, TEM, Raman spectrum, stress-tester, and nanoindentation as a function of the Ar fraction. The results show that the doping concentrations of the Al, Ti and Si atoms increased as the Ar fraction increased. The doped Ti and Si preferred to bond with C while the doped Al mainly existed in oxidation state without bonding with C. As the doping concentrations increased, TiC carbide nanocrystals were formed in the DLC matrix. The microstructure of coatings changed from an amorphous feature dominant AlTiSi-DLC to a carbide nanocomposite AlTiSi-DLC with TiC nanoparticles embedding. In addition, the coatings exhibited the compositionally modulated multilayer consisting of alternate Al-rich layer and Al-poor layer due to the rotation of the substrate holder and the diffusion behavior of the doped Al which tended to separate from C and diffuse towards the DLC matrix surface owing to its weak interactions with C. The periodic Al-rich layer can effectively release the compressive stress of the coatings. On the other hand, the hard TiC nanoparticles were conducive to the hardness of the coatings. Consequently, the DLC coatings with relatively low residual stress and high hardness could be acquired successfully through AlTiSi multi-doping. It is believed that the AlCrSi multi-doping may be a good way for improving the comprehensive properties of the DLC coatings. In addition, we believe that the DLC coatings with Al-rich multilayered structure have a high oxidation resistance, which allows the DLC coatings application in high temperature environment.

  11. Diamond-like carbon coatings on a CoCrMo implant alloy: A detailed XPS analysis of the chemical states at the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Falub, C.V.; Thorwarth, G.; Voisard, C.; Hauert, R.

    2011-01-01

    Low friction and wear resistant coatings have a long history of successful applications in industry. It has long been hoped that these coatings, especially diamond-like carbon (DLC), could also be used successfully in load-bearing joint implants, extending implant life time considerably. However, despite several medical studies carried out so far, no regular DLC-coated implants are available on the market. In most cases, failure was due to insufficient long-term stability of the adhesion of such coatings on implants in vivo. That is because introducing a coated implant not only brings the coating into contact with the body environment but also the interface that controls the adhesion. This usually reactively formed interface must be considered to be at least one additional material which must be not only biocompatible, but also unsusceptible to corrosive attack. The aim of this paper is to analyze in detail the interface, i.e., the transition region between the substrate and the coating. This knowledge is necessary in order to find the right measures to ensure the long-term stability of the adhesion. Results for DLC coatings on a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy are presented. It is shown that a very thin interface layer is formed, with the alloy on one side and the carbon film on the other side. This layer consists of a mixture of carbides from all the metals of the base material. This result is obtained by means of measuring depth profiles using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy because these spectra yield not only the chemical composition of the interface but a detailed analysis provides information on the chemical states across the interface.

  12. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications

  13. Diamond-like carbon coating under oleic acid lubrication: Evidence for graphene oxide formation in superlow friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Bouchet, Maria Isabel; Martin, Jean Michel; Avila, José; Kano, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tsuruda, Takeshi; Bai, Shandan; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji; Asensio, Maria C.

    2017-04-01

    The achievement of the superlubricity regime, with a friction coefficient below 0.01, is the Holy Grail of many tribological applications, with the potential to have a remarkable impact on economic and environmental issues. Based on a combined high-resolution photoemission and soft X-ray absorption study, we report that superlubricity can be realized for engineering applications in bearing steel coated with ultra-smooth tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) under oleic acid lubrication. The results show that tribochemical reactions promoted by the oil lubrication generate strong structural changes in the carbon hybridization of the ta-C hydrogen-free carbon, with initially high sp3 content. Interestingly, the macroscopic superlow friction regime of moving mechanical assemblies coated with ta-C can be attributed to a few partially oxidized graphene-like sheets, with a thickness of not more than 1 nm, formed at the surface inside the wear scar. The sp2 planar carbon and oxygen-derived species are the hallmark of these mesoscopic surface structures created on top of colliding asperities as a result of the tribochemical reactions induced by the oleic acid lubrication. Atomistic simulations elucidate the tribo-formation of such graphene-like structures, providing the link between the overall atomistic mechanism and the macroscopic experimental observations of green superlubricity in the investigated ta-C/oleic acid tribological systems.

  14. Effect of substrate bias voltage on tensile properties of single crystal silicon microstructure fully coated with plasma CVD diamond-like carbon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlei; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2018-06-01

    Tensile strength and strength distribution in a microstructure of single crystal silicon (SCS) were improved significantly by coating the surface with a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. To explore the influence of coating parameters and the mechanism of film fracture, SCS microstructure surfaces (120 × 4 × 5 μm3) were fully coated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of a DLC at five different bias voltages. After the depositions, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), surface profilometry, atomic force microscope (AFM) measurement, and nanoindentation methods were used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. Tensile test indicated that the average strength of coated samples was 13.2-29.6% higher than that of the SCS sample, and samples fabricated with a -400 V bias voltage were strongest. The fracture toughness of the DLC film was the dominant factor in the observed tensile strength. Deviations in strength were reduced with increasingly negative bias voltage. The effect of residual stress on the tensile properties is discussed in detail.

  15. Analysis of diamond-like carbon and Ti/MoS2 coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates for applicability to turbine engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.; Holloway, B.C.; Kalil, C.; Manos, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V substrates have been coated by diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, with no surface pretreatment, and have been coated by Ti/MoS 2 films, with a simple surface pre-cleaning. The DLC films were deposited by planar coil r.f. inductively-coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (r.f. ICPECVD); the Ti/MoS 2 films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Both the DLC and Ti/MoS 2 films were characterized by pull tests, hardness tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and wear tests (pin-on-disk and block-on-ring) to compare their adhesion, hardness, surface topology, and wear properties to plasma-sprayed Cu-Ni-In coating currently used for turbine engine applications. The DLC films were easily characterized by their optical properties because they were highly transparent. We used variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) to characterize thickness and to unequivocally extract real and complex index of refraction, providing a rapid assessment of film quality. Thicker coatings yielded the largest hardness values. The DLC coatings did not require abrasive pretreatment or the formation of bond-layers to ensure good adhesion to the substrate. Simple surface pre-cleaning was also adequate to form well-adhered Ti/MoS 2 on Ti-6Al-4V. The results show that the DLC and Ti/MoS 2 coatings are both much better fretting- and wear-resistant coatings than plasma-sprayed Cu-Ni-In. Both show excellent adhesion to the substrates, less surface roughness, harder surfaces, and more wear resistance than the Cu-Ni-In films. (orig.)

  16. Impact of modified diamond-like carbon coatings on the spatial organization and disinfection of mixed-biofilms composed of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans industrial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L C; Deschamps, J; Briandet, R; Mergulhão, F J

    2018-07-20

    This work investigated the effects of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the architecture and biocide reactivity of dual-species biofilms mimicking food processing contaminants. Biofilms were grown using industrial isolates of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans on bare stainless steel (SST) and on two DLC surface coatings (a-C:H:Si:O designated by SICON® and a-C:H:Si designated by SICAN) in order to evaluate their antifouling activities. Quantification and spatial organization in single- and dual-species biofilms were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using a strain specific labelling procedure. Those assays revealed that the E. coli isolate exhibited a higher adhesion to the modified surfaces and a decreased susceptibility to disinfectant in presence of P. agglomerans than alone in axenic culture. While SICON® reduced the short-term growth of E. coli in axenic conditions, both DLC surfaces increased the E. coli colonization in presence of P. agglomerans. However, both modified surfaces triggered a significantly higher log reduction of E. coli cells within mixed-species biofilms, thus the use of SICON® and SICAN surfaces may be a good approach to facilitate the disinfection process in critical areas of food processing plants. This study presents a new illustration of the importance of interspecies interactions in surface-associated community functions, and of the need to evaluate the effectiveness of hygienic strategies with relevant multi-species consortia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated nitinol stents with or without polyethylene glycol grafting and uncoated nitinol stents in a canine iliac artery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Shin, J H; Shin, D H; Moon, M-W; Park, K; Kim, T-H; Shin, K M; Won, Y H; Han, D K; Lee, K-R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility. Methods A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8). Results The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01). Conclusion Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent. PMID:21325363

  18. Reciprocating sliding behaviour of self-mated amorphous diamond-like carbon coatings on Si3N4 ceramics under tribological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Abreu, C.S.; Salgueiredo, E.; Almeida, F.A.; Fernandes, A.J.S.; Costa, F.M.; Gomes, J.R.; Silva, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous diamond-like carbon films grown by magnetron sputtering have been deposited on silicon nitride based substrates for tribological purposes. A conductive Si 3 N 4 /30% vol.TiN composite was produced for bias substrate application. Friction and wear properties of carbon coated self-mated pairs were assessed using a reciprocal motion ball-on-flat setup in unlubricated conditions with applied normal loads of 3 N and 5 N. The worn surfaces were studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to identify the prevalent wear mechanism. Unbiased and biased substrates behaved differently, the former undergoing premature delamination while the latter endured the tribological test conditions (3 N, ∼ 43 m). Very low friction coefficient values of ∼ 0.015 were sustained assuring remarkable wear behaviour. Surface grooving and wear debris accumulation in the sliding track lead to a roughness increase from the nominal rms value of ∼ 12 nm to ∼ 97 nm, although no weight loss and surface profile modification was quantifiable

  19. Development of Diamond-like Carbon Fibre Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏源迁; 山口勝美; 洞口巌; 竹内雅之

    2004-01-01

    A unique diamond-like carbon (DLC) grinding wheel was developed, in which the DLC fibres were made by rolling Al sheets coated with DLC films and aligned normally to the grinding wheel surface by laminating Al sheets together with DLC fibres. In this paper, the formation process of DLC fibres and the fabrication process of a DLC fibre wheel were investigated. Many grinding experiments were also carried out on a precision NC plane milling machine using a newly developed DLC wheel. Grinding of specimens of silicon wafers, optical glasses, quartz, granites and hardened die steel SKD11 demonstrated the capabilities of nanometer surface finish. A smooth surface with a roughness value of Ra2.5nm (Ry26nm) was achieved.

  20. The effect of nitrogen and oxygen plasma on the wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the PTFE substrates were modified with O 2 and N 2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. The effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the chemical composition and the surface energy of the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated PTFE. In the N 2 plasma pre-treatment, the XPS result indicated that defluorination and the nitrogen grafting occurred on the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface, and the water contact angle decreased with increasing the plasma pre-treatment time. In the O 2 plasma pre-treatment, no grafting of the oxygen occurred, and the water contact angle slightly increased with the treatment time. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the PTFE substrate was improved with the plasma pre-treatment to the PTFE substrate, and N 2 plasma pre-treatment was more effective than the O 2 plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC film with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with O 2 plasma pre-treatment

  1. Ion implantation and diamond-like coatings of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaczynski, G. W.; Hamdi, A. H.; Elmoursi, A. A.; Qiu, X.

    1997-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the wear resistance of some key automotive components, General Motors Research and Development Center initiated a study to determine the potential of surface modification as a means of improving the tribological properties of automotive parts, and to investigate the feasibility of mass producing such parts. This paper describes the plasma immersion ion implantation system that was designed for the study of various options for surface treatment, and it discusses bench testing procedures used for evaluating the surface-treated samples. In particular, both tribological and microstructural analyses are discussed for nitrogen implants and diamond-like hydrocarbon coatings of some aluminum alloys.

  2. Optical and mechanical properties of diamond like carbon films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si (111) substrates by microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process using plasma of argon and methane gases. During deposition, a d.c. self-bias was applied to the substrates by application of 13.56 MHz rf power.

  3. Bacterial Adhesion to Diamond-like Carbon as Compared to Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soininen, Antti; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    Recent studies suggest that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are suitable candidates for application on biomedical devices and implants, due to their high hardness, low friction, high wear and corrosion resistance, chemical inertness, smoothness, and tissue and blood compatibility. However, most

  4. Electronic Power System Application of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Richard L. C.; Kosai, H.; Fries-Carr, S.; Weimer, J.; Freeman, M.; Schwarze, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype manufacturing technology for producing high volume efficiency and high energy density diamond-like carbon (DLC) capacitors has been developed. Unique dual ion-beam deposition and web-handling systems have been designed and constructed to deposit high quality DLC films simultaneously on both sides of capacitor grade aluminum foil and aluminum-coated polymer films. An optimized process, using inductively coupled RF ion sources, has been used to synthesize electrically robust DLC films. DLC films are amorphous and highly flexible, making them suitable for the production of wound capacitors. DLC capacitors are reliable and stable over a wide range of AC frequencies from 20 Hz to 1 MHz, and over a temperature range from .500 C to 3000 C. The compact DLC capacitors offer at least a 50% decrease in weight and volume and a greater than 50% increase in temperature handling capability over equal value capacitors built with existing technologies. The DLC capacitors will be suitable for high temperature, high voltage, pulsed power and filter applications.

  5. Durable diamond-like carbon templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, L; Ramachandran, S; Nelson, C T; Overzet, L J; Goeckner, M; Lee, G; Hu, W; Lin, M; Willson, C G; Wu, W

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between resist and template during the separation process after nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can cause the formation of defects and damage to the templates and resist patterns. To alleviate these problems, fluorinated self-assembled monolayers (F-SAMs, i.e. tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,tetrahydrooctyl trichlorosilane or FDTS) have been employed as template release coatings. However, we find that the FDTS coating undergoes irreversible degradation after only 10 cycles of UV nanoimprint processes with SU-8 resist. The degradation includes a 28% reduction in surface F atoms and significant increases in the surface roughness. In this paper, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were investigated as an alternative material not only for coating but also for direct fabrication of nanoimprint templates. DLC films deposited on quartz templates in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system are shown to have better chemical and physical stability than FDTS. After the same 10 cycles of UV nanoimprints, the surface composition as well as the roughness of DLC films were found to be unchanged. The adhesion energy between the DLC surface and SU-8 is found to be smaller than that of FDTS despite the slightly higher total surface energy of DLC. DLC templates with 40 nm features were fabricated using e-beam lithography followed by Cr lift-off and reactive ion etching. UV nanoimprinting using the directly patterned DLC templates in SU-8 resist demonstrates good pattern transfer fidelity and easy template-resist separation. These results indicate that DLC is a promising material for fabricating durable templates for UV nanoimprint lithography

  6. A study of the performance and properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited by plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for two stroke engine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tither, D. [BEP Grinding Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Ahmed, W.; Sarwar, M.; Penlington, R. [Univ. of Northumbria, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using microwave and RF plasma is arguably the most successful technique for depositing diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) films for various engineering applications. However, the difficulties of depositing diamond are nearly as extreme as it`s unique combination of physical, chemical and electrical properties. In this paper, the modified low temperature plasma enhanced CVD system is described. The main focus of this paper will be work related to deposition of DLC on metal matrix composite materials (MMCs) for application in two-stroke engine components and results will be presented from SEM, mechanical testing and composition analysis studies. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of depositing DLC on MMCs for the first time using a vacuum deposition process.

  7. Fabrication of High Transparency Diamond-Like Carbon Film Coating on D263T Glass at Room Temperature as an Antireflection Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to deposit high transmittance diamond-like carbon (DLC thin films on D263T glass substrate at room temperature via a diamond powder target using the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique. Moreover, various process parameters were used to tune the properties of the thin films by using the Taguchi method. Experimental results show that the content of sp3 bonded carbon decreases in accordance with the effect of the substrate temperature. In addition, the hardness of all as-deposited single-layer DLC films ranges from 13.2 to 22.5 GPa, and the RMS surface roughness was improved significantly with the decrease in sputtering pressure. The water repellent of the deposited DLC films improved significantly with the increase of the sp3 content, and its contact angle was larger than that of the noncoated one by 1.45 times. Furthermore, the refraction index (n of all as-deposited DLC films ranges from 1.95 to 2.1 at λ = 600 nm. These results demonstrate that the thickness increased as the reflectance increased. DLC film under an RF power of 150 W possesses high transmissive ability (>81% and low average reflectance ability (<9.5% in the visible wavelengths (at λ = 400–700 nm.

  8. Synthesis of diamond-like carbon via PECD using a streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacho, A.; Pares, E.; Ramos, H.; Mendenilla, A.; Malapit, G.

    2009-01-01

    A streaming neutral gas injection hollow cathode system was used to deposit diamond-like carbon films via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon and nickel-coated silicon substrates with acetylene and hydrogen as reactant gases. Samples were characterized using SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The work presented here aims to demonstrate the capability of the system to synthesize carbonaceous films and is starting point towards work on formation of carbon nanostructures. (author)

  9. Diamond like carbon nanocomposites with embedded metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2018-02-01

    In this work we present an overview on structure formation, optical and electrical properties of diamond like carbon (DLC) based metal nanocomposites deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and treated by plasma and laser ablation methods. The influence of deposition mode and other technological conditions on the properties of the nanosized filler, matrix components and composition were studied systematically in relation to the final properties of the nanocomposites. Applications of the nanocomposites in the development of novel biosensors combining resonance response of wave guiding structures in DLC based nanocomposites as well as plasmonic effects are also presented.

  10. Measurement of the Fermi potential of diamond-like carbon and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.; Blau, B.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Geltenbort, P.; Gupta, M.; Henneck, R.; Heule, S.; Kasprzak, M.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Kirch, K.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Reiser, R.; Theiler, B.; Zimmer, O.; Zsigmond, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Fermi potential V f of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings produced with laser-controlled vacuum arc deposition and that of diamond, Al, Si, Be, Cu, Fe and Ni was measured using two different methods, (i) transmission of slow neutrons through foils in a time-of-flight experiment and (ii) cold neutron reflectometry (CNR). For diamond-like carbon in transmission we obtain V f = (249 ± 14) neV. This is approximately the same as for beryllium and consistent with the theoretical expectations for the measured diamond (sp 3 ) content of 45%. For an sp 3 -content of 67%, we find V f (271 ± 13) neV from reflectometry, again in agreement with theory. These findings open new perspectives in using DLC as storage volume and neutron guide coatings for ultracold neutron sources

  11. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on polycarbonates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.T. [Department of Computer and Communication, Diwan College of Management, 72141 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ctguo@dwu.edu.tw

    2008-04-30

    Diamond-like carbon films were coated on optical polycarbonate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gases was utilized to reduce the internal compressive stress of the deposited films. The structure of the DLC films was characterized as a function of film thickness using Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio of I{sub D}/I{sub G} on the DLC film thicknesses was analyzed in detail. Other studies involving atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet visible spectrometry, and three adhesion tests were conducted. Good transparency in the visible region, and good adhesion between diamond-like carbon films and polycarbonate were demonstrated. One-time recordings before and after a DLC film was coated on compact rewritable disc substrates were analyzed as a case study. The results reveal that the diamond-like carbon film overcoating the optical polycarbonates effectively protects the storage media.

  12. Electrochemical Characteristics of a Diamond-Like-Carbon-Coated LiV3O8 Cathode When Used in a Li-Metal Battery with a Li-Powder Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ha; Lee, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Woo Young

    2013-10-01

    A diamond-like-carbon (DLC)-coated LiV3O8 cathode was synthesized for use in a rechargeable 2032-coin-type cell with a Li-powder electrode (LPE) as the anode. The LPE anode was produced using the droplet emulsion technique and was compacted by pressing. The initial discharge capacity of the LPE/DLC-coated LiV3O8 (LVO) cell was 238 mAh g-1 at a C-rate of 0.5, while that of a LPE/bare-LVO cell was 236 mAh g-1. After 50 cycles, the capacity retention rate of the DLC-coated-electrode-containing cell (92%) was higher than that of the uncoated-electrode-containing cell (77%). Results of electron probe microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the electrode had been coated with DLC. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the sequence of formation of byproducts on the electrode after charging/discharging and to determine its surface composition. The voltage profile and impedance of the DLC-coated-electrode-containing cell were analyzed to determine the electrochemical characteristics of the DLC-coated cathode.

  13. Optical properties of diamond like carbon nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit; Ahmed, Sk. Faruque

    2018-05-01

    The optical properties of silicon incorporated diamond like carbon (Si-DLC) nanocomposite thin films have been reported. The Si-DLC nanocomposite thin film deposited on glass and silicon substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) process. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of different bonding within the deposited films and deconvolution of FTIR spectra gives the chemical composition i.e., sp3/sp2 ratio in the films. Optical band gap calculated from transmittance spectra increased from 0.98 to 2.21 eV with a variation of silicon concentration from 0 to 15.4 at. %. Due to change in electronic structure by Si incorporation, the Si-DLC film showed a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak centered at 467 nm, i.e., in the visible range and its intensity was found to increase monotonically with at. % of Si.

  14. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiso, Hisato; Yoshida, Mikiko; Nakano, Shizuka; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase

  15. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiso, Hisato [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yoshida, Mikiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Nakano, Shizuka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yasui, Haruyuki [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase.

  16. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  17. A diamond-like carbon film for wear protection of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.J.; Weiner, A.M.; Tung, S.C.; Simko, S.J.; Militello, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous SiN films on a tool steel coupon. In order to make the DLC adhere to the metal, we used an interlayer of amorphous SiN, taking advantage of the fact that the SiN coating adheres to the metal and the DLC adheres to the SiN. The DLC/SiN-coated substrate showed a significant reduction in friction compared with either uncoated or SiN-coated substrates in our laboratory bench tester after lubricated sliding for 30 h. In addition, on the basis of surface profilometry analysis, the DLC/SiN-coated plate showed less wear and a much smoother surface. The films were analyzed using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and sputter depth profiling. Our results suggest that DLC is a promising coating for wear protection. (orig.)

  18. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, H.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC

  19. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, H.M., E-mail: mobarak.ho31@yahoo.com; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza, E-mail: edzrol@um.edu.my; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  20. The irradiation studies on diamond-like carbon films

    CERN Document Server

    LiuGuIang; Xie Er Qin

    2002-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been deposited on glass substrates using radio-frequency (r.f.) plasma deposition method. gamma-ray, ultraviolet (UV) ray and neutron beam were used to irradiate the DLC films. Raman spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the changing characteristics of SP sup 3 C-H bond and hydrogen content in the films due to the irradiations. It showed that, the damage degrees of the gamma-ray, UV ray and neutron beam on the SP sup 3 C-H bonds are different. Among them, the damage of gamma-ray on the SP sup 3 C-H bond is the weakest. When the irradiation dose of gamma-ray reaches 10x10 sup 4 Gy, the SP sup 3 C-H bond reduces about 50% in number. The square resistance of the films is reduced due to the irradiation of UV ray and this is caused by severe oxidation of the films. Compared with that of the as-deposited one, the IR transmittance of the films irradiated by both gamma-ray and neutron beam is increased to some extent. By using the results on optical...

  1. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxiang Chen; Xipeng Ren; Limei Ren; Tengchao Wang; Xiaowen Qi; Yulin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC ...

  2. Mechanical stability of the diamond-like carbon film on nitinol vascular stents under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jong; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Han, Seung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Woo; Shin, Kyong-Min; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical stability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films coated on nitinol vascular stents was investigated under cyclic loading condition by employing a stent crimping system. DLC films were coated on the vascular stent of a three dimensional structure by using a hybrid ion beam system with rotating jig. The cracking or delamination of the DLC coating occurred dominantly near the hinge connecting the V-shaped segments of the stent where the maximum strain was induced by a cyclic loading of contraction and extension. However the failures were significantly suppressed as the amorphous Si (a-Si) buffer layer thickness increased. Interfacial adhesion strength was estimated from the spalled crack size in the DLC coating for various values of the a-Si buffer layer thickness

  3. Characterization of the Diamond-like Carbon Based Functionally Gradient Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon coatings have been used as solid lubricating coatings in vacuum technology for their goodphysical and chemical properties. In this paper, the hybrid technique of unbalanced magnetron sputtering and plasmaimmersion ion implantation (PIll) was adopted to fabricate diamond-like carbon-based functionally gradient film,N/TiN/Ti(N,C)/DLC, on the 304 stainless steel substrate. The film was characterized by using Raman spectroscopyand glancing X-ray diffraction (GXRD), and the topography and surface roughness of the film was observed usingAFM. The mechanical properties of the film were evaluated by nano-indentation. The results showed that the surfaceroughness of the film was approximately 0.732 nm. The hardness and elastic modulus, fracture toughness andinterfacial fracture toughness of N/TiN/Ti(N,C)/DLC functionally gradient film were about 19.84 GPa, 190.03 GPa,3.75 MPa.m1/2 and 5.68 MPa@m1/2, respectively. Compared with that of DLC monolayer and C/TiC/DLC multilayer,this DLC gradient film has better qualities as a solid lubricating coating.

  4. Electrochemical Evaluation of Si-Incorporated Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Coatings Deposited on STS 316L and Ti Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Gu; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Kim, Young Sik; Hwang, Woon Suk

    2007-01-01

    DLC coatings have been deposited onto substrate of STS 316L and Ti alloy using r.f. PACVD (plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) with a mixture of C 6 H 6 and SiH 4 as the process gases. Corrosion performance of DLC coatings was investigated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy). the electrolyte used in this test was a 0.89% NaCl solution of pH 7.4 at temperature 37 .deg. C. The porosity and protective efficiency of DLC coatings were obtained using potentiodynamic polarization test. Moreover, the delamination area and volume fraction of water uptake of DLC coatings ass a function of immersion time were calculated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study provides the reliable and quantitative data for assessment of the effect of substrate on corrosion performance of Si-DLC coatings. the results showed that Si-DLC coating on Ti alloy could improve corrosion resistance more than that on STS 316L in the simulated body fluid environment. This could be attributed to the formation of a dense and low-porosity coating, which impedes the penetration of water and ions

  5. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  6. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  7. Deposition and microstructure of Ti-containing diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Jae; Sekino, Tohru; Shim, Kwang Bo; Niihara, Koichi; Auh, Keun Ho

    2005-01-01

    Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by plasma decomposition of CH 4 /Ar gas mixtures with an introduction of tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium (TDMAT, Ti[(CH 3 ) 2 N] 4 ), which was used as a precursor of titanium. The films deposited were found to be nanocomposite coatings consisting of TiN nanocrystalline clusters and amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H), indicating that the nanocrystalline clusters were embedded in the DLC matrix. The crystallinity of TiN clusters, as well as the Ti atomic concentrations in the films, increased with an increase of substrate temperature. The substrate temperature applied to form a crystalline phase in the DLC matrix induced a graphitization of amorphous hydrocarbon matrix. The increase of volume fraction of TiN nanocrystalline clusters in the DLC matrix enhanced the mechanical properties of nanostructured coatings, although the graphite-like structural transition of DLC matrix happened due to the applied heating

  8. Operation of microstrip gas chambers manufactured on glass coated with high resistivity diamond-like layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements realized with micro-strip gas chambers (MSGCs) manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated with a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a surface resistivity around 4.10$^{16}\\Omega/\\Box$. The role of the back-pla electrode configuration and potential in the detector performance has been studied. Even for this very high resistivity of the coatings, MSGCs operate differently from those manufactured on bare boro-silicate glass; the charge gain increases with the radiation flux for counting rates above 103 Hz/mm2, reaching a value 60% higher for 105 Hz/mm2. This behavior does not depend on the presence and potential of the back plane electrode; however, both maximum gain and rate capability are influenced by the drift field. From this study, compared with measurements realized previously with other detectors, we deduce that for stable high rate operation of MSGCs the resistivity of the coating should not exceed ~10$^{15}\\Omega/\\Box$.

  9. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxiang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC composite coating were investigated and compared with the anodic TiO2 mono-film and DLC mono-film. Results show that the DLC deposition significantly decreased the surface roughness and porosity of spark-anodized titanium. The fabricated TiO2/DLC composite coating exhibited a more stable and much lower friction coefficient than anodic TiO2 mono-film. Although the friction coefficient of the composite coating and the DLC mono-film was similar under both light load and heavy load conditions, the wear life of the composite coating was about 43% longer than that of DLC mono-film under heavy load condition. The wear rate of titanium with protective composite coating was much lower than that of titanium with DLC mono-film. The superior low friction coefficient and wear rate of the TiO2/DLC composite coating make it a good candidate as protective coating on titanium alloys.

  10. Development of a new neutron mirror made of deuterated Diamond-like carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Dai; Chiba, Junsei; Shimizu, Hirohiko M; Nishimura, Daiki; Ino, Takashi; Kaneko, Naokatsu; Muto, Suguru; Kakusho, Nobunori; Seki, Yoshichika; Katayama, Ryo; Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Mishima, Kenji; Yamashita, Satoru; Ozeki, Kazuhide; Yoshioka, Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new neutron mirror made of Diamond-like carbon (DLC). DLC is a film of amorphous carbon that has characteristics of both diamond and graphite. We produced DLC mirrors by ionization deposition method which is one of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Generally, DLC made by CVD contents a few tens of percentages of hydrogen. It decreases the Fermi potential of the DLC coating because hydrogen has negative Fermi potential. In order to increase the Fermi potential of the coating, we deuterated the DLC by using deuterated benzene for the source gas. The characteristics of the deuterated DLC(DDLC) coating was evaluated by RBS, ERDA, x-ray reflectivity, AFM. As a result, DDLC coating has 243 neV due to deuteration, which is the same level as Ni. The RMS of height of the DDLC was 0.6nm so that the DDLC coating can be applied for a focusing mirror or specular transportation of pulsed neutron. Besides, we also develop Hydrogen/Deuterium DLC multiple layer mirror. So far, 4 layers mirror has been succeeded.

  11. Fabrication of Semiordered Nanopatterned Diamond-like Carbon and Titania Films for Blood Contacting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Deepika; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Harris, Kenneth D; Ruys, Andrew J; Lord, Megan S

    2016-03-23

    Biomaterials with the ability to interface with, but not activate, blood components are essential for a multitude of medical devices. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titania (TiO2) have shown promise for these applications; however, both support platelet adhesion and activation. This study explored the fabrication of nanostructured DLC and TiO2 thin film coatings using a block copolymer deposition technique that produced semiordered nanopatterns with low surface roughness (5-8 nm Rrms). These surfaces supported fibrinogen and plasma protein adsorption that predominantly adsorbed between the nanofeatures and reduced the overall surface roughness. The conformation of the adsorbed fibrinogen was altered on the nanopatterned surfaces as compared with the planar surfaces to reveal higher levels of the platelet binding region. Planar DLC and TiO2 coatings supported less platelet adhesion than nanopatterned DLC and TiO2. However, platelets on the nanopatterned DLC coatings were less spread indicating a lower level of platelet activation on the nanostructured DLC coatings compared with the planar DLC coatings. These data indicated that nanostructured DLC coatings may find application in blood contacting medical devices in the future.

  12. Oxygen plasma etching of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, F.R., E-mail: fernanda@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Pca. Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-900, SP (Brazil); Bonetti, L.F. [Clorovale Diamantes Industria e Comercio Ltda, Estr. do Torrao de Ouro, 500-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12229-390, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, R.S.; Massi, M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Pca. Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-900, SP (Brazil); Santos, L.V.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010, SP (Brazil)

    2009-08-03

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film as a solid lubricant coating represents an important area of investigation related to space devices. The environment for such devices involves high vacuum and high concentration of atomic oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of silver-incorporated DLC thin films against oxygen plasma etching. Silver nanoparticles were produced through an electrochemical process and incorporated into DLC bulk during the deposition process using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The presence of silver does not affect significantly DLC quality and reduces by more than 50% the oxygen plasma etching. Our results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles protect DLC films against etching process, which may increase their lifetime in low earth orbit environment.

  13. Oxygen plasma etching of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, F.R.; Bonetti, L.F.; Pessoa, R.S.; Massi, M.; Santos, L.V.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film as a solid lubricant coating represents an important area of investigation related to space devices. The environment for such devices involves high vacuum and high concentration of atomic oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of silver-incorporated DLC thin films against oxygen plasma etching. Silver nanoparticles were produced through an electrochemical process and incorporated into DLC bulk during the deposition process using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The presence of silver does not affect significantly DLC quality and reduces by more than 50% the oxygen plasma etching. Our results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles protect DLC films against etching process, which may increase their lifetime in low earth orbit environment.

  14. Intrinsic stress modulation in diamond like carbon films with incorporation of gold nanoparticles by PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Madapu, Kishore K.; Kamruddin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Intrinsic stress modulation in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with incorporation of gold nanoparticles was studied qualitatively from Raman shift. The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by using Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of pure pyrolytic graphite target and with a gold foil on it. Films compositional and chemical behavior was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Visible Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The sp3 content obtained from XPS shows dramatic variation in DLC, DLC-Au(100), DLC-Au(200) and DLC-Au(300) as 39%, 41%, 47% and 66% with various gold contentsas 0%, 12%, 7.3% and 4.7%, respectively. The Raman spectra of DLC/Au films showed G-peak shift towards lower wavenumber indicating the reduction of intrinsic stress (internal compressive stress). The sp2, sp3 fraction in the films are also determined from FWHM (G-Peak).

  15. Silicon-incorporated diamond-like coatings for Si3N4 mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, S.S.; Gomes, J.R.; Carrapichano, J.M.; Silva, R.F.; Achete, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) and silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon films (DLC-Si) were evaluated as protective and friction reduction coatings onto Si 3 N 4 rings. Unlubricated tribological tests were performed with a pin-on-disk apparatus against stainless steel pins with loads ranging from 3 to 55 N and sliding velocities from 0.2 to 1.0 m/s under ambient air and 50-60% relative humidity. At the lowest loads, a-SiC coatings present a considerable improvement with respect to the behavior of uncoated disks since the friction coefficient is reduced to about 0.2 and the system is able to run stably for thousands of meters. At higher loads, however, a-SiC coatings fail. DLC-Si-coated rings, on the other hand, presented for loads up to 10 N a steady-state friction coefficient below 0.1 and very low wear rates. The lowest steady-state mean friction coefficient value of only 0.055 was obtained with a sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s. For higher loads in the range of 20 N, the friction coefficient drops to values around 0.1 but no steady state is reached. For the highest loads of over 50 N, a catastrophic behavior is observed. Typically, wear rates below 5x10 -6 and 2x10 -7 mm 3 /N m were obtained for the ceramic rings and pins, respectively, with a load of 10 N and a sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s. Analysis of the steel pin contact surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and Auger spectroscopy revealed the formation of an adherent tribo-layer mainly composed by Si, C and O. The unique structure of DLC-Si films is thought to be responsible for the formation of the tribo-layer

  16. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y. S.; Wu, Y. F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G. H.; Li, Z. X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  17. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Y.S.; Wu, Y.F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G.H.; Li, Z.X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp 3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp 3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  18. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.S., E-mail: yshzou75@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China); Wu, Y.F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China); Song, G.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110178 (China); Li, Z.X.; Zhou, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China)

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp{sup 3} carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp{sup 3} content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  19. Room-temperature deposition of diamond-like carbon field emitter on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Iliev, M.N.; Liu, J.R.; Ma, K.B.; Chu, W.-K.; Badi, N.; Bensaoula, A.; Svedberg, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature fabrication of diamond-like carbon electron field emitters on flexible polyimide substrate is reported. These thin film field emitters are made using an Ar gas cluster ion beam assisted C 6 vapor deposition method. The bond structure of the as-deposited diamond-like carbon film was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The field emission characteristics of the deposited films were also measured. Electron current densities over 15 mA/cm 2 have been recorded under an electrical field of about 65 V/μm. These diamond-like carbon field emitters are easy and inexpensive to fabricate. The results are promising for flexible field-emission fabrication without the need of complex patterning and tip shaping as compared to the Spindt-type field emitters

  20. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  1. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J.; Nelson, N.

    2016-10-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp2/sp3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions.

  2. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B J; Nelson, N

    2016-01-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp 2 /sp 3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp 2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions. (paper)

  3. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozeki, K., E-mail: ozeki@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, 162-1 Shirakata, Toukai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Hirakuri, K.K. [Applied Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Ishizaka, Hatoyama, Hiki, Saitama 350-0394 (Japan); Masuzawa, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO{sub 2} films and DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO{sub 2}-coated and the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO{sub 2} coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO{sub 2}/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO{sub 2} film was covered with the DLC film.

  4. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO 2 films and DLC/TiO 2 /DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO 2 -coated and the DLC/TiO 2 /DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO 2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO 2 /DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO 2 /DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO 2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  5. Wrinkled, dual-scale structures of diamond-like carbon (DLC) for superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawan, Yudi; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2010-01-05

    We present a simple two-step method to fabricate dual-scale superhydrophobic surfaces by using replica molding of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) micropillars, followed by deposition of a thin, hard coating layer of a SiO(x)-incorporated diamond-like carbon (DLC). The resulting surface consists of microscale PDMS pillars covered by nanoscale wrinkles that are induced by residual compressive stress of the DLC coating and a difference in elastic moduli between DLC and PDMS without any external stretching or thermal contraction on the PDMS substrate. We show that the surface exhibits superhydrophobic properties with a static contact angle over 160 degrees for micropillar spacing ratios (interpillar gap divided by diameter) less than 4. A transition of the wetting angle to approximately 130 degrees occurs for larger spacing ratios, changing the wetting from a Cassie-Cassie state (C(m)-C(n)) to a Wenzel-Cassie state (W(m)-C(n)), where m and n denote micro- and nanoscale roughness, respectively. The robust superhydrophobicity of the Cassie-Cassie state is attributed to stability of the Cassie state on the nanoscale wrinkle structures of the hydrophobic DLC coating, which is further explained by a simple mathematical theory on wetting states with decoupling of nano- and microscale roughness in dual scale structures.

  6. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  7. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwitz, Andreas, E-mail: A.Markwitz@gns.cri.nz [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Gupta, Prasanth [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Mohr, Berit [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Hübner, René [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert [GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 15}N, αγ){sup 12}C (E{sub res} = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0–10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp{sup 2} hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  8. Superlubricity mechanism of diamond-like carbon with glycerol. Coupling of experimental and simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, M I De Barros; Matta, C; Le-Mogne, Th; Martin, J Michel; Zhang, Q; III, W Goddard; Kano, M; Mabuchi, Y; Ye, J

    2007-01-01

    We report a unique tribological system that produces superlubricity under boundary lubrication conditions with extremely little wear. This system is a thin coating of hydrogen-free amorphous Diamond-Like-Carbon (denoted as ta-C) at 353 K in a ta-C/ta-C friction pair lubricated with pure glycerol. To understand the mechanism of friction vanishing we performed ToF-SIMS experiments using deuterated glycerol and 13 C glycerol. This was complemented by first-principles-based computer simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field to create an atomistic model of ta-C. These simulations show that DLC with the experimental density of 3.24 g/cc leads to an atomistic structure consisting of a 3D percolating network of tetrahedral (sp 3 ) carbons accounting for 71.5% of the total, in excellent agreement with the 70% deduced from our Auger spectroscopy and XANES experiments. The simulations show that the remaining carbons (with sp 2 and sp 1 character) attach in short chains of length 1 to 7. In sliding simulations including glycerol molecules, the surface atoms react readily to form a very smooth carbon surface containing OH-terminated groups. This agrees with our SIMS experiments. The simulations find that the OH atoms are mostly bound to surface sp 1 atoms leading to very flexible elastic response to sliding. Both simulations and experiments suggest that the origin of the superlubricity arises from the formation of this OH-terminated surface

  9. In vitro adhesion of staphylococci to diamond-like carbon polymer hybrids under dynamic flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Antti; Levon, Jaakko; Katsikogianni, Maria; Myllymaa, Katja; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Kinnari, Teemu J; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Missirlis, Yannis

    2011-03-01

    This study compares the ability of selected materials to inhibit adhesion of two bacterial strains commonly implicated in implant-related infections. These two strains are Staphylococcus aureus (S-15981) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984). In experiments we tested six different materials, three conventional implant metals: titanium, tantalum and chromium, and three diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings: DLC, DLC-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) and DLC-polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) coatings. DLC coating represents extremely hard material whereas DLC hybrids represent novel nanocomposite coatings. The two DLC polymer hybrid films were chosen for testing due to their hardness, corrosion resistance and extremely good non-stick (hydrophobic and oleophobic) properties. Bacterial adhesion assay tests were performed under dynamic flow conditions by using parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC). The results show that adhesion of S. aureus to DLC-PTFE-h and to tantalum was significantly (P DLC-PDMS-h (0.671 ± 0.001 × 10(7)/cm(2) and 0.751 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2) vs. 1.055 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2), respectively). No significant differences were detected between other tested materials. Hence DLC-PTFE-h coating showed as low susceptibility to S. aureus adhesion as all the tested conventional implant metals. The adherence of S. epidermidis to biomaterials was not significantly (P DLC-PTFE-h films could be used as a biomaterial coating without increasing the risk of implant-related infections.

  10. Chromium-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by dual-pulsed laser deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písařík, Petr; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zezulová, M.; Remsa, Jan; Jurek, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-88 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond like carbon * chromium * contact angle * surface free energy * dual laser deposition * zeta potential Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2014

  11. Modification of rubber surface with hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y. T.; Bui, X. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Laudon, M; Romanowicz, B

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) for reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, by sputtering graphite targets in C(2)H(2)/Ar plasma. The wax removal and pre-deposition

  12. Friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon films grown in various source gas plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Nilufer, I.B.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Beschliesser, M.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1999-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various source gases (methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene) on the friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Films were deposited on AISI H13 steel substrates and tested in a pin-on-disk machine against DLC-coated M50 balls in dry nitrogen. We found a close correlation between friction coefficient and source gas composition. Specifically, films grown in source gases with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios exhibited lower friction coefficients and a higher wear resistance than films grown in source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios. The lowest friction coefficient (0.014) was achieved with a film derived from methane with an H/C ratio of 4, whereas the coefficient of films derived from acetylene (H/C=1) was 0.15. Similar correlations were observed for wear rates. Specifically, films derived from gases with lower H/C values were worn out, and the substrate material was exposed, whereas films from methane and ethane remained intact and wore at rates that were almost two orders of magnitude lower than films obtained from acetylene. (orig.)

  13. Modifying surface properties of diamond-like carbon films via nanotexturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, C; Portal-Marco, S; Rubio-Roy, M; Bertran, E; Andujar, J L [FEMAN Group, IN2UB, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oncins, G [Serveis CientIfico-Tecnics, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti i Franques s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Vallve, M A; Ignes-Mullol, J, E-mail: corberoc@hotmail.com [SOC and SAM Group, IN2UB, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-05

    Diamond-like amorphous carbon (DLC) films have been grown by pulsed-dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon wafers, which were previously patterned by means of colloidal lithography. The substrate conditioning comprised two steps: first, deposition of a self-assembled monolayer of silica sub-micrometre spheres ({approx}300 nm) on monocrystalline silicon ({approx}5 cm{sup 2}) by Langmuir-Blodgett technique, which acted as lithography template; second, substrate patterning via ion beam etching (argon) of the colloid samples (550 eV) at different incidence angles. The plasma deposition of a DLC thin film on the nanotextured substrates resulted in hard coatings with distinctly different surface properties compared with planar DLC. Also, in-plane anisotropy was generated depending on the etching angle. The samples were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The anisotropy introduced by the texture was evidenced in the surface properties, as shown by the directional dependences of wettability (water contact angle) and friction coefficient. The latter was measured using a nanotribometer and a lateral force microscope. These two techniques showed how the nanopatterns influenced the tribological properties at different scales of load and contact area. This fabrication technique finds applications in the industry of microelectromechanical systems, anisotropic tribological coatings, nanoimprint lithography, microfluidics, photonic crystals, and patterned surfaces for biomedicine.

  14. Protein arrangement on modified diamond-like carbon surfaces - An ARXPS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Reece N.; Seal, Christopher K.; Hyland, Margaret M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the nature of the interface between a biomaterial implant and the biological fluid is an essential step towards creating improved implant materials. This study examined a diamond-like carbon coating biomaterial, the surface energy of which was modified by Ar+ ion sputtering and laser graphitisation. The arrangement of proteins was analysed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of the polar component of surface energy on this arrangement were observed. It was seen that polar groups (such as CN, CO) are more attracted to the coating surface due to the stronger polar interactions. This results in a segregation of these groups to the DLC-protein interface; at increasing takeoff angle (further from to DLC-protein interface) fewer of these polar groups are seen. Correspondingly, groups that interact mainly by dispersive forces (CC, CH) were found to increase in intensity as takeoff angle increased, indicating they are segregated away from the DLC-protein interface. The magnitude of the segregation was seen to increase with increasing polar surface energy, this was attributed to an increased net attraction between the solid surface and polar groups at higher polar surface energy (γSp).

  15. Structure and Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by PACVD Technique on Light Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tański T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations presented in this paper describe surface treatment performed on samples of heat-treated cast magnesium and aluminium alloy. The structure and chemical composition as well as the functional and mechanical properties of the obtained gradient/monolithic films were analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, the ball-on-disk tribotester and scratch testing. Moreover, investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of the samples was carried out by means of potentiodynamic polarisation curves in 1-M NaCl solution. The coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition did not reveal any delamination or defects and they adhere closely to the substrate. The coating thickness was in a range of up to 2.5 microns. Investigations using Raman spectra of the DLC films confirmed a multiphase character of the diamond-like carbon layer, revealing the sp2 and sp3 electron hybridisation responsible for both the hardness and the friction coefficient. The best wear resistance test results were obtained for the magnesium alloy substrate - AZ61, for which the measured value of the friction path length was equal to 630 m.

  16. Ion induced transformation of polymer films into diamond-like carbon incorporating silver nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Florian P.

    2010-01-01

    Silver containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an interesting material for medical engineering from several points of view. On the one hand DLC provides high mechanical robustness. It can be used as biocompatible and wear resistant coating for joint replacing implants. On the other hand silver has antimicrobial properties, which could reduce post-operative inflammations. However conventional production of Ag-DLC by co-deposition of silver and carbon in a plasma process is problematic since it does not allow for a separate control of nano particle morphology and matrix properties. In this work an alternative production method has been developed to circumvent this problem. In metall-DLC-production by ion implantation into a nano composite, silver nano particles are initially formed in solution and then incorporated within a polymer matrix. Finally the polymer is transformed into DLC by ion implantation. The aspects and single steps of this method were investigated with regard to the resulting material's properties. The goal was to design an economically relevant deposition method. Based on experimental results a model of the transformation process has been established, which has also been implemented in a computer simulation. Finally the antibacterial properties of the material have been checked in a biomedical test. Here a bacterial killing rate of 90% could be achieved. (orig.)

  17. Protein arrangement on modified diamond-like carbon surfaces – An ARXPS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterbeek, Reece N., E-mail: reece.oosterbeek@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Seal, Christopher K. [Light Metals Research Centre, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand); Hyland, Margaret M. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019 (New Zealand)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • DLC coatings were modified by Ar{sup +} ion sputtering and laser graphitisation. • The surface properties of the coatings were measured, and it was found that the above methods increased sp{sup 2} content and altered surface energy. • ARXPS was used to observe protein arrangement on the surface. • Polar CO/CN groups were seen to be segregated towards the interface, indicating they play an important role in bonding. • This segregation increased with increasing polar surface energy, indicating an increased net attraction between polar groups. - Abstract: Understanding the nature of the interface between a biomaterial implant and the biological fluid is an essential step towards creating improved implant materials. This study examined a diamond-like carbon coating biomaterial, the surface energy of which was modified by Ar{sup +} ion sputtering and laser graphitisation. The arrangement of proteins was analysed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of the polar component of surface energy on this arrangement were observed. It was seen that polar groups (such as CN, CO) are more attracted to the coating surface due to the stronger polar interactions. This results in a segregation of these groups to the DLC–protein interface; at increasing takeoff angle (further from to DLC–protein interface) fewer of these polar groups are seen. Correspondingly, groups that interact mainly by dispersive forces (CC, CH) were found to increase in intensity as takeoff angle increased, indicating they are segregated away from the DLC–protein interface. The magnitude of the segregation was seen to increase with increasing polar surface energy, this was attributed to an increased net attraction between the solid surface and polar groups at higher polar surface energy (γ{sub S}{sup p})

  18. Protein arrangement on modified diamond-like carbon surfaces – An ARXPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterbeek, Reece N.; Seal, Christopher K.; Hyland, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DLC coatings were modified by Ar + ion sputtering and laser graphitisation. • The surface properties of the coatings were measured, and it was found that the above methods increased sp 2 content and altered surface energy. • ARXPS was used to observe protein arrangement on the surface. • Polar CO/CN groups were seen to be segregated towards the interface, indicating they play an important role in bonding. • This segregation increased with increasing polar surface energy, indicating an increased net attraction between polar groups. - Abstract: Understanding the nature of the interface between a biomaterial implant and the biological fluid is an essential step towards creating improved implant materials. This study examined a diamond-like carbon coating biomaterial, the surface energy of which was modified by Ar + ion sputtering and laser graphitisation. The arrangement of proteins was analysed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of the polar component of surface energy on this arrangement were observed. It was seen that polar groups (such as CN, CO) are more attracted to the coating surface due to the stronger polar interactions. This results in a segregation of these groups to the DLC–protein interface; at increasing takeoff angle (further from to DLC–protein interface) fewer of these polar groups are seen. Correspondingly, groups that interact mainly by dispersive forces (CC, CH) were found to increase in intensity as takeoff angle increased, indicating they are segregated away from the DLC–protein interface. The magnitude of the segregation was seen to increase with increasing polar surface energy, this was attributed to an increased net attraction between the solid surface and polar groups at higher polar surface energy (γ S p )

  19. Diamond-like carbon prepared by pulsed laser deposition with ion bombardment: physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Písařík, P.; Mikšovský, J.; Remsa, J.; Zemek, J.; Tolde, Z.; Jelínek, M.

    2018-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium-doped DLC thin films were prepared by unique hybrid system consisting of pulsed laser deposition, ion source (bombardment) and magnetron sputtering. The influence of deposition parameters (ion energies, deposition pressures and magnetron power) on composition and physical properties was studied. Composition and sp 3/ sp 2 ratio were determined by XPS. sp 3/ sp 2 ratio was in the range from 1.4 to 2.2 for undoped DLC and from 3.4 to 4.8 for Ti-DLC. AFM showed that the layers were smooth, but with small amounts of random droplets. The measurements of the contact angle and determination of surface free energy were made for water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol. Hardness and reduced Young's modulus varied from 20 to 31 GPa and from 182 to 276 GPa, respectively. Film adhesion was determined by scratch test; L C3 reached 23 N for DLC and 27 N for TiDLC. Optimization of sp 3/ sp 2 ratio, hardness and adhesion to biomedical alloys will advance the DLC coatings usability in the field of implantology.

  20. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sekhar C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp"3 network to sp"2 as evidenced by an increase of the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp"2 cluster and I_D/I_G ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp"3-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp"3 and sp"2 contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  1. The Influence of Titanium Dioxide on Diamond-Like Carbon Biocompatibility for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wachesk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC films make them suitable for implantable medical and odontological interests. Despite their good interactions with biological environment, incorporated nanoparticles can significantly enhance DLC properties. This manuscript studies the potential of titanium dioxide (TiO2 incorporated-DLC films in dental applications. In this scene, both osteoblasts attachment and spreading on the coatings and their corrosion characteristics in artificial saliva were investigated. The films were grown on 304 stainless steel substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman scattering spectroscopy characterized the film structure. As the concentration of TiO2 increased, the films increased the osteoblast viability (MTT assay, becoming more thermodynamically favorable to cell spreading (WAd values became more negative. The increasing number of osteoblast nuclei indicates a higher adhesion between the cells and the films. The potentiodynamic polarization test in artificial saliva shows an increase in corrosion protection when TiO2 are present. These results show the potential use of TiO2-DLC films in implantable surfaces.

  2. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B.; Das, D.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current-voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp2 content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m-H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  3. Iron, nitrogen and silicon doped diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: Raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pong, W.F. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bio-Engineering Centre, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), valence band photoemission (VB-PES) and Raman spectroscopy results show that the incorporation of nitrogen in pulsed laser deposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films, reverts the sp{sup 3} network to sp{sup 2} as evidenced by an increase of the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in C K-edge XANES and Raman spectra respectively which reduces the hardness/Young's modulus into the film network. Si-doped DLC film deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process reduces the sp{sup 2} cluster and I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio that causes the decrease of hardness/Young's modulus of the film structure. The Fe-doped DLC films deposited by dip coating technique increase the hardness/Young's modulus with an increase of sp{sup 3}-content in DLC film structure. - Highlights: • Fe, N and Si doped DLC films deposited by dip, PLD and PECVD methods respectively • DLC:Fe thin films have higher hardness/Young's modulus than DLC:N(:Si) thin films. • sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} contents are estimated from C K-edge XANES and VB-PES measurements.

  4. INFLUENCE OF THE SILICON INTERLAYER ON DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON FILMS DEPOSITED ON GLASS SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiler Antonio Lima Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films as a hard protective coating have achieved great success in a diversity of technological applications. However, adhesion of DLC films to substrates can restrict their applications. The influence of a silicon interlayer in order to improve DLC adhesion on glass substrates was investigated. Amorphous silicon interlayer and DLC films were deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from silane and methane, respectively. The bonding structure, transmittance, refraction index, and adherence of the films were also evaluated regarding the thickness of the silicon interlayer. Raman scattering spectroscopy did not show any substantial difference in DLC structure due to the interlayer thickness of the silicon. Optical measurements showed a sharp decrease of transmittance in the ultra-violet region caused by the fundamental absorption of the light. In addition, the absorption edge of transmittance shifted toward longer wavelength side in the ultra-violet region as the thickness of the silicon interlayer increased. The tribological results showed an increase of DLC adherence as the silicon interlayer increased, which was characterized by less cracks around the grooves.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnS/Diamond-Like Carbon Core-Shell Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated ZnS/diamond-like carbon (DLC core-shell heterostructure nanowire using a simple two-step process: the vapor-liquid-solid method combined with radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD. As a core nanowire, ZnS nanowires with face-centered cubic structure were synthesized with a sputtered Au thin film, which exhibit a length and a diameter of ~10 μm and ~30–120 nm . After rf PECVD for DLC coating, The length and width of the dense ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were a range of ~10 μm  and 50–150 nm , respectively. In addition, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were characterized with scanning transmission electron microscopy. From the results, the products have flat and uniform DLC coating layer on ZnS nanowire in spite of high residual stress induced by the high sp3 fraction. To further understanding of the DLC coating layer, Raman spectroscopy was employed with ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires, which reveals two Raman bands at 1550 cm−1 (G peak and 1330 cm−1 (D peak. Finally, we investigated the optical properties from ultraviolet to infrared wavelength region using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometry. Related to optical properties, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires exhibit relatively lower absorbance and higher IR transmittance than that of ZnS nanowires.

  6. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qiwen; Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji

    2013-01-01

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ∼5μg/cm 2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ∼4μg/cm 2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine–saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ∼1μg/cm 2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4 for the 197 Au − (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) and 63 Cu − (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp 3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (I D /I G ) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is 0.78

  7. Electrodeposition of diamond-like carbon films on titanium alloy using organic liquids: Corrosion and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcade, Tiago; Shmitzhaus, Tobias Eduardo; Gomes dos Reis, Otávio; Vargas, André Luis Marin; Hübler, Roberto; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes; Fraga Malfatti, Célia de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrodeposition may be conducted at room temperature. ► The DLC films have good resistance to corrosion in saline environments. ► The films have lower coefficient of friction than the uncoated substrate. ► The abrasive wear protection is evident in coated systems. - Abstract: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied as coatings for corrosion protection and wear resistance because they have excellent chemical inertness in traditional corrosive environments, besides presenting a significant reduction in coefficient of friction. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films obtained by electrochemical deposition techniques have attracted a lot of interest, regarding their potential in relation to the vapor phase deposition techniques. The electrochemical deposition techniques are carried out at room temperature and do not need vacuum system, making easier this way the technological transfer. At high electric fields, the organic molecules polarize and react on the electrode surface, forming carbon films. The aim of this work was to obtain DLC films onto Ti6Al4V substrate using as electrolyte: acetonitrile (ACN) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and wear tests. The results show that these films can improve, significantly, the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys and their wear resistance.

  8. Surface plasmon effect in electrodeposited diamond-like carbon films for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B.; Ray, Sekhar C.; Espinoza-González, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Roberto; Hevia, Samuel A.; Alvarez-Vega, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and nanocrystalline silver particles containing diamond-like carbon (DLC:Ag) films were electrodeposited on n-type silicon substrate (n-Si) to prepare n-Si/DLC and n-Si/DLC:Ag heterostructures for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in this cell structure and its overall performance have been studied in terms of morphology, optical absorption, current-voltage characteristics, capacitance-voltage characteristics, band diagram and external quantum efficiency measurements. Localized surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in n-Si/DLC:Ag PV structure exhibited an enhancement of ∼28% in short circuit current density (JSC), which improved the overall efficiency of the heterostructures.

  9. Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Shan Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study.

  10. Giant Negative Piezoresistive Effect in Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-like Carbon-Based Nickel Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering of Ni Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meškinis, Šaru Nas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis

    2018-01-01

    deposited by either reactive HIPIMS or dc magnetron sputtering of Ni target was explained by possible clustering of the sp2-bonded carbon and/or formation of areas with the decreased hydrogen content. It was suggested that the tensile stress-induced rearrangements of these conglomerations have resulted......Piezoresistive properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC-based nickel nanocomposite (DLC:Ni) films were studied in the range of low concentration of nickel nanoparticles. The films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Ni target, and some...... samples were deposited by direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering for comparison purposes. Raman scattering spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the structure and chemical composition of the films. A four...

  11. Study of hard diamond-like carbon films deposited in an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiji; Ma Tengcai

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of the hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICPS). The microscopy, microhardness, deposition rate and structure characteristic of the DLC films were analyzed. It is shown that the ICPS is suitable for the hard DLC film deposition at relatively low substrate negative bias voltage, and the substrate negative bias voltage greatly affects chemical vapor deposition of the DLC film and its quality

  12. Biomineralized diamond-like carbon films with incorporated titanium dioxide nanoparticles improved bioactivity properties and reduced biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F S; Oliveira, J R; Milani, J; Oliveira, L D; Machado, J P B; Trava-Airoldi, V J; Lobo, A O; Marciano, F R

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the development of coatings to protect biomedical alloys from oxidation, passivation and to reduce the ability for a bacterial biofilm to form after implantation has emerged. Diamond-like carbon films are commonly used for implanted medical due to their physical and chemical characteristics, showing good interactions with the biological environment. However, these properties can be significantly improved when titanium dioxide nanoparticles are included, especially to enhance the bactericidal properties of the films. So far, the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the film surface has been studied in order to improve biocompatibility and bioactive behavior. Herein, we developed a new route to obtain a homogeneous and crystalline apatite coating on diamond-like carbon films grown on 304 biomedical stainless steel and evaluated its antibacterial effect. For this purpose, films containing two different concentrations of titanium dioxide (0.1 and 0.3g/L) were obtained by chemical vapor deposition. To obtain the apatite layer, the samples were soaked in simulated body fluid solution for up to 21days. The antibacterial activity of the films was evaluated by bacterial eradication tests using Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and goniometry showed that homogeneous, crystalline, and hydrophilic apatite films were formed independently of the titanium dioxide concentration. Interestingly, the diamond-like films containing titanium dioxide and hydroxyapatite reduced the biofilm formation compared to controls. A synergism between hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide that provided an antimicrobial effect against opportunistic pathogens was clearly observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas Permeation, Mechanical Behavior and Cytocompatibility of Ultrathin Pure and Doped Diamond-Like Carbon and Silicon Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protective ultra-thin barrier films gather increasing economic interest for controlling permeation and diffusion from the biological surrounding in implanted sensor and electronic devices in future medicine. Thus, the aim of this work was a benchmarking of the mechanical oxygen permeation barrier, cytocompatibility, and microbiological properties of inorganic ~25 nm thin films, deposited by vacuum deposition techniques on 50 µm thin polyetheretherketone (PEEK foils. Plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (direct deposition from an ion source was applied to deposit pure and nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon films, while physical vapor deposition (magnetron sputtering in pulsed DC mode was used for the formation of silicon as well as titanium doped diamond-like carbon films. Silicon oxide films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The results indicate a strong influence of nanoporosity on the oxygen transmission rate for all coating types, while the low content of microporosity (particulates, etc. is shown to be of lesser importance. Due to the low thickness of the foil substrates, being easily bent, the toughness as a measure of tendency to film fracture together with the elasticity index of the thin films influence the oxygen barrier. All investigated coatings are non-pyrogenic, cause no cytotoxic effects and do not influence bacterial growth.

  14. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN,K.; VON DER LINDE,D.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-02-07

    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  15. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B., E-mail: pandey.beauty@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR, Sector III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Kar, A.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electrical and magnetic properties of DLC and Ni-DLC thin films are studied. • The ohmicity and conductivity of DLC films rise with nickel addition. • The ohmicity of Ni-DLC is enhanced with increase in dilution of electrolyte. • Dielectric loss is high for Ni-DLC and decreases with frequency till 100 kHz. • (m–H) and (m–T) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior. - Abstract: Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current–voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp{sup 2} content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m–H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  16. Characterization of diamond-like carbon thin film synthesized by RF atmospheric pressure plasma Ar/CH4 jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Safari, Reza; Etaati, G. Reza; Asadi, Eskandar; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi; Samadi, Omid; Bagheri, Hanieh

    2016-01-01

    The growth of diamond like carbon (DLC) on a Pyrex glass was investigated by a radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The plasma jet with capacitive configuration ran by a radio frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz. Alumina ceramic was used as dielectric barrier. Ar and CH4 were used in atmospheric pressure as carrier and precursor gases, respectively. Diamond like carbon thin films were deposited on Pyrex glass at substrate temperature and applied power of 130 °C and 250 Watts, respectively. Performing field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy analysis resulted in deposition rate and the ID/IG ratio of 21.31 nm/min and 0.47, respectively. The ID/IG ratio indicated that the coating possesses relative high sp3 content The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic was applied to diagnose plasma jet species. Estimating electron temperature and density of the RF-APPJ resulted in 1.36 eV and 2.75 × 1014 cm-3 at the jet exit, respectively.

  17. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bartelt, P.F. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Baughman, R.H. [Allied Signal, Morristown, NJ (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Cooper, C.V. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dugger, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freedman, A. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Larsen-Basse, J. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States); McGuire, N.R. [Caterpillar, Peoria, IL (United States); Messier, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H. [John Crane, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States); Sartwell, B.D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wei, R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  18. Raman and EPR spectroscopic studies of chromium-doped diamond-like carbon films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savchenko, Dariia; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Prokhorov, Andriy; Kalabukhova, E.; Lančok, Ján; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 83, Mar (2018), s. 30-37 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015088; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : EPR * micro-Raman spectroscopy * diamond-like films * carbon-related defects * chromium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2016

  19. Microstructure and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films machined by femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunhui [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengliu@nwpu.edu.cn [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Cheng, Laifei [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Weinan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China); Zhang, Qing [Science and Technology on Thermostructure Composite Materials Laboratory, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yang, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 10068 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. • The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. And the number of nanoparticles increased with the processing power as well. • It revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. • It showed that a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment. - Abstract: Femtosecond laser is of great interest for machining high melting point and hardness materials such as diamond-like carbon, SiC ceramic, et al. In present work, the microstructural and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films were investigated using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques after machined by diverse femtosecond laser power in air. The results showed the machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. Considering the D and G Raman band parameters on the laser irradiation, it revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a great decrease of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} after laser treatment.

  20. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  1. Influence of thermal heating on diamond-like carbon film properties prepared by filtered cathodic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamnualthong, N.; Siangchaew, K.; Limsuwan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-DLC) films were deposited on magnetic recording heads using the filtered cathodic arc method. The deposited film thickness was on the order of several nanometers. The DLC films were then annealed to 100 °C–300 °C for 30 and 60 min, and the structure of the ta-DLC films was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, where the gross changes were observed in the Raman D and G peaks. Detailed interpretation concluded that there was sp 2 clustering as a function of temperature, and there was no sp 3 -to-sp 2 conversion after heating up to 300 °C. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that oxidation of both the ta-DLC film and the adhesion layer occurs at 300 °C. Additionally, more film wear was observed with heating as measured by a nanoindenter. - Highlights: • Tetrahedral-amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-DLC) by filtered cathodic arc • ta-DLC used in magnetic recording head as head overcoat • ta-DLC thickness range of less than 2 nm • ta-DLC property dependence on heating • Temperature effect range of up to 300 °C

  2. Nanostructured titanium/diamond-like carbon multilayer films: deposition, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K

    2011-11-01

    Titanium/diamond-like carbon multilayer (TDML) films were deposited using a hybrid system combining radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques under a varied number of Ti/diamond-like carbon (DLC) bilayers from 1 to 4, at high base pressure of 1 × 10(-3) Torr. The multilayer approach was used to create unique structures such as nanospheres and nanorods in TDML films, which is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and explained by a hypothetical model. Surface composition was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), whereas energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) measurements were performed to investigate the bulk composition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the phase and crystallinity of the deposited TDML films. Residual stress in these films was found to be significantly low. These TDML films were found to have excellent nanomechanical properties with maximum hardness of 41.2 GPa. In addition, various nanomechanical parameters were calculated and correlated with each other. Owing to metallic interfacial layer of Ti in multilayer films, the optical properties, electrical properties, and photoluminescence were improved significantly. Due to versatile nanomechanical properties and biocompatibility of DLC and DLC based films, these TDML films may also find applications in biomedical science.

  3. Cu incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) composites: An efficient electron field emitter over a wide range of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sk Faruque; Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit

    2018-03-01

    The effect of temperature on the electron field emission properties of copper incorporated amorphous diamond like carbon (a-Cu:DLC) thin films have been reported. The a-Cu:DLC thin films have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and silicon substrate by the radio frequency sputtering process. The chemical composition of the films was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the micro structure was established using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The sp2 and sp3 bonding ratio in the a-Cu:DLC have been analyzed by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy studies. The material showed excellent electron field emission properties; which was optimized by varying the copper atomic percentage and temperature of the films. It was found that the threshold field and effective emission barrier were reduced significantly by copper incorporation as well as temperature and a detailed explanation towards emission mechanism has been provided.

  4. Performance test of diamond-like carbon films for lubricating ITER blanket maintenance equipment under GPa-level high contact stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating was tested as a candidate solid lubricant for transmission gears of the maintenance equipment of the blanket of the ITER instead of an oil lubricant. The wear tests using the pin-on-disk method were performed on disks with SCM440 and SNCM420 as the base materials and coated with soft, layered, and hard DLCs. All cases satisfied the required allowable contact stress (2 GPa) and lifetime (10 4 cycles), and therefore the feasibility of the DLC coating was validated. Among the three types of DLCs, the soft DLC showed the best performance. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of boron incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.L.; Yang, Q.; Tang, Y.; Yang, L.; Zhang, C.; Hu, Y.; Cui, X.

    2015-01-01

    Boron incorporated diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) (up to 8 wt.% boron) thin films were synthesized on silicon wafers using biased target ion beam deposition technique, where diamond-like carbon (DLC) was deposited by ion beam deposition and boron (B) was simultaneously incorporated by biased target sputtering of a boron carbide (B 4 C) target under different conditions. Pure DLC films and B–C films were also synthesized by ion beam deposition and biased target sputtering of B 4 C under similar conditions, respectively, as reference samples. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the synthesized films have been characterized by various technologies. It has been found that B exists in different states in B-DLC, including carbon-rich and B-rich boron carbides, boron suboxide and boron oxide, and the oxidation of B probably occurs during the film deposition. The incorporation of B into DLC leads to the increase of sp 3 bonded carbon in the films, the increase of both film hardness and elastic modulus, and the decrease of both surface roughness and friction coefficient. Furthermore, the content of sp 3 bonded carbon, film hardness and elastic modulus increase, and the film surface roughness and friction coefficient decrease with the increase of B-rich carbide in the B-DLC films. - Highlights: • Biased target ion beam deposition technique is promising to produce high quality DLC based thin films; • Boron exists in different states in B-DLC thin films; • The incorporation of B to DLC with different levels leads to improved film properties; • The fraction of sp 3 bonded C in B-DLC thin films increase with the increase of B-rich carbide content in the films

  6. Structural Analysis of Planar sp3 and sp2 Films: Diamond-Like Carbon and Graphene Overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    pure sp2 as in graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, to pure sp3 as in diamond. Amorphous and diamond-like carbon consists of a mixture of both hybridizations. This variation in hybridization in carbon materials enables a wide spectrum

  7. Diamond-like carbon layers grown by electrochemical method-structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesza, S.; Szatkowski, J.; Lulinska, E.; Kozanecki, M.

    2008-01-01

    A simple method of production of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on various substrates by means of electrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons under ambient conditions is described in the paper. The amount of sp 3 -hybridized carbon clusters within deposited films is a key parameter of their structural quality, and is investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results indicate that although the electrolysis generally leads to granular DLC films contaminated with graphitic inclusions, providing current density larger than 520 mA cm -2 at 1700 V, sp 3 -rich microcrystals with sharp edges can be found as well. Micro-Raman spectroscopic data strongly suggest that these microcrystals are minute diamonds, which eventually opens up a new perspective for a low-temperature synthesis of diamond-related materials

  8. Deposition of diamond-like carbon films by plasma source ion implantation with superposed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon wafer substrate by plasma source ion implantation with superposed negative pulse. Methane and acetylene gases were used as working gases for plasma. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from 0 to -18 kV. The surface of DLC films was very smooth. The deposition rate of DLC films increased with increasing in superposed DC bias voltage. Carbon ion implantation was confirmed for the DLC film deposited from methane plasma with high pulse voltage. I D /I G ratios of Raman spectroscopy were around 1.5 independent on pulse voltage. The maximum hardness of 20.3 GPa was observed for the film prepared with high DC and high pulse voltage

  9. Diamond-like carbon films deposited by a hybrid ECRCVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, C.T.; Dittrich, K.-H.

    2007-01-01

    A novel hybrid technique for diamond-like carbon (DLC) film deposition has been developed. This technique combines the electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) of C 2 H 2 and metallic magnetron sputtering. Here we described how DLC film is used for a variety of applications such as stamper, PCB micro-tools, and threading form-tools by taking advantage of hybrid ECRCVD system. The structure of the DLC films is delineated by a function of bias voltages by Raman spectroscopy. This function includes parameters such as dependence of G peak positions and the intensity ratio (I D /I G ). Atomic force microscope (AFM) examines the root-mean-square (R.M.S.) roughness and the surface morphology. Excellent adhesion and lower friction coefficients of a DLC film were also assessed

  10. Normally closed microgrippers using a highly stressed diamond-like carbon and Ni bimorph structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J. K.; Flewitt, A. J.; Spearing, S. M.; Fleck, N. A.; Milne, W. I.

    2004-12-01

    A normally closed microgripper with a radius of curvature of 18-50 μm using a diamond-like carbon (DLC) and stress free electroplated Ni bimorph structure has been demonstrated. The large curvature in the fingers of the microgrippers is due to the high compressive stress of the DLC layer. The radius of curvature of the figures can be adjusted by the thickness ratio, and the closure of the devices can also be adjusted by varying the finger length. This device works much more efficiently than other bimorph structures due to the large difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the DLC and the Ni layers. Preliminary electrical tests have shown these microgrippers can be opened by 60°-90° at an applied power of <20mW.

  11. Stress reduction of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films from ab initio calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and properties of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films (DLC were investigated using ab initio calculations. The effect of Cu concentrations (1.56∼7.81 at.% on atomic bond structure was mainly analyzed to clarify the residual stress reduction mechanism. Results showed that with introducing Cu into DLC films, the residual compressive stress decreased firstly and then increased for each case with the obvious deterioration of mechanical properties, which was in agreement with the experimental results. Structural analysis revealed that the weak Cu-C bond and the relaxation of both the distorted bond angles and bond lengths accounted for the significant reduction of residual compressive stress, while at the higher Cu concentration the increase of residual stress attributed to the existence of distorted Cu-C structures and the increased fraction of distorted C-C bond lengths.

  12. Tribological performance of ultrathin diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J X; Li, E Q; Tian, Z; Pan, X F; Xu, J; Jin, L; Yang, H G

    2008-01-01

    Ultrathin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thicknesses of 5-60 nm have been prepared on Si by plasma-based ion implantation. Raman spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that these DLC films present high sp 3 /sp 2 ratios. XPS also displays that each DLC film firmly adheres to the Si substrate owing to a C-Si transition layer. Atomic force microscopy shows that the DLC films are smooth and compact with average roughness (R a ) of about 0.25 nm. Sliding friction experiments reveal that these DLC films show significantly improved tribological performance. With increase of DLC film thickness, the sp 3 /sp 2 ratio increases, the roughness decreases, the hardness increases, the adhesive wear lightens and thereby the tribological performance becomes enhanced. Also, the effects of the applied load and the reciprocating frequency on the tribological performance are discussed

  13. Rapid growth of diamond-like-carbon films by copper vapor laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, W.; Warner, B.E.; Havstad, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    Visible light from a copper vapor laser (CVL) operating with 510 and 578 nm radiation (intensity ratio approximately 2:1), an average power of 100 W, a pulse duration of 50 ns, and a repetition frequency of 4.4 kHz has been shown to produce high quality diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films at fluences between 2x10 8 and 5x10 10 W/cm 2 . Maximum deposition rates of 2000 μm·cm 2 /h were obtained at 5x10 8 W/cm 2 . DLC films with hardness values of approximately 60 GPa were characterized by a variety of techniques to confirm DLC character, hydrogen content, and surface morphology. The presence of C 2 in the vapor plume was confirmed by the presence of the C 2 Swan bands in emission spectra obtained during the process. Economic implications of process scale-up to industrially meaningful component sizes are presented

  14. Fabrication and field emission study of novel rod-shaped diamond-like carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Makarov, Vladimir I; Saxena, Puja; Weiner, Brad R; Morell, Gerardo; Gonzalez-BerrIos, Adolfo; Scott, James F

    2010-01-01

    Novel sp 3 rich diamond-like carbon nanorod films were fabricated by a hot filament chemical vapour deposition technique. The results are indicative of a bottom-up synthesis process, which results in a hierarchical structure that consists of microscale papillae comprising numerous nanorods. The papillae have diameters ranging from 2 to 4 μm and the nanorods have diameters in the 35-45 nm range. A growth mechanism based on the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism is proposed that accounts for the morphological aspects at the microscale and nanoscale. Investigation of field emission properties of fabricated nanorods reveals a low turn-on field of about 4.9 V μm -1 at 1 nA and a high field-enhancement factor.

  15. A quantitative in vitro method to predict the adhesion lifetime of diamond-like carbon thin films on biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falub, Claudiu Valentin; Thorwarth, Götz; Affolter, Christian; Müller, Ulrich; Voisard, Cyril; Hauert, Roland

    2009-10-01

    A quantitative method using Rockwell C indentation was developed to study the adhesion of diamond-like carbon (DLC) protective coatings to the CoCrMo biomedical implant alloy when immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 degrees C. Two kinds of coatings with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 up to 16 microns were investigated, namely DLC and DLC/Si-DLC, where Si-DLC denotes a 90 nm thick DLC interlayer containing Si. The time-dependent delamination of the coating around the indentation was quantified by means of optical investigations of the advancing crack front and calculations of the induced stress using the finite element method (FEM). The cause of delamination for both types of coatings was revealed to be stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of the interface material. For the DLC coating a typical SCC behavior was observed, including a threshold region (60J m(-2)) and a "stage 1" crack propagation with a crack-growth exponent of 3.0, comparable to that found for ductile metals. The DLC/Si-DLC coating exhibits an SCC process with a crack-growth exponent of 3.3 and a threshold region at 470 Jm(-2), indicating an adhesion in PBS at 37 degrees C that is about eight times better than that of the DLC coating. The SCC curves were fitted to the reaction controlled model typically used to explain the crack propagation in bulk soda lime glass. As this model falls short of accurately describing all the SCC curves, limitations of its application to the interface between a brittle coating and a ductile substrate are discussed.

  16. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G.V.M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C_3H_6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  17. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, P. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Becker, H.-W. [RUBION, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Williams, G.V.M. [The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Markwitz, A., E-mail: a.markwitz@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • This paper reports for the first time redistribution of hydrogen atoms in diamond like carbon thin films during ion implantation of low energy magnetic ions. • The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. • Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications. - Abstract: Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  18. High performance diamond-like carbon layers obtained by pulsed laser deposition for conductive electrode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, F.; Antoni, F.; Le Normand, F.; Muller, D.; Abdesselam, M.; Boubiche, N.; Komissarov, I.

    2017-09-01

    For the future, one of the biggest challenge faced to the technologies of flat panel display and various optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices is to find an alternative to the use of transparent conducting oxides like ITO. In this new approach, the objective is to grow high conductive thin-layer graphene (TLG) on the top of diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers presenting high performance. DLC prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have attracted special interest due to a unique combination of their properties, close to those of monocrystalline diamond, like its transparency, hardness and chemical inertia, very low roughness, hydrogen-free and thus high thermal stability up to 1000 K. In our future work, we plane to explore the synthesis of conductive TLG on top of insulating DLC thin films. The feasibility and obtained performances of the multi-layered structure will be explored in great details in the short future to develop an alternative to ITO with comparable performance (conductivity of transparency). To select the best DLC candidate for this purpose, we focus this work on the physicochemical properties of the DLC thin films deposited by PLD from a pure graphite target at two wavelengths (193 and 248 nm) at various laser fluences. A surface graphenization process, as well as the required efficiency of the complete structure (TLG/DLC) will clearly be related to the DLC properties, especially to the initial sp3/sp2 hybridization ratio. Thus, an exhaustive description of the physicochemical properties of the DLC layers is a fundamental step in the research of comparable performance to ITO.

  19. Microwave plasma induced surface modification of diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Polaki, Shyamala; Kumar, Niranjan; Gopala Krishna, Nanda; Madapu, Kishore; Kamruddin, Mohamed; Dash, Sitaram; Tyagi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Tailoring the surface of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is technically relevant for altering the physical and chemical properties, desirable for useful applications. A physically smooth and sp3 dominated DLC film with tetrahedral coordination was prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The surface of the DLC film was exposed to hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen plasma for physical and chemical modifications. The surface modification was based on the concept of adsorption-desorption of plasma species and surface entities of films. Energetic chemical species of microwave plasma are adsorbed, leading to desorbtion of the surface carbon atoms due to energy and momentum exchange. The interaction of such reactive species with DLC films enhanced the roughness, surface defects and dangling bonds of carbon atoms. Adsorbed hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen formed a covalent network while saturating the dangling carbon bonds around the tetrahedral sp3 valency. The modified surface chemical affinity depends upon the charge carriers and electron covalency of the adsorbed atoms. The contact angle of chemically reconstructed surface increases when a water droplet interacts either through hydrogen or van dear Waals bonding. These weak interactions influenced the wetting property of the DLC surface to a great extent.

  20. On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Thorwarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen, limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs

  1. Electrochemical performance of porous diamond-like carbon electrodes for sensing hormones, neurotransmitters, and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago A; Zanin, Hudson; May, Paul W; Corat, Evaldo J; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-12-10

    Porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes have been prepared, and their electrochemical performance was explored. For electrode preparation, a thin DLC film was deposited onto a densely packed forest of highly porous, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the carbon nanotubes to clump together to form a microstructured surface with an enlarged surface area. DLC:VACNT electrodes show fast charge transfer, which is promising for several electrochemical applications, including electroanalysis. DLC:VACNT electrodes were applied to the determination of targeted molecules such as dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP), which are neurotransmitters/hormones, and acetaminophen (AC), an endocrine disruptor. Using simple and low-cost techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, analytical curves in the concentration range from 10 to 100 μmol L(-1) were obtained and excellent analytical parameters achieved, including high analytical sensitivity, good response stability, and low limits of detection of 2.9, 4.5, and 2.3 μmol L(-1) for DA, EP, and AC, respectively.

  2. Superhard behaviour, low residual stress, and unique structure in diamond-like carbon films by simple bilayer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bilayer approach is proposed for synthesizing hard and superhard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with reduced residual stress. For this, M/DLC bilayer (M = Ti and Cu) structures are grown using hybrid system involving radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Ti/DLC bilayer deposited at negative self bias of 100 V shows superhard behaviour with hardness (H) as 49 GPa. Cu/DLC bilayer grown at self bias of 100 V exhibits hard behaviour with H as 22.8 GPa. The hardness of Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer gets changed from superhard (hard) to hard (moderate hard) regime, when the self bias is raised to 300 V. Residual stress in Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer is found to be significantly low that varies in the range of 1 GPa-1.65 GPa (0.8 GPa-1.6 GPa). The microstructure and morphology are studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM pictures reveal the creation of nanostructured features in the deposited bilayers. Raman, SEM, and AFM analyses are correlated with the nano-mechanical properties. Owing to excellent nano-mechanical properties, these bilayers can find their direct industrial applications as hard and protective coatings.

  3. Influence of deposition parameters on the refractive index and growth rate of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.F.; Zheng, X.; Guo, L.J.; Liu, Z.T.; Xiu, N.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to use diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as protective and antireflection coatings for IR optical materials exposed to hostile environments, an investigation has been systematically conducted on the influence of the deposition parameters on the refractive index and growth rate of DLC films, which are two of the most important parameters in evaluating optical characteristics of antireflection coatings. The experimental results show that both the refractive index and growth rate of DLC films depend strongly on the negative d.c. bias voltage. The refractive index increases with increasing bias voltage and decreases with increasing partial pressure of the hydrocarbon gas and total flow rate of the mixture. The growth rate increases greatly when the bias voltage is larger than a threshold value. The various parameters which influence the structure and properties of DLC films are interrelated. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy results show that the strength of the C-H stretching absorption band in the range 3300-2850 cm -1 is gradually weakened with increasing negative bias voltage and argon concentration. High energy bombardment of the growing film plays an important role in the structure and hence the properties of DLC films. (orig.)

  4. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-01-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure “quantal” catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines...

  5. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-01-01

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  6. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH4 dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Hendaoui, A.; de Matos, J.; Chaker, M.

    2016-06-01

    An Ar/CH4 atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (˜35 mJ m-2) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  7. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Wei, E-mail: wei.ren@helsinki.fi; Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I. [NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2015-11-21

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp{sup 3} bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp{sup 3}-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40–70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  8. Spectroscopic studies on diamond like carbon films synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R., E-mail: krish@igcar.gov.in; Ravindran, T. R.; Das, Arindam; Mangamma, G.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K. [Material Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam - 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Hydrogen free Diamond like Carbon (DLC) thin films enriched with C-C sp{sup 3} bonding were grown on Si (111) substrates at laser pulse energies varying from 100 to 400 mJ (DLC-100, DLC-200, DLC-300, DLC-400), by Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA) utilizing an Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength. Structural, optical and morphological evolutions as a function of laser pulse energy were studied by micro Raman, UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. Raman spectra analysis provided critical clues for the variation in sp{sup 3} content and optical energy gap. The sp{sup 3} content was estimated using the FWHM of the G peak and found to be in the range of 62-69%. The trend of evolution of sp{sup 3} content matches well with the evolution of I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio with pulse energy. UV-Vis absorption study of DLC films revealed the variation of optical energy gap with laser pulse energy (1.88 – 2.23 eV), which matches well with the evolution of G-Peak position of the Raman spectra. AFM study revealed that roughness, size and density of particulate in DLC films increase with laser pulse energy.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of diamond-like carbon/Ni bimorph normally closed microcages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J. K.; He, J. H.; Fu, Y. Q.; Flewitt, A. J.; Spearing, S. M.; Fleck, N. A.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-08-01

    Normally closed microcages based on highly compressively stressed diamond-like carbon (DLC) and electroplated Ni bimorph structures have been simulated, fabricated and characterized. Finite-element and analytical models were used to simulate the device performance. It was found that the radius of curvature of the bimorph layer can be adjusted by varying the DLC film stress, the total layer thickness and the thickness ratio of the DLC to Ni layers. The angular deflection of the bimorph structures can also be adjusted by varying the finger length. The radius of curvature of the microcage was in the range of 18-50 µm, suitable for capturing and confining micro-objects with sizes of 20-100 µm. The operation of this type of device is very efficient due to the large difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the DLC and the Ni layers. Electrical tests have shown that these microcages can be opened by ~90° utilizing a power smaller than 20 mW. The operating temperatures of the devices under various pulsed currents were extracted through the change in electrical resistance of the devices. The results showed that an average temperature in the range of 400-450 °C is needed to open this type of microcage by ~90°, consistent with the results from analytical simulation and finite-element modelling.

  10. Friction force microscopy study of annealed diamond-like carbon film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Seok; Joung, Yeun-Ho [School of Electrical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jinhee [Materials Safety Evaluation Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Byungyou, E-mail: byhong@skku.edu [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper we introduce mechanical and structural characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films which were prepared on silicon substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method using methane (CH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The films were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 °C in steps of 200 °C using rapid thermal processor (RTP) in nitrogen ambient. Tribological properties of the DLC films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in friction force microscopy (FFM) mode. The structural properties of the films were obtained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the films was obtained using contact angle measurement. XPS analysis showed that the sp{sup 3} content is decreased from 75.2% to 24.1% while the sp{sup 2} content is increased from 24.8% to 75.9% when the temperature is changed from 300 to 900 °C. The contact angles of DLC films were higher than 70°. The FFM measurement results show that the highest friction coefficient value was achieved at 900 °C annealing temperature.

  11. Friction force microscopy study of annealed diamond-like carbon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Seok; Joung, Yeun-Ho; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Byungyou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce mechanical and structural characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films which were prepared on silicon substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method using methane (CH 4 ) and hydrogen (H 2 ) gas. The films were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 °C in steps of 200 °C using rapid thermal processor (RTP) in nitrogen ambient. Tribological properties of the DLC films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in friction force microscopy (FFM) mode. The structural properties of the films were obtained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the films was obtained using contact angle measurement. XPS analysis showed that the sp 3 content is decreased from 75.2% to 24.1% while the sp 2 content is increased from 24.8% to 75.9% when the temperature is changed from 300 to 900 °C. The contact angles of DLC films were higher than 70°. The FFM measurement results show that the highest friction coefficient value was achieved at 900 °C annealing temperature.

  12. Tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon: effects of preparation conditions and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, A.; Patel, V.; Meyerson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are characterized by, among other properties, very low friction coefficients, high wear resistance, and high corrosion resistance. Depending upon the testing environment, the coefficient of friction can be as low as 0.01. As-deposited films are wear resistant in vacuum as well as in atmospheric ambient. This paper will discuss the general tribological behavior, in different environments, of DLC films deposited under a variety of conditions, and proposed mechanisms explaining the very low friction coefficients observed. The specific properties of DLC films deposited from acetylene by r.f. plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition will then be presented. The films were deposited at substrate temperatures between 100degC and 250degC, at various substrate biases. The films were annealed in vacuum at temperatures up to 590degC. The tribological properties of the as-deposited as well as annealed DLC films will be presented as a function of the deposition parameters. The observed behavior will be discussed and related to other physical properties of the films. (orig.)

  13. Nm-scale diamond-like-carbon (DLC) templates for use in soft lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.S.; Myhra, S.; Brown, C.L.; Watson, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    An emerging set of methods known collectively as soft lithography is now being utilised for a large variety of applications including micromolding, microfluidic networks and microcontact printing. In particular stamps and elastomeric elements can be formed by exposure of a polymer to a template. Established lithographic techniques used in the microelectronic industry, such as photolithography, are generally used to fabricate such master templates at the micron scale. In this study we demonstrate the use of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as a template for producing polymer micro/nano stamps and 3D polymer structures. Intricate surface relief patterns can be formed on the DLC surface from lithographic techniques by atomic force microscopy (AFM) operated in the electrical conductivity mode. A number of polymers can be used to transfer patterns. One of the most widely used polymers for pattern transfer has been polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The elastomer is chemically resistant, has a low surface energy and readily conforms to different surface topographies. Obtaining a master is the limiting factor in the production of PDMS replicas. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  14. Biological responses of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with different structures in biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, T T; Zhang, T F; Li, S S; Deng, Q Y; Wu, B J; Zhang, Y Z; Zhou, Y J; Guo, Y B; Leng, Y X; Huang, N

    2016-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are potential candidates for artificial joint surface modification in biomedical applications, and the influence of the structural features of DLC surfaces on cell functions has attracted attention in recent decades. Here, the biocompatibility of DLC films with different structures was investigated using macrophages, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The results showed that DLC films with a low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3), which tend to have a structure similar to that of diamond, led to less inflammatory, excellent osteogenic and fibroblastic reactions, with higher cell viability, better morphology, lower release of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6), and higher release of IL-10 (interleukin-10). The results also demonstrated that the high-density diamond structure (low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3)) of DLC films is beneficial for cell adhesion and growth because of better protein adsorption without electrostatic repulsion. These findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying inhibition of an inflammatory response and the promotion of osteoblastogenesis and fibrous propagation, and effectively build a system for evaluating the biocompatibility of DLC films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by filter-arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, K.-W.; Chen, Y.-C.; Lin, T.-N.; Wang, D.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are extensively utilized in the semiconductor, electric and cutting machine industries owing to their high hardness, high elastic modulus, low friction coefficients and high chemical stability. DLC films are prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition (BAD), sputter deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), cathodic arc evaporation (CAE), and filter arc deposition (FAD). The major drawbacks of these methods are the degraded hardness associated with the low sp 3 /sp 2 bonding ratio, the rough surface and poor adhesion caused by the presence of particles. In this study, a self-developed filter arc deposition (FAD) system was employed to prepare metal-containing DLC films with a low particle density. The relationships between the DLC film properties, such as film structure, surface morphology and mechanical behavior, with variation of substrate bias and target current, are examined. Experimental results demonstrate that FAD-DLC films have a lower ratio, suggesting that FAD-DLC films have a greater sp 3 bonding than the CAE-DLC films. FAD-DLC films also exhibit a low friction coefficient of 0.14 and half of the number of surface particles as in the CAE-DLC films. Introducing a CrN interfacial layer between the substrate and the DLC films enables the magnetic field strength of the filter to be controlled to improve the adhesion and effectively eliminate the contaminating particles. Accordingly, the FAD system improves the tribological properties of the DLC films

  16. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  17. Comparative study of the tribological behavior under hybrid lubrication of diamond-like carbon films with different adhesion interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R. P. C.; Lima-Oliveira, D. A.; Marciano, F. R.; Lobo, A. O.; Corat, E. J.; Trava-Airoldi, V. J.

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the influence of the adhesion interlayer between stainless steel and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films in two different contact conditions: in dry air and deionized water. The water was the liquid used to understand the mechanism and chemical reactions of the tribolayer formation under boundary lubrication. The effect of silicon and carbonitride adhesion interlayer was investigated on uncoated and coated DLC films. The results show that DLC/DLC pairs using carbonitride in air (30% RH) showed 60% less friction coefficient and wear less than three orders of magnitude than DLC/DLC pairs using silicon as interlayer. In deionized water, DLC/DLC pairs using carbonitride as interlayer showed 31% less friction coefficient when compared to DLC/DLC pairs with silicon. Raman related the chemical and structural changes in the DLC films during sliding in air and in the presence of water. Scratch tests showed a critical load of 14 N and 33 N in DLC films with silicon and carbonitride, respectively.

  18. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. PMID:28773494

  19. Adhesion enhancement of diamond-like carbon thin films on Ti alloys by incorporation of nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Tang, Y.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Coating adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films directly on Ti alloys is technologically difficult. This research incorporates nanodiamond particles to form a diamond/DLC composite interlayer to enhance the adhesion of DLC thin films on Ti6Al4V substrates. Initially, nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture. A DLC thin film was then deposited, on top of the nanodiamond particles, by direct ion beam deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and chemical bonding of the deposited particles and films, and Rockwell indentation testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the deposited films. The results indicate that the pre-deposited nanodiamond particles significantly enhance the interfacial adhesion between the DLC thin film and the Ti6Al4V substrate, possibly by enhanced interfacial bonding, mechanical interlocking, and stress relief. - Highlights: ► Nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V before DLC deposition. ► Diamond/DLC composite film was formed by incorporation of nanodiamond particles. ► Greatly enhanced adhesion of diamond/DLC composite film on Ti6Al4V was achieved. ► Enhanced adhesion is by increased interfacial bonding and mechanical interlocking

  20. Adhesion enhancement of diamond-like carbon thin films on Ti alloys by incorporation of nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.Z.; Tang, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada); Li, Y.S. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Coating adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films directly on Ti alloys is technologically difficult. This research incorporates nanodiamond particles to form a diamond/DLC composite interlayer to enhance the adhesion of DLC thin films on Ti6Al4V substrates. Initially, nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from a methane–hydrogen gas mixture. A DLC thin film was then deposited, on top of the nanodiamond particles, by direct ion beam deposition. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the microstructure and chemical bonding of the deposited particles and films, and Rockwell indentation testing was used to evaluate the adhesion of the deposited films. The results indicate that the pre-deposited nanodiamond particles significantly enhance the interfacial adhesion between the DLC thin film and the Ti6Al4V substrate, possibly by enhanced interfacial bonding, mechanical interlocking, and stress relief. - Highlights: ► Nanodiamond particles were deposited on Ti6Al4V before DLC deposition. ► Diamond/DLC composite film was formed by incorporation of nanodiamond particles. ► Greatly enhanced adhesion of diamond/DLC composite film on Ti6Al4V was achieved. ► Enhanced adhesion is by increased interfacial bonding and mechanical interlocking.

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigany, Zs.; Twesten, R.D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (E ion ) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (J ion /J C ). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at E ion ∼85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ε), and elastic recovery (R) increased with E ion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ε=250 GPa, and R=68% at E ion =85 eV and J ion /J C =4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp 2 /sp 3 content of the films does not change with E ion or J ion /J C . The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp 2 /sp 3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV ≤E ion ≤85 eV and 1.1 ≤J ion /J C ≤6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films

  2. Dry And Ringer Solution Lubricated Tribology Of Thin Osseoconductive Metal Oxides And Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldhauser W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Achieving fast and strong adhesion to jawbone is essential for dental implants. Thin deposited films may improve osseointegration, but they are prone to cohesive and adhesive fracture due to high stresses while screwing the implant into the bone, leading to bared, less osteoconductive substrate surfaces and nano- and micro-particles in the bone. Aim of this work is the investigation of the cohesion and adhesion failure stresses of osteoconductive tantalum, titanium, silicon, zirconium and aluminium oxide and diamond-like carbon films. The tribological behaviour under dry and lubricated conditions (Ringer solution reveals best results for diamond-like carbon, while cohesion and adhesion of zirconium oxide films is highest.

  3. Mechanical and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Ensinger, W.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by a plasma source ion implantation method with superposed negative pulse and negative DC voltage. Acetylene gas was used as working gas for plasma formation. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4.8 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from -18 to -13.2 kV. The films were annealed in the range of 200-450 deg. C for 1 h. The surface morphology of the films and the film thickness were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The hardness of DLC films was evaluated by an indentation method. Measurement of the electrical resistivity was performed using a four-point probe station. Furthermore, a ball-on-disc test with 2 N load was employed to obtain information about the friction properties and sliding wear resistance of the films. The surface of the DLC films was very smooth and featureless. The deposition rate was changed with the DC voltage and pulse conditions. Integrated intensity ratios I D /I G of Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity of the DLC films changed with DC voltage. The electrical resistivity decreased with increasing I D /I G ratio. The I D /I G ratio was increased and the electrical resistivity was decreased with annealing temperature owing to graphitization. Very low friction coefficients around 0.05 were obtained for as-deposited films.

  4. The Comparison of Biocompatibility Properties between Ti Alloys and Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavin Jongwannasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and titanium alloys have found several applications in the biomedical field due to their unique biocompatibility. However, there are problems associated with these materials in applications in which there is direct contact with blood, for instance, thrombogenesis and protein adsorption. Surface modification is one of the effective methods used to improve the performance of Ti and Ti alloys in these circumstances. In this study, fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films are chosen to take into account the biocompatible properties compared with Ti alloys. F-DLC films were prepared on NiTi substrates by a plasma-based ion implantation (PBII technique using acetylene (C2H2 and tetrafluoromethane (CF4 as plasma sources. The structure of the films was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle and surface energy were also measured. Protein adsorption was performed by treating the films with bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen. The electrochemical corrosion behavior was investigated in Hanks’ solution by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using MTT assay and dyed fluorescence. The results indicate that F-DLC films present their hydrophobic surfaces due to a high contact angle and low surface energy. These films can support the higher albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio as compared to Ti alloys. They tend to suppress the platelet adhesion. Furthermore, F-DLC films exhibit better corrosion resistance and less cytotoxicity on their surfaces. It can be concluded that F-DLC films can improve the biocompatibility properties of Ti alloys.

  5. Short-pulse-laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Ziegler, Wolfgang; von der Linde, Dietrich; Siegal, Michael P.; Overmyer, D. L.

    2005-03-01

    Short-pulse-laser-induced damage and ablation of thin films of amorphous, diamond-like carbon have been investigated. Material removal and damage are caused by fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments. The fragments exhibit a delayed, intense and broadband emission of microsecond duration. Both fracture and emission are attributed to the laser-initiated relaxation of the high internal stresses of the pulse laser deposition-grown films.

  6. Diamond-like carbon layers modified by ion bombardment during growth and researched by Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Písařík, Petr; Remsa, Jan; Janovská, Michaela; Landa, Michal; Zemek, Josef; Havránek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 417, Sep (2017), s. 213-217 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : in-situ ion bombardment * pulsed laser deposition * diamond-like carbon * hybrid technology * flm modification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  7. Cell adhesion and growth on ultrananocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon films after different surface modifications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšovský, Jan; Voss, A.; Kozarova, R.; Kocourek, Tomáš; Písařík, Petr; Ceccone, G.; Kulisch, W.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Apostolova, M.D.; Reithmaier, J.P.; Popov, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 297, APR (2014), s. 95-102 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrananocrystalline diamond films * diamond -like carbon films * surface modification * direct contact cell tests Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433214001251

  8. Nanostructural study of the thermal transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon into an ultrahard carbon nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miranda, L. J.; Siegal, M. P.; Provencio, P. P.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the structural transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon (a-C) films into ultrahard carbon nanocomposites via postannealing to 600 C using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and small-angle scattering. Film density decreases monotonically above 200 C. Film surfaces roughen upon annealing to 300 C; however, a-C recovers its smoothness with higher temperature annealing. Finally, there exists some quasiperiodic nanostructural feature with a lattice spacing that increases with annealing, correlating well with purely a-C nanocomposite structures imaged from samples annealed at 600 C. We propose that these annealing-induced nanostructural changes are a derivative of localized stress fields in as-grown a-C films

  9. Nanostructural study of the thermal transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon into an ultrahard carbon nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Miranda, L. J.; Siegal, M. P.; Provencio, P. P.

    2001-07-23

    We studied the structural transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon (a-C) films into ultrahard carbon nanocomposites via postannealing to 600 C using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and small-angle scattering. Film density decreases monotonically above 200 C. Film surfaces roughen upon annealing to 300 C; however, a-C recovers its smoothness with higher temperature annealing. Finally, there exists some quasiperiodic nanostructural feature with a lattice spacing that increases with annealing, correlating well with purely a-C nanocomposite structures imaged from samples annealed at 600 C. We propose that these annealing-induced nanostructural changes are a derivative of localized stress fields in as-grown a-C films.

  10. Nanostructural study of the thermal transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon into an ultrahard carbon nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Miranda, L. J.; Siegal, M. P.; Provencio, P. P.

    2001-07-01

    We studied the structural transformation of diamond-like amorphous carbon (a-C) films into ultrahard carbon nanocomposites via postannealing to 600 °C using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and small-angle scattering. Film density decreases monotonically above 200 °C. Film surfaces roughen upon annealing to 300 °C; however, a-C recovers its smoothness with higher temperature annealing. Finally, there exists some quasiperiodic nanostructural feature with a lattice spacing that increases with annealing, correlating well with purely a-C nanocomposite structures imaged from samples annealed at 600 °C. We propose that these annealing-induced nanostructural changes are a derivative of localized stress fields in as-grown a-C films.

  11. Diamond like carbon coatings deposited by microwave plasma CVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques for estimating sp. 3. /sp. 2 ratio. ... ion beam deposition (Savvidas 1986), pulsed laser deposi- ... carrier gas (10 sccm) by passing 150 watts of microwave power.

  12. TiO2-NT electrodes modified with Ag and diamond like carbon (DLC) for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Baz, Zeynep; Esen, Ramazan; Yazici Devrim, Birgül

    2017-10-01

    In present work, the two-step anodization technique was applied for synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT). Silver and diamond like carbon (DLC) were coated on the surface of as prepared TiO2-NT using chemical reduction method and MW ECR plasma system. The morphology, composition and structure of the electrodes were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag nanoparticles, having size in the range of 48-115 nm, are evenly distributed on the top, inside and outside surface of TiO2-NT and when DLC was coated on the surface of TiO2-NT and TiO2-NT-Ag, the top of nanotubes were partially open and the pore diameter of hexagonal structure decreased from 165 nm to of 38-80 nm. On the other hand, the microhardness test and contact angle measurements revealed that additions of Ag and diamond like carbon have a positive effect on the mechanical properties of TiO2-NT film. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated by the electrochemical measurements recorded in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, long-term durability of electrodes towards HER and the energy consumption of alkaline electrolysis were investigated. The energy requirement showed that while the deposition of silver provides approximately 14.95% savings of the energy consumption, the DLC coating causes increase in energy consumption.

  13. Composition and morphology of metal-containing diamond-like carbon films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Pascual, E.; Oncins, G.; Canal, C.; Andujar, J.L.; Bertran, E.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of metal atoms within the matrix of diamond-like carbon films leads to the improvement of their mechanical properties. The present paper discusses the relationship between the composition and morphology of metal-containing (W, Nb, Mo, Ti) diamond-like carbon thin films deposited at room temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metal target in an argon and methane atmosphere. Composition was measured either by electron microprobe technique or by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and shows a smooth variation with relative methane flow. High relative methane flows lead to a bulk saturation of carbon atoms, which leads to a lack of homogeneity in the films as confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cross-section micrographs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and revealed a structure strongly influenced by the metal inserted and its abundance. The surface pattern obtained by scanning electrochemical potential microscopy provided the metallicity distribution. These measurements were completed with atomic force microscopy of the surface. Selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements provided data of the crystalline structure along with nano-crystallite size. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy provided images of these crystallites

  14. Structural Analysis of Planar sp3 and sp2 Films: Diamond-Like Carbon and Graphene Overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2011-07-07

    The special electronic configuration of carbon enables the existence of wide ranging allotropes taking all possible dimensionalities. The allotropes of carbon are characterized by the type of hybridized bonding forming its structure, ranging from pure sp2 as in graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, to pure sp3 as in diamond. Amorphous and diamond-like carbon consists of a mixture of both hybridizations. This variation in hybridization in carbon materials enables a wide spectrum of properties, ranging from high bulk mechanical hardness, tribological properties and chemical inertness made possible by moving towards pure sp3 bonding to the extraordinary electrical conductivity, optical properties and in-plane mechanical strength resulting from pure sp2 bonding. Two allotropes at the extremes of this spectrum, diamond like carbon (DLC) and graphene, are investigated in this thesis; the former is investigated as a protective coating in hard drive applications, while the latter is investigated in the context of chemically derived graphene as material for transparent conducting electrode applications. DLC thin films are a main component in computer hard drives, acting as a protective coating against corrosion and mechanical wear of the magnetic layer and read-write head. The thickness of DLC films greatly affects the storage density in such devices, as larger separation between the read/write head and the magnetic layer decreases the storage density. A targeted DLC thickness of 2 nm would increase the storage density towards 1 Tbits/inch2. However, difficulty achieving continuous films at such thicknesses by commonly used sputtering methods challenges the industry to investigate alternative methods. Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) has been proposed as an efficient technique to provide continuous, smooth and ultra-thin DLC films. We investigate the influence of deposition angle, deposition time, and substrate biasing to define the optimum process window to obtain

  15. Mechanism behind the formation of self-assembled nano-sized clusters in diamond-like carbon nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Yuan Mei; Koh, Angel Ting Ting; Niu, Lifang; Chua, Daniel Hock Chuan

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with diversified material properties are obtainable through doping process but the presence of the dopants were reported to form independent nanoclusters within the carbon matrix. Using combined analysis from theoretical estimations (Saha's equation and coefficient of absorption, alpha(p)), Transport of Ions In Matter (TRIM) simulation and experimental results, this work examined the mechanism behind the formation of self-assembled nanoclusters in DLC nanocomposite. We showed that the presence of metal dopants increased the heat dissipation on DLC, which allowed the energetic metal species to diffuse and enhance the formation of nanoclusters that increased the surface roughness of the films. In addition, TRIM and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) hinted the presence of energetic species may force the carbon ions to react with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, which may be a more dominant factor compared to internal stress reduction in improving the adhesion strength of DLC.

  16. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon films deposited by filtered carbon vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Fong, Walton; Kulkarni, Ashok; Ryan, Francis W.; Bhatia, C. Singh

    2001-01-01

    Ultrathin ( and lt; 5 nm) hard carbon films are of great interest to the magnetic storage industry as the areal density approaches 100 Gbit/in(sup 2). These films are used as overcoats to protect the magnetic layers on disk media and the active elements of the read-write slider. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films can be produced by filtered cathodic arc deposition, but the films will only be accepted by the storage industry only if the ''macroparticle'' issue has been solved. Better plasma filters have been developed over recent years. Emphasis is put on the promising twist filter system - a compact, open structure that operates with pulsed arcs and high magnetic field. Based on corrosion tests it is shown that the macroparticle reduction by the twist filter is satisfactory for this demanding application, while plasma throughput is very high. Ultrathin hard carbon films have been synthesized using S-filter and twist filter systems. Film properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, wear, and corrosion resistance have been tested

  17. First principles investigation of interaction between impurity atom (Si, Ge, Sn) and carbon atom in diamond-like carbon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Aiying; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between impurity atom (Si, Ge, and Sn) and carbon atom in diamond-like carbon (DLC) system was investigated by the first principles simulation method based on the density functional theory. The tetrahedral configuration was selected as the calculation model for simplicity. When the bond angle varied in a range of 90°–130° from the equivalent state of 109.471°, the distortion energy and the electronic structures including charge density of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and partial density of state (PDOS) in the different systems were calculated. The results showed that the addition of Si, Ge and Sn atom into amorphous carbon matrix significantly decreased the distortion energy of the system as the bond angles deviated from the equilibrium one. Further studies of the HOMO and PDOS indicated that the weak covalent bond between Si(Ge, Sn) and C atoms was formed with the decreased strength and directionality, which were influenced by the electronegative difference. These results implied that the electron transfer behavior at the junction of carbon nano-devices could be tailored by the impurity element, and the compressive stress in DLC films could be reduced by the incorporation of Si, Ge and Sn because of the formation of weaker covalent bonds. - Highlights: ►Distortion energy after bond angle distortion was decreased comparing with C-C unit. ►The weak covalent bond was formed between impurity atoms and corner carbon atoms. ►Observed electron transfer behavior affected the strength and directionality of bond. ►Reduction of strength and directionality of bond contributed to small energy change.

  18. Tuning properties of long-period gratings by plasma post-processing of their diamond-like carbon nano-overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietana, M.; Koba, M.; Mikulic, P.; Bock, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an application of reactive ion etching (RIE) for effective tuning of spectral response and the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-coated long-period gratings (LPGs). When oxygen plasma is applied the technique allows for an efficient and well controlled etching of hard and chemically resistant DLC films deposited on optical fibers. We show that optical properties of DLC, especially its refractive index, strongly depend on thickness of the film when it is thinner than 150 nm. The effect of DLC nano-coating deposition and etching on spectral properties of the LPGs is discussed. We have correlated the DLC properties with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and have found that both deposition and etching processes took place less effectively than on the electrode when the LPG sample was held above the electrode in the plasma reactor. An advantage of plasma-based etching is a capability for post-processing of the nano-coated structures with a good precision, as well as cleaning the samples and their re-coating according to requested needs. Moreover, the application of RIE allows for post-fabrication tuning of RI sensitivity of the DLC nano-coated LPGs.

  19. Tuning properties of long-period gratings by plasma post-processing of their diamond-like carbon nano-overlays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smietana, M; Koba, M; Mikulic, P; Bock, W J

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an application of reactive ion etching (RIE) for effective tuning of spectral response and the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-coated long-period gratings (LPGs). When oxygen plasma is applied the technique allows for an efficient and well controlled etching of hard and chemically resistant DLC films deposited on optical fibers. We show that optical properties of DLC, especially its refractive index, strongly depend on thickness of the film when it is thinner than 150 nm. The effect of DLC nano-coating deposition and etching on spectral properties of the LPGs is discussed. We have correlated the DLC properties with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and have found that both deposition and etching processes took place less effectively than on the electrode when the LPG sample was held above the electrode in the plasma reactor. An advantage of plasma-based etching is a capability for post-processing of the nano-coated structures with a good precision, as well as cleaning the samples and their re-coating according to requested needs. Moreover, the application of RIE allows for post-fabrication tuning of RI sensitivity of the DLC nano-coated LPGs. (paper)

  20. Laser plasma generation of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon thin films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube materials and silicon wafers with a pulsed high-power CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Mouris, J.F.; Hoffmann, C.R.J.; Davis, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first experiments on the laser plasma deposition of hydrogen-free, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure-tube materials and silicon substrates, using the short-pulse, high-power, CO 2 laser in the High-Power Laser Laboratory at Chalk River Laboratories. The films were (AFM). The thin films show the characteristic signature of DLC films in the Raman spectra obtained using a krypton-ion (Kr + ) laser. The Vickers ultra-low-load microhardness tests show hardness of the coated surface of approximately 7000 Kg force mm -2 , which is consistent with the hardness associated with DLC films. AFM examination of the film morphology shows diamond-like crystals distributed throughout the film, with film thicknesses of up to 0.5 μm generated with 50 laser pulses. With significantly more laser pulses, it is expected that very uniform diamond-like films would be produced. These experiments suggest that it should be possible to deposit hydrogen-free, diamond-like films of relevance to nuclear reactor components with a high-power and high-repetition-rate laser facility. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  1. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ai-Ping; Liu Min; Yu Jian-Can; Qian Guo-Dong; Tang Wei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. (paper)

  2. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  3. Biocompatibility and mechanical properties of diamond-like coatings on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum steel and titanium-aluminum-vanadium biomedical alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinüber, C; Kleemann, C; Friederichs, R J; Haubold, L; Scheibe, H J; Schuelke, T; Boehlert, C; Baumann, M J

    2010-11-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are favored for wear components because of diamond-like hardness, low friction, low wear, and high corrosion resistance (Schultz et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2004;35:924-928; Lappalainen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003;66B:410-413; Tiainen, Diam Relat Mater 2001;10:153-160). Several studies have demonstrated their inertness, nontoxicity, and the biocompatibility, which has led to interest among manufacturers of surgical implants (Allen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2001;58:319-328; Uzumaki et al., Diam Relat Mater 2006;15:982-988; Hauert, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:583-589; Grill, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:166-170). In this study, hydrogen-free amorphous, tetrahedrally bonded DLC films (ta-C) were deposited at low temperatures by physical vapor deposition on medical grade Co28Cr6Mo steel and the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Scheibe et al., Surf Coat Tech 1996;85:209-214). The mechanical performance of the ta-C was characterized by measuring its surface roughness, contact angle, adhesion, and wear behavior, whereas the biocompatibility was assessed by osteoblast (OB) attachment and cell viability via Live/Dead assay. There was no statistical difference found in the wettability as measured by contact angle measurements for the ta-C coated and the uncoated samples of either Co28Cr6Mo or Ti6Al4V. Rockwell C indentation and dynamic scratch testing on 2-10 μm thick ta-C films on Co28Cr6Mo substrates showed excellent adhesion with HF1 grade and up to 48 N for the critical load L(C2) during scratch testing. The ta-C coating reduced the wear from 3.5 × 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm for an uncoated control sample (uncoated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) to 1.1 × 10(-7) mm(3)/Nm (coated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) in reciprocating pin-on-disk testing. The lowest wear factor of 3.9 × 10(-10) mm(3)/Nm was measured using a ta-C coated steel ball running against a ta-C coated and polished Co28Cr6Mo disk

  4. Enhancement of diffraction efficiency of laminar-type diffraction gratings overcoated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in soft x-ray region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Masato, E-mail: koike.masato@jaea.go.jp; Imazono, Takashi [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 Japan (Japan); Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi [Device Dept., Shimadzu Corp., 1Nishinokyo-Kuwabara-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511 Japan (Japan); Terauchi, Masami [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 Japan (Japan); Takahashi, Hideyuki [Science Equipment Sales Dept., JEOL Ltd., 2-1-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004 Japan (Japan); Notoya, Satoshi; Murano, Takanori [SA Business Unit, JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    Boron is the critical trace element in the production of high quality steel, creating a great demand for an efficient detection method of the B-K emission band at around 6.76 nm. To meet this demand we made a simulation study and obtained a practical method to improve the diffraction efficiency of metal-coated laminar-type gratings for a grazing incidence flat-field spectrograph by overcoating a sufficiently transparent high-density material. In the simulation the diffraction efficiency in a spectral region of 3.5-8.5 nm was computed for several combinations of overcoating materials and coating metals, with various thicknesses of the overcoating layer. The result obtained are: (1) the best overcoating material is high-density diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a density of 3.1 g/cm{sup 3}, (2) its optimum thickness is 24 nm at an angle of incidence of 87.0°, and (3) with this thickness the first-order diffraction efficiency is expected to reach 29.7 %, which well exceeds 15.6 % for Ni-coated (or 14.1 % for Au-coated) grating.

  5. Effect of sputtering power on structure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) thin films were deposited on highly conductive p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The DLC:N films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement and micro-scratch test. The XPS and Raman results indicated that the sputtering power significantly influenced the properties of the films in terms of bonding configuration in the films. The corrosion performance of the DLC:N films was investigated in a 0.6 M NaCl solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing. It was found that the corrosion performance of the films could be enhanced by higher sputtering powers.

  6. Corrosion behavior of aluminum doped diamond-like carbon thin films in NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Al) thin films were deposited on n-Si(100) substrates by co-sputtering a graphite target under a fixed DC power (650 W) and an aluminum target under varying DC power (10-90 W) at room temperature. The structure, adhesion strength and surface morphology of the DLC:Al films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-scratch testing and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The corrosion performance of the DLC:Al films was investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization testing in a 0.6 M NaCl aqueous solution. The results showed that the polarization resistance of the DLC:Al films increased from about 18 to 30.7 k(omega) though the corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values with increased Al content in the films.

  7. Synthesis and tribological behaviors of diamond-like carbon films by electrodeposition from solution of acetonitrile and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jisheng; Huang Lina; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon substrates by liquid phase electrodeposition from a mixture of acetonitrile and deionized water. The deposition voltage was clearly reduced owing to the presence of deionized water in the electrolyte by changing the basic properties (dielectric constant and dipole moment) of the electrolyte. Raman spectra reveal that the ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 in the DLC films is related to the concentration of acetonitrile. The surface roughness and grain morphology determined by atomic force microscopy are also influenced by the concentration of the acetonitrile. The UMT-2 universal micro-tribometer was used to test the friction properties of the DLC films obtained from electrolytes with different concentration. The results convey that the DLC film prepared from the electrolyte containing 10 vol.% acetonitrile has the better surface morphology and friction behavior comparing with the other. In addition the growth mechanism of the film was also discussed

  8. Influence of silver incorporation on the structural and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Carey, J David; Tripathi, R K; Malik, Hitendra K; Dalai, M K

    2013-04-10

    A simple approach is proposed for obtaining low threshold field electron emission from large area diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by sandwiching either Ag dots or a thin Ag layer between DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC films. The introduction of silver and nitrogen is found to reduce the threshold field for emission to under 6 V/μm representing a near 46% reduction when compared with unmodified films. The reduction in the threshold field is correlated with the morphology, microstructure, interface, and bonding environment of the films. We find modifications to the structure of the DLC films through promotion of metal-induced sp2 bonding and the introduction of surface asperities, which significantly reduce the value of the threshold field. This can lead to the next-generation, large-area simple and inexpensive field emission devices.

  9. Investigation of Physical Properties and Electrochemical Behavior of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanakorn Saensak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reports characterizations of diamond-like carbon (DLC films used as electrodes for electrochemical applications. DLC thin films are prepared on glass slides and silicon substrates by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD using a gas mixture of methane and hydrogen. In addition, the DLC films are doped with nitrogen in order to reduce electrical resistivity. Compared to the undoped DLC films, the electrical resistivity of nitrogen-doped (N-doped DLC films is decreased by three orders of magnitude. Raman spectroscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy analyses show the structural transformation in N-doped DLC films that causes the reduction of band gap energy. Contact angle measurement at N-doped DLC films indicates increased hydrophobicity. The results obtained from the cyclic voltammetry measurements with Fe(CN63-/Fe(CN64- redox species exhibit the correlation between the physical properties and electrochemical behavior of DLC films.

  10. Production, Characterization And Tribological Properties Of Molybdenum Doped Diamond-like Carbon Films

    OpenAIRE

    Alp, Emre

    2012-01-01

    Thin films whose thickness is typically less than several microns are produced by the deposition of individual atoms on any substrate. Historically, thin films have been used for about half a century in producing instrument hard coatings, optical coatings, thin-film batteries, electronic devices, photovoltaic devices, memory devices and decorative parts. Thin film technology is still being developed by a technological advancement since it is a key factor in the twenty-first century developmen...

  11. Structural properties and growth evolution of diamond-like carbon films with different incident energies: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Zheng, He; Wang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    Structural properties and growth evolution of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with different incident energies were investigated systematically by the molecular dynamics simulation using a Tersoff interatomic potential for carbon-carbon interaction. The results revealed that the density, sp 3 fraction and residual compressive stress as a function of incident energy increased firstly and then decreased; when the incident energy was 70 eV/atom, the density could reach to 3.0 g/cm 3 with the maximal compressive stress of 15.5 GPa. Structure analysis indicated that the deviation of both bond angles and lengths from the equilibrium position led to the generation of a large residual stress, while the high compressive stress mainly attributed to the decrease of both bond angles and lengths among carbon atoms. The growth of DLC films underwent a formation process of “Line-Net” structure accompanied with the interaction of many atomic motion mechanisms, and the “Point” stage was only found for DLC films with low incident energy.

  12. Electrochemical Performances of Diamond Like Carbon Films for Pb(II) Detection in Tap Water Using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sbartai, A.; Namour, F.; Barbier, F.; Krejčí, J.; Kučerová, R.; Krejčí, T.; Neděla, Vilém; Sobota, Jaroslav; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1524-1529 ISSN 1546-198X Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Diamond Like Carbon DLC * Lead Detection * Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping * Voltammetry * Tap Water Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  13. Diagnostics of capacitively-coupled hydrocarbon plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films using quadrupole mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akinori; Fukai, Shun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, which contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon. The DLC films have been widely used for various applications, such as automotive, semiconductors, medical devices, since have excellent material properties in lower friction, higher chemical stability, higher hardness, higher wear resistance. Until now, numerous investigations on the DLC films using plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition have been done. For precise control of coating technique of DLC films, it is enormously important to clarify the fundamental properties in hydrocarbon plasmas, as a source of hydrocarbon ions and radicals. In this paper, the fundamental properties in a low pressure radio-frequency hydrocarbon (Ar/CH4 (1 %) gas mixture) plasmas have been diagnosed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., EQP-300) and Langmuir probe system (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., ESPion). This work was partly supported by KAKENHI (No.26420247), and a ``Grant for Advanced Industrial Technology Development (No.11B06004d)'' in 2011 from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  14. Influence of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate tribofilm formation on the tribological performance of self-mated diamond-like carbon contacts under boundary lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah Tasdemir, H., E-mail: habdullah46@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Mabuchi, Yutaka [Nissan Motor Co. (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings offer excellent mechanical and tribological properties that make them suitable protective coatings for various industrial applications. In recent years, several engine and power train components in passenger cars, which work under boundary lubricated conditions, have been coated with DLC coatings. Since conventional lubricants and lubricant additives are formulated for metal surfaces, there are still controversial questions concerning chemical reactivity between DLC surfaces and common lubricant additives owing to the chemical inertness of DLC coatings. In this work, we present the influence of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZnDTP) anti-wear additives on the tribological performance of various self-mated DLC coatings under boundary lubrication conditions. The effects of hydrogen, doping elements, and surface morphology on the reactivity of DLC coatings to form a ZnDTP-derived tribofilm were investigated by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirmed that ZnDTP-derived pad-like or patchy tribofilm forms on the surfaces depending on the DLC coating. It is seen that hydrogen content and doping elements increase pad-like tribofilm formation. Doped DLC coatings are found to give better wear resistance than non-doped DLC coatings. Furthermore, the addition of ZnDTP additives to the base oil significantly improves the wear resistance of hydrogenated DLC, silicon-doped hydrogenated DLC, and chromium-doped hydrogenated DLC. Hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous DLC coatings provide the lowest friction coefficient both in PAO (poly-alpha-olefin) and PAO + ZnDTP oils. - Highlights: • Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (DTP) tribofilm formation on various DLC surfaces was evidenced. • Pad-like tribofilm was found on a-C:H, a-C, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC. • Pad-like tribofilm on DLC surfaces greatly increased the wear resistance. • Hydrogenated and doped DLC coatings are

  15. Influence of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate tribofilm formation on the tribological performance of self-mated diamond-like carbon contacts under boundary lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah Tasdemir, H.; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Mabuchi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings offer excellent mechanical and tribological properties that make them suitable protective coatings for various industrial applications. In recent years, several engine and power train components in passenger cars, which work under boundary lubricated conditions, have been coated with DLC coatings. Since conventional lubricants and lubricant additives are formulated for metal surfaces, there are still controversial questions concerning chemical reactivity between DLC surfaces and common lubricant additives owing to the chemical inertness of DLC coatings. In this work, we present the influence of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZnDTP) anti-wear additives on the tribological performance of various self-mated DLC coatings under boundary lubrication conditions. The effects of hydrogen, doping elements, and surface morphology on the reactivity of DLC coatings to form a ZnDTP-derived tribofilm were investigated by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirmed that ZnDTP-derived pad-like or patchy tribofilm forms on the surfaces depending on the DLC coating. It is seen that hydrogen content and doping elements increase pad-like tribofilm formation. Doped DLC coatings are found to give better wear resistance than non-doped DLC coatings. Furthermore, the addition of ZnDTP additives to the base oil significantly improves the wear resistance of hydrogenated DLC, silicon-doped hydrogenated DLC, and chromium-doped hydrogenated DLC. Hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous DLC coatings provide the lowest friction coefficient both in PAO (poly-alpha-olefin) and PAO + ZnDTP oils. - Highlights: • Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (DTP) tribofilm formation on various DLC surfaces was evidenced. • Pad-like tribofilm was found on a-C:H, a-C, Si-DLC and Cr-DLC. • Pad-like tribofilm on DLC surfaces greatly increased the wear resistance. • Hydrogenated and doped DLC coatings are

  16. Effect of tetramethylsilane flow on the deposition and tribological behaviors of silicon doped diamond-like carbon rubbed against poly(oxymethylene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingrui; Lim, Yankuang; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Umehara, Noritsugu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, silicon doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) was deposited on stainless steel (JIS SUS304) by using surface wave-excited plasma (SWP). The effects of tetramethylsilane (TMS) flow on the composition, topography, mechanical properties and tribological behavior were investigated. Pin-on-disc tribo-meter was used to investigate the tribological behavior of the Si-DLC coating rubbed against poly(oxymethylene) (POM). The results show that the deposition rate, roughness of Si-DLC increased and the hardness of Si-DLC decreased with the increase of TMS flow rate from 2 to 4 sccm; the roughness increase therein led to the increase of ploughing term of friction. The increase of adhesion term was also seen with the increase of TMS flow rate, being attributed to the decrease of hydrogen concentration in the coating. It was considered that more POM transferred onto the Si-DLC deposited at higher TMS flow rate due to larger heat generation by friction.

  17. Surface and electron emission properties of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon films investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongping; Zhang, Sam; Ong, S.-E.; Benstetter, Guenther; Du Hejun

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we have deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by using DC magnetron sputtering of graphite target at various r.f. bias voltages. Surface and nanoscale emission properties of these DLC films have been investigated using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanowear tests and conducting-AFM, by simultaneously measuring the topography and the conductivity of the samples. Nanowear tests show that these DLC films are covered with the thin (1.5-2.0 nm) graphite-like layers at surfaces. Compared to the film bulk structure, the graphite-like surface layers are more conductive. The graphite-like surface layers significantly influence the electron emission properties of these films. Low-energy carbon species can be responsible for the formation of graphite-like surface layers. Nanoscale electron emission measurements have revealed the inhomogeneous emission nature of these films. The low-field emission from these films can be attributed to the existence of sp 2 -configured nanoclusters inside the films

  18. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on three-dimensional shape substrate model by liquid electrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.Y.; Zhang, G.F.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, D.D.; Cong, Y.; Buck, V.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) shape substrate model by electrolysis of 2-propanol solution at low temperature (60 °C). This 3D shape model was composed of a horizontally aligned stainless steel wafer and vertically aligned stainless steel rods. Morphology and microstructure of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results suggested there were only differences in film uniformity and thickness for two kinds of samples. The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on horizontally aligned substrate were smooth and homogeneous. And the film thickness of DLC films gained on the vertical substrates decreased along vertical direction. It is believed that bubble formation could enhance nucleation on the wetted capillary area. This experiment shows that deposition of DLC films by liquid phase deposition on 3D shape conductive substrates is possible. - Highlights: • DLC film is expected to be deposited on complex surface/shape substrate. • DLC film is deposited on 3D shape substrate by liquid electrochemical method. • Horizontal substrate is covered by smooth and homogeneous DLC films. • Film thickness decreases along vertical direction due to boiling effect

  19. Diamond-like carbon films deposited on three-dimensional shape substrate model by liquid electrochemical technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.Y. [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Zhang, G.F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, 116024, Dalian China (China); Zhao, Y.; Liu, D.D. [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Cong, Y., E-mail: congyan@ciomp.ac.cn [Institute of Nano-photonics, School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, 116600 Dalian (China); Buck, V. [Thin Film Technology Group, Faculty of Physics, University Duisburg-Essen and CeNIDE, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) shape substrate model by electrolysis of 2-propanol solution at low temperature (60 °C). This 3D shape model was composed of a horizontally aligned stainless steel wafer and vertically aligned stainless steel rods. Morphology and microstructure of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The results suggested there were only differences in film uniformity and thickness for two kinds of samples. The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited on horizontally aligned substrate were smooth and homogeneous. And the film thickness of DLC films gained on the vertical substrates decreased along vertical direction. It is believed that bubble formation could enhance nucleation on the wetted capillary area. This experiment shows that deposition of DLC films by liquid phase deposition on 3D shape conductive substrates is possible. - Highlights: • DLC film is expected to be deposited on complex surface/shape substrate. • DLC film is deposited on 3D shape substrate by liquid electrochemical method. • Horizontal substrate is covered by smooth and homogeneous DLC films. • Film thickness decreases along vertical direction due to boiling effect.

  20. Time-resolved electrical measurements of a pulsed-dc methane discharge used in diamond-like carbon films production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, C.; Polo, M.C.; Oncins, G.; Pascual, E.; Andujar, J.L.; Bertran, E.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) thin films were obtained at room temperature via asymmetric bipolar pulsed-dc methane glow discharge. The power frequency values were varied from 100 to 200 kHz and the maximum amplitude voltage from -600 to -1400 V. Such films present diamond-like carbon (DLC) properties [J.L. Andujar, M. Vives, C. Corbella, E. Bertran, Diamond Relat. Mater. 12 (2003) 98]. The plasma, powered by a pulse frequency of 100 kHz, was electrically studied by a Langmuir probe. The next parameters were calculated within the pulse cycle from I-V measurements with 1 μs resolution: plasma and floating potentials, electron temperature, and electron and ion densities. The presence of a population of hot electrons (10 eV) was detected at high bias voltage region. The density of cold electrons grows one order of magnitude after each negative pulse, whereas the ion density suffers a prompt increase during each positive pulse. The surface topography of DLC films was scanned by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A smoothly varying friction coefficient (between 0.2 and 0.3) was measured by AFM in contact mode. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) analysis provided a wide characterization of the films, involving density, thickness and roughness. The C/H ratio, as directly obtained by elemental analysis (EA), shows an increase at higher bias voltages. All these features are discussed in terms of process parameters varied in film growth

  1. Effect of relative humidity on the tribological properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films in a nitrogen environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongxuan; Xu Tao; Wang Chengbing; Chen Jianmin; Zhou Huidi; Liu Huiwen

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si (100) wafers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique using CH 4 plus Ar as the feedstock. The friction and wear properties of the resulting films under different relative humidities, ranging from 5% to 100%, in a nitrogen environment, were measured using a ball-on-disc tribometer, with Si 3 N 4 balls as the counterparts. The friction surfaces of the films and Si 3 N 4 balls were observed on a scanning electron microscope, and investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the friction coefficient increased continuously from 0.025 to 0.09 with increase in relative humidity from 5% to 100%, while the wear rate of the films sharply decreased and reached a minimum at a relative humidity of 40%, then it increased with further increase of the relative humidity. The interruption of the transferred carbon-rich layer on the Si 3 N 4 ball, and the friction-induced oxidation of the films at higher relative humidity were proposed as the main reasons for the increase in the friction coefficient. Moreover, the oxidation and hydrolysis of the Si 3 N 4 ball at higher relative humidity, leading to the formation of a tribochemical film, which mainly consists of silica gel, on the friction surface, are also thought to influence the friction and wear behaviour of the hydrogenated DLC films

  2. The characterisation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond - like carbon (DLC for endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gałuszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of DLC coating of a - C:H type obtained by using a technique of physical vapor deposition (PVD on the surface of CoCrMo alloy, commonly used for the elements of the endoprosthesis. The surface has been observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Analysis of the chemical composition and distribution of the different elements were performed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry analysis (GDOES. It has been shown that the DLC elements are characterized by high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate.

  3. Effect of boron incorporation on the structure and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, A. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Rouzaud, J.-N. [Laboratoire de Geologie, UMR 8538 CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rojas, T.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Loir, A.-S. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Garden, J.-L. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Garrelie, F. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Donnet, C., E-mail: christophe.donnet@univ-st-etienne.f [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2009-12-31

    The influence of the incorporation of boron in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the microstructure of the coatings has been investigated. The boron-containing DLC films (a-C:B) have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature in high vacuum conditions, by ablating graphite and boron targets either with a femtosecond pulsed laser (800 nm, 150 fs, fs-DLC) or with a nanosecond pulsed laser (248 nm, 20 ns, ns-DLC). Alternative ablation of the graphite and boron targets has been carried out to deposit the a-C:B films. The film structure and composition have been highlighted by coupling Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Using the B K-edge, EELS characterization reveals the boron effect on the carbon bonding. Moreover, the plasmon energy reveals a tendency of graphitization associated to the boron doping. Pure boron particles have been characterized by HRTEM and reveal that those particles are amorphous or crystallized. The nanostructures of the boron-doped ns-DLC and the boron-doped fs-DLC are thus compared. In particular, the incorporation of boron in the DLC matrix is highlighted, depending on the laser used for deposition. Electrical measurements show that some of these films have potentialities to be used in low temperature thermometry, considering their conductivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) estimated within the temperature range 160-300 K.

  4. Ion induced transformation of polymer films into diamond-like carbon incorporating silver nano particles; Ioneninduzierte Umwandlung von Polymerschichten zu diamantaehnlichem Kohlenstoff mit darin enthaltenen Silber-Nanopartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Florian P.

    2010-03-26

    Silver containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an interesting material for medical engineering from several points of view. On the one hand DLC provides high mechanical robustness. It can be used as biocompatible and wear resistant coating for joint replacing implants. On the other hand silver has antimicrobial properties, which could reduce post-operative inflammations. However conventional production of Ag-DLC by co-deposition of silver and carbon in a plasma process is problematic since it does not allow for a separate control of nano particle morphology and matrix properties. In this work an alternative production method has been developed to circumvent this problem. In metall-DLC-production by ion implantation into a nano composite, silver nano particles are initially formed in solution and then incorporated within a polymer matrix. Finally the polymer is transformed into DLC by ion implantation. The aspects and single steps of this method were investigated with regard to the resulting material's properties. The goal was to design an economically relevant deposition method. Based on experimental results a model of the transformation process has been established, which has also been implemented in a computer simulation. Finally the antibacterial properties of the material have been checked in a biomedical test. Here a bacterial killing rate of 90% could be achieved. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH{sub 4} dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón, R., E-mail: rocio.rincon@emt.inrs.ca, E-mail: chaker@emt.inrs.ca; Matos, J. de; Chaker, M., E-mail: rocio.rincon@emt.inrs.ca, E-mail: chaker@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 Boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Hendaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 Boulevard Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Department of Physics, College of Science and General Studies, Alfaisal University, Takhasusi Road, Riyadh 11533 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-14

    An Ar/CH{sub 4} atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (∼35 mJ m{sup −2}) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  6. Structure, adhesive strength and electrochemical performance of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films deposited via DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E; Krishna, M D

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering with different nitrogen flow rates at a substrate temperature of about 100 degrees C. The chemical bonding structure of the films was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The adhesive strength and surface morphology of the films were studied using micro-scratch tester and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical performance of the films was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization testing and linear sweep voltammetry. The electrolytes used for the electrochemical tests were deaerated and unstirred 0.47 M KCl aqueous solution for potentiodynamic polarization testing and 0.2 M KOH and 0.1 M KCl solutions for voltammetric analysis. It was found that the DLC:N films could well passivate the underlying substrates though the corrosion resistance of the films decreased with increased nitrogen content in the films. The DLC:N films showed wide potential windows in the KOH solution, in which the detection ability of the DLC:N films to trace lead of about 1 x 10(-3) M Pb(2+) was also tested.

  7. Photovoltaic Properties and Ultrafast Plasmon Relaxation Dynamics of Diamond-Like Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Embedded Ag Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Peckus, Domantas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Čiegis, Arvydas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2017-12-01

    Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) and photovoltaic properties of heterojunctions consisting of DLC:Ag and crystalline silicon (DLC:Ag/Si) were investigated by means of transient absorption (TAS) spectroscopy and photovoltaic measurements. The heterojunctions using both p type and n type silicon were studied. It was found that TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films were dependent on the used excitation wavelength. At wavelengths where Ag nanoparticles absorbed light most intensively, only DLC signal was registered. This result is in good accordance with an increase of the DLC:Ag/Si heterojunction short circuit current and open circuit voltage with the excitation wavelength in the photovoltaic measurements. The dependence of the TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films and photovoltaic properties of DLC:Ag/Si heterostructures on the excitation wavelength was explained as a result of trapping of the photoexcited hot charge carriers in DLC matrix. The negative photovoltaic effect was observed for DLC:Ag/p-Si heterostructures and positive ("conventional") for DLC:Ag/n-Si ones. It was explained by the excitation of hot plasmonic holes in the Ag nanoparticles embedded into DLC matrix. Some decrease of DLC:Ag/Si heterostructures photovoltage as well as photocurrent with DLC:Ag film thickness was observed, indicating role of the interface in the charge transfer process of photocarriers excited in Ag nanoparticles.

  8. Friction and wear of hydrogenated and hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon films: Relative humidity dependent character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Gong, Zhenbin; Wang, Yongfu; Gao, Kaixiong; Zhang, Junyan

    2017-11-01

    In this study, tribological properties of hydrogenated and hydrogen free diamond-like carbon films at various relative humidity (RH) were investigated to understand the friction mechanism in the presence of water molecules. At normal load of 2N, DLC-H film's friction coefficient was 0.06 at RH14% while DLC film's friction coefficient was 0.19 at RH17%. With the increase of RH, their friction coefficient converged to about 0.15. This character remained unaltered when the normal load was 5N. Results show that low friction of DLC-H film at low RH was attributed to the low shear force aroused by graphitic tribofilm at wear care center. However, the high friction of DLC film was mainly endowed by the high adhesive force aroused by σ dangling bonds. At high RH, solid-to-solid contact was isolated by water molecules confined between the counterfaces, where capillary was a dominant factor for friction. In addition to the capillary force, the absence of tribofilm was also accountable. These two factors lead to the level off of friction coefficient for DLC-H and DLC films. Moreover, for both DLC-H and DLC films, tribo-oxidization was proved to be closely related to wear rate with the assist of H2O molecules during sliding.

  9. Fluorine and boron co-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by pulsed glow discharge plasma immersion ion processing

    CERN Document Server

    He, X M; Peters, A M; Taylor, B; Nastasi, M

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine (F) and boron (B) co-doped diamond-like carbon (FB-DLC) films were prepared on different substrates by the plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP) technique. A pulse glow discharge plasma was used for the PIIP deposition and was produced at a pressure of 1.33 Pa from acetylene (C sub 2 H sub 2), diborane (B sub 2 H sub 6), and hexafluoroethane (C sub 2 F sub 6) gas. Films of FB-DLC were deposited with different chemical compositions by varying the flow ratios of the C sub 2 H sub 2 , B sub 2 H sub 6 , and C sub 2 F sub 6 source gases. The incorporation of B sub 2 H sub 6 and C sub 2 F sub 6 into PIIP deposited DLC resulted in the formation of F-C and B-C hybridized bonding structures. The levels of the F and B concentrations effected the chemical bonding and the physical properties as was evident from the changes observed in density, hardness, stress, friction coefficient, and contact angle of water on films. Compared to B-doped or F-doped DLC films, the F and B co-doping of DLC during PIIP deposition...

  10. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  11. Tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon film with different tribo-pairs: A size effect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxin [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: xie-gx@163.com; Zheng Beirong [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 323035 (China); Li Wei [School of Science, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Xue Wei [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 323035 (China)

    2008-08-30

    A friction force microscope (FFM) with different probes and a ball-on-disk (BOD) tribo-meter were used to investigate the tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. DLC films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method by altering the deposition parameters, and their morphologies and structural information were examined with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Raman spectrum. The wear traces of the DLC films after frictional tests were analyzed by an optical microscope. It is found that surface roughness and adhesion play important roles in characterizing the tribological properties of DLC films using FFM. Moreover, the debris accumulation is another significant factor affecting the frictional behavior of DLC films, especially for the sharp tip. The difference in coefficients of friction (COFs) obtained by the BOD method among different DLC films under water lubrication is much smaller than the case without water lubrication. The variation trends in COF for the flat tip and the BOD test are similar in comparison with the result obtained with the sharp tip. The wear traces after frictional tests suggest that DLC films under water lubrication are prone to be damaged more readily.

  12. Study on Exploding Wire Compression for Evaluating Electrical Conductivity in Warm-Dense Diamond-Like-Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Kudo, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    To improve a coupling efficiency for the fast ignition scheme of the inertial confinement fusion, fast electron behaviors as a function of an electrical conductivity are required. To evaluate the electrical conductivity for low-Z materials as a diamond-like-carbon (DLC), we have proposed a concept to investigate the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) by using pulsed-power discharges. The concept of the evaluation of DLC for WDM is a shock compression driven by an exploding wire discharge with confined by a rigid capillary. The qualitatively evaluation of the electrical conductivity for the WDM DLC requires a small electrical conductivity of the exploding wire. To analyze the electrical conductivity of exploding wire, we have demonstrated an exploding wire discharge in water for gold. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity of WDM gold for 5000 K of temperature has an insulator regime. It means that the shock compression driven by the exploding wire discharge with confined by the rigid capillary is applied for the evaluation of electrical conductivity for WDM DLC. (paper)

  13. Tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon film with different tribo-pairs: A size effect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxin; Zheng Beirong; Li Wei; Xue Wei

    2008-01-01

    A friction force microscope (FFM) with different probes and a ball-on-disk (BOD) tribo-meter were used to investigate the tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. DLC films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method by altering the deposition parameters, and their morphologies and structural information were examined with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Raman spectrum. The wear traces of the DLC films after frictional tests were analyzed by an optical microscope. It is found that surface roughness and adhesion play important roles in characterizing the tribological properties of DLC films using FFM. Moreover, the debris accumulation is another significant factor affecting the frictional behavior of DLC films, especially for the sharp tip. The difference in coefficients of friction (COFs) obtained by the BOD method among different DLC films under water lubrication is much smaller than the case without water lubrication. The variation trends in COF for the flat tip and the BOD test are similar in comparison with the result obtained with the sharp tip. The wear traces after frictional tests suggest that DLC films under water lubrication are prone to be damaged more readily

  14. Low-macroscopic field emission from silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon film synthesized by dc PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sk.F.; Mitra, M.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) films were deposited via dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), on glass and alumina substrates at a substrate temperature 300 deg. C. The precursor gas used was acetylene and for Si incorporation, tetraethyl orthosilicate dissolved in methanol was used. Si atomic percentage in the films was varied from 0% to 19.3% as measured from energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The binding energies of C 1s, Si 2s and Si 2p were determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. We have observed low-macroscopic field electron emission from Si-DLC thin films deposited on glass substrates. The emission properties have been studied for a fixed anode-sample separation of 80 μm for different Si atomic percentages in the films. The turn-on field was also found to vary from 16.19 to 3.61 V/μm for a fixed anode-sample separation of 80 μm with a variation of silicon atomic percentage in the films 0% to 19.3%. The turn-on field and approximate work function are calculated and we have tried to explain the emission mechanism there from. It was found that the turn-on field and effective emission barrier were reduced by Si incorporation than undoped DLC

  15. A study for anticorrosion and tribological behaviors of thin/thick diamond-like carbon films in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yewei; Jia, Shujuan; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Haichao

    2018-03-01

    The thin and thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique on 304L stainless steels and (100) silicon wafers. Microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and tribological properties were systematically investigated by SEM, Raman, nanoindenter, scratch tester, modulab electrochemical workstation and R-tec multifunctional tribological tester. Results showed that the adhesion force presented a descending trend with the growth in soaking time. The adhesion force of the thin DLC film with high residual compressive stress (‑3.72 GPa) was higher than that of the thick DLC film (‑2.96 GPa). During the corrosion test, the thick DLC film showed a higher impendence and a lower corrosion current density than the thin DLC film, which is attributed to the barrier action of large thickness. Compared to bare 304L substrate, the friction coefficients and wear rates of DLC films in seawater were obviously decreased. Meanwhile, the thin DLC film with ideal residual compressive stress, super adhesion force and good plastic deformation resistance revealed an excellent anti-wear ability in seawater.

  16. High energy ion beam induced modifications in diamond and diamond like carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilawar, N.; Sah, S.; Mehta, B.R.; Vankar, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Diamond and DLC films deposited using hot-filament chemical vapour deposition technique at various parameters were irradiated with 50 MeV Si 4+ ions. The resulting microstructural changes were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. All the samples showed the development of β-SiC and hexagonal carbon phases at the expense of the diamond/DLC phase. The ERD analysis was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration and its distribution in DLC films. The absolute hydrogen concentration in DLC samples is of the order of 10 22 atoms/cm 3 which gets depleted on irradiation. The DLC samples show a clear dependence of hydrogen content on the deposition parameters. (author)

  17. Development of program package for investigation and modeling of carbon nanostructures in diamond like carbon films with the help of Raman scattering and infrared absorption spectra line resolving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, David B.; Hovhannisyan, Levon; Mantashyan, Paytsar A.

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of complex spectra is an actual problem for modern science. The work is devoted to the creation of a software package, which analyzes spectrum in the different formats, possesses by dynamic knowledge database and self-study mechanism, performs automated analysis of the spectra compound based on knowledge database by application of certain algorithms. In the software package as searching systems, hyper-spherical random search algorithms, gradient algorithms and genetic searching algorithms were used. The analysis of Raman and IR spectrum of diamond-like carbon (DLC) samples were performed by elaborated program. After processing the data, the program immediately displays all the calculated parameters of DLC.

  18. Cell adhesion and growth on ultrananocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon films after different surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksovsky, J. [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University of Kassel (Germany); Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Kladno (Czech Republic); Voss, A. [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University of Kassel (Germany); Kozarova, R. [Institute of Molecular Biology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kocourek, T.; Pisarik, P. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Kladno (Czech Republic); Ceccone, G. [Unit Nanobiosciences, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Kulisch, W. [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University of Kassel (Germany); Jelinek, M. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Kladno (Czech Republic); Apostolova, M.D. [Institute of Molecular Biology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Reithmaier, J.P. [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University of Kassel (Germany); Popov, C., E-mail: popov@ina.uni-kassel.de [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, University of Kassel (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • UNCD and DLC films were modified by UV/O{sub 3} treatments, O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}-containing plasmas. • Surface composition, wettability and surface energy change upon modifications. • Higher efficiency of UNCD modifications was observed. • Cell attachment and growth were influenced by the surface termination and roughness. - Abstract: Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films possess a set of excellent physical and chemical properties which together with a high biocompatibility make them attractive candidates for a number of medical and biotechnological applications. In the current work thin ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and DLC films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell attachment and proliferation after different surface modifications. The UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the DLC films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were comprehensively characterized with respect to their basic properties, e.g. crystallinity, morphology, chemical bonding nature, etc. Afterwards the UNCD and DLC films were modified applying O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} plasmas and UV/O{sub 3} treatments to alter their surface termination. The surface composition of as-grown and modified samples was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore the films were characterized by contact angle measurements with water, formamide, 1-decanol and diiodomethane; from the results obtained the surface energy with its dispersive and polar components was calculated. The adhesion and proliferation of MG63 osteosarcoma cells on the different UNCD and DLC samples were assessed by measurement of the cell attachment efficiency and MTT assays. The determined cell densities were compared and correlated with the surface properties of as-deposited and modified UNCD and DLC films.

  19. Deposition and properties of Al-containing diamond-like carbon films by a hybrid ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Wang Aiying

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Weak carbide former, Al element, was incorporated into DLC films using a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. → The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms doping, which resulted in the distinct reduction of the film internal stress and hardness, but the internal stress dropped faster than the hardness. → The DLC films with low internal stress and high hardness can be acquired by Al incorporation. - Abstract: Metal incorporation is one of the most effective methods for relaxing internal stress in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. It was reported that the chemical state of the incorporated metal atoms has a significant influence on the film internal stress. The doped atoms embedding in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms can reduce the structure disorder of the DLC films through bond angle distortion and thus relax the internal stress of the films. In present paper, Al atoms, which are inert to carbon, were incorporated into the DLC films deposited by a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. The film composition, microstructure and atomic bond structure were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The internal stress, mechanical properties and tribogoical behavior were studied as a function of Al concentration using a stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-disc tribo-tester, respectively. The results indicated that the incorporated Al atoms were dissolved in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms and the films exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon. The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms incorporation. This resulted in the distinct reduction of the internal stress in the films. All Al-DLC films exhibited a lower friction coefficient compared with pure DLC film. The formation of the

  20. Improvement in the degradation resistance of silicon nanostructures by the deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyui, N. I., E-mail: klyui@isp.kiev.ua; Semenenko, M. A.; Khatsevich, I. M.; Makarov, A. V.; Kabaldin, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Fomovskii, F. V. [Kremenchug National University (Ukraine); Han, Wei [Jilin University, College of Physics (China)

    2015-08-15

    It is established that the deposition of a diamond-like film onto a structure with silicon nanoclusters in a silicon dioxide matrix yields an increase in the long-wavelength photoluminescence intensity of silicon nanoclusters due to the passivation of active-recombination centers with hydrogen and a shift of the photoluminescence peak to the region of higher photosensitivity of silicon-based solar cells. It is also shown that, due to the deposited diamond-like film, the resistance of such a structure to degradation upon exposure to γ radiation is improved, which is also defined by the effect of the passivation of radiation-induced activerecombination centers by hydrogen that is released from the films during treatment.

  1. Influence of sulfidation treatment on the structure and tribological properties of nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qunfeng; Dong Guangneng; Xie Youbai

    2008-01-01

    The nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on high speed steel (HSS) substrates in the direct current unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Sulphurized layer was formed on the surface of DLC films by means of liquid sulfidation in the intermixture of urea and thiourea solution in order to improve the tribological properties of DLC films. The influence of sulfidation treatment on the structure and tribological properties of DLC films was investigated in this work. The structure and wear surface morphology of DLC films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SEM, respectively. It reveals that the treated films are smooth and uniform; and sulfur atoms are bonded chemically. The treated films have broader distribution of Raman spectra in the range of 1000-1800 cm -1 and higher I D /I G ratio than the untreated films as a result of the appearance of the crystalline graphite structure after the sulfidation treatment. It is showed that the sp 2 relative content increase in the treated films from the XPS measurement. The Raman results are consistent with the XPS results. The tribological properties of DLC films were investigated using a ball-on-disk rotating friction and wear tester under dry friction conditions. It is found that the sulfidation concentration plays an important part in the tribological properties of the treated DLC films. The results showed the treated films with low sulfidation concentration have a lower friction coefficient (0.1) than the treated films with high sulfidation concentration (0.26) and the untreated films (0.27) under the same friction testing conditions, which can be attributed to both the presence of sulfur-containing materials and the forming of the mechanical alloyed layer on the wear surface. Adding the dry nitrogen to the sliding surface in the testing system helps the friction coefficient of the treated films with low sulfidation concentration to decrease to 0.04 further in this work. On the basis of the

  2. Study of PECVD films containing flourine and carbon and diamond like carbon films for ultra low dielectric constant interlayer dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Nandini Ganapathy

    precursors. Pre and post-anneal structural properties of the deposited thin film were studied using laser excitation of 633 nm in a Jobin Yvon Labram high-resolution micro-Raman spectrometer. The film was further characterized using AFM, FTIR, XRD, goniometry and electrical testing. Average film roughness as measured by AFM was less than 1 nm, the k-value was 2.5, and the contact angle with water was 42°. Lastly, layered dielectric films comprising of Diamond like Carbon (DLC) and Amorphous Fluorocarbon (a:C-F) were generated using three different stack configurations and subsequently evaluated. Seven unique process conditions generated promising stacks with k-values between 1.69 and 1.95. Of these, only one film exhibited very low shrinkage rates acceptable for semiconductor device processing. Annealed a:C-F films with DLC top coat are similar in bonding structure to as deposited FC films proving that DLC deposition significantly modified the bonding structure of the underlying annealed a:C-F film. Stacks comprised of a:C-F films with higher oxygen content, deposited using high FRRs exhibited both macro and microbuckling to a larger degree and extent. Film integrity was preserved by annealing the Fluorocarbon component or by providing a DLC base coat.

  3. Structural properties and surface wettability of Cu-containing diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid linear ion beam deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Sun, Lili; Li, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xu, Sheng [Gao Hong Coating Technology Co., Ltd, Huzhou 313000 (China); Ke, Peiling [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (Cu-DLC) films were deposited on Si/glass substrate by a hybrid ion beam deposition system. The Cu concentration (0.1–39.7 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The microstructure and composition of Cu-DLC films were investigated systematically. The surface topography, roughness and surface wettability of the films were also studied. Results indicated that with increasing the Cu concentration, the water contact angle of the films changed from 66.8° for pure carbon film to more than 104.4° for Cu-DLC films with Cu concentration larger than 24.4 at.%. In the hydrophilic region, the polar surface energy decreased from 30.54 mJ/m{sup 2} for pure carbon film to 2.48 mJ/m{sup 2} for the film with Cu 7.0 at.%. - Highlights: • Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. • Cu-containing DLC films exhibited a wide range of water contact angle. • The water contact angles vary with the surface energies and surface roughness.

  4. Patterning of diamond like carbon films for sensor applications using silicon containing thermoplastic resist (SiPol) as a hard mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virganavičius, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Cadarso, V.J.; Kirchner, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stankevičius, L.; Tamulevičius, T.; Tamulevičius, S. [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 51423 Kaunas (Lithuania); Schift, H., E-mail: helmut.schift@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nanopatterning of thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and silver containing DLC composites. • Nanoimprint lithography with thermoplastic silicon containing resist. • Zero-residual layer imprinting and pattern transfer by reactive ion etching. • Robust leaky waveguide sensors with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU. - Abstract: Patterning of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC:metal nanocomposites is of interest for an increasing number of applications. We demonstrate a nanoimprint lithography process based on silicon containing thermoplastic resist combined with plasma etching for straightforward patterning of such films. A variety of different structures with few hundred nanometer feature size and moderate aspect ratios were successfully realized. The quality of produced patterns was directly investigated by the means of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such structures were further assessed by employing them in the development of gratings for guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. Optical characterization of such leaky waveguide was compared with numerical simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis method with good agreement. The use of such structures as refractive index variation sensors is demonstrated with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU, achieving an improvement close to 450% in sensitivity compared to previously reported similar sensors. This pronounced GMR signal fully validates the employed DLC material, the technology to pattern it and the possibility to develop DLC based gratings as corrosion and wear resistant refractometry sensors that are able to operate under harsh conditions providing great value and versatility.

  5. Correlation of sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} fraction of carbon with electrical, optical and nano-mechanical properties of argon-diluted diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Kumar, Sushil, E-mail: skumar@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi (India); Malik, H.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Govind [Surface Physics and Nano Structures Group, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rauthan, C.M.S.; Panwar, O.S. [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work the correlation of electrical, optical and nano-mechanical properties of argon-diluted diamond-like carbon (Ar-DLC) thin films with sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} fractions of carbon have been explored. These Ar-DLC thin films have been deposited, under varying C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas pressures from 25 to 75 mTorr, by radio frequency-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies are performed to estimate the sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} fractions of carbon by deconvoluting C 1s core level spectra. Various electrical, optical and nano-mechanical parameters such as conductivity, I-V characteristics, optical band gap, stress, hardness, elastic modulus, plastic resistance parameter, elastic recovery and plastic deformation energy have been estimated and then correlated with calculated sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} fractions of carbon and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratios. Observed tremendous electrical, optical and nano-mechanical properties in Ar-DLC films deposited under high base pressure conditions made it a cost effective material for not only hard and protective coating applications but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  6. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araújo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp 3 bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp 3 bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation for the influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Wang, Aiying

    2014-01-01

    The influence of incident angles of energetic carbon atoms (0–60°) on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was investigated by the molecular dynamics simulation using a Tersoff interatomic potential. The present simulation revealed that as the incident angles increased from 0 to 60°, the surface roughness of DLC films increased and the more porous structure was generated. Along the growth direction of DLC films, the whole system could be divided into four regions including substrate region, transition region, stable region and surface region except the case at the incident angle of 60°. When the incident angle was 45°, the residual stress was significantly reduced by 12% with little deterioration of mechanical behavior. The further structure analysis using both the bond angles and bond length distributions indicated that the compressive stress reduction mainly resulted from the relaxation of highly distorted C–C bond length. - Highlights: • The dependence of films properties on different incident angles was investigated. • The change of incident angles reduced the stress without obvious damage of density. • The stress reduction attributed to the relaxation of highly distorted bond length

  8. The modeling and synthesis of nanodiamonds by laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in liquid-confined ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, L.; Gorrini, F.; Bazzanella, N.; Cazzanelli, M.; Dorigoni, C.; Bifone, A.; Miotello, A.

    2018-01-01

    Nanodiamonds have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in quantum computation, sensing, and bioimaging. However, synthesis of nanodiamonds typically requires high pressures and temperatures, and is still a challenge. Here, we demonstrate production of nanodiamonds by pulsed laser ablation of graphite and diamond-like carbon in water. Importantly, this technique enables production of nanocrystalline diamonds at room temperature and standard pressure conditions. Moreover, we propose a method for the purification of nanodiamonds from graphitic and amorphous carbon phases that do not require strong acids and harsh chemical conditions. Finally, we present a thermodynamic model that describes the formation of nanodiamonds during pulsed laser ablation. We show that synthesis of the crystalline phase is driven by a graphite-liquid-diamond transition process that occurs at the extreme thermodynamic conditions reached inside the ablation plume.

  9. Effect of working pressure on corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, N W; Liu, E

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films were deposited on highly conductive p-silicon(100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system by varying working pressure in the deposition chamber. The bonding structure, adhesion strength, surface roughness and corrosion behavior of the films were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, micro-scratch test, atomic force microscopy and potentiodynamic polarization test. A 0.6 M NaCl electrolytic solution was used for the corrosion tests. The optimum corrosion resistance of the films was found at a working pressure of 7 mTorr at which a good balance between the kinetics of the sputtered ions and the surface mobility of the adatoms promoted a microstructure of the films with fewer porosities.

  10. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-07

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process.

  11. Thermal Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes with Diamond-Like Carbon Heat-Spreading Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Yang Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-dependent optical, electrical, and thermal properties of flip-chip light emitting diodes (FCLEDs with diamond-like carbon (DLC heat-spreading layers were investigated. On the basis of the measured results in the 20°C to 100°C temperature range, a significant performance improvement can be achieved for FCLEDs with DLC heat-spreading layers (DLC-FCLED compared with FCLEDs without DLC heat-spreading layers (non-DLC-FCLED. The external quantum efficiency (EQE of the DLC-FCLED improves by 9% at an injection current of 1000 mA and a temperature of 100°C. The forward voltage and spectra variations are smaller than those of non-DLC-FCLEDs. The DLC-FCLED provides high efficiency and high stability performance for high-power and high-temperature applications.

  12. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, A. J.; Ruth, A. A., E-mail: a.ruth@ucc.ie [Physics Department and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333-CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-07-14

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles’ spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ.

  13. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Franck, E-mail: franck.rose@hgst.com; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno [HGST, A Western Digital Company, San Jose Research Center, 3403, Yerba Buena Rd, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki [HGST, A Western Digital Company, Japan Research Laboratory, 2880 Kozu, Odawara, Kanagawa 256-8510 (Japan); Mangolini, Filippo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Carpick, Robert W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6315 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp³ fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp² clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  14. Rapid fabrication of transparent conductive films with controllable sheet resistance on glass substrates by laser annealing of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunhee; Ki, Hyungson

    2016-01-01

    We report a laser-based method for directly fabricating large-area, transparent conductive films with customizable electrical resistance on glass. In this method, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is deposited first on a glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition, which is then annealed in a helium shielding environment by a 2 kW continuous-wave fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm, which is transparent to glass but is absorbed by DLC to transform the amorphous carbons to graphene. When a 510 nm thick film was annealed at a scanning speed of 1 m/s by a 200 μm top-hat laser beam, the sp 3 fraction was decreased from 43.1% to 8.1% after the annealing process, and the transformed film showed a transparency of ∼80% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of ∼2050 Ω/sq. We also showed that sheet resistance and transparency can be controlled by changing processing parameters. To show the scalability of the method, a 15 mm wide line beam was used to produce a 15 mm × 15 mm film. This method is simple, fully scalable, transfer-free and catalyst-free, and we believe that the fabricated films can have many applications with further research, such as transparent heating films, electromagnetic shielding films, and transparent electrodes.

  15. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Franck; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp 3 fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp 2 clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  16. Fabrication and electrochemistry characteristics of nickel-doped diamond-like carbon film toward applications in non-enzymatic glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Wen; Chen, Wei-En; Sun, Yin Tung Albert; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2018-04-01

    This research work focused on the fabrication of nickel-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and their characteristics including of surface morphology, microstructure, and electrochemical aiming at applications in non-enzymatic glucose detection. Novel nanodiamond target was employed in unbalanced magnetron radio-frequency co-sputtering process to prepared high quality Ni-doped DLC thin film at room temperature. TEM analysis reveals a highly uniform distribution of Ni crystallites in amorphous carbon matrix with fraction ranged from 3 to 11.5 at.% which is considered as active sites for the glucose detection. Our cyclic voltammetry measurements using 0.1 M H2SO4 solution demonstrated that the as-prepared Ni-doped DLC films possess large electrochemical potential window of 2.12 V, and this was also observed to be significantly reduced at high Ni doping level owing to lower sp3 fraction. The non-enzymatic glucose detection investigation indicates that the Ni-doped DLC thin film electrode prepared under 7 W of DC sputtering power on Ni target possesses good detecting performance, high stability, and high sensitivity to glucose concentration up to 10 mM, even with the existence of uric acid and ascorbic acid. The peak current was observed to be proportional to glucose concentration and scanning rate, demonstrating highly reversibility redox process of the film electrode and glucose.

  17. Diamond like carbon Ag nanocomposites as a control measure against Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes on food preparation surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    on selective agars and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) including staining with propidium monoazide (PMA). It was determined, that DLC:Ag film was the most efficient coating in the reduction of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes numbers. Culture-based enumeration revealed that C. jejuni numbers were reduced......:Ag antimicrobial surface showed a reduced ability to grow on culture media, but maintained viability during the whole experiment. Nonetheless, DLC:Ag antimicrobial surface could be further considered for the reduction of cross-contamination risk from food preparation surfaces due to their contamination with C....... jejuni and L. monocytogenes in domestic and commercial kitchens or food establishments....

  18. Laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy as a diagnostic for the characterisation of diamond and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.

    1990-10-01

    Invariably when manufacturing an artificial diamond film a mixture of carbon is deposited - tetragonally bonded (diamond), trigonally bonded (graphite) and other allotropic crystalline forms and amorphous carbons. This imposes a need for careful analysis to determine exactly what carbon types constitute the films. Raman spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to crystal and atomic structure and has a number of advantages which make it one of the most useful techniques for interrogating diamond and DLC thin films. Although Raman spectroscopy alone cannot fully characterise the film, it can give more information than simply what particular form of carbon or other impurities are present in the film. It can be used to determine the ratio of sp 2 to sp 3 bonding within the film, and to some extent the crystallite or domain size and the internal stress of the film. The use of laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in the analysis of diamond and DLC thin films is demonstrated for a variety of carbon films on various substrates and the characterisation of these films is discussed. (author)

  19. Investigation of corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon thin films in Hank's solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Undoped (DLC), nitrogen-doped (N-DLC) and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon (PtRu-DLC) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch test, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the films in a Hank's solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion results revealed that the PtRu-DLC film had the highest corrosion potential among the films used in this study. Highlights: → DLC thin films were deposited on Si substrates via dc magnetron sputtering. → Some DLC films were doped with N and/or Pt/Ru. → The film corrosion behavior was studied in a Hank solution with polarization test. → The PtRu-DLC film showed the highest corrosion potential among the films studied.

  20. Investigation of corrosion behavior of nitrogen doped and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon thin films in Hank's solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg

    2011-10-10

    Undoped (DLC), nitrogen-doped (N-DLC) and platinum/ruthenium doped diamond-like carbon (PtRu-DLC) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system. The chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology and adhesion strength of the films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-scratch test, respectively. The corrosion behavior of the films in a Hank's solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion results revealed that the PtRu-DLC film had the highest corrosion potential among the films used in this study. Highlights: {yields} DLC thin films were deposited on Si substrates via dc magnetron sputtering. {yields} Some DLC films were doped with N and/or Pt/Ru. {yields} The film corrosion behavior was studied in a Hank solution with polarization test. {yields} The PtRu-DLC film showed the highest corrosion potential among the films studied.

  1. Self-enhanced plasma discharge effect in the deposition of diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of slender tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yi [Department of 702, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Li, Liuhe, E-mail: liliuhe@buaa.edu.cn [Department of 702, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Luo, Sida [Department of 702, Beihang University, Beijing (China); International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Lu, Qiuyuan [Dong Feng Commercial Vehicle Technical Center, Dong Feng Commercial Vehicle Co., LTD, Wuhan (China); Gu, Jiabin; Lei, Ning [Department of 702, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Huo, Chunqin [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education, Shenzhen University, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Effect of inner surface materials of tubes on plasma discharge is examined. • Electron mean free path is used to analyze the films deposition. • Secondary electrons emitted from inner surface of tube enhance plasma discharge. - Abstract: Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (EGD-PIII&D) have been proved to be highly effective for depositing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the inner surface of the slender quartz tube with a deposition rate of 1.3 μm/min. Such a high-efficiency DLC films deposition was explained previously as the short electrons mean free path to cause large collision frequency between electrons and neutral particles. However, in this paper, we found that the inner surface material of the tube itself play a vital role on the films deposition. To disclose the mechanism of this phenomenon, the effect of different inner surface materials on plasma discharge was experimentally and theoretically investigated. Then a self-enhancing plasma discharge is discovered. It is found that secondary electrons emitted from the inner surface material, whatever it is the tube inner surface or deposited DLC films, can dramatically enhance the plasma discharge to improve the DLC films deposition rate.

  2. Surface treatment of diamond-like carbon films by reactive Ar/CF{sub 4} high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Takashi, E-mail: t-kimura@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Ryotaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Azuma, Kingo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Nakao, Setsuo; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Kusumori, Takeshi; Ozaki, Kimihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) - Chubu, 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films deposited by a high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) of Ar was carried out by a HPPMS of Ar/CF{sub 4} mixture, changing a CF{sub 4} fraction from 2.5% to 20%. The hardness of the modified films markedly decreased from about 13 to about 3.5 GPa with increasing CF{sub 4} fraction, whereas the water contact angle of the modified films increased from 68° to 109° owing to the increase in the CF{sub x} content on the film surface. C 1s spectra in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that a graphitic structure of modified films was formed at CF{sub 4} fractions less than 5%, above which the modified films possessed a polymer-like structure. Influence of treatment time on the properties of the modified films was also investigated in the range of treatment time from 5 to 30 min. The properties of the modified films did not depend on the treatment time in the range of treatment time longer than 10 min, whereas the water contact angle was not sensitive to the treatment time at any treatment time.

  3. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. → The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. → The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. → The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. → However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp 2 bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  4. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  5. Influence of Microwave Power on the Properties of Hydrogenated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by ECR Plasma Enhanced DC Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru Lili; Huang Jianjun; Gao Liang; Qi Bing

    2010-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was applied to enhance the direct current magnetron sputtering to prepare hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) films. For different microwave powers, both argon and hydrogen gas are introduced separately as the ECR working gas to investigate the influence of microwave power on the microstructure and electrical property of the H-DLC films deposited on P-type silicon substrates. A series of characterization methods including the Raman spectrum and atomic force microscopy are used. Results show that, within a certain range, the increase in microwave power affects the properties of the thin films, namely the sp 3 ratio, the hardness, the nanoparticle size and the resistivity all increase while the roughness decreases with the increase in microwave power. The maximum of resistivity amounts to 1.1 x 10 9 Ω · cm. At the same time it is found that the influence of microwave power on the properties of H-DLC films is more pronounced when argon gas is applied as the ECR working gas, compared to hydrogen gas.

  6. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  7. Improved tribological performance of PEEK polymers by application of diamond-like carbon coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KTomaszewski, P.; Pei, Y. T.; Verkerke, G. J.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    Overall high mechanical strength, an elastic modulus comparable to bone and low cost make polyetheretherketone (PEEK) an interesting biomaterial. However, high friction coefficient (CoF) and wear restrict its orthopaedic use to non-articulating applications. A solution might be offered by

  8. Microstructure and high-temperature tribological properties of Si-doped hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng Fei; Wan, Zhi Xin; Ding, Ji Cheng; Zhang, Shihong; Wang, Qi Min; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2018-03-01

    Si-doped DLC films have attracted great attention for use in tribological applications. However, their high-temperature tribological properties remain less investigated, especially in harsh oxidative working conditions. In this study, Si-doped hydrogenated DLC films with various Si content were synthesized and the effects of the addition of Si on the microstructural, mechanical and high-temperature tribological properties of the films were investigated. The results indicate that Si doping leads to an obvious increase in the sp3/sp2 ratio of DLC films, likely due to the silicon atoms preferentially substitute the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and augment the number of sp3 sites. With Si doping, the mechanical properties, including hardness and adhesion strength, were improved, while the residual stress of the DLC films was reduced. The addition of Si leads to higher thermal and mechanical stability of DLC films because the Si atoms inhibit the graphitization of the films at an elevated temperature. Better high-temperature tribological properties of the Si-DLC films under oxidative conditions were observed, which can be attributed to the enhanced thermal stability and formation of a Si-containing lubricant layer on the surfaces of the wear tracks. The nano-wear resistance of the DLC films was also improved by Si doping.

  9. Depth profiling of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) film: Localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer can enhance the non-thrombogenic properties of F-DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, Terumitsu [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Tachikawa Hospital, 4-2-22, Nishiki-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: teru_hasebe@hotmail.com; Nagashima, So [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Kamijo, Aki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yoshimura, Taichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Yoshimoto, Yukihiro; Yohena, Satoshi; Kodama, Hideyuki; Hotta, Atsushi [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Takahashi, Koki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuya [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2007-12-03

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) has recently drawn a great deal of attention as a more non-thrombogenic coating than conventional DLC for blood-contacting medical devices. We conducted quantitative depth profiling of F-DLC film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the effects of fluorine and fluorine distribution in F-DLC film in connection with the prevention of surface blood adhesion. F-DLC films were prepared on silicon substrates using the radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, and the thickness of films was {approx} 50 nm. 50-nm-thick F-DLC film samples were etched at 10-nm thickness intervals using argon plasma, and each surface was examined by XPS. Thereafter, each etched film layer was incubated with platelet-rich plasma isolated from human whole blood, and the platelet-covered area per unit area was evaluated for each surface. XPS spectra showed the localization of doped fluorine in the top-most thin layer of the film. Platelet-covered areas represented progressively larger portions of the surfaces of deeper etched layers, corresponding to the decreasing fluorine content in such sample surfaces. These results indicate that the localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer is one of the key factors in the promotion of the non-thrombogenicity of F-DLC film.

  10. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. {yields} The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. {yields} The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. {yields} The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. {yields} However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp{sup 2} bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  11. Effects of electrical conductivity of substrate materials on microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, S; Sonoda, T

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared by a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation, and the structural differences between DLC films deposited on different electrical conductive substrates, i.e., conductive Si wafers and insulating glass plates are examined by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS). In the Raman measurements, graphite (G) and disorder (D) peaks are observed for both samples. However, the additional photo luminescence is overlapped on the spectra in the case of on-glass sample. To elucidate the structural difference, the intensity ratio of D to G peak (I(D)/I(G)), G peak position and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are obtained by curve fitting using Gaussian function and linear baseline. It is found that the I(D)/I(G) is lower, G peak position is higher and FWHM of G peak is narrower for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. According to Robertson [1], lower I(D)/I(G) seems more sp 3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. In contrast, higher G peak position and narrower FWHM of G peak suggest less sp 3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. The results of XPS analysis with C1s spectra reveal that sp 3 ratio, i.e., the intensity ratio of sp 3 /(sp 3 +sp 2 ) is smaller for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. The inconsistency of the trend between I(D)/I(G) and other parameters (G peak position and FWHM of G peak) might be caused by the overlap of photo luminescence signal on Raman spectrum as to on-glass sample. From these results, it is considered that sp 3 C-C bonding is reduced in amount when using insulating substrate in comparison with conductive substrate.

  12. Influence of duty ratio of pulsed bias on structure and properties of silicon-doped diamond-like carbon films by plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Hideki; Kamata, Ryosuke; Miura, Soushi; Okuno, Saori

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of the duty ratio of pulsed substrate bias on the structure and properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) films deposited by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH 4 , Ar, and monomethylsilane (CH 3 SiH 3 ) as the Si source. The Si/(Si + C) ratios in the Si-DLC films deposited using pulsed bias were higher than that of the dc-biased Si-DLC film, and the Si fraction increased with decreasing pulse duty ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that Si-C, Si-H n , and C-H n bonds in the Si-DLC films increased with decreasing duty ratio. The internal stress decreased as the duty ratio decreased, which is probably due to the increase in Si-C, Si-H n , and C-H n bonds in the films. The Si-DLC films deposited using pulsed bias had higher adhesion strength than the dc-biased Si-DLC film because of the further reduction of internal stress. At higher duty ratios, although the Si fractions of the pulse-biased Si-DLC films were higher than that of the dc-biased Si-DLC film, the wear rates of the former were less than that of the latter. - Highlights: • The internal stress of Si-doped films was lowered at lower duty ratios. • The adhesion of pulse-biased films was improved compared with that of dc films. • The tribological properties of Si-doped films were improved by the use of pulse bias

  13. Microstructure and property of diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr co-doping deposited using a hybrid beams system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wei; Liu, Jingmao; Geng, Dongsen; Guo, Peng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Qimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr doping were deposited. • Alternate multilayered structure consisted of Al-poor layer and Al-rich layer was formed. • The periodic Al-rich layers can greatly improve the residual stress and elastic resilience of the films. - Abstract: DLC films with weak carbide former Al and carbide former Cr co-doping (Al:Cr-DLC) were deposited by a hybrid beams system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source (LIS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C 2 H 2 and Ar as the precursor. The doped Al and Cr contents were controlled via adjusting the C 2 H 2 fraction in the gas mixture. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of the Al:Cr-DLC films were researched carefully using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate tribometer as function of the C 2 H 2 fraction. The results show that the Al and Cr contents in the films increased continuously as the C 2 H 2 fraction decreased. The doped Cr atoms preferred to bond with the carbon while the Al atoms mainly existed in metallic state. Structure modulation with alternate multilayer consisted of Al-poor DLC layer and Al-rich DLC layer was found in the films. Those periodic Al-rich DLC layers can effectively release the residual stress of the films. On the other hand, the formation of the carbide component due to Cr incorporation can help to increase the film hardness. Accordingly, the residual stress of the DLC films can be reduced without sacrificing the film hardness though co-doping Al and Cr atoms. Furthermore, it was found that the periodic Al-rich layer can greatly improve the elastic resilience of the DLC films and thus decreases the film friction coefficient and wear rate significantly. However, the existence of the carbide component would cause abrasive wear and thus

  14. Microstructure and property of diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr co-doping deposited using a hybrid beams system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Wei, E-mail: popdw@126.com [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Jingmao; Geng, Dongsen [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo, Peng [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zheng, Jun [Science and Technology on Surface Engineering Laboratory, Lanzhou Institute of Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Qimin, E-mail: qmwang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr doping were deposited. • Alternate multilayered structure consisted of Al-poor layer and Al-rich layer was formed. • The periodic Al-rich layers can greatly improve the residual stress and elastic resilience of the films. - Abstract: DLC films with weak carbide former Al and carbide former Cr co-doping (Al:Cr-DLC) were deposited by a hybrid beams system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source (LIS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and Ar as the precursor. The doped Al and Cr contents were controlled via adjusting the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} fraction in the gas mixture. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of the Al:Cr-DLC films were researched carefully using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate tribometer as function of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} fraction. The results show that the Al and Cr contents in the films increased continuously as the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} fraction decreased. The doped Cr atoms preferred to bond with the carbon while the Al atoms mainly existed in metallic state. Structure modulation with alternate multilayer consisted of Al-poor DLC layer and Al-rich DLC layer was found in the films. Those periodic Al-rich DLC layers can effectively release the residual stress of the films. On the other hand, the formation of the carbide component due to Cr incorporation can help to increase the film hardness. Accordingly, the residual stress of the DLC films can be reduced without sacrificing the film hardness though co-doping Al and Cr atoms. Furthermore, it was found that the periodic Al-rich layer can greatly improve the elastic resilience of the DLC films and thus decreases the film friction coefficient and wear rate significantly. However, the existence of the carbide component would

  15. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  16. Desenvolvimento de superfícies com filmes de "Diamond-Like Carbon" com adesão melhorada e baixo coeficiente de atrito aplicáveis em conformação mecânica

    OpenAIRE

    Adão Felipe Oliveira Skonieski

    2013-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) é um tipo de carbono amorfo (a-C), ou carbono amorfo hidrogenado (a-C:H), com uma alta fração de carbono com ligações sp3. Filmes de DLC vêm sendo estudados com atenção considerável devido as suas características únicas como alta dureza, baixo coeficiente de atrito (em geral menor que 0,2) bem como sua resistência à corrosão e comportamento hidrofóbico. Mesmo que filmes DLC tenham uma larga gama de aplicações, a melhoria da adesão entre o filme e o substrato é uma qu...

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Multilayered and Functionally Gradient Tribological Coatings With Measured Material Properties (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Young S; Sharma, Shashi K; Sanders, Jeffrey H; Voevodin, Andrey A

    2006-01-01

    ...) gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were assumed as a series of perfectly bonded layers with unique material properties and layer thickness...

  18. Adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells on chromium-doped diamond-like carbon coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filová, Elena; Vandrovcová, Marta; Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Houdková, Jana; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Staňková, Ľubica; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 17. ISSN 0957-4530 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : osteocalcin * osteogenic differentiation * hexavalent chromium * focal adhesion contact * cell spreading area Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Biomaterials (as related to medical implants, devices, sensors) Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2016

  19. Regression Analysis of the Effect of Bias Voltage on Nano- and Macrotribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Ion-Plating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC films are deposited by bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA technique with DC and pulsed bias voltage. The effects of varying bias voltage on nanoindentation and nanowear properties were evaluated by atomic force microscopy. DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage of −50 V exhibited the greatest hardness at approximately 50 GPa, a low modulus of dissipation, low elastic modulus to nanoindentation hardness ratio, and high nanowear resistance. Nanoindentation hardness was positively correlated with the Raman peak ratio Id/Ig, whereas wear depth was negatively correlated with this ratio. These nanotribological properties highly depend on the films’ nanostructures. The tribological properties of the FCVA-DLC films were also investigated using a ball-on-disk test. The average friction coefficient of DLC films deposited with DC bias voltage was lower than that of DLC films deposited with pulse bias voltage. The friction coefficient calculated from the ball-on-disk test was correlated with the nanoindentation hardness in dry conditions. However, under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate had little correlation with nanoindentation hardness, and wear behavior seemed to be influenced by other factors such as adhesion strength between the film and substrate.

  20. The Role of Ambient Gas and Pressure on the Structuring of Hard Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei C. Popescu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hard carbon thin films were synthesized on Si (100 and quartz substrates by the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique in vacuum or methane ambient to study their suitability for applications requiring high mechanical resistance. The deposited films’ surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, crystalline status by X-ray diffraction, packing and density by X-ray reflectivity, chemical bonding by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adherence by “pull-out” measurements and mechanical properties by nanoindentation tests. Films synthesized in vacuum were a-C DLC type, while films synthesized in methane were categorized as a-C:H. The majority of PLD films consisted of two layers: one low density layer towards the surface and a higher density layer in contact with the substrate. The deposition gas pressure played a crucial role on films thickness, component layers thickness ratio, structure and mechanical properties. The films were smooth, amorphous and composed of a mixture of sp3-sp2 carbon, with sp3 content ranging between 50% and 90%. The thickness and density of the two constituent layers of a film directly determined its mechanical properties.

  1. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  2. Diamond and diamond-like carbon MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J. K.; Fu, Y. Q.; Le, H. R.; Williams, J. A.; Spearing, S. M.; Milne, W. I.

    2007-07-01

    To generate complex cartilage/bone tissues, scaffolds must possess several structural features that are difficult to create using conventional scaffold design/fabrication technologies. Successful cartilage/bone regeneration depends on the ability to assemble chondrocytes/osteoblasts into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Therefore, we developed a 3D scaffold fabrication system that applies the axiomatic approach to our microstereolithography system. The new system offers a reduced machine size by minimizing the optical components, and shows that the design matrix is decoupled. This analysis identified the key factors affecting microstructure fabrication and an improved scaffold fabrication system was constructed. The results demonstrate that precise, predesigned 3D structures can be fabricated. Using this 3D scaffold, cell adhesion behavior was observed. The use of 3D scaffolds might help determine key factors in the study of cell behavior in complex environments and could eventually lead to the optimal design of scaffolds for the regeneration of various tissues, such as cartilage and bone.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Multilayered and Functionally Gradient Tribological Coatings With Measured Material Properties (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were assumed as a series of perfectly bonded layers with...resistance and low friction. Ti1-xCx (0≤ x ≤1) gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were...indenter tip was used for the FEA model. Each coating sample consists of 1 μm thick coating and 440C stainless steel substrate. The area function for

  4. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  5. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; PAGNOUX, Geoffrey; PEIGNEY, Michael; DELATTRE, Benoit; MERMAT-ROLLET, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  6. Experimental Assessment of a New Type of Carbon-Coated ARTECOR® Vascular Prosthesis in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Podlaha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test and verify the characteristics of a new type of carbon-coated ARTECOR® vascular prosthesis developed at the Knitting Research Institute, a.s. Brno. Eight healthy Merino sheep, aged between 2 and 3 years, were implanted four types (A, B, C with diamond-like carbon (DLC coating and D as a control without DLC of vascular prostheses. The site of implantation was the common carotid artery; the length of the implant was 7 cm. All sheep received antibiotics prophylactically in accordance with the theory of the so-called “protected coagulum”. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed before finishing the operation to verify the patency of each prosthesis. During the study period the animals were closely observed. Prostheses were extirpated on day +/- 100 in 6 sheep and on day 182 in 2 sheep. Type B prosthesis showed better results according to its postoperative patency. The implant lumen was constantly 7 mm, whereas the use of other types resulted in lumen narrowing. Type B prosthesis has a deposition of DLC coating of a thickness of 20 nm with a high content of sp3 bonds (more diamond-like ones. The experimental type B of prosthesis ARTECOR® appears to be the most successful of the tested prostheses (at the end of the study all B-type prostheses remained patent. This prosthesis appears to better satisfy the rheologic characteristics for healing.

  7. Tribological performance of hard carbon coatings on 440C bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F M; Misra, M S; Shepard, D F; Froechtenigt, J F [Martin Marietta Astronautics Group, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Hard carbon coatings such as amorphous carbon, diamond and diamond-like carbon have received considerable attention for tribological applications owing to their high hardness, high modulus and desirable surface properties. Unfortunately, most of the deposition techniques induce high substrate temperatures that would temper traditional bearing steels and reduce the substrate load-carrying capability. Therefore, to effectively use these desirable coatings, a lower temperature deposition technique is required. Ion beam deposition can provide essentially ambient temperature conditions, accurate control of process parameters and good coating-substrate adhesion. To use these attributes, a test program was initiated to deposit mass-analyzed, high purity C{sup +} and CH{sub 4}{sup +} ions on molybdenum and 440C bearing steel for subsequent characterization by Raman spectroscopy and friction-wear tests. Results for a coating deposited from a carbon monoxide source showed an amorphous carbon-microcrystalline graphtie structure which exhibited very high microhardness and a three fold reduction in coefficient of friction for unlubricated tests compared to untreated 440C steel. In addition, incrementally increasing the applied load (by up to a factor of 5) resulted in progressively lower coefficients of friction, which conforms to solid lubrication theory. End-of-travel wear debris and some limited coating delamination were observed within thinner areas of the coating. Therefore an amorphous carbon-graphite coating applied to 440C steel at ambient temperature exhibits solid lubricating film characteristics with high load-carrying capability. (orig.).

  8. Multilayer DLC coatings via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengji [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang, Sam, E-mail: msyzhang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Kong Junhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang Yujuan [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Material, Henan University (China); Zhang Wali [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2011-05-31

    To combat the high residual stress problem in monolayer diamond-like carbon coatings, this paper fabricated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with alternate soft and hard layers via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering. The surface, cross sectional morphology, bonding structures and mechanical properties are investigated. The atomic force microscopy images indicate low bias results in rougher surface with large graphite clusters and voids suggesting low coating density. The multilayered coatings demonstrate relatively smooth surface stemming from higher bias. The cross sectional images from field emission scanning electron microscopy indicate coating thickness decreases as substrate bias increases and confirm that higher bias results in denser coating. Delamination is observed in monolayer coatings due to high residual stress. The trend of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} fraction estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is consistent with that of I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratios from Raman spectra, indicating the change of bonding structure with change of substrate bias. Hardness of multilayer diamond-like carbon coating is comparable to the coatings deposited at low constant bias but the adhesion strength and toughness are significantly improved. Alternately biased sputtering deposition provides an alternative when combination of hardness, toughness and adhesion strength is needed in an all diamond-like carbon coating.

  9. Study of the diamond and diamond like films formation and technology development for the films precipitation on solid surface for wear resistance increasing of tools, machine and mechanism parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanbekov, Z.; Bekmuhambetov, E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the project: The purpose of the project is a development and a creation of an effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors and composite on the carbon fibers base. The study method includes the experimental investigation of the base surface structure and properties, preparation of the surface for diamond and diamond like coats growing. The precipitation of above mentioned films will be carried out from the plasma being formed from carbon gas medium at low pressure. The main purposes of the project are: - development of the technology for obtaining the films with specified properties; provision of required rate -of the precipitation; - decreasing of temperature; - manufacturing of the functioning laboratory stand with further developing of a pilot- - commercial plant for diamond and diamond like coating. It is supposed to develop a method of the monocrystal diamond films growing, that are useful for semiconductor devices manufacturing The methods: A thermo-emission and ECR methods will be used for investigation of the diamond and diamond like films formation and growth processes. The plant that will be used for the first method is a two electrode construction. Refractory metals (W,Re) being heated up to 2500 Kelvin degrees, are usually used as an actuating electrode. The second one is a base on which the precipitation is carrying out. Refractory metals, steel, silicon can be used as the base. Actuating medium is a mixture of carbon and inert gases. The second method is based on a principle of a plasma formation with use of 2.45 GHz Shf radiation power. An ECR-plasma is formed in conjunction with magnetic field in the actuating chamber. This method allows to precipitate high quality films at lower pressure. Expected results: The main purpose of the project is to assimilate the high effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on different

  10. Wear resistance of DLC coating deposited on pretreated AISI 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgornik, B.; Vizintin, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Centre of Tribology and Technical Diagnostics; Ronkainen, H.; Holmberg, K. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland). Operational Reliability

    2000-07-01

    In the last few years, the application of nitrided steels as substrates for hard coatings has been increasingly reported. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, in particular, have attracted significant attention owing to their desirable tribological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibilities of using hard DLC coatings on softer substrates, such as AISI 4140 steel. (orig.)

  11. Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon–MoS{sub 2} thin films in different environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niakan, H., E-mail: hamid.niakan@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Zhang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Szpunar, J.A.; Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) based coatings are ideal for low friction and wear resistant applications. For those tribological applications, the coatings may expose to high temperature environments. Therefore, the thermal stability of the coating is very important for its long-term performance. In this work, DLC–MoS{sub 2} composite thin films were synthesized using biased target ion beam deposition technique in which MoS{sub 2} was produced by sputtering a MoS{sub 2} target using Ar ion beams while DLC was deposited by an ion source with CH{sub 4} gas as carbon source. DLC films without MoS{sub 2} deposited under similar conditions were used as reference samples. After the deposition, DLC and DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films were heat-treated in ambient air and low pressure environments at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 600 °C for 2 h. The effect of annealing on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the resulting films were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disk testing. The results showed that the structure, hardness, Young's modulus, friction coefficient and wear coefficient of the DLC films were stable up to 200 °C annealing in air and 300 °C in low pressure. At higher temperature, the annealing led to the transformation of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2}, which degraded the mechanical and tribological properties of the thin films. Comparing with the DLC films, the DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films showed a slower rate of graphitization and higher structure stability throughout the range of annealing temperatures, indicating a relatively higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Thermal stability of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC–MoS{sub 2} films were evaluated. • DLC–MoS{sub 2} films can be synthesized by biased target ion beam deposition technique. • Comparing with DLC films, the DLC–MoS{sub 2} thin films showed higher

  12. The Influence of Chemical Alloying on the High Temperature Wear Resistance of H-Free DLC Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan, D.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.T.M. De; Cavaleiro, A.; Chandra, T; Tsuzaki, K; Militzer, M; Ravindran, C

    2007-01-01

    A commercial RF-sputtering deposition rig was employed to deposit H-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. The influence of alloying elements such as Ti and Si on the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings was investigated. The coating was observed in cross section and

  13. Diamond-like nanoparticles influence on flavonoids transport: molecular modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastun, Inna L.; Agandeeva, Ksenia E.; Bokarev, Andrey N.; Zenkin, Nikita S.

    2017-03-01

    Intermolecular interaction of diamond-like nanoparticles and flavonoids is investigated by numerical simulation. Using molecular modelling by the density functional theory method, we analyze hydrogen bonds formation and their influence on IR - spectra and structure of molecular complex which is formed due to interaction between flavonoids and nanodiamonds surrounded with carboxylic groups. Enriched adamantane (1,3,5,7 - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid) is used as an example of diamond-like nanoparticles. Intermolecular forces and structure of hydrogen bonds are investigated. IR - spectra and structure parameters of quercetin - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid molecular complex are obtained by numerical simulation using the Gaussian software complex. Received data coincide well with experimental results. Intermolecular interactions and hydrogen bonding structure in the obtained molecular complex are examined. Possibilities of flavonoids interaction with DNA at the molecular level are also considered.

  14. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  15. Tribological study of novel metal-doped carbon-based coatings with enhanced thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Paranjayee

    Low friction and high temperature wear resistant PVD coatings are in high demand for use on engine components, which operate in extreme environment. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings are extensively used for this purpose due to their excellent tribological properties. However, DLC degrades at high temperature and pressure conditions leading to significant increase in friction and wear rate even in the presence of lubricant. To withstand high working temperature and simultaneously maintain improved tribological properties in lubricated condition at ambient and at high temperature, both the transitional metals Mo and W are simultaneously introduced in a carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) for the first time utilising the benefits of smart material combination and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS).This research includes development of Mo-W-C coating and investigation of thermal stability and tribological properties at ambient and high temperatures. The as-deposited Mo-W-C coating contains nanocrystalline almost X-ray amorphous structure and show dense microstructure, good adhesion with substrate (Lc -80 N) and high hardness (-17 GPa). During boundary lubricated sliding (commercially available engine oil without friction modifier used as lubricant) at ambient temperature, Mo-W-C coating outperforms commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings by providing significantly low friction (u- 0.03 - 0.05) and excellent wear resistance (no measurable wear). When lubricated sliding tests are carried out at 200°C, Mo-W-C coating provides low friction similar to ambient temperature, whereas degradation of DLC coating properties fails to maintain low friction coefficient.A range of surface analyses techniques reveal "in-situ" formation of solid lubricants (WS2 and M0S2) at the tribo-contacts due to tribochemically reactive wear mechanism at ambient and high temperature. Mo-W-C coating reacts with EP additives present in the engine oil during sliding to form WS2

  16. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber : The influence of substrate bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si

  17. Carbon film coating of abutment surfaces: effect on the abutment screw removal torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Pedro Henrique; de Moura Silva, Alecsandro; Cavalcanti Queiroz, José Renato; Salazar Marocho, Susana María; Bottino, Marco Antonia; Massi, Marcos; de Assunção e Souza, Rodrigo Othávio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating of prefabricated implant abutment on screw removal torque (RT) before and after mechanical cycling (MC). Fifty-four abutments for external-hex implants were divided among 6 groups (n = 9): S, straight abutment (control); SC, straight coated abutment; SCy, straight abutment and MC; SCCy, straight coated abutment and MC; ACy, angled abutment and MC; and ACCy, angled coated abutment and MC. The abutments were attached to the implants by a titanium screw. RT values were measured and registered. Data (in Newton centimeter) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Dunnet test (α = 0.05). RT values were significantly affected by MC (P = 0.001) and the interaction between DLC coating and MC (P = 0.038). SCy and ACy showed the lowest RT values, statistically different from the control. The abutment coated groups had no statistical difference compared with the control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed DLC film with a thickness of 3 μm uniformly coating the hexagonal abutment. DLC film deposited on the abutment can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce abutment screw loosening.

  18. Performance of Carbon Coatings for Mitigation of Electron Cloud in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, C; Costa Pinto, P; Neupert, H; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Taborelli, M; Kato, S

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings have been tested in electron cloud monitors (ECM) in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and have shown for LHC type beams a reduction of the electron cloud current by a factor 104 compared to stainless steel (StSt). This performance has been maintained for more than 3 years under SPS operation conditions. Secondary electron yield (SEY) laboratory data confirm that after more than 1 year of SPS operation, the coating maintains a SEY below 1.0. The compatibility of coexisting StSt and a-C surfaces has been studied in an ECM having coated and uncoated areas. The results show no degradation of the properties of the a-C areas. The performance of diamond like carbon (DLC) coating has also been studied. DLC shows a less effective reduction of the EC current than a-C, but conditioning is faster than for StSt. Three a-C coated dipoles were inserted in the SPS. However, even with no EC detected, the dynamic pressure rise is similar to the one observed in the StSt reference dipoles. Measu...

  19. Bacterial adherence on fluorinated carbon based coatings deposited on polyethylene surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terriza, A; Del Prado, G; Perez, A Ortiz; Martinez, M J; Puertolas, J A; Manso, D Molina; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R; Yubero, F; Barrena, E Gomez; Esteban, J

    2010-01-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopaedic surgery. In this work we present a thorough study of several plasma based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond like carbon (DLC), fluorine doped DLC (F-DLC) and a high fluorine content carbon-fluor polymer (CF X ). The study correlates the surface chemistry and hydrophobicity of the coating surfaces with their antibacterial performance. The coatings were deposited by RF-plasma assisted deposition at room temperature on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples. Fluorine content and relative amount of C-C and C-F bond types was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity by water contact angle measurements. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to non-coated and coated UHMWPE samples was evaluated. Comparisons of the adherence performance were evaluated using a paired t test (two materials) and a Kruskall Wallis test (all the materials). S. aureus was statistically significant (p< 0.001) less adherent to DLC and F-DLC surfaces than S. epidermidis. Both bacteria showed reduction of adherence on DLC/UHMWPE. For S. aureus, reduction of bacterial adherence on F-DLC/UHMWPE was statistically significant respect to all other materials.

  20. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  1. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  2. Tribological behavior of W-DLC coated rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coatings have been deposited on FKM (fluorocarbon) and HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubbers via unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering from a WC target in a C2H2/Ar plasma. The surface morphology and fracture cross sections of uncoated and

  3. Isothermal and dynamic oxidation behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Hovsepian, Papken Eh.

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) is investigated in elevated temperature (400-1000 °C). Strong metallurgical bond between Mo-W-C coating and substrate prevents any sort of delamination during heat-treatment. Isothermal oxidation tests show initial growth of metal oxides at 500 °C, however graphitic nature of the as-deposited coating is preserved. The oxidation progresses with further rise in temperature and the substrate is eventually exposed at 700 °C. The performance of Mo-W-C coating is compared with a state-of-the-art DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating, which shows preliminary oxidation at 400 °C and local delamination of the coating at 500 °C leading to substrate exposure. The graphitisation starts at 400 °C and the diamond-like structure is completely converted into the graphite-like structure at 500 °C. Dynamic oxidation behaviour of both the coatings is investigated using Thermo-gravimetric analysis carried out with a slow heating rate of 1 °C/min from ambient temperature to 1000 °C. Mo-W-C coating resists oxidation up to ˜800 °C whereas delamination of DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating is observed beyond ˜380 °C. In summary, Mo-W-C coating provides improved oxidation resistance at elevated temperature compared to DLC(Cr/Cr-WC/W:C-H/a:C-H) coating.

  4. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  5. Optical and mechanical properties of diamond like carbon films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    it is possible to control the flux and energy of ions im- pinging on the ... wave ECR plasma CVD facility set up in our laboratory. Figure 1 ... Microwaves are launched in the wave-guide ... mode converter TE10 to TM01 and a sliding short circuit.

  6. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  7. High temperature tribological behaviour of carbon based (B{sub 4}C and DLC) coatings in sliding contact with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharam, A. Abou, E-mail: abougha@uwindsor.c [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada); Lukitsch, M.J.; Balogh, M.P. [Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors R and D Center, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Alpas, A.T. [Mechanical Automotive and Materials Engineering Department, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B3P4 (Canada)

    2010-12-30

    Carbon based coatings, particularly diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are known to resist aluminum adhesion and reduce friction at room temperature. This attractive tribological behaviour is useful for applications such as tool coatings used for aluminum forming and machining. However, for those operations that are performed at elevated temperatures (e.g. hot forming) or that generate frictional heat during contact (e.g. dry machining) the suitable coatings are required to maintain their tribological properties at high temperatures. Candidates for these demanding applications include boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) and DLC coatings. An understanding of the mechanisms of friction, wear and adhesion of carbon based coatings against aluminum alloys at high temperatures will help in designing coatings with improved high temperature tribological properties. With this goal in mind, this study focused on B{sub 4}C and a hydrogenated DLC coatings sliding against a 319 grade cast aluminum alloy by performing pin-on-disk experiments at temperatures up to 400 {sup o}C. Experimental results have shown that the 319 Al/B{sub 4}C tribosystem generated coefficient of friction (COF) values ranging between 0.42 and 0.65, in this temperature range. However, increased amounts of aluminum adhesion were detected in the B{sub 4}C wear tracks at elevated temperatures. Focused ion beam (FIB) milled cross sections of the wear tracks revealed that the coating failed due to shearing along the columnar grain boundaries of the coating. The 319 Al/DLC tribosystem maintained a low COF (0.15-0.06) from room temperature up to 200 {sup o}C. This was followed by an abrupt increase to 0.6 at 400 {sup o}C. The deterioration of friction behaviour at T > 200 {sup o}C was attributed to the exhaustion of hydrogen and hydroxyl passivants on the carbon transfer layer formed on the Al pin.

  8. Sol-gel coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.M.; Krabill, R.M.; Dalzell, W.J. Jr.; Chu, P.Y.; Clark, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The need for structural materials that can withstand severe environments up to 4000 0 F has promulgated the investigation of sol-gel derived ceramic and composite coatings on carbon/carbon composite materials. Alumina and zirconia sols have been deposited via thermophoresis on carbon/carbon substrates

  9. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  10. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications - Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-11-01

    The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal properties. What is more, considering very good mechanical parameters of these Ag including gradient a-C:H/Ti coatings, they constitute an excellent material for biomedical application in e.g. orthopedics or dentistry.

  11. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Sease, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes.

  12. Carbon nanotube-based coatings on titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mon method is the deposition of bioactive ceramic mate- rials on the metal ... tion of nanoparticle layer, including carbon nanoparti- ... Coatings made of CNTs provide implants with .... reaches composite of CNT built into titanium oxide formed.

  13. Effect of nanoparticles as lubricant additives on friction and wear behavior of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As diamond like carbon (DLC coating becomes increasingly popular in providing low friction and wear under lubricated conditions, the effect of various oil additives on tribological behavior of DLC coating is drawing more attention. Various oil additives, such as ZnDTP and MoDTC, have been widely used in automobile engine industry to pursuit excellent tribological performance in the insufficient lubrication condition. Although such commercial oil additives have been proven to reduce friction or/and wear to some extent, usage of such high -SAPS (sulphuric ash, phosphor, sulfphur conventional additives is bound to arouse concerns due to environmental reasons. In this research, we investigate the effect of two nanoparticle oil additives, which are cerium oxide (CeO2 and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2, on friction and wear of non-hydrogen tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating. The results show that by adding ZrO2 nanoparticle, the friction of DLC coating could be reduced about 32% compared to non-additive base oil scenario, but specific wear rate increases by 40%. When CeO2 nanoparticle is used, friction increases by 22% compared to non-additive base oil scenario, however wear decreases by nearly 77%.

  14. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  15. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  16. High-Melt Carbon-Carbon Coating for Nozzle Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT), has developed a high-melt coating for use in nozzle extensions in next-generation spacecraft. The coating is composed primarily of carbon-carbon, a carbon-fiber and carbon-matrix composite material that has gained a spaceworthy reputation due to its ability to withstand ultrahigh temperatures. C-CAT's high-melt coating embeds hafnium carbide (HfC) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) within the outer layers of a carbon-carbon structure. The coating demonstrated enhanced high-temperature durability and suffered no erosion during a test in NASA's Arc Jet Complex. (Test parameters: stagnation heat flux=198 BTD/sq ft-sec; pressure=.265 atm; temperature=3,100 F; four cycles totaling 28 minutes) In Phase I of the project, C-CAT successfully demonstrated large-scale manufacturability with a 40-inch cylinder representing the end of a nozzle extension and a 16-inch flanged cylinder representing the attach flange of a nozzle extension. These demonstrators were manufactured without spalling or delaminations. In Phase II, C-CAT worked with engine designers to develop a nozzle extension stub skirt interfaced with an Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10 engine. All objectives for Phase II were successfully met. Additional nonengine applications for the coating include thermal protection systems (TPS) for next-generation spacecraft and hypersonic aircraft.

  17. Comparative study of dlc coatings by pvd against cvd technique on textile dents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond like Carbon (DLC) film is a hard amorphous carbon hydride film formed by Physical or Chemical vapor deposition (PVD or CVD) techniques. Due to its unique properties especially high hardness, lower coefficient of friction and lubricious nature, these coatings are not only used to extend the life of cutting tools but also for non cutting applications such as for forming dies, molds and on many functional parts of textile. In the present work two techniques were employed i.e. PVD and CVD for deposition of diamond like carbon film on textile dents. These dents are used as thread guider in high speed weaving machine. The measurement of coating thickness, adhesion, hardness and roughness values indicates that overall properties of DLC coating developed by PVD LARC technology reduces abrasion and increases the workability and durability of textile dents as well as suppress the need of lubricants. (author)

  18. Deposition and characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Typical DLN growth rate is about 1 μm/h, measured by stylus pro- filometer. Due to the presence of quartz-like Si:O in the structure, it is found to have very good adhesive property ... nitride coatings, another method of enhancing the surface ... tribological performance. .... model Tecnai G2 30 ST of FEI Company, Europe.

  19. Procedure for coating articles with pyrolytic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.C.; Allen, C.L.; Besenbruch, G.E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to coat articles with pyrolytic carbon is described which is particularly suitable for small nuclear fuel particles as one obtains a very homogeneous layer. The pyrolytic carbon is produced according to the invention by decomposing a hydrocarbon gas mixture composed of an inert gas share (20-65 Vol%) and a mixture of acetylene and propylene. It is favourable to have the hydrocarbon mixture contain between 50 and 55 Vol% acetylene. Variations on the known procedure are given. The coating of spherical thorium dioxide particles is mentioned as an example. (UWI) [de

  20. Gradient titanium and silver based carbon coatings deposited on AISI316L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Damian; Reczulska, Malgorzata Czerniak-; Kolodziejczyk, Lukasz; Szymanski, Witold

    2013-06-01

    The constantly growing market for medical implants and devices caused mainly due to a lack of proper attention attached to the physical condition as well as extreme sports and increased elderly population creates the need of new biocompatible biomaterials with controlled bioactivity and certain useful properties. According to many literature reports, regarding the modifications of variety of different biomaterials using the surface engineering techniques and their biological and physicochemical examination results, the most promising material for great spectra of medical applications seem to be carbon layers. Another issue is the interaction between the implant material and surrounding tissue. In particular cases this interface area is directly exposed to air. Abovementioned concern occurs mainly in case of the external fixations, thus they are more vulnerable to infection. Therefore a crucial role has the inhibition of bacterial adhesion that may prevent implant-associated infections, occurrence of other numerous complications and in particular cases rejection of the implant. For this reason additional features of carbon coatings like antibacterial properties seem to be desired and justified. Silver doped diamond-like carbon coatings with different Ag concentrations were prepared by hybrid RF PACVD/MS (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition/Magnetron Sputtering) deposition technique. Physicochemical parameters like chemical composition, morphology and surface topography, hardness and adhesion were determined. Examined layers showed a uniform distribution of silver in the amorphous DLC matrix, high value of H/E ratio, good adhesion and beneficial topography which make them a perfect material for medical applications e.g. modification of implants for the external fixations.

  1. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery cathode material powders has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The enhancement of the electronic conductivity of carbon coating enables minimization of the amount of carbon in the composites, allowing improvements in battery rate capability without compromising energy density. The invention is applicable to LiFePO 4 and other cathode materials used in lithium ion or lithium metal batteries for high power applications such as power tools and hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The market for lithium ion batteries in consumer applications is currently $5 billion/year. Additionally, lithium ion battery sales for vehicular applications are projected to capture 5% of the hybrid and electric vehicle market by 2010, and 36% by 2015 (http://www.greencarcongress.com). LiFePO 4 suffers from low intrinsic rate capability, which has been ascribed to the low electronic conductivity (10 -9 S cm -1 ). One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is the addition of conductive carbon. Co-synthesis methods are generally the most practical route for carbon coating particles. At the relatively low temperatures ( 4 , however, only poorly conductive disordered carbons are produced from organic precursors. Thus, the carbon content has to be high to produce the desired enhancement in rate capability, which decreases the cathode energy density

  2. Oxidative Attack of Carbon/Carbon Substrates through Coating Pinholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Leonhardt, Todd; Curry, Donald; Rapp, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    A critical issue with oxidation protected carbon/carbon composites used for spacecraft thermal protection is the formation of coating pinholes. In laboratory experiments, artificial pinholes were drilled through SiC-coatings on a carbon/carbon material and the material was oxidized at 600, 1000, and 1400 C at reduced pressures of air. The attack of the carbon/carbon was quantified by both weight loss and a novel cross-sectioning technique. A two-zone, one dimensional diffusion control model was adapted to analyze this problem. Agreement of the model with experiment was reasonable at 1000 and 1400 C; however results at lower temperatures show clear deviations from the theory suggesting that surface reaction control plays a role.

  3. Multilayer oxidation resistant coating for SiC coated carbon/carbon composites at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hejun; Jiao Gengsheng; Li Kezhi; Wang Chuang

    2008-01-01

    To prevent carbon/carbon (C/C) composites from oxidation, a multilayer coating based on molybdenum disilicide and titanium disilicide was formed using a two-step pack cementation technique in argon atmosphere. XRD and SEM analysis showed that the internal coating was a bond SiC layer that acts as a buffer layer, and that the external multilayer coating formed in the two-step pack cementation was composed of two MoSi 2 -TiSi 2 -SiC layers. This coating, which is characterized by excellent thermal shock resistance, could effectively protect the composites from exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere at 1773 K for 79 h. The oxidation of the coated C/C composites was primarily due to the reaction of C/C matrix and oxygen diffusing through the penetrable cracks in the coating

  4. Carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites: Microstructure and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei1121@aliyun.com; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Shouyang; Lu, Jinhua; Li, Wei; Cao, Sheng; Wang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    To improve the surface biocompatibility of carbon/carbon composites, a carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was applied using a combination method of slurry procedure and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The biocompatibility of the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was investigated by osteoblast-like MG63 cell culture tests. The results showed that the carbon foam could provide a large number of pores on the surface of carbon/carbon composites. The hydroxyapatite crystals could infiltrate into the pores and form the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating. The coating covered the carbon/carbon composites fully and uniformly with slice morphology. The cell response tests showed that the MG63 cells on carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating had a better cell adhesion and cell proliferation than those on uncoated carbon/carbon composites. The carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coatings were cytocompatible and were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility. The approach presented here may be exploited for fabrication of carbon/carbon composite implant surfaces.

  5. Carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites: Microstructure and biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Shouyang; Lu, Jinhua; Li, Wei; Cao, Sheng; Wang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    To improve the surface biocompatibility of carbon/carbon composites, a carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was applied using a combination method of slurry procedure and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The biocompatibility of the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating was investigated by osteoblast-like MG63 cell culture tests. The results showed that the carbon foam could provide a large number of pores on the surface of carbon/carbon composites. The hydroxyapatite crystals could infiltrate into the pores and form the carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating. The coating covered the carbon/carbon composites fully and uniformly with slice morphology. The cell response tests showed that the MG63 cells on carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coating had a better cell adhesion and cell proliferation than those on uncoated carbon/carbon composites. The carbon foam/hydroxyapatite coatings were cytocompatible and were beneficial to improve the biocompatibility. The approach presented here may be exploited for fabrication of carbon/carbon composite implant surfaces.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon-Carbon Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    4, -4 3 2.0 17-21 15 18 21 :9." -: 4:tes: 1, Cll •easureren’. ;rown ire in Ill e::ceoI ".-ic.-ie: "-.- : .. - are hown in •iai:’l4m raw court form...scatter in the samples rather than the additional formation of cristo - balite. This was supported by later diffraction scans of material after extended...could not be avoided due to the brittle nature of the coating. , b. Coupons were then mounted in epoxy using a vacuum-oimpregnation technique. This

  7. Carbon nanotube-based black coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.; Yung, C.; Tomlin, N.; Conklin, D.; Stephens, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coatings comprising carbon nanotubes are very black, that is, characterized by uniformly low reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths from the visible to far infrared. Arguably, there is no other material that is comparable. This is attributable to the intrinsic properties of graphitic material as well as the morphology (density, thickness, disorder, and tube size). We briefly describe a history of other coatings such as nickel phosphorous, gold black, and carbon-based paints and the comparable structural morphology that we associate with very black coatings. The need for black coatings is persistent for a variety of applications ranging from baffles and traps to blackbodies and thermal detectors. Applications for space-based instruments are of interest and we present a review of space qualification and the results of outgassing measurements. Questions of nanoparticle safety depend on the nanotube size and aspect ratio as well as the nature and route of exposure. We describe the growth of carbon nanotube forests along with the catalyst requirements and temperature limitations. We also describe coatings derived from carbon nanotubes and applied like paint. Building the measurement apparatus and determining the optical properties of something having negligible reflectance are challenging and we summarize the methods and means for such measurements. There exists information in the literature for effective media approximations to model the dielectric function of vertically aligned arrays. We summarize this along with the refractive index of graphite from the literature that is necessary for modeling the optical properties. In our experience, the scientific questions can be overshadowed by practical matters, so we provide an appendix of recipes for making as-grown and sprayed coatings along with an example of reflectance measurements.

  8. Functional Carbon Nanocomposite, Optoelectronic, and Catalytic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu Teng

    Over the past couple decades, fundamental research into carbon nanomaterials has produced a steady stream of groundbreaking physical science. Their record setting mechanical strength, chemical stability, and optoelectronic performance have fueled many optimistic claims regarding the breadth and pace of carbon nanotube and graphene integration. However, present synthetic, processing, and economic constraints have precluded these materials from many practical device applications. To overcome these limitations, novel synthetic techniques, processing methodologies, device geometries, and mechanistic insight were developed in this dissertation. The resulting advancements in material production and composite device performance have brought carbon nanomaterials ever closer to commercial implementation. For improved materials processing, vacuum co-deposition was first demonstrated as viable technique for forming carbon nanocomposite films without property distorting covalent modifications. Co-deposited nanoparticle, carbon nanotube, and graphene composite films enabled rapid device prototyping and compositional optimization. Cellulosic polymer stabilizers were then shown to be highly effective carbon nanomaterial dispersants, improving graphene production yields by two orders of magnitude in common organic solvents. By exploiting polarity interactions, iterative solvent exchange was used to further increase carbon nanomaterial dispersion concentrations by an additional order of magnitude, yielding concentrated inks. On top of their low causticity, these cellulosic nanomaterial inks have highly tunable viscosities, excellent film forming capacity, and outstanding thermal stability. These processing characteristics enable the efficient scaling of carbon nanomaterial coatings and device production using existing roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Utilizing these process improvements, high-performance gas sensing, energy storage, transparent conductor, and photocatalytic

  9. Carbon nanotube based functional superhydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunny

    The main objective of this dissertation is synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) based superhydrophobic materials. The materials were designed such that electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs could be combined with superhydrophobicity to create materials with unique properties, such as self-cleaning adhesives, miniature flotation devices, ice-repellant coatings, and coatings for heat transfer furnaces. The coatings were divided into two broad categories based on CNT structure: Vertically aligned CNT arrays (VA coatings) and mesh-like (non-aligned) carbon nanotube arrays (NA coatings). VA coatings were used to create self-cleaning adhesives and flexible field emission devices. Coatings with self cleaning property along with high adhesiveness were inspired from structure found on gecko foot. Gecko foot is covered with thousands of microscopic hairs called setae; these setae are further divided into hundreds of nanometer sized hairs called spatulas. When gecko presses its foot against any surface, these hairs bend and conform to the topology of the surface resulting into very large area of contact. Such large area of intimate contact allows geckos to adhere to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions alone. VA-CNTs adhere to a variety of surfaces using a similar mechanism. CNTs of suitable diameter could withstand four times higher adhesion force than gecko foot. We found that upon soiling these CNT based adhesives (gecko tape) could be cleaned using a water droplet (lotus effect) or by applying vibrations. These materials could be used for applications requiring reversible adhesion. VA coatings were also used for developing field emission devices. A single CNT can emit electrons at very low threshold voltages. Achieving efficient electron emission on large scale has a lot of challenges such as screening effect, pull-off and lower current efficiency. We have explored the use of polymer-CNT composite structures to overcome these challenges in this work. NA

  10. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Browall, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell

  11. Intrinsically High Thermoelectric Performance in AgInSe2 n-Type Diamond-Like Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Pengfei; Qin, Yuting; Zhang, Qihao; Li, Ruoxi; Yang, Jiong; Song, Qingfeng; Tang, Yunshan; Bai, Shengqiang; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2018-03-01

    Diamond-like compounds are a promising class of thermoelectric materials, very suitable for real applications. However, almost all high-performance diamond-like thermoelectric materials are p-type semiconductors. The lack of high-performance n-type diamond-like thermoelectric materials greatly restricts the fabrication of diamond-like material-based modules and their real applications. In this work, it is revealed that n-type AgInSe 2 diamond-like compound has intrinsically high thermoelectric performance with a figure of merit ( zT ) of 1.1 at 900 K, comparable to the best p-type diamond-like thermoelectric materials reported before. Such high zT is mainly due to the ultralow lattice thermal conductivity, which is fundamentally limited by the low-frequency Ag-Se "cluster vibrations," as confirmed by ab initio lattice dynamic calculations. Doping Cd at Ag sites significantly improves the thermoelectric performance in the low and medium temperature ranges. By using such high-performance n-type AgInSe 2 -based compounds, the diamond-like thermoelectric module has been fabricated for the first time. An output power of 0.06 W under a temperature difference of 520 K between the two ends of the module is obtained. This work opens a new window for the applications using the diamond-like thermoelectric materials.

  12. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X.S. [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Wang, H.J.; Feng, L. [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Shao, L.X. [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Zou, C.W., E-mail: qingyihaiyanas@163.com [School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Mo doped diamond like carbon coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was observed through platelet adhesion. • The amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC is much less than that of pyrolytic carbon. - Abstract: Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent.

  13. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X.S.; Wang, H.J.; Feng, L.; Shao, L.X.; Zou, C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mo doped diamond like carbon coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering. • The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was observed through platelet adhesion. • The amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC is much less than that of pyrolytic carbon. - Abstract: Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent

  14. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Kristy [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fashion, Product, Design and Merchandising Dept., A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; McDonough, John K. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Presser, Volker [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Heon, Min [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Dion, Genevieve [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Fashion, Product, Design and Merchandising Dept.; Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Inst. and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  15. Low-Cost Repairable Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Carbon-Carbon Composites via CCVD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendrick, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    ...) thin film process to yield oxidation resistant coatings on carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. Work was on simple coatings at this preliminary stage of investigation, including silicon dioxide, platinum and aluminum oxide...

  16. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.

    2010-08-01

    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  17. Surface protection of austenitic steels by carbon nanotube coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLucas, T.; Schütz, S.; Suarez, S.; Mücklich, F.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, surface protection properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited on polished austenitic stainless steel are evaluated. Electrophoretic deposition is used as a coating technique. Contact angle measurements reveal hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic wetting characteristics of the carbon nanotube coating depending on the additive used for the deposition. Tribological properties of carbon nanotube coatings on steel substrate are determined with a ball-on-disc tribometer. Effective lubrication can be achieved by adding magnesium nitrate as an additive due to the formation of a holding layer detaining CNTs in the contact area. Furthermore, wear track analysis reveals minimal wear on the coated substrate as well as carbon residues providing lubrication. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is used to qualitatively analyse the elemental composition of the coating and the underlying substrate. The results explain the observed wetting characteristics of each coating. Finally, merely minimal oxidation is detected on the CNT-coated substrate as opposed to the uncoated sample.

  18. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Implanted deuterium retention and release in carbon-coated beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Oates, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 angstrom. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 angstrom revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400 degrees C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400 degrees C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 X 10 19 D/m 2 sec), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Implanted Deuterium Retention and Release in Carbon-Coated Beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, R. A.; Longhurst, G. R.; Pawelko, R. J.; Oates, M. A.

    1997-06-01

    Deuterium implantation experiments have been conducted on samples of clean and carbon-coated beryllium. These studies entailed preparation and characterization of beryllium samples coated with carbon thicknesses of 100, 500, and 1000 Å. Heat treatment of a beryllium sample coated with carbon to a thickness of approximately 100 Å revealed that exposure to a temperature of 400°C under high vacuum conditions was sufficient to cause substantial diffusion of beryllium through the carbon layer, resulting in more beryllium than carbon at the surface. Comparable concentrations of carbon and beryllium were observed in the bulk of the coating layer. Higher than expected oxygen levels were observed throughout the coating layer as well. Samples were exposed to deuterium implantation followed by thermal desorption without exposure to air. Differences were observed in deuterium retention and postimplantation release behavior in the carbon-coated samples as compared with bare samples. For comparable implantation conditions (sample temperature of 400°C and an incident deuterium flux of approximately 6 × 1019 D/m2-s), the quantity of deuterium retained in the bare sample was less than that retained in the carbon-coated samples. Further, the release of the deuterium took place at lower temperatures for the bare beryllium surfaces than for carbon-coated beryllium samples.

  1. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications – Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bociaga, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.bociaga1@gmail.com [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Komorowski, Piotr [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); BioNanoPark Laboratories of Lodz Regional Park of Science and Technology, Lodz (Poland); Batory, Damian [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szymanski, Witold [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Functional Materials, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, Witold [Division of Biophysics, Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, 1/15 Stefanowskiego St., 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The DLC coatings with interlayer improving adhesion were manufactured using the author's method in dual RF/MS PCVD system. • The Ag ions were incorporated into DLC matrix using ion beam implantation method. • The morphology, chemical structure and composition of coatings were examined. • Viability, cytotoxicity of human cells and the formation of bacterial biofilm on the samples surface were evaluated. • <5% of Ag in DLC coating is efficient to make it bactericidal and biocompatible. - Abstract: The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal

  2. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications – Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The DLC coatings with interlayer improving adhesion were manufactured using the author's method in dual RF/MS PCVD system. • The Ag ions were incorporated into DLC matrix using ion beam implantation method. • The morphology, chemical structure and composition of coatings were examined. • Viability, cytotoxicity of human cells and the formation of bacterial biofilm on the samples surface were evaluated. • <5% of Ag in DLC coating is efficient to make it bactericidal and biocompatible. - Abstract: The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal

  3. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  4. Pyrolytic carbon coatings for nuclear fuels from commercial butane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrazek, I.D.; Abdelhalim, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium dioxide and graphite semi-spherical particles (average diameter = 300 um) were coated with pyrolytic carbon at relatively low temperatures (800 to 1200 0 C). The spouting gas was a mixture of commercial butane and nitrogen. The hydrocarbon served as a source for carbon whereas nitrogenated as a diluent and a support for the bed. The total gas flow rate was 3.5 lit/min and the hydrocarbon content varied from 3 to 10%. Coating efficiencies ranging from 4 to 25 percent were obtained. The densities of the coatings varied from 1.25 g/cm 3 (which corresponds to coatings of laminar microstructures) and 1.82 g/cm 3 (which suggests the formation of isotropic coatings. Metallographic examination (using polarized light) of the pyrolytic carbon formed at the experimental conditions indicated the possibility of using the coatings for nuclear fuel applications

  5. Modulation polarimetry of full internal reflection, broken by diamond-like films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimenko L. S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research results on diamond-like films produced under different technological conditions. The parameter ρ — polarization difference — has been introduced. It has been found from spectral features of the parameter ρ that the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the electronic system of specimens, which occurs in the used spectral range, consists of local and polariton surface resonances, differing in frequencies and times of relaxations. The autors concluded that the correlation in resonance intensity is defined by the structural characteristics of the specimens. These results show that modulation polarimetry is a perspective technique for diagnostics of the structural homogeneity of composite nanocluster films.

  6. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  7. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, B; Alam, S; Irfan, M; Shahid, M; Soomro, B D; Hashim, S; Iqbal, R

    2014-01-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms

  8. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, B.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Shahid, M.; Soomro, B. D.; Hashim, S.; Iqbal, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms. (author)

  9. Peculiarities of both light and beta-particles scattering by ultrathin diamond-like semiconductor film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Vladimir V; Shtaerman, Esfir Y

    2008-02-01

    Peculiarities of scattering of TM-polarized light wave by a diamond-like crystalline nano-layer are studied. They are due to specific dispersion of n-phonon polaritons localized in the layer. The IR polaritons discussed here (relating to diamond and Si crystals which are nonpolar materials) will only appear if some of the vibration modes become polar, e.g., due to the presence of the surface. As a result of mixing of g- and u-modes of ion oscillations along the (111)-direction in the near-surface layer, it is possible to observe additional (with respect to bulk) scattering of coherent electromagnetic waves of the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies. beta-particles can be utilized as an independent tool of study of new semiconductors, in particular thin diamond films. The effect associated with response of a quasi-two-dimensional diamond-like layer to the moving electron field is considered. beta-particle field induces phonon excitation modes to arise in the material. Coupled with the beta-particle electromagnetic modes they generate polaritons. Spectral density of the radiation intensity of the flashed phonon polaritons has been estimated as a function of the layer thickness as well as of the scattering angle and the beta-particle velocity.

  10. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  11. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  12. Carbon-coated anatase for water purification - cyclic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, M.; Kojin, F.; Nonaka, M.; Toyoda, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was reported that carbon-coated anatase photo-catalysts were able to be prepared through a simple process and gave various advantages for water purification [1-6]. Carbon coating suppressed the phase transformation from anatase to rutile, resulting in a high crystallinity of anatase phase which was desirable for the decomposition of pollutants in water. A high adsorptivity was given to carbon-coated anatase, because of porous nature of carton layers [7]. In addition, these carbon-coated anatase powders could be fixed on the substrate by using organic binder because carbon layer interrupt the direct contact between photo-catalytic anatase particles and organic binder [1]. In the present work, cyclic performance of carbon-coated anatase was studied for the decomposition of a model pollutant, methylene blue (MB), in water by fixing the photo-catalyst particles on a tape. Carbon-coated anatase photo-catalysts were prepared by heating the powder mixtures of commercially available anatase (ST-01, Ishihara Sngyo Co., Ltd) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different mass ratios at 900 C in N 2 , gas flow. Carbon-coated anatase powders thus prepared were fixed on a scotch tape. Photo-catalytic activity was measured on these tapes by irradiating UV rays on one side of the tape in MB solution with 0.3x10 -5 mol/L concentration. Since carbon-coated anatase had a high adsorptivity for MB, all tapes were saturated their adsorption in a concentrated MB solution in advance. The rate constant k for MB photo-decomposition was determined from the linear relations of logarithm of relative concentration of MB in the solution, ln(c/c 0 ), with irradiation time t. In Fig. 1, changes in ln(c/c 0 ) of MB with irradiation time t were shown on two samples with different carbon contents, 8 and 2 mass%, with cycle number. Good linearity was obtained between ln(c/c 0 ) and t. The values of rate constant k calculated from these linear relations were plotted against carbon content of the

  13. Zn-10.2% Fe coating over carbon steel atmospheric corrosion resistance. Comparison with zinc coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnau, G.; Gimenez, E.; Rubio, M.V.; Saura, J.J.; Suay, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Zn-10.2% Fe galvanized coating versus hot galvanized coating over carbon steel corrosion performance has been studied. Different periods of atmospheric exposures in various Valencia Community sites, and salt spray accelerated test have been done. Carbon steel test samples have been used simultaneously in order to classify exposure atmosphere corrosivity, and environmental exposure atmosphere characteristics have been analyzed. Corrosion Velocity versus environmental parameters has been obtained. (Author) 17 refs

  14. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600 0 C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles ( 2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000 0 C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500 0 C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO) 4 as the catalyst, C 2 H 2 as the carbon source gas, and H 2 as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530 0 C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 μm/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters

  15. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J., E-mail: jesuskuh@live.com.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F., E-mail: faviles@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Nistal, A. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán A.C., Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No.130, Col. Chuburná de Hidalgo. C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Rubio, F.; Rubio, J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (ICV-CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bartolo-Pérez, P. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Cinvestav, Unidad Mérida, C.P., 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  16. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku-Herrera, J.J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto E-glass fibers. • The role of the fiber coating on the deposition of MWCNTs on the fibers is studied. • A rather homogeneous deposition of MWCNTs is achieved if the coating is maintained. • Multiple oxygen-containing groups were found in the analysis of the fiber coating. • Evidence of chemical interaction between MWCNTs and the fiber coating was found. - Abstract: Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as “sizing”), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible

  17. Formation mechanism of a silicon carbide coating for a reinforced carbon-carbon composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. C.; Shuford, D. M.; Mueller, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for a study to determine the mechanisms involved in a high-temperature pack cementation process which provides a silicon carbide coating on a carbon-carbon composite. The process and materials used are physically and chemically analyzed. Possible reactions are evaluated using the results of these analytical data. The coating is believed to develop in two stages. The first is a liquid controlled phase process in which silicon carbide is formed due to reactions between molten silicon metal and the carbon. The second stage is a vapor transport controlled reaction in which silicon vapors react with the carbon. There is very little volume change associated with the coating process. The original thickness changes by less than 0.7%. This indicates that the coating process is one of reactive penetration. The coating thickness can be increased or decreased by varying the furnace cycle process time and/or temperature to provide a wide range of coating thicknesses.

  18. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of such fillers often cannot reach a high level (painting using carbon black (CB). Such process can also be applied to injection molding for creating a top conductive layer. Increasing the amount of CB will increase the surface conductivity of the coated part, thus improving the paint transfer efficiency. However the CB levels needed to achieve the conductivity levels required for achieving EMI shielding would make the coating viscosity too large for proper coating. Nanopaper based composites are excellent candidates for EMI shielding because of the nanopaper's high concentration of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) (~2 wt% to 10 wt% depending on nanopaper/thermoplastic thickness

  19. Solar cells based upon multicrystalline Si with DLC antireflection and passivating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyui, N.; Litovchenko, V.; Neselevska, L.; Kostylyov, V.; Sarikov, A.; Taraschenko, N.; Kittler, M.; Seifert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of multicrystalline Si solar cells covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection coatings been experimentally studied. It has been shown that this kind of coating provides a significant increase of the efficiency of solar cells mainly due to the increase of the short-circuit current density. The effects of antireflection and of the surface and bulk passivation on the SC current-voltage characteristics due to the DLC deposition have been investigated theoretically. Physical mechanisms underlying the observed effects have been proposed

  20. Preparation and properties of in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shoujie, E-mail: jlliushoujie@126.com; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Su, Yangyang, E-mail: suyangyang@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Guo, Qian, E-mail: 1729299905@163.com; Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei@nwpu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent mechanical properties for their role playing in reinforcement as imparting strength to brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating. However, there are few reports relating to the in-situ grown carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite (CNTs-HA) coating. Here we demonstrate the potential application in reinforcing biomaterials by an attempt to use in-situ grown of CNTs strengthen HA coating, using a combined method composited of injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and pulsed electrodeposition. The microstructure, phases and chemical compositions of CNTs-HA coatings were characterized by various advanced methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that CNTs-HA coatings avoided the inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs inside HA coating. The result show that the interfacial shear strength between CNTs-HA coating and the C/C composite matrix reaches to 12.86 ± 1.43 MPa. Potenitodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that the content of CNTs affects the corrosion resistance of CNTs-HA coating. Cell culturing and simulated body fluid test elicit the biocompatibility with living cells and bioactivity of CNTs-HA coatings, respectively. - Highlights: • A novel bioceramic composite coating of hydroxyapatite reinforced with in-situ grown carbon nanotubes was fabricated. • The doping of carbon nanotubes had almost no impact on the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coatings. • The doping of carbon nanotubes improved corrosion resistance of hydroxyapatite coatings in simulated human body solution.

  1. Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) oxidation resistant material samples - Baseline coated, and baseline coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Reinforced carbon-carbon material specimens were machined from 19 and 33 ply flat panels which were fabricated and processed in accordance with the specifications and procedures accepted for the fabrication and processing of the leading edge structural subsystem (LESS) elements for the space shuttle orbiter. The specimens were then baseline coated and tetraethyl orthosilicate impregnated, as applicable, in accordance with the procedures and requirements of the appropriate LESS production specifications. Three heater bars were ATJ graphite silicon carbide coated with the Vought 'pack cementation' coating process, and three were stackpole grade 2020 graphite silicon carbide coated with the chemical vapor deposition process utilized by Vought in coating the LESS shell development program entry heater elements. Nondestructive test results are reported.

  2. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of carbon steel with bulk coating holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With epoxy coal tar as the coating material, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Q235 with different kinds of bulk coating holidays has been investigated with EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) in a 3.5vol% NaCl aqueous solution.The area ratio of bulk coating holiday to total coating area of steel is 4.91%. The experimental results showed that at free corrosionpotential, the corrosion of carbon steel with disbonded coating holiday is heavier than that with broken holiday and disbonded & broken holiday with time; Moreover, the effectiveness of Cathodic Protection (CP) of carbon steel with broken holiday is better than that with disbonded holiday and disbonded & broken holiday on CP potential -850 mV (vs CSE). Further analysis indicated that the two main reasons for corrosion are electrolyte solution slowly penetrating the coating, and crevice corrosion at steel/coating interface near holidays. The ratio of impedance amplitude (Z) of different frequency to minimum frequency is defined as K value. The change rate of K with frequency is related to the type of coating holiday.

  3. Superhard carbon film deposition by means of Laser-Arco {sup registered} on the way from the laboratory into the industrial series coating; Abscheidung superharter Kohlenstoffschichten mittels Laser-Arco {sup registered} auf dem Weg vom Labor in die industrielle Serienfertigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Hans-Joachim; Leonhardt, Michael; Leson, Andreas; Meyer, Carl-Friedrich; Stucky, Thomas; Weihnacht, Volker [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik (IWS), Dresden (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Diamond-like carbon films (DLC) are more and more applied as wear protection coatings for components and tools due to their unique combination of high hardness, low friction and sticking tendency to metallic counter bodies. Up to now applied DLC films are hydrogen containing (a-C:H) or metal carbon films (Me-C:H) deposited by a plasma assisted CVD process from carbon-hydrogen gas mixtures. Their wide industrial effort results from that the can be deposited with slowly modified coating machines for classical hard coating (e.g. TiN or CrN). A new generation DLC films are the hydrogen-free ta-C films (ta-C = tetrahedral bounded amorphous carbon) with a between two and three-times higher hardness and with a resulting higher wear resistance under extreme condition than classical DLC films. They have excellent emergency running properties at lubrication break down. Their industrial application is more difficult due to that they cannot deposited with modified coating machines for classical hard and DLC coating and a new technology with corresponding equipment was not available up to now. The laser controlled, pulsed arc deposition technology (Laser-Arco {sup registered}) of the Fraunhofer IWS Dresden has this potential. In kind of a Laser-Arc-Module-source the ta-C film deposition can be integrated in every industrial used deposition machine. (orig.)

  4. Performance of CVD and CVR coated carbon-carbon in high temperature hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. W.; Barletta, R. E.; Svandrlik, J.; Vanier, P. E.

    As a part of the component development process for the particle bed reactor (PBR), it is necessary to develop coatings which will be time and temperature stable at extremely high temperatures in flowing hydrogen. These coatings must protect the underlying carbon structure from attack by the hydrogen coolant. Degradation which causes small changes in the reactor component, e.g. hole diameter in the hot frit, can have a profound effect on operation. The ability of a component to withstand repeated temperature cycles is also a coating development issue. Coatings which crack or spall under these conditions would be unacceptable. While refractory carbides appear to be the coating material of choice for carbon substrates being used in PBR components, the method of applying these coatings can have a large effect on their performance. Two deposition processes for these refractory carbides, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical vapor reaction (CVR), have been evaluated. Screening tests for these coatings consisted of testing of coated 2-D and 3-D weave carbon-carbon in flowing hot hydrogen at one atmosphere. Carbon loss from these samples was measured as a function of time. Exposure temperatures up to 3,000 K were used, and samples were exposed in a cyclical fashion cooling to room temperature between exposures. The results of these measurements are presented along with an evaluation of the relative merits of CVR and CVD coatings for this application.

  5. Study of SEY degradation of amorphous carbon coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bundaleski, N.; Santos, A.; Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Silva, A.G.

    2013-04-22

    Deposition of low secondary electron yield (SEY) carbon coatings by magnetron sputtering onto the inner walls of the accelerator seems to be the most promising solution for suppressing the electron cloud problem. However, these coatings change their electron emission properties during long term exposure to air. The ageing process of carbon coated samples with initial SEY of about 0.9 received from CERN is studied as a function of exposure to different environments. It is shown that samples having the same initial SEY may age with different rates. The SEY increase can be correlated with the surface concentration of oxygen. Annealing of samples in air at 100-200 {\\deg}C reduces the ageing rate and even recovers previously degraded samples. The result of annealing is reduction of the hydrogen content in the coatings by triggering its surface segregation followed by desorption.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  7. Preparation of diamond like carbon thin film on stainless steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    A detailed review of materials used in human ... years it has attracted considerable interest in biomedical ... power = 30 watts, d.c. self-bias = –(150 ± 10) volts. ... face sites. Visual inspection, following the completion of the deposition process ...

  8. X-ray reflectivity study of bias graded diamond like carbon film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    destructive technique for determining layer thickness, sur- face and interfacial roughness and internal structure of films. The XRR technique is alike the optical reflectivity technique and is performed at a glancing angle. ..... critical incident energy window the film attains minimum roughness. Thereafter, for higher energy the ...

  9. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Lin, Y.M.; Bol, A.A.; Jenkins, K.A.; Xia, F.; Farmer, D.B.; Zu, Y.; Avouris, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its high carrier mobility and saturation velocity, graphene has attracted enormous attention in recent years In particular, high-performance graphene transistors for radio-frequency (r.f.) applications are of great interest. Synthesis of large-scale graphene sheets of high quality and at

  10. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhaoying; Zheng, Y.J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The multilayer DLC films with different modulation ratios have been fabricated by FCVA. ► The multilayer DLC films can effectively decrease the residual stress of the DLC films. ► The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 shows the best wear resistance. - Abstract: The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp 2 -rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp 3 -rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp 3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp 3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  11. Preparation of diamond like carbon thin film on stainless steel and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Kamlesh Kumari1 S Banerjee2 T K Chini2 N R Ray3. Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida 201 303, India; Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064, India; Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064, India ...

  12. An investigation of material properties and tribological performance of magnetron sputtered thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal

    This dissertation is divided into two categories based upon lubrication functionality and its application. The categories are: Dry film lubrication and Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings. Thin film coatings examined in this work were deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering and RF-DC coupled magnetron sputtering systems. In Dry/Solid film lubrication, the mechanical, structural and tribological properties of two Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based coatings are examined and evaluated. Among the two coatings, one coating is doped with Ti (Ti-MoS2) and the other is a combination of metal, lubricant and oxide (Sb2O3/Au - MoS2). These coatings are known to provide low friction in vacuum environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate friction and wear performance of MoS2 doped coatings in unidirectional and reciprocating sliding contact under different environmental conditions. Sliding contact results showed friction and wear dependence on temperature and humidity. The formation and removal of transfer films and the recrystallization and reorientation of basal layers on the steel counterface was observed as the mechanism for low friction. Structural analysis revealed a relationship between the microstructural properties and tribological performance. It was also observed that the addition of dopants (Ti, Au, Sb 2O3) improved the mechanical properties as compared to pure MoS2 coatings. Further, the rolling contact performance of the coatings was measured on a five ball on rod tribometer and a Thrust bearing tribometer under vacuum and air environments. The rolling contact experiments indicated that life of the rolling components depend on the amount of material present between the contacts. Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings investigates the possibilities to improve the performance and durability of tribological components when oils and thin films are synergistically coupled. In this work, the ability of a Diamond Like Carbon

  13. Coating applications for the molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.; Skok, A.J.; Patel, P.S.; Maru, H.C.

    1981-09-25

    The molten carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient low polluting fuel-to-electricity conversion device which is at present being developed for power plant and industrial use. Because the alkali carbonates at the operating temperature of 650/sup 0/C are corrosive and the methods employed for sealing the cell lead to certain electrochemical corrosion couples, different types of protective coatings are needed to minimize attack in a cost-effective manner. Besides protective purposes, other opportunities are also described where coating technology can be gainfully employed in this system.

  14. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  15. Effects of UV laser micropatterning on frictional performance of diamond-like nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavedeev, Evgeny V.; Zilova, Olga S.; Shupegin, Mikhail L.; Barinov, Alexej D.; Arutyunyan, Natalia R.; Roch, Teja; Pimenov, Sergei M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on UV laser modification and micropatterning of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) films (a-C:H,Si:O) with nanosecond pulses and effects of laser surface microstructuring on the frictional performance of DLN films on the nano- and macroscale. A technique of direct laser interference patterning was applied to produce arrays of periodic linear microstructures on the DLN films. The UV laser irradiation was performed at low fluences corresponding to the regime of surface graphitization and incipient ablation. At the initial stage of the thin film modification, the laser-induced spallation and graphitization in the surface layers were found to strongly influence the nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the DLN surface. Frictional properties of the laser-patterned DLN films were studied using (1) atomic force microscopy in lateral force mode and (2) a ball-on-flat tribometer under linear reciprocating sliding against a 100Cr6 steel ball. The lateral force microscopy measurements revealed that the laser-irradiated regions were characterized by increased friction forces due to microspallation effects and enhanced surface roughness, correlating with tribotests at the initial stage of sliding. During prolonged sliding in ambient air, both the original and laser-patterned DLN surfaces exhibited low-friction performance at the friction coefficient of 0.07-0.08.

  16. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I D /I G . Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  17. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, T S; Liu, C H [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T K [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T K [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  18. Silicon Nanosheets: Crossover between Multilayer Silicene and Diamond-like Growth Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazianetti, Carlo; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Tao, Li; De Padova, Paola; Quaresima, Claudio; Ottaviani, Carlo; Akinwande, Deji; Molle, Alessandro

    2017-03-28

    The structural and electronic properties of nanoscale Si epitaxially grown on Ag(111) can be tuned from a multilayer silicene phase, where the constitutive layers incorporate a mixed sp 2 /sp 3 bonding, to other ordinary Si phases, such as amorphous and diamond-like Si. Based on comparative scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy investigations, a key role in determining the nanoscale Si phase is played by the growth temperature of the epitaxial deposition on Ag(111) substrate and the presence or absence of a single-layer silicene as a seed for the successive growth. Furthermore, when integrated into a field-effect transistor device, multilayer silicene exhibits a characteristic ambipolar charge carrier transport behavior that makes it strikingly different from other conventional Si channels and suggestive of a Dirac-like character of the electronic bands of the crystal. These findings spotlight the interest in multilayer silicene as a different nanoscale Si phase for advanced nanotechnology applications such as ultrascaled nanoelectronics and nanomembranes, as well as for fundamental exploration of quantum properties.

  19. Glassy carbon coated graphite for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeux S; Cacciaguerra T; Duclaux L

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the problems caused by the treatment of nuclear wastes, the molten salts breeder reactors are expected to a great development. They use a molten fluorinated salt (mixture of LiF, BeF 2 , ThF 4 , and UF 4 ) as fuel and coolant. The reactor core, made of graphite, is used as a neutrons moderator. Despite of its compatibility with nuclear environment, it appears crucial to improve the stability and inertness of graphite against the diffusion of chemicals species leading to its corrosion. One way is to cover the graphite surface by a protective impermeable deposit made of glassy carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin or polyvinyl chloride precursors. The main difficulty in the synthesis of glassy carbon is to create exclusively, in the primary pyrolysis product, a micro-porosity of about twenty Angstroms which closes later at higher temperature. Therefore, the evacuation of the volatile products occurring mainly between 330 and 600 C, must progress slowly to avoid the material to crack. In this study, the optimal parameters for the synthesis of glassy carbon as well as glassy carbon deposits on nuclear-type graphite pieces are discussed. Both thermal treatment of phenolic and PVC resins have been performed. The structure and micro-texture of glassy carbon have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and helium pycno-metry. Glassy carbon samples (obtained at 1200 C) show densities ranging from 1.3 to 1.55 g/cm 3 and closed pores with nano-metric size (∼ 5 to 10 nm) appear clearly on the TEM micrographs. Then, a thermal treatment to 2700 C leads to the shrinkage of the entangled graphene ribbons, in good agreement with the proposed texture model for glassy carbon. Glassy carbon deposits on nuclear graphite have been developed by an impregnation method. The uniformity of the deposit depends clearly on the surface texture and the chemistry of the graphite substrate. The deposit regions where

  20. Glassy carbon coated graphite for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeux, S.; Cacciaguerra, T.; Duclaux, L. [Orleans Univ., CRMD, CNRS, 45 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Taking into account the problems caused by the treatment of nuclear wastes, the molten salts breeder reactors are expected to a great development. They use a molten fluorinated salt (mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2}, ThF{sub 4}, and UF{sub 4}) as fuel and coolant. The reactor core, made of graphite, is used as a neutrons moderator. Despite of its compatibility with nuclear environment, it appears crucial to improve the stability and inertness of graphite against the diffusion of chemicals species leading to its corrosion. One way is to cover the graphite surface by a protective impermeable deposit made of glassy carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin [1,2] or polyvinyl chloride [3] precursors. The main difficulty in the synthesis of glassy carbon is to create exclusively, in the primary pyrolysis product, a micro-porosity of about twenty Angstroms which closes later at higher temperature. Therefore, the evacuation of the volatile products occurring mainly between 330 and 600 C, must progress slowly to avoid the material to crack. In this study, the optimal parameters for the synthesis of glassy carbon as well as glassy carbon deposits on nuclear-type graphite pieces are discussed. Both thermal treatment of phenolic and PVC resins have been performed. The structure and micro-texture of glassy carbon have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and helium pycno-metry. Glassy carbon samples (obtained at 1200 C) show densities ranging from 1.3 to 1.55 g/cm{sup 3} and closed pores with nano-metric size ({approx} 5 to 10 nm) appear clearly on the TEM micrographs. Then, a thermal treatment to 2700 C leads to the shrinkage of the entangled graphene ribbons (Fig 1), in good agreement with the proposed texture model for glassy carbon (Fig 2) [4]. Glassy carbon deposits on nuclear graphite have been developed by an impregnation method. The uniformity of the deposit depends clearly on the surface texture and the chemistry

  1. Thermal conductive epoxy enhanced by nanodiamond-coated carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Jiang, Guohua

    2017-11-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) particles were coated on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by chemical reactions. Reliable bonding was formed by the combination of acyl chloride on NDs and amine group on CNTs. ND coated CNTs (CNT-ND) were dispersed into epoxy to fabricate thermal conductive resins. The results show that the surface energy of CNTs is decreased by the coated NDs, which is contributed to the excellent dispersion of CNT-NDs in the epoxy matrix. The heat-transfer channels were built by the venous CNTs cooperating with the coated NDs, which not only plays an effective role of heat conduction for CNTs and NDs, but also avoids the electrical leakage by the protection of NDs surrounding outside of CNTs. Electrical and thermal conductance measurements demonstrate that the influence of the CNT-ND incorporation on the electrical conductance is minor, however, the thermal conductivity is improved significantly for the epoxy filled with CNT-ND.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Carbon nanostructures and graphite-coated metal nanostructures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under certain conditions, pyrolysis of ruthenocene gives rise to graphite coated ruthenium nanoparticles as well as worm-like carbon structures. Pyrolysis of mixtures of ruthenocene and ferrocene gives rise to nanoparticles or nanorods of FeRu alloys, the composition depending upon the composition of the original mixture.

  3. Could humicity affect the mechanical properties of carbon based coatings?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobota, Jaroslav; Grossman, Jan; Vyskočil, J.; Novák, R.; Fořt, Tomáš; Vítů, T.; Dupák, Libor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 15 (2010), s. 375-377 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : carbon * mechanical properties * humidity * fracture toughness of hard thin coatings Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2010

  4. Biocompatible Silver-containing a-C:H and a-C coatings: AComparative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Allen, Matthew; Escobar Galindo, Ramon; Zhang, Hanshen; Anders, Andre; Albella, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings are known to be biocompatible and have good chemical inertness. For this reason, both of these materials are strong candidates to be used as a matrix that embeds metallic elements with antimicrobial effect. In this comparative study, we have incorporated silver into diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings by plasma based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) using methane (CH4) plasma and simultaneously depositing Ag from a pulsed cathodic arc source. In addition, we have grown amorphous carbon - silver composite coatings using a dual-cathode pulsed filtered cathodic-arc (FCA) source. The silver atomic content of the deposited samples was analyzed using glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOES). In both cases, the arc pulse frequency of the silver cathode was adjusted in order to obtain samples with approximately 5 at.% of Ag. Surface hardness of the deposited films was analyzed using the nanoindentation technique. Cell viability for both a-C:H/Ag and a-C:/Ag samples deposited on 24-well tissue culture plates has been evaluated.

  5. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  6. Electrochemically assisted co-deposition of calcium phosphate/collagen coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xueni [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hu Tao [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Li Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Chen Mengdi; Cao Sheng; Zhang Leilei [C/C Composites Technology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Hou Xianghui [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)/collagen coatings were prepared on the surface of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by electrochemically assisted co-deposition technique. The effects of collagen concentration in the electrolyte on morphology, structure and composition of the coatings were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesive strength of the coatings was also evaluated by scratch tests and tensile bond tests. It was demonstrated that the coatings of three-dimensional collagen network structure was formed on the C/C composites from the electrolyte containing collagen. The surface of the collagen network was covered by uniform CaP aggregates. The coatings were actually composites of CaP and collagen. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was a favorable composition in the coatings with the increase of the collagen concentration in the electrolyte. The formed collagen network increased the cohesive and adhesive strength of the coatings. The adhesive strength between the coatings and substrates increased as the collagen concentration in the electrolyte increased. The coatings prepared at the collagen concentration of 500 mg/L in the electrolyte were not scraped off until the applied load reached 32.0 {+-} 2.2 N and the average tensile adhesive strength of the coatings was 4.83 {+-} 0.71 MPa. After C/C coated with composite coatings (500 mg/L) being immersed in a 10{sup -3} M Ca (OH){sub 2} solution at 30-33 deg. C for 96 h, nano-structured HA/collagen coatings similar to the natural human bone were obtained on the C/C.

  7. Strontium and magnesium substituted dicalcium phosphate dehydrate coating for carbon/carbon composites prepared by pulsed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shou-jie, E-mail: jlliushoujie@126.com; Li, He-jun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Lei-lei, E-mail: zhangleilei@nwpu.edu.cn; Feng, Lei, E-mail: fengleijinan@163.com; Yao, Pei, E-mail: 1113923884@qq.com

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The potentiodynamic polarization curve shows that the SM-DCPD coating can dramatically enhance the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) value and meanwhile decrease the corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) of C/C composites. - Highlights: • Strontium and magnesium substituted dicalcium phosphate dehydrate coatings for carbon/carbon composites were synthesized by pulsed eletrodeposition. • Strontium and magnesium substituted dicalcium phosphate dehydrate coated carbon/carbon composites exhibited excellent bioactivity in vivo. • Strontium and magnesium substituted dicalcium phosphate dehydrate coated carbon/carbon composites showed lower corrosion rate with the comparison to pure carbon/carbon composites. - Abstract: Trace elements substituted apatite coatings have received a lot of interest recently as they have many benefits. In this work, strontium and magnesium substituted DCPD (SM-DCPD) coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by pulsed electrodeposition method. The morphology, microstructure, corrosion resistance and in vitro bioactivity of the SM-DCPD coatings are analyzed. The results show that the SM-DCPD coatings exhibit a flake-like morphology with dense and uniform structure. The SM-DCPD coatings could induce the formation of apatite layers on their surface in simulated body fluid. The electrochemical test indicates that the SM-DCPD coatings can evidently decrease the corrosion rate of the C/C composites in simulated body fluid. The SM-DCPD has potential application as the bioactive coatings.

  8. Mechanical Properties and Structures of Pyrolytic Carbon Coating Layer in HTR Coated Particle Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Woong Ki; Cho, Moon Sung

    2009-01-01

    The TRISO(tri-isotropic)-coated fuel particle for a HTR(High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) has a diameter of about 1 mm, composed of a nuclear fuel kernel and four different outer coating layers, consisting of a buffer PyC (pyrolytic carbon) layer, inner PyC layer, SiC layer, and outer PyC layer with different coating thicknesses following a specific fuel design. While the fuel kernel is a source for a heat generation by a nuclear fission of fissile uranium, each of the four coating layers acts as a different role in view of retaining the generated fission products and the other interactions during an in-reactor service. Among these coating layers, PyC properties are scarcely in agreement among various investigators and the dependency of their changes upon the deposition condition is comparatively large due to their additional anisotropic properties. Although a recent review work has contributed to an establishment of relationship between the material properties and QC measurements, the data on the mechanical properties and structural parameters of PyC coating layers remain still unclearly evaluated. A review work on dimensional changes of PyC by neutron irradiation was one of re-evaluative works recently attempted by the authors. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze and re-evaluate the existing data of the experimental results of the mechanical properties, i.e., Young's modulus and fracture stress, in relation with the coating conditions, density and the BAF (Bacon Anisotropy Factor), an important structural parameter, of PyC coating layers obtained from various experiments performed in the early periods of the HTR coated particle development

  9. Pt coating on flame-generated carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Dae; Lee, Dong Geun

    2008-01-01

    Carbon black, activated carbon and carbon nanotube have been used as supporting materials for precious metal catalysts used in fuel cell electrodes. One-step flame synthesis method is used to coat 2-5nm Pt dots on flame-generated carbon particles. By adjusting flame temperature, gas flow rates and resident time of particles in flame, we can obtain Pt/C nano catalyst-support composite particles. Additional injection of hydrogen gas facilitates pyrolysis of Pt precursor in flame. The size of as-incepted Pt dots increases along the flame due to longer resident time and sintering in high temperature flame. Surface coverage and dispersion of the Pt dots is varied at different sampling heights and confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectra (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Crystallinity and surface bonding groups of carbon are investigated through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscoy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy

  10. Controlled Distribution and Clustering of Silver in Ag-DLC Nanocomposite Coatings Using a Hybrid Plasma Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, M; Turgeon, S; Busby, Y; Tatoulian, M; Pireaux, J-J; Mantovani, D

    2016-08-17

    Incorporation of selected metallic elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as an innovative approach to add unique functional properties to DLC coatings, thus opening up a range of new potential applications in fields as diverse as sensors, tribology, and biomaterials. However, deposition by plasma techniques of metal-containing DLC coatings with well-defined structural properties and metal distribution is currently hindered by the limited understanding of their growth mechanisms. We report here a silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon coating (Ag-DLC) prepared in a hybrid plasma reactor which allowed independent control of the metal content and the carbon film structure and morphology. Morphological and chemical analyses of Ag-DLC films were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical distribution of silver from the surface toward the coating bulk was found to be highly inhomogeneous due to top surface segregation and clustering of silver nanoparticles. Two plasma parameters, the sputtered Ag flux and ion energy, were shown to influence the spatial distribution of silver particles. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for Ag-DLC growth by plasma was proposed.

  11. Textile fibers coated with carbon nanotubes for smart clothing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Sandra; Lalek, Bartłomiej; Janczak, Daniel; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Łucja; Krzemiński, Jakub; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Łekawa-Raus, Agnieszka

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials: graphene, fullerenes and in particular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are extremely interesting and extraordinary materials. It is mostly thanks to theirs unusual electrical and mechanical properties. Carbon nanotubes are increasingly examined to enable its usage in many fields of science and technology. It has been reported that there is a high possibility to use CNTs in electronics, optics, material engineering, biology or medicine. However, this material still interests and inspire scientists around the world and the list of different CNTs applications is constantly expanding. In this paper we are presenting a study on the possibility of application carbon nanotubes as a textile fiber coating for smart clothing applications. Various suspensions and pastes containing CNTs have been prepared as a possible coating onto textile fibers. Different application techniques have also been tested. Those techniques included painting with nanotube suspension, spray coating of suspensions and immersion. Following textile fibers were subject to tests: cotton, silk, polyester, polyamide and wool. Obtained composites materials were then characterized electrically by measuring the electrical resistance.

  12. Cohesive zone model of carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Prabhat Kamal; Kar, Kamal K; Basu, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    It has been previously reported that the average properties of carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber/polyester multiscale composites critically depend on the length and density of nanotubes on the fiber surface. In this paper the effect of nanotube length and density on the interfacial properties of the carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber–polymer interface has been studied using shear lag and a cohesive zone model. The latter model incorporates frictional sliding after complete debonding between the fiber and matrix and has been developed to quantify the effect of nanotube coating on various interfacial characterizing parameters. Our numerical results indicate that fibers with an optimal coverage and length of nanotubes significantly increase the interfacial strength and friction between the fiber and polymer. However, they also embrittle the interface compared with bare fibers. (paper)

  13. Durable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmeryan, K. D.; Radeva, E. I.; Avramov, I. D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of durable superhydrophobic (SH) carbon soot coatings used in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based gas or liquid sensors is reported. The method uses modification of the carbon soot through polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by means of glow discharge RF plasma. The surface characterization shows a fractal-like network of carbon nanoparticles with diameter of ~50 nm. These particles form islands and cavities in the nanometer range, between which the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) embeds and binds to the carbon chains and QCM surface. Such modified surface structure retains the hydrophobic nature of the soot and enhances its robustness upon water droplet interactions. Moreover, it significantly reduces the insertion loss and dynamic resistance of the QCM compared to the commonly used carbon soot/epoxy resin approach. Furthermore, the PPHMDSO/carbon soot coating demonstrates durability and no aging after more than 40 probing cycles in water based liquid environments. In addition, the surface layer keeps its superhydrophobicity even upon thermal annealing up to 540 °C. These experiments reveal an opportunity for the development of soot based SH QCMs with improved electrical characteristics, as required for high-resolution gas or liquid measurements.

  14. Evaluation of hardness, tribological behaviour and impact load of carbon-based hard composite coatings exposed to the influence of humidity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobota, Jaroslav; Grossman, Jan; Buršíková, V.; Dupák, Libor; Vyskočil, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2011), s. 596-599 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/031; GA ČR GA202/07/1669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : diamond-like carbon * mechanical properties * tribology Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2011

  15. Tribological study of lubricious DLC biocompatible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, M; Garcia-Luis, A; Viviente, J L; Braceras, I; Oñate, J I

    2002-12-01

    DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings have remarkable tribological properties due mainly to their good frictional behavior. These coatings can be applied in many industrial and biomedical applications, where sliding can generate wear and frictional forces on the components, such as orthopaedic metal implants. This work reports on the development and tribological characterization of functionally gradient titanium alloyed DLC coatings. A PVD-magnetron sputtering technique has been used as the deposition method. The aim of this work was to study the tribological performance of the DLC coating when metal to metal contact (cobalt chromium or titanium alloys) takes place under dry and lubricated test conditions. Prior work by the authors demonstrates that the DLC coating reduced considerably the wear of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The DLC coating during mechanical testing exhibited a high elastic recovery (65%) compared to the values obtained from Co-Cr-Mo (15%) and Ti-6Al-4V (23%). The coating exhibited an excellent tribo-performance against the Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys, especially under dry conditions presenting a friction value of 0.12 and almost negligible wear. This coating has passed biocompatibility tests for implant devices on tissue/bone contact according to international standards (ISO 10993).

  16. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  17. Protective amorphous carbon coatings on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, Kaspars; Baránková, Hana; Bardos, Ladislav

    2017-11-01

    Thick amorphous carbon films were deposited by the Magnets-in-Motion (M-M) rf linear hollow cathode at varying acetylene contents in Ar in a hybrid PVD/PE-CVD process directly on glass substrates. The hollow cathode plates manufactured from graphite were used as the PVD target. The measurements show that the films can reach thickness of up to 50 μm at deposition rates of up to 2.5 μm/min. Scratch test measurements confirm that well adhering films several μm thick can be achieved at C2H2 contents of up to 0.5%.

  18. Fluidized bed reactor for working up carbon coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschollek, M.; Simon, W.; Walter, C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor is described for working up carbon coated particles, particularly nuclear fuel particles or fertile material particles consisting essentially of a cylindrical portion connected to a conical portion. Gas supply pipes, gas distribution space and gas distribution heads are provided within the conical reactor lower portion, the gas distribution members being arranged in at least two superimposed planes and distributed symmetrically over the cross-section of the reactor

  19. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L J; Sood, D K; Manory, R R [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 μm thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10 17 - 8x10 17 ions cm -2 . Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  3. Preparation and characterization of carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leilei, Zhang; Hejun, Li; Kezhi, Li; Shouyang, Zhang; Qiangang, Fu; Yulei, Zhang; Jinhua, Lu; Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CSH coatings were prepared by combination of magnetron sputter ion plating, CVD and UECD. • Na + and CO 3 2− were developed to co-substitute hydroxyapatite. • SiC nanowires were introduced into Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. • CSH coatings showed excellent cell activity and cell proliferation behavior. - Abstract: A carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating (CSH coating) was prepared on carbon/carbon composites using a combination method of magnetron sputter ion plating, chemical vapor deposition and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CSH coating was consisted of three components: carbon layer, SiC nanowires and Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. The carbon layer provided a dense and uniform surface structure for the growth of SiC nanowires. The SiC nanowires exhibited a porous structure, favoring the infiltration of Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals. The Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite could infiltrate into the pores of SiC nanowires and finally cover the SiC nanowires entirely with a needle shape. The osteoblast-like MG63 cells were employed to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the CSH coating. The MG63 cells favorably spread and grew well across the CSH coating surface with plenty of filopods and microvilli, exhibiting excellent cell activity. Moreover, the CSH coating elicited higher cell proliferation as compared to bare carbon/carbon composites. In conclusion, the CSH offers great potential as a coating material for future medical application in hard tissue replacement

  4. Preparation and characterization of carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leilei, Zhang, E-mail: zhangleilei1121@aliyun.com; Hejun, Li; Kezhi, Li; Shouyang, Zhang; Qiangang, Fu; Yulei, Zhang; Jinhua, Lu; Wei, Li

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CSH coatings were prepared by combination of magnetron sputter ion plating, CVD and UECD. • Na{sup +} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} were developed to co-substitute hydroxyapatite. • SiC nanowires were introduced into Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. • CSH coatings showed excellent cell activity and cell proliferation behavior. - Abstract: A carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating (CSH coating) was prepared on carbon/carbon composites using a combination method of magnetron sputter ion plating, chemical vapor deposition and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CSH coating was consisted of three components: carbon layer, SiC nanowires and Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. The carbon layer provided a dense and uniform surface structure for the growth of SiC nanowires. The SiC nanowires exhibited a porous structure, favoring the infiltration of Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals. The Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite could infiltrate into the pores of SiC nanowires and finally cover the SiC nanowires entirely with a needle shape. The osteoblast-like MG63 cells were employed to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the CSH coating. The MG63 cells favorably spread and grew well across the CSH coating surface with plenty of filopods and microvilli, exhibiting excellent cell activity. Moreover, the CSH coating elicited higher cell proliferation as compared to bare carbon/carbon composites. In conclusion, the CSH offers great potential as a coating material for future medical application in hard tissue replacement.

  5. Improved dental implant drill durability and performance using heat and wear resistant protective coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Nilay; Alkan, Alper; İlday, Serim; Bengu, Erman

    2018-03-02

    Dental implant drilling procedure is an essential step for implant surgery and frictional heat appeared in bone during drilling is a key factor affecting the success of an implant. The aim of this study is to increase the dental implant drill lifetime and performance using heat- and wear-resistant protective coatings hence to decrease the alveolar bone temperature caused by the dental implant drilling procedure. Commercially obtained stainless steel drills were coated with titanium aluminum nitride, diamond-like carbon, titanium boron nitride, and boron nitride coatings via magnetron-sputter deposition. Drilling procedure was performed on a bovine femoral cortical bone under the conditions mimicking clinical practice, where the tests were performed both under water-assisted cooling and under the conditions without any cooling was applied. Coated drill performances and durabilities were compared to that of three commonly used commercial drills which surfaces are made from namely; zirconia, black diamond and stainless steel. Protective coatings with boron nitride, titanium boron nitride and diamond-like carbon have significantly improved drill performance and durability. Especially boron nitride-coated drills have performed within safe bone temperature limits for 50 drillings even without any cooling is applied. Titanium aluminium nitride coated drills did not show any improvement over commercially obtained stainless steel drills. Surface modification using heat and wear resistant coatings is an easy and highly effective way to improve implant drill performance and durability, which can reflect positively on surgical procedure and healing period afterwards. The noteworthy success of different types of coatings is novel and likely to be applicable to various other medical systems.

  6. On the formation of protective sulphide coatings on carbon steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, C.; Venkateswaran, G.

    1987-01-01

    A chemical method for protecting carbon steel surfaces by forming pyrrhotite/pyrite coatings has been developed. The protective nature of the coatings has been studied by weight loss kinetics, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical measurements. A comparison is drawn between the protective nature of pyrite coating with that of magnetite coating. (author)

  7. Diffusion barrier coatings for high temperature corrosion resistance of advanced carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Raman, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon possesses an excellent combination of mechanical and thermal properties, viz., excellent creep resistance at temperatures up to 2400 deg C in non-oxidizing environment and a low thermal expansion coefficient. These properties make carbon a potential material for very high temperature applications. However, the use of carbon materials at high temperatures is considerably restricted due to their extremely poor oxidation resistance at temperatures above 400 deg C. The obvious choice for improving high temperature oxidation resistance of such materials is a suitable diffusion barrier coating. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in advanced diffusion- and thermal-barrier coatings for ceramic composites, with particular reference to C/C composites. The paper discusses the development of multiphase and multi-component ceramic coatings, and recent investigations on the oxidation resistance of the coated C/C composites. The paper also discusses the cases of innovative engineering solutions for traditional problems with the ceramic coatings, and the scope of intelligent processing in developing coatings for the C/C composites. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  8. Anti-sticking behavior of DLC-coated silicon micro-molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B; Tor, S B; Liu, E; Khun, N W; Hardt, D E; Chun, J H

    2009-01-01

    Pure carbon- (C), nitrogen- (N) and titanium- (Ti) doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited on silicon (Si) micro-molds by dc magnetron sputtering deposition to improve the tribological performance of the micro-molds. The coated and uncoated Si molds were used in injection molding for the fabrication of secondary metal-molds, which were used for the replication of micro-fluidic devices. The bonding structure, surface roughness, surface energy, critical load and friction coefficient of the DLC coatings were characterized with micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, microscratch and ball-on-disc sliding wear tests, respectively. It was observed that the doping conditions had significant effects on Raman peak positions, mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings. The G peak shifted toward a lower position with N and Ti doping. The DLC coating deposited with 1 sccm N 2 flow rate showed the lowest G peak position and the smoothest surface. The surface energies of the pure carbon and Ti-doped DLC coatings were lower than that of the N-doped DLC, which was more significant at a higher N 2 flow rate. In terms of adhesion and friction coefficient, it was observed that the Ti-doped DLC coating had the best performance. Ti incorporated in the DLC coating decreased the residual stress of the coating, which improved the adhesive strength of the coating with the Si substrate

  9. CO{sub 2} laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal, E-mail: molian@iastate.edu

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  10. CO2 laser coating of nanodiamond on aluminum using an annular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Rodger; Molian, Pal

    2014-01-01

    Laser coating of nanodiamond (ND) on aluminum alloy A319 substrate was investigated using a diffraction-free ring beam. A 1000 W continuous wave CO 2 laser in the ring beam configuration heated the 25–35 μm thick electrostatically sprayed ND powder layers on aluminum surface, melted a very thin layer (10 μm) of aluminum in a controlled fashion and caused phase transition of ND to form 50–60 μm thick ND/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. Significant improvements in friction, wear resistance and surface finish were observed in the ring beam method over the traditional Gaussian beam method suggesting that these thick (50–60 μm) ND/DLC laser coatings can outperform the currently used thin (<4 μm) chemically vapor deposited DLC coatings for aluminum parts in automobiles.

  11. Development of a novel test-setup for identifying the frictional characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites at high surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prateek; Schinzel, Marie; Andrich, Manuela; Modler, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites are extensively used in industrial applications. They are light in weight and have excellent load bearing properties. To understand this material's behaviour when carrying loads at high pressure, a tensile-friction test device was developed that can apply a contact surface pressure between composite and counterpart of 50-300 MPa. A tribological investigation of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was carried out, in which the influence of the surface morphology was investigated by using grinding and sandblasting techniques. The friction coefficient of the polymer composite was measured at 100 MPa surface pressure against uncoated and Diamond-Like Carbon coated stainless steel counterparts.

  12. Incorporation of different antibiotics into carbonated hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium implants, release and antibiotic efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, M.; Bezemer, J.M.; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, P.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) coatings were applied onto titanium implants by using a biomimetic precipitation method. Different antibiotics were incorporated into the CHA coatings and their release and efficacy against bacteria growth were studied in vitro. The following antibiotics were used

  13. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe T. Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core.

  14. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Noe T.; Ochmann, Timothy; Kienzle, Nicholas; Ruff, Brad; Haase, Mark R.; Hopkins, Tracy; Pixley, Sarah; Mast, David; Schulz, Mark J.; Shanov, Vesselin

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core. PMID:28344254

  15. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes with nitrogen-containing carbon coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšík, Elena; Morávková, Zuzana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Šálek, Petr; Kovářová, Jana; Zemek, Josef; Cieslar, M.; Prokeš, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1054-1065 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP108/11/P763; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR GA202/09/0428 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline coating * carbon ization * multi-wall carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  16. Effect of Surface Modification on Corrosion Resistance of Uncoated and DLC Coated Stainless Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion resistance of 4H13 stainless steel (EN-X46Cr13) surface uncoated and coated with an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film [diamond-like carbon (DLC)] in acidic chloride solution was investigated. The DLC films were deposited on steel surface by a plasma deposition, direct current discharge (PDCD) method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical groups existing on DLC films. The surface of the specimens was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tribological properties of the both materials were examined using a ball-on disk tribometer. The microhardness (HV) of diamond-like carbon film increased over five times in relation to the 4H13 stainless steel without of DLC coating. Oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The high value of polarization resistance indicates that the DLC film on substrate was characterized by low electrical conductivity. The corrosion rate of 4H13 stainless steel with of DLC film decreased about eight times in relation to uncoated surface of 4H13 stainless steel.

  17. Asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor, based on polypyrrole coated carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared. • New method is based on the use of new electrochemically active dopants for PPy. • The dopans provided dispersion of MWCNT and promoted PPy coating formation. • Symmetric PPy–MWCNT supercapacitors showed high capacitance and low resistance. • Asymmetric PPy–MWCNT/VN–MWCNT devices and modules allowed larger voltage window. - Abstract: Conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer – multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were synthesized using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) and sulfonazo III sodium salt (CHR-BS) as anionic dopants for chemical polymerization of PPy. The composites were tested for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). Sedimentation tests, electrophoretic deposition experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations showed that strong adsorption of anionic CHR-BS on MWCNT provided MWCNT dispersion. The analysis of scanning and transmission electron microscopy data demonstrated that the use of CHR-BS allowed the formation of PPy coatings on MWCNT. As a result, the composites, prepared using CHR-BS, showed higher capacitance, compared to the composites, prepared using SPADNS. The electrodes, containing MWCNT, coated with PPy showed a capacitance of 179 F g −1 for active mass loading of 10 mg cm −2 , good capacitance retention at scan rates in the range of 2–100 mV s −1 and excellent cyclic stability. Asymmetric ES devices, containing positive PPy–MWCNT electrodes and negative vanadium nitride (VN)–MWCNT electrodes showed significant improvement in energy storage performance, compared to the symmetric ES due to the larger voltage window. The low impedance and high capacitance of the individual cells paved the way to the development of modules with higher voltage, which showed good electrochemical performance

  18. Microwave absorption properties of helical carbon nanofibers-coated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helical carbon nanofibers (HCNFs coated-carbon fibers (CFs were fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. TEM and Raman spectroscopy characterizations indicate that the graphitic layers of the HCNFs changed from disorder to order after high temperature annealing. The electromagnetic parameters and microwave absorption properties were measured at 2–18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss is 32 dB at 9 GHz and the widest bandwidth under −10 dB is 9.8 GHz from 8.2 to 18 GHz for the unannealed HCNFs coated-CFs composite with 2.5 mm in thickness, suggesting that HCNFs coated-CFs should have potential applications in high performance microwave absorption materials.

  19. C/SiC/MoSi2-Si multilayer coatings for carbon/carbon composites for protection against oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yulei; Li Hejun; Qiang Xinfa; Li Kezhi; Zhang Shouyang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A C/SiC/MoSi 2 -Si multilayer coating was prepared on C/C by slurry and pack cementation. → Multilayer coating can protect C/C for 300 h at 1873 K or 103 h at 1873 K in air. → The penetration cracks in the coating result in the weight loss of the coated C/C. → The fracture of the coated C/C in wind tunnel result from the excessive local stress. - Abstract: To improve the oxidation resistance of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, a C/SiC/MoSi 2 -Si multilayer oxidation protective coating was prepared by slurry and pack cementation. The microstructure of the as-prepared coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The isothermal oxidation and erosion resistance of the coating was investigated in electrical furnace and high temperature wind tunnel. The results showed that the multilayer coating could effectively protect C/C composites from oxidation in air for 300 h at 1773 K and 103 h at 1873 K, and the coated samples was fractured after erosion for 27 h at 1873 K h in wind tunnel. The weight loss of the coated specimens was considered to be caused by the formation of penetration cracks in the coating. The fracture of the coated C/C composites might result from the excessive local stress in the coating.

  20. NANOINDENTATION TEST FOR DLC COATING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tischler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report the effects of the substrate on the microhardness of Diamond like carbon (DLC thin films were investigated. The DLC coatings were deposited by Radio Frequency Plasma Actived Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PACVD; 13,56 MHz process on three mechanically polished substrates, which were chosen for comparison; hardened molybdenum high speed steel AISI M2, unhardened tool steel AISI L2 and titanium alloy TiAl6V4. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the influence of substrates on microhardness and other mechanical properties of DLC layer. These properties especially microhardness were studied and compared from nanoindentation load – displacement curves. Results show that the hardness of the substrate is the crucial value for the hardness of the DLC films.

  1. Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharbabu, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Rao, K. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid state coating by friction surfacing method. • D2 tool steel is coated over relatively softer low carbon steel. • Defect free interface between tool steel coating and low carbon steel substrate. • D2 coatings exhibited higher hardness and good wear resistance. • Highly refined martensitic microstructure in the coating. - Abstract: In this work D2 tool steel coating is produced over a low carbon steel substrate using friction surfacing process. The process parameters are optimized to get a defect free coating. Microstructural characterization is carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Infrared thermography is used to measure the thermal profile during friction surfacing of D2 steel. Wear performance of the coating is studied using Pin-on-Disk wear tests. A lower rotational speed of the consumable rod and higher translational speed of the substrate is found to result in thinner coatings. Friction surfaced D2 steel coating showed fine-grained martensitic microstructure compared to the as-received consumable rod which showed predominantly ferrite microstructure. Refinement of carbides in the coating is observed due to the stirring action of the process. The infrared thermography studies showed the peak temperature attained by the D2 coating to be about 1200 °C. The combined effect of martensitic microstructure and refined carbides resulted in higher hardness and wear resistance of the coating

  2. Characterization of coating probe with Ti-DLC for electrical scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia Xiaolei; Guo Liqiu; Bai Yang; Qiao Lijie

    2011-01-01

    In electrical scanning probe microscope (ESPM) applications, the wear and conductivity of the probe are undoubtedly serious concerns since they affect the integrity of the measurements. This study investigates the characterization of Ti doped diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as coating material on a silicon cantilever for ESPM. We deposited a layer of Ti-DLC thin film on the surface of Si cantilever by magnetron sputtering. The morphology and composition of the Ti-DLC films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. We also compared the wear resistance, electric conductivity and scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes with those of commercially available conductive probes. The results showed that the electric conductivity and the scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes were the same as the commercial conductive probes, while the wear resistance and service life was significantly better.

  3. Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition – Technological Design Of Functional Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januś M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (PA CVD method allows to deposit of homogeneous, well-adhesive coatings at lower temperature on different substrates. Plasmochemical treatment significantly impacts on physicochemical parameters of modified surfaces. In this study we present the overview of the possibilities of plasma processes for the deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings doped Si and/or N atoms on the Ti Grade2, aluminum-zinc alloy and polyetherketone substrate. Depending on the type of modified substrate had improved the corrosion properties including biocompatibility of titanium surface, increase of surface hardness with deposition of good adhesion and fine-grained coatings (in the case of Al-Zn alloy and improving of the wear resistance (in the case of PEEK substrate.

  4. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  5. Characterisation of a new carbon nanotube detector coating for solar absolute radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesal Oliva, A.; Finsterle, W.; Walter, B.; Schmutz, W.

    2018-02-01

    A new sprayable carbon nanotube coating for bolometric detectors aims to increase the absorptance compared to regular space qualified black paints. In collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we have characterized the optical properties and mechanical and thermal stability of the carbon nanotube coating inside conical shaped cavity detectors.

  6. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  7. DLC coating on stainless steel by pulsed methane discharge in repetitive plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.; Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S.; Mahmood, S.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been achieved on AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by employing energetic ions emitted from a repetitive plasma focus operated in CH 4 discharge. The Raman spectroscopy of the coatings exhibits the evolution of a-C:H/DLC coatings with clearly observed D and G peaks centered about 1320–1360 and 1560–1620 cm −1 respectively. The diamond character of the coatings is influenced by the ion flux and repetition rate of the focus device. The repetitive discharge mode of plasma focus has led to the formation of a-C:H/DLC coatings in short duration of time. The coatings transform from a-C to a-C:H depending upon substrate angular position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of DLC coating owing to stress-induced restructuring in SS. The estimated crystallite size is found to be ∼40–50 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibit a layered granular surface morphology of the coatings. The Vickers surface hardness of the DLC coated SS samples has been significantly improved.

  8. DLC coating on stainless steel by pulsed methane discharge in repetitive plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M., E-mail: hassanjh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, 3329 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan); Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Lee, P.; Rawat, R.S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been achieved on AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by employing energetic ions emitted from a repetitive plasma focus operated in CH{sub 4} discharge. The Raman spectroscopy of the coatings exhibits the evolution of a-C:H/DLC coatings with clearly observed D and G peaks centered about 1320–1360 and 1560–1620 cm{sup −1} respectively. The diamond character of the coatings is influenced by the ion flux and repetition rate of the focus device. The repetitive discharge mode of plasma focus has led to the formation of a-C:H/DLC coatings in short duration of time. The coatings transform from a-C to a-C:H depending upon substrate angular position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of DLC coating owing to stress-induced restructuring in SS. The estimated crystallite size is found to be ∼40–50 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibit a layered granular surface morphology of the coatings. The Vickers surface hardness of the DLC coated SS samples has been significantly improved.

  9. Antibacterial and Tribological Performance of Carbonitride Coatings Doped with W, Ti, Zr, or Cr Deposited on AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sun-Hui; Su, Yen-Liang; Lai, Yu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Carbonitride (CNx) coatings have existed for several decades but are not well understood. Related studies have indicated that CNx coatings exhibit behaviors comparable to diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings. Metal-doped CNx coatings are expected to show superior performance to single CNx coatings. In this study, a CNx coating and a group of CNx coatings with 6 at. % metal doping (W, Ti, Zr, or Cr) were prepared on biograde AISI 316L stainless steel (SS316L) substrates, and they were then characterized and studied for antibacterial and wear performance. The microstructure, constituent phase, nanohardness, adhesion, surface roughness, and contact angle were evaluated. The antimicrobial test used Staphylococcus aureus and followed the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS Z 2801:2010. Finally, the wear behavior was assessed. The results showed that the CNx coating was a composite of amorphous CNx and amorphous C structures. The metal doping caused crystalline metal carbides/nitrides to form in the CNx coatings, which weakened their overall integrity. All the coatings showed antimicrobial ability for the SS316L samples. The CNx-Zr coating, the surface of which had the highest hydrophilicity, produced the best antibacterial performance. However, the CNx-Zr coating showed lower wear resistance than the CNx-W and CNx-Ti coatings. The CNx-Ti coating with a highly hydrophilic surface exhibited the lowest antibacterial ability. PMID:29039782

  10. Antibacterial and Tribological Performance of Carbonitride Coatings Doped with W, Ti, Zr, or Cr Deposited on AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hui Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonitride (CNx coatings have existed for several decades but are not well understood. Related studies have indicated that CNx coatings exhibit behaviors comparable to diamond-like carbon (DLC coatings. Metal-doped CNx coatings are expected to show superior performance to single CNx coatings. In this study, a CNx coating and a group of CNx coatings with 6 at. % metal doping (W, Ti, Zr, or Cr were prepared on biograde AISI 316L stainless steel (SS316L substrates, and they were then characterized and studied for antibacterial and wear performance. The microstructure, constituent phase, nanohardness, adhesion, surface roughness, and contact angle were evaluated. The antimicrobial test used Staphylococcus aureus and followed the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS Z 2801:2010. Finally, the wear behavior was assessed. The results showed that the CNx coating was a composite of amorphous CNx and amorphous C structures. The metal doping caused crystalline metal carbides/nitrides to form in the CNx coatings, which weakened their overall integrity. All the coatings showed antimicrobial ability for the SS316L samples. The CNx-Zr coating, the surface of which had the highest hydrophilicity, produced the best antibacterial performance. However, the CNx-Zr coating showed lower wear resistance than the CNx-W and CNx-Ti coatings. The CNx-Ti coating with a highly hydrophilic surface exhibited the lowest antibacterial ability.

  11. Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium obtained by electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Xibo; Zeng, Yongxiang; He, Rui; Li, Zhongjie; Tian, Lingyang; Wang, Jian; Wan, Qianbing; Li, Xiaoyu; Bao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of SWNTs into the HA coating leaded to the formation of homogeneous and crack-free composite coatings. • The highest bonding strength was detected for the SWNTs/HA-0.5 composite coating (25.70 MPa). • The SWNTs/HA composite coatings induced better cell proliferation, cell viability and ALP activity compared to pure HA coating and pure Ti. • The results suggested that SWNTs/HA-0.5 and SWNTs/HA-1.0 composite coating prepared in this work is acceptable in terms of mechanical property and in-vitro bioactivity. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (SWNTs/HA) composite coatings were successfully fabricated by electrochemical deposition technique. Different concentrations of SWNTs were incorporated into the apatite coating by adding functionalized SWNTs into the electrolyte. Homogeneous and crack-free SWNTs/HA composite coatings were achieved and the coatings had higher crystallinity compared to pure HA coating. In addition, the highest bonding strength of the SWNTs/HA coating reached 25.7 MPa, which was nearly 70% higher than that of pure HA coating. The in-vitro cellular biocompatibility tests revealed that SWNTs/HA composite coatings exhibited higher in-vitro bioactivity than that of pure HA coating and pure titanium (Ti). It suggests that SWNTs/HA composite coating may have enormous potential applications in the field of biomaterials, especially for the metal implants

  12. Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium obtained by electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Xibo; Zeng, Yongxiang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); He, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Stomatology, the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310015 (China); Li, Zhongjie; Tian, Lingyang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: fero@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wan, Qianbing, E-mail: pxb1024@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bao, Hong [Department of Stomatology, Hospital of Chengdu Office of People' s Government of Tibetan Autonomous Region, Chengdu 610000 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of SWNTs into the HA coating leaded to the formation of homogeneous and crack-free composite coatings. • The highest bonding strength was detected for the SWNTs/HA-0.5 composite coating (25.70 MPa). • The SWNTs/HA composite coatings induced better cell proliferation, cell viability and ALP activity compared to pure HA coating and pure Ti. • The results suggested that SWNTs/HA-0.5 and SWNTs/HA-1.0 composite coating prepared in this work is acceptable in terms of mechanical property and in-vitro bioactivity. - Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (SWNTs/HA) composite coatings were successfully fabricated by electrochemical deposition technique. Different concentrations of SWNTs were incorporated into the apatite coating by adding functionalized SWNTs into the electrolyte. Homogeneous and crack-free SWNTs/HA composite coatings were achieved and the coatings had higher crystallinity compared to pure HA coating. In addition, the highest bonding strength of the SWNTs/HA coating reached 25.7 MPa, which was nearly 70% higher than that of pure HA coating. The in-vitro cellular biocompatibility tests revealed that SWNTs/HA composite coatings exhibited higher in-vitro bioactivity than that of pure HA coating and pure titanium (Ti). It suggests that SWNTs/HA composite coating may have enormous potential applications in the field of biomaterials, especially for the metal implants.

  13. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  14. Electrochemical Behavior of Biomedical Titanium Alloys Coated with Diamond Carbon in Hanks' Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanavel, S.; Ponnusamy, S.; Mohan, L.; Radhika, R.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Ramasubramanian, K.

    2018-03-01

    Biomedical implants in the knee and hip are frequent failures because of corrosion and stress on the joints. To solve this important problem, metal implants can be coated with diamond carbon, and this coating plays a critical role in providing an increased resistance to implants toward corrosion. In this study, we have employed diamond carbon coating over Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys using hot filament chemical vapor deposition method which is well-established coating process that significantly improves the resistance toward corrosion, wears and hardness. The diamond carbon-coated Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy showed an increased microhardness in the range of 850 HV. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization studies in SBF solution (simulated body fluid solution) were carried out to understand the in vitro behavior of uncoated as well as coated titanium alloys. The experimental results showed that the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy is relatively higher when compared with diamond carbon-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys due to the presence of β phase in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. Electrochemical impedance results showed that the diamond carbon-coated alloys behave as an ideal capacitor in the body fluid solution. Moreover, the stability in mechanical properties during the corrosion process was maintained for diamond carbon-coated titanium alloys.

  15. Repair of oxidation protection coatings on carbon-carbon using preceramic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Stuart T.; Graef, Renee C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a field-applicable technique for the repair of damage to SiC protective coatings on carbon/carbon composites, using commercial preceramic polymers, such as perhydropolysilazane developed by the Southwest Research Institute and several commercial polymers (NICALON, PS110, PS116, PS117, NCP-200, and PHPS were tested). After being applied on the damaged panel and oxidized at 1400 C, these polymers form either SiC or Si3N4 (or a mixture of both). It was found that impact damaged carbon/carbon specimens repaired with perhydropolysilazane exhibit substantial oxidation resistance. Many of the other tested preceramic polymer were found to be unsuitable for the purpose of repair due to either low ceramic yield, foaming, or intumescence.

  16. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yan; Li, Zhuguo; Feng, Kai; Guo, Xingwu; Zhou, Zhifeng; Dong, Jie; Wu, Yixiong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbon film with nickel interlayer (Ni + C coating) is deposited on GW83. • In Ni + C composite coating the carbon coating has good adhesion with the nickel interlayer. • The wear track of Ni + C coating is narrower compared to the bare one. • The wear resistance of GW83 is greatly improved by the Ni + C coating. - Abstract: Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating

  17. Fluidized bed reactor for processing particles coated with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschollek, M.; Simon, W.; Walter, C.

    1978-01-01

    The carbon coating of production returns of these particles first has to be removed before the heavy metal core released can be reprocessed. For reasons of criticality, removal of burnt-up particles downwards must be possible in the fluidized bed reactor even if the reactor diameter is greater than 800 mm, and the material temperatures must not exceed 650 0 C. It consists of an upper cylindrical and a lower conical part, where, according to the invention, the gas distributor heads in the conical part are situated in several planes above one another for the fluidisation and combustion gas and where they are evently distributed over the reactor crossection, so that an even flow profile is achieved over the reactor cross section. (HP) [de

  18. Chemical sensors using coated or doped carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  19. The in vitro biomineralization and cytocompatibility of polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Penghua; Wang Jinqing; Wang Lin; Liu Bin; Lei Ziqiang; Yang Shengrong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes were firstly prepared by a simple and feasible route. Then, for comparison, the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the carbon nanotubes and the polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes were assessed by immersion study in simulated body fluids and 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test using osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1), respectively. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the introduction of polydopamine coating can greatly enhance the bioactivity and promote cell proliferation of the carbon nanotubes. The improvement of bioactive behavior is attributed to the good combination of catecholamines structure of the polydopamine and the structural advantages of carbon nanotubes as a framework material. It is anticipated that the polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes would find potential applications in bone tissue engineering and other biomedical areas.

  20. The in vitro biomineralization and cytocompatibility of polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Penghua [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Jinqing, E-mail: jqwang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Lin; Liu Bin [School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei Ziqiang [Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang Shengrong, E-mail: sryang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2011-03-15

    In this work, polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes were firstly prepared by a simple and feasible route. Then, for comparison, the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the carbon nanotubes and the polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes were assessed by immersion study in simulated body fluids and 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test using osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1), respectively. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the introduction of polydopamine coating can greatly enhance the bioactivity and promote cell proliferation of the carbon nanotubes. The improvement of bioactive behavior is attributed to the good combination of catecholamines structure of the polydopamine and the structural advantages of carbon nanotubes as a framework material. It is anticipated that the polydopamine coated carbon nanotubes would find potential applications in bone tissue engineering and other biomedical areas.

  1. Tribological behavior of dual-layer electroless-plated Ag–carbon nanotube coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Dai; Penkov, Oleksiy V.; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The tribological behavior of electroless Ag-plated carbon nanotube (CNT) dual-layer coatings was assessed and compared to that of the pure CNT coating. The motivation was to protect the surface of CNT coatings from wear by depositing a thin, soft Ag coating. The methods used for coating CNTs and Ag were spin coating and electroless plating, respectively. These coating methods were selected based on their simplicity and cost effectiveness. Wear tests were conducted by sliding the coatings against a stainless steel ball under a 10–30 mN applied load. Results showed that the wear rate of the dual-layer coating was strongly dependent on the thickness of the Ag layer as well as the applied load. At a 10 mN load and an Ag thickness of 65 nm, the wear rate of the dual-layer coating was about 10 times less than that of the pure CNT coating. However, when the thickness of the Ag was decreased to 11.5 nm, the wear rate was significantly higher. Also, the steady-state friction coefficients of the CNT and the dual-layer Ag–CNT coatings were in the range of 0.65–0.73 for all loads. A model of the wear reduction mechanism of the dual-layer Ag–CNT coating was proposed. - Highlights: ► Dual-layer Ag–carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings were deposited on silicon wafer. ► Friction coefficient of the Ag–CNT coatings was about 0.65. ► Wear of Ag–CNT coatings depended on the thickness of Ag layer and the applied load. ► Wear rate of the Ag–CNT coating was 10-fold less than that of the pure CNT coating

  2. Sliding Wear Behaviour and Corosion Resistance to Ringer’s Solution of Uncoated and DLC Coated X46Cr13 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scendo M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear properties and corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution of uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC coated X46Cr13 steel was tested. The Raman spectra showed that the DLC film was successfully coated by plasma assisted CVD method onto the steel surface. The wear test, carried out using a ball-on disk tribometer, revealed that the DLC coating show better resistance to sliding wear and lower friction coefficient against a 100Cr6 steel ball than five times softer X46Cr13 steel. The oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by means of both the gravimetric and electrochemical method. It was found that the DLC coating markedly decreased the rate of corrosion of the X46Cr13 steel, irrespective of the corrosion mechanism involved.

  3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF CARBON STEEL COATED WITH AN EPOXY BASED POWDER COATING CONTAINING MONTMORILONITE FUNCTIONALIZED WITH SILANE

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Tibola Bertuoli; Veronica Perozzo Frizzo; Diego Piazza; Lisete Cristine Scienza; Ademir José Zattera

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the MMT-Na+ clay was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) and incorporated in a commercial formulation epoxy-based powder coating in a proportion of 8 wt% and applied on 1008 carbon steel panels by electrostatic spray. Adhesion, flexibility, impact and corrosion performance in salt spray chamber tests were performed to evaluate the coatings. The presence of clay did not affect the mechanical properties of the film, however greater subcutaneo...

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of composite galvanic Ni with carbon nanomaterials and PVD Mo coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovich, V.B.; Chayeuski, V.V.; Zhdanok, S.A.; Barkovskaya, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Double layer coatings Ni – Mo were obtained by electrolytic deposition of galvanic Ni and following arc PVD deposition of molybdenum. The ion plating coatings Mo on Ni foil and composition electrolytic Ni coatings with carbon nanomaterials (CNM) deposited on mild steel has been also investigated. Composite galvanic Ni coatings with CNM and ion plating coatings Mo contain separately obtained cubic α-Mo phase as well as fragmentary solid solution Mo in Ni. Such coatings exclude hydrogenation of Ni foundation in alkaline solution and possess enlarged electrocatalytic properties while emitting hydrogen and oxygen. Availability of carbon based nanomaterials in combined coatings is cause of an active absorption hydrogen after cathodic polarization. A formation on the surface layer of nanostructure solid solution (Ni, Mo) after compression plasma flows treatment with fixed parameters of patterns Mo/Ni/ mild steel take place. (authors)