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Sample records for diallyl disulfide increases

  1. Effects of garlic oil and two of its major organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, on intestinal damage in rats injected with endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Y.-H.; Jen, L.-N.; Su, H.-Y.; Lii, C.-K.; Sheen, L.-Y.; Liu, C.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Garlic and its active components are known to possess antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on endotoxin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Wistar rats received by gavage 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight garlic oil (GO), 0.5 mmol/kg body weight diallyl disulfide or diallyl trisulfide, or the vehicle (corn oil; 2 ml/kg body weight) every other day for 2 weeks before being injected with endotoxin (i.p., 5 mg/kg body weight). Control rats were administered with corn oil and were injected with sterile saline. Samples for the measurement of proinflammatory cytokines were collected 3 h after injection, and all other samples were collected 18 h after injection. The low dose of GO suppressed endotoxin-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, ulceration, and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). The high dose of GO significantly lowered the peripheral level of nitrate/nitrite and endotoxin-induced iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05) but worsened intestinal mucosal damage accompanied by elevated peripheral proinflammatory cytokines. Diallyl trisulfide but not diallyl disulfide showed similar toxic effect as that of high-dose GO. These results suggest the preventive effect and possible toxicity of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation and intestinal damage

  2. Aged garlic extract, garlic powder extract, S-allylcysteine, diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide do not interfere with the antibiotic activity of gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2005-03-01

    It was shown that aged garlic extract (AGE), garlic powder and the following garlic-derived compounds: S-allylcysteine (SAC), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS), ameliorate gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it was not established if the above mentioned extracts and compounds of garlic could interfere with the antibiotic action of GM. To address this point, AGE, garlic powder extract (GPE), SAC, DAS and DADS were assessed for their ability to interfere with the in vitro antibiotic activity of GM in Escherichia coli cultures. It was found that the above mentioned extracts and compounds of garlic were unable to decrease the antibiotic capacity of GM and even SAC, DAS and DADS alone inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and enhanced the antibiotic effect of GM. Our data show that SAC, DAS and DADS are antibacterial compounds against E. coli and suggest that AGE, GPE, SAC, DAS and[sol ]or DADS may be administered along with GM-treatment to ameliorate GM-induced nephrotoxicity without interfering with its antibiotic activity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  4. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  5. Ability of garlic-derived diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide supplemented by oral gavage to mitigate effects of an acute postweaning feed and water deprivation event in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, N; Miller, G; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2017-08-01

    Compounds in garlic have been shown to contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune modulatory properties that may be able to mitigate the effects of nursery pig stressors. The objective of the current experiment was to determine if oral gavage of garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could mitigate the effects of a 24-h postweaning feed + water deprivation event in nursery pigs. Pigs (6.0 ± 0.05 kg and 21 d old) were allotted to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design at weaning with 8 replicate pens per treatment that consisted of with or without a 24-h postweaning feed + water deprivation event and with or without an oral gavage containing 3.6 mg DADS + DATS/kg BW. Growth performance and morbidity were recorded throughout the experiment, and on 1, 6, and 21 d after weaning, 1 pig per pen was selected, blood was collected, the pig was euthanized, and a segment of the distal ileum was subsequently excised for morphological and gene and protein expression measurements. Mucosal gene expression was conducted by reverse transcription PCR for immune, antioxidant, and cellular integrity markers. Furthermore, activity of mucosal superoxide dismutase was measured by colorimetric assay. Immediately following the feed + water deprivation event, there was a decrease ( event tended ( = 0.10) to decrease ileal villus height and supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage increased ( = 0.03) villus height 1 d after weaning. Supplementation of DADS + DATS by oral gavage decreased ( = 0.03) and tended to decrease ( = 0.08) gene expression of on 6 and 21 d after weaning, respectively. Furthermore, at 1 d after weaning, ileal mucosa SOD activity was decreased ( = 0.01) by the feed + water deprivation and increased ( = 0.04) by oral supplementation of DADS + DATS. Expression of the tight junction genes and were reduced ( ≤ 0.05) due to the feed + water deprivation event 1 d after weaning. Results from the current study show that

  6. Inhibitory effects of diallyl disulfide on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Young [Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Deuk [Department of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Young [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Science, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterial Control, Graduate School, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wun Jae [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yung Hyun, E-mail: choiyh@deu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterial Control, Graduate School, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a main organosulfur component responsible for the diverse biological effects of garlic, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying DADS' anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of DADS were studied to investigate its potential therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. We found that pretreatment with DADS prior to treatment with LPS significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. DADS also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by suppressing the expression of mRNAs for these proteins. The mechanism underlying this protective effect might be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. These findings indicated that DADS is potentially a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. -- Highlights: ► DADS attenuates production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. ► DADS downregulates levels of iNOS and COX-2. ► DADS inhibits production and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. ► DADS exhibits these effects by suppression of NF-κB, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

  7. Apoptosis Induction of Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 Cells by Diallyl Disulfide via Modulation of JNK and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hyun Yoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS, a sulfur compound derived from garlic, has various biological properties, such as anticancer, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action underlying the compound's anticancer activity have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DADS were investigated in DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells. Our results showed that DADS markedly inhibited the growth of the DU145 cells by induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was accompanied by modulation of Bcl-2 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family proteins, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm and proteolytic activation of caspases. We also found that the expression of death-receptor 4 (DR4 and Fas ligand (FasL proteins was increased and that the level of intact Bid proteins was down-regulated by DADS. Moreover, treatment with DADS induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, including extracellular-signal regulating kinase (ERK, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. A specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, significantly blocked DADS-induced-apoptosis, whereas inhibitors of the ERK (PD98059 and p38 MAPK (SB203580 had no effect. The induction of apoptosis was also accompanied by inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and the PI3K inhibitor LY29004 significantly increased DADS-induced cell death. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the proapoptotic effect of DADS is mediated through the activation of JNK and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in DU145 cells.

  8. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijderveld, S M; Dijkstra, J; Perdok, H B; Newbold, J R; Gerrits, W J J

    2011-06-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1, a control diet (CON1) and diets supplemented with 56 mg of DADS/kg of dry matter (DM), 3g of YP/kg of DM, or 25 g of CAFU/kg of DM were evaluated. In experiment 2, an inert saturated fat source in the control diet (CON2) was exchanged isolipidically for an extruded linseed source (100g/kg of DM; UNSAT) or a mixture of C8:0 and C10:0 (MCFA; 20.3g/kg of DM). In experiment 2, a higher inclusion level of DADS (200mg/kg of DM) was also tested. Both experiments were conducted using 40 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cows were adapted to the diet for 12 d and were subsequently kept in respiration chambers for 5 d to evaluate methane production, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance. Feed intake was restricted to avoid confounding effects of possible differences in ad libitum feed intake on methane production. Feed intake was, on average, 17.5 and 16.6 kg of DM/d in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. None of the additives reduced methane production in vivo. Methane production in experiment 1 was 450, 453, 446, and 423 g/d for CON1 and the diets supplemented with DADS, YP, and CAFU, respectively. In experiment 2, methane production was 371, 394, 388, and 386 g/d for CON2 and the diets supplemented with UNSAT, MCFA, and DADS, respectively. No effects of the additives on energy balance or neutral detergent fiber digestibility were observed. The addition of MCFA increased milk fat content (5.38% vs. 4.82% for control) and fat digestibility (78.5% vs. 59.8% for control), but did not affect milk yield or other milk components. The other products did not affect milk yield or composition. Results from these experiments emphasize the need to confirm methane

  9. Diallyl disulfide suppresses SRC/Ras/ERK signaling-mediated proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer by up-regulating miR-34a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS is one of the major volatile components of garlic oil. DADS has various biological properties, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant effects. However, the anticancer mechanisms of DADS in human breast cancer have not been elucidated, particularly in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-34a was up-regulated in DADS-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-34a not only inhibited breast cancer growth but also enhanced the antitumor effect of DADS, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Src was identified as a target of miR-34a, with miR-34a inhibiting SRC expression and consequently triggering the suppression of the SRC/Ras/ERK pathway. These results suggest that DADS could be a promising anticancer agent for breast cancer. miR-34a may also demonstrate a potential gene therapy agent that could enhance the antitumor effects of DADS.

  10. The polysulfide diallyl trisulfide protects the ischemic myocardium by preservation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide and increasing nitric oxide bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Predmore, Benjamin L.; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Bhushan, Shashi; Zlatopolsky, Maxim A.; King, Adrienne L.; Aragon, Juan Pablo; Grinsfelder, D. Bennett; Condit, Marah E.; Lefer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a polysulfide constituent found in garlic oil, is capable of the release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S is a known cardioprotective agent that protects the heart via antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial actions. Here, we investigated DATS as a stable donor of H2S during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in vivo. We investigated endogenous H2S levels, infarct size, postischemic left ventricular function, mitochondrial respirati...

  11. The polysulfide diallyl trisulfide protects the ischemic myocardium by preservation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide and increasing nitric oxide bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Benjamin L; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Bhushan, Shashi; Zlatopolsky, Maxim A; King, Adrienne L; Aragon, Juan Pablo; Grinsfelder, D Bennett; Condit, Marah E; Lefer, David J

    2012-06-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a polysulfide constituent found in garlic oil, is capable of the release of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). H(2)S is a known cardioprotective agent that protects the heart via antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial actions. Here, we investigated DATS as a stable donor of H(2)S during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in vivo. We investigated endogenous H(2)S levels, infarct size, postischemic left ventricular function, mitochondrial respiration and coupling, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) activation, and nuclear E2-related factor (Nrf2) translocation after DATS treatment. Mice were anesthetized and subjected to a surgical model of MI/R injury with and without DATS treatment (200 μg/kg). Both circulating and myocardial H(2)S levels were determined using chemiluminescent gas chromatography. Infarct size was measured after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Troponin I release was measured at 2, 4, and 24 h after reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured at baseline and 72 h after reperfusion by echocardiography. Cardiac mitochondria were isolated after MI/R, and mitochondrial respiration was investigated. NO metabolites, eNOS phosphorylation, and Nrf2 translocation were determined 30 min and 2 h after DATS administration. Myocardial H(2)S levels markedly decreased after I/R injury but were rescued by DATS treatment (P < 0.05). DATS administration significantly reduced infarct size per area at risk and per left ventricular area compared with control (P < 0.001) as well as circulating troponin I levels at 4 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Myocardial contractile function was significantly better in DATS-treated hearts compared with vehicle treatment (P < 0.05) 72 h after reperfusion. DATS reduced mitochondrial respiration in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly improved mitochondrial coupling after reperfusion (P < 0.01). DATS activated eNOS (P < 0.05) and increased NO metabolites (P

  12. Increasing the reactivity of an artificial dithiol-disulfide pair through modification of the electrostatic milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2005-01-01

    . Introduction of positively charged amino acids in the proximity of the two cysteines resulted in an up to 13-fold increase in reactivity toward glutathione disulfide. Determination of the individual pK(a) values of the cysteines showed that the observed increase in reactivity was caused by a decrease in the pK(a...

  13. Modulation of Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductases for Increased Production of Disulfide-Bond-Containing Proteins in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Dubois, Jean-Yves F.; Freudl, Roland; Quax, Wim J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are important for the correct folding, structural integrity, and activity of many biotechnologically relevant proteins. For synthesis and subsequent secretion of these proteins in bacteria, such as the well-known "cell factory" Bacillus subtilis, it is often the correct formation of

  14. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    under high physical stress even though the C-terminus of the B-chain thought to be directly involved in fibril formation was not modified. Importantly, this analog was capable of forming hexamer upon Zn addition as typical for wild-type insulin and its crystal structure showed only minor deviations from...... (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation...... bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin...

  15. Keap1 cysteine 288 as a potential target for diallyl trisulfide-induced Nrf2 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Kim

    Full Text Available Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and daillyl trisulfide (DATS are major volatile components of garlic oil. In this study, we assessed their relative potency in inducing antioxidant enzyme expression. Among the three organosulfur compounds, DATS was found to be most potent in inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 andquinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 in human gastric epithelial (AGS cells. Furthermore, DATS administration by gavage increased the expression of HO-1 and NQO1 in C57BL/6 mouse stomach. Treatment with DATS increased the accumulation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 in the nucleus of cultured AGS cells and in mouse stomach in vivo. The DATS-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO1 was abrogated in the cells transiently transfected with Nrf2-siRNA or in the embryonic fibroblasts from Nrf2-null mice, indicating that Nrf2 is a key mediator of the cytoprotective effects of DATS. Pretreatment of AGS cells with N-acetylcysteine or dithiothreitol attenuated DATS-induced nuclear localization of Nrf2 and the expression of HO-1 and NQO1. Cysteine-151, -273 and -288 of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1, a cytosolic repressor of Nrf2, have been considered to act as a redox sensor and play a role in Nrf2 activation. To determine whether DATS could inactivate Keap1 through thiol modification, we established cell lines constitutively expressing wild type-Keap1 or three different mutant constructs in which cysteine-151, -273, or -288 of Keap1 was replaced with serine by retroviral gene transfer. DATS failed to activate Nrf2, and to induce expression of HO-1 and NQO1 only in Keap1-C288S mutant cells. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of recombinant Keap1 treated with DATS revealed that the peptide fragment containing Cys288 gained a molecular mass of 72.1 Da equivalent to the molecular weight of mono-allyl mono-sulfide. Taken together, these findings suggest that DATS may directly interact with the Cys288 residue of Keap1, which partly accounts

  16. The role of diallyl sulfides and dipropyl sulfides in the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Sergio; Leonardi, Michele; Melai, Bernardo; Fratini, Filippo; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) obtained from fresh bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., and leek, Allium porrum L. ( Alliaceae), was studied. A. sativum (garlic) EO showed a good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone 14.8 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (inhibition zone 21.1 mm), and Escherichia coli (inhibition zone 11.0 mm), whereas the EO of A. porrum (leek) had no antimicrobial activity. The main constituents of the garlic EO were diallyl monosulfide, diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide, and diallyl tetrasulfide. The EO of A. porrum was characterized by the presence of dipropyl disulfide (DPDS), dipropyl trisulfide, and dipropyl tetrasulfide. The antimicrobial activities of the DADS and DPDS were also studied. The results obtained suggest that the presence of the allyl group is fundamental for the antimicrobial activity of these sulfide derivatives when they are present in Allium or in other species (DADS inhibition zone on S. aureus 15.9 mm, P. aeruginosa 21.9 mm, E. coli 11.4 mm). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

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    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  18. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide and Curcumin Separately against Thallium-Induced Toxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Abdou, Rania H.

    2015-01-01

    Thallium acetate (TI) is a cumulative poison intimately accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that represents an important risk factor for tissue injury and malfunction. This study aims to determine the possible hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) from garlic and curcumin from turmeric against TI-induced liver injury and oxidative stress (OS) in rats. This in vivo animal study divided rats into six groups of 8 rats p...

  19. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  20. Rational Design of Disulfide Bonds Increases Thermostability of a Mesophilic 1,3-1,4-β-Glucanase from Bacillus terquilensis.

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    Chengtuo Niu

    Full Text Available 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase is an important biocatalyst in brewing industry and animal feed industry, while its low thermostability often reduces its application performance. In this study, the thermostability of a mesophilic β-glucanase from Bacillus terquilensis was enhanced by rational design and engineering of disulfide bonds in the protein structure. Protein spatial configuration was analyzed to pre-exclude the residues pairs which negatively conflicted with the protein structure and ensure the contact of catalytic center. The changes in protein overall and local flexibility among the wild-type enzyme and the designated mutants were predicted to select the potential disulfide bonds for enhancement of thermostability. Two residue pairs (N31C-T187C and P102C-N125C were chosen as engineering targets and both of them were proved to significantly enhance the protein thermostability. After combinational mutagenesis, the double mutant N31C-T187C/P102C-N125C showed a 48.3% increase in half-life value at 60°C and a 4.1°C rise in melting temperature (Tm compared to wild-type enzyme. The catalytic property of N31C-T187C/P102C-N125C mutant was similar to that of wild-type enzyme. Interestingly, the optimal pH of double mutant was shifted from pH6.5 to pH6.0, which could also increase its industrial application. By comparison with mutants with single-Cys substitutions, the introduction of disulfide bonds and the induced new hydrogen bonds were proved to result in both local and overall rigidification and should be responsible for the improved thermostability. Therefore, the introduction of disulfide bonds for thermostability improvement could be rationally and highly-effectively designed by combination with spatial configuration analysis and molecular dynamics simulation.

  1. Characteristics of diallyl phthalate resin as a fission track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuruta, T

    1999-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin plates were irradiated with fission fragments, and then etched in aqueous solution of KOH. Etched tracks were observed and counted by using an optical microscope. The detection efficiency of fission fragments was about 100% for both perpendicular and random incidence. DAP plates were insensitive to alpha particles and fast neutrons. These characteristics are suitable for detecting selected fission fragments, which coexist with alpha particles or fast neutrons. DAP plates are valuable for quantitative analysis of fissionable materials and neutron dosimetry. DAP and allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) were formed into copolymers in various ratios. The copolymers showed intermediate characteristics between DAP and CR-39. The fabrication of the copolymers made it possible to control the discrimination level for detection of heavy charged particles.

  2. 21 CFR 878.4015 - Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a primary dressing, and as a wound packing. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl... DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4015 Wound dressing with poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (pDADMAC...

  3. Diallyl tetrasulfide improves cadmium induced alterations of acetylcholinesterase, ATPases and oxidative stress in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Murugavel, Ponnusamy

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a neurotoxic metal, which induces oxidative stress and membrane disturbances in nerve system. The garlic compound diallyl tetrasulfide (DTS) has the cytoprotective and antioxidant activity against Cd induced toxicity. The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of DTS in protecting the Cd induced changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status in the brain of rats. In rats exposed to Cd (3 mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 3 weeks, a significant (P + K + -ATPase, Mg 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase) were observed in brain tissue. Oral administration of DTS (40 mg/kg/day) with Cd significantly (P < 0.05) diminished the levels of LPO and protein carbonyls and significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, GSH and TSH in brain. These results indicate that DTS attenuate the LPO and alteration of antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes in Cd exposed rats, which suggest that DTS protects the brain function from toxic effects of Cd

  4. Kinetics of polymerization of diallyl phthalate (DAP) by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakar, D.S.; Rao, K.

    1975-01-01

    Diallyl o-phthalate (DAP) was polymerized by γ radiation from a 60 Co source and the kinetics of polymerization were studied at several dose rates and temperatures. The results show that the rate of polymerization was proportional to I 0 . 68 , where I is the radiation dose rate. The net activation energy of the polymerization reaction (E/sub p/-1/2E/sub t/) was 5.02 kcal/mole, where E/sub p/ and E/sub t/ are the activation energies for the propagation and termination steps, respectively. The radical yield G/sub R/ for DAP was measured by the loss of diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) used as a radical scavenger. G/sub R/ in the solution after irradiation was 3.12. The ratio of the rate constants k 2 /sub p//k/sub t/ was calculated to be 4.09 x 10 -7 at 25.8 0 C and 15.0 x 10 -7 at 55.4 0 C. At room temperature, the ratio of degradative chain transfer constant to k/sub p/, i.e., k/sub u//k/sub p/ was found to be 0.065 and k/sub tr//k/sub u/ as 0.032, where k/sub tr/ is the nondegradative chain-transfer constant. Molecular weights of these polymers as determined by vapor pressure osmometry showed that the degree of polymerization was between 8 and 10. Infrared spectra of the polymers indicated that intramolecular cyclization took place during polymerization

  5. Widespread Disulfide Bonding in Proteins from Thermophilic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Jorda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disulfide bonds are generally not used to stabilize proteins in the cytosolic compartments of bacteria or eukaryotic cells, owing to the chemically reducing nature of those environments. In contrast, certain thermophilic archaea use disulfide bonding as a major mechanism for protein stabilization. Here, we provide a current survey of completely sequenced genomes, applying computational methods to estimate the use of disulfide bonding across the Archaea. Microbes belonging to the Crenarchaeal branch, which are essentially all hyperthermophilic, are universally rich in disulfide bonding while lesser degrees of disulfide bonding are found among the thermophilic Euryarchaea, excluding those that are methanogenic. The results help clarify which parts of the archaeal lineage are likely to yield more examples and additional specific data on protein disulfide bonding, as increasing genomic sequencing efforts are brought to bear.

  6. Widespread disulfide bonding in proteins from thermophilic archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorda, Julien; Yeates, Todd O

    2011-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are generally not used to stabilize proteins in the cytosolic compartments of bacteria or eukaryotic cells, owing to the chemically reducing nature of those environments. In contrast, certain thermophilic archaea use disulfide bonding as a major mechanism for protein stabilization. Here, we provide a current survey of completely sequenced genomes, applying computational methods to estimate the use of disulfide bonding across the Archaea. Microbes belonging to the Crenarchaeal branch, which are essentially all hyperthermophilic, are universally rich in disulfide bonding while lesser degrees of disulfide bonding are found among the thermophilic Euryarchaea, excluding those that are methanogenic. The results help clarify which parts of the archaeal lineage are likely to yield more examples and additional specific data on protein disulfide bonding, as increasing genomic sequencing efforts are brought to bear.

  7. Catalyst-Free and Highly Selective N,N-Diallylation of Anilines in Aqueous Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyin Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly selective diallylation reaction of anilines with allyl bromide was achieved in aqueous alcohol solution in the presence of potassium carbonate and without the use of any catalyst. The reaction tolerates a wide range of functionalities, and various tertiary amines were obtained in the yield of up to 99% with complete conversion of anilines.

  8. Multiple ways to make disulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulleid, Neil J; Ellgaard, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Our concept of how disulfides form in proteins entering the secretory pathway has changed dramatically in recent years. The discovery of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductin 1 (ERO1) was followed by the demonstration that this enzyme couples oxygen reduction to de novo formation of disulfides....... However, mammals deficient in ERO1 survive and form disulfides, which suggests the presence of alternative pathways. It has recently been shown that peroxiredoxin 4 is involved in peroxide removal and disulfide formation. Other less well-characterized pathways involving quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase, ER......-localized protein disulfide isomerase peroxidases and vitamin K epoxide reductase might all contribute to disulfide formation. Here we discuss these various pathways for disulfide formation in the mammalian ER and highlight the central role played by glutathione in regulating this process....

  9. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  10. Measurement of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a sensitive and highly specific assay for the presence of mixed disulfides between protein thiol groups and endogenous thiols has been undertaken. Previous investigations on the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and protein glutathione mixed disulfides (ProSSG) have been of limited usefulness because of the poor specificity of the assays used. Our assay for these forms of glutathione is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and is an extension of an earlier method. After perchloric acid precipitation, the protein sample is washed with an organic solvent to fully denature the protein. Up to a 10-fold increase in GSH released from fetal bovine serum (FBS) protein has been found when the protein precipitate is washed with ethanol rather than ether, as earlier suggested. Similar effects have been observed with an as yet unidentified thiol which elutes in the chromatography system with a retention volume similar to cysteine

  11. Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide and Curcumin Separately against Thallium-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdou, Rania H

    2015-01-01

    Thallium acetate (TI) is a cumulative poison intimately accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation that represents an important risk factor for tissue injury and malfunction. This study aims to determine the possible hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) from garlic and curcumin from turmeric against TI-induced liver injury and oxidative stress (OS) in rats. This in vivo animal study divided rats into six groups of 8 rats per group. The first group received saline and served as the control group. The second and third groups received DAS or curcumin only at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The fourth group received TI at a dose of 6.4 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days. The fifth and sixth groups received DAS or curcumin orally 1 hour before TI intoxication at the same dose as the second and third groups. Liver integrity serum enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) were evaluated. Serum and liver tissue homogenate lipid peroxidation and OS biomarkers were measured. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's multiple range test for post hoc analysis using SPSS version 16. TI induced marked oxidative liver damage as shown by significantly (P≤0.05) elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and γ-GT levels. There were significant (P≤0.05) increases in serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum nitric oxide (NO) as well as decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities. There were significantly (P≤0.05) less serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Pre-treatment with DAS or curcumin ameliorated the changes in most studied biochemical parameters. DAS and curcumin effectively reduced TI-induced liver toxicity.

  12. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis has shown that thiamine disulfide can inhibit the molecular receptors involved in blood pressure regulation: adrenoceptors, vasopressin receptor, and angiotensin receptor. Thiamine disulfide can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, increase its levels, inhibit benzodiazepine receptor and dopamine reuptake, and enhance neuronal acetylcholine release to a large extent than benfotiamine. These molecular effects are consistent with the sedative and anticonvulsant action profile of thiamine disulfide. Simulation has indicated that thiamine disulfide has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, normolipidemic, and antitumor activities.Conclusion. The simulation results are confirmed by the available clinical and experimental findings and indicate the virtually unstudied molecular mechanisms of action of thiamine disulfide, benfotiamine, and thiamin hydrochloride. 

  13. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) suppresses benzene-induced cytopenia by modulating haematopoietic cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenting; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Lulu; Wang, Hui; Li, Ming; Wang, Xujing; Xie, Keqin

    2017-12-01

    Benzene is a well-known occupational and environmental toxicant associated with cytopenia, which is characterized by a disorder in the peripheral blood cell counts. However, no effective preventive strategy has been developed yet to tackle the exposure to benzene in daily life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS) on benzene-induced haematopoietic damage and to reveal its potential mechanisms of action. In our study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups. Rats were administered with benzene (1.3 g/kg BW by gavage) to establish the benzene poisoning model, while the DATS treatment groups were treated with benzene plus DATS (15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, 45 mg/kg, respectively, by gavage) for 28 days. Our results demonstrated that the counts of peripheral blood WBC and RBC decreased to 31.0% and 79.2%, respectively, in the benzene poisoning model group compared to the control. However, blood cell counts were restored by DATS treatment (30 mg/kg, 45 mg/kg). The apoptosis rates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were increased to 274% and 284%, respectively, following benzene exposure. Furthermore, expression levels of Bcl-2, PI3K and p-Akt were downregulated and those of Bax were upregulated in both cell types. Moreover, the oxidative parameters (oxygen species, malonaldehyde) were significantly increased, while the non-enzymatic GSH/GSSG ratios and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) were decreased. Interestingly, DATS treatment can restore the WBC number by 267.1% and 304.8% while RBC number by 108.6% and 117.7% in 30,45 mg/k DATS treated groups. In summary, we demonstrated that benzene-induced cytopenia was related to the apoptosis of PBMCs and BMCs, and DATS treatment could prevent benzene-induced cytopenia by suppressing oxidative stress-mediated cell apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright

  14. Catalysis of Protein Disulfide Bond Isomerization in a Homogeneous Substrate†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersteen, Elizabeth A.; Barrows, Seth R.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2008-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the rearrangement of nonnative disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, a process that often limits the rate at which polypeptide chains fold into a native protein conformation. The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by PDI is unclear. In assays involving protein substrates, the reaction appears to involve the complete reduction of some or all of its nonnative disulfide bonds followed by oxidation of the resulting dithiols. The substrates in these assays are, however, heterogeneous, which complicates mechanistic analyses. Here, we report the first analysis of disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate. Our substrate is based on tachyplesin I, a 17-mer peptide that folds into a _-hairpin stabilized by two disulfide bonds. We describe the chemical synthesis of a variant of tachyplesin I in which its two disulfide bonds are in a nonnative state and side chains near its N-and C-terminus contain a fluorescence donor (tryptophan) and acceptor (N_-dansyllysine). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from 280 to 465 nm increases by 28-fold upon isomerization of the disulfide bonds into their native state (which has a lower E°_ = -0.313 V than does PDI). We use this continuous assay to analyze catalysis by wild-type human PDI and a variant in which the C-terminal cysteine residue within each Cys—Gly—His—Cys active site is replaced with alanine. We find that wild-type PDI catalyzes the isomerization of the substrate with kcat/KM = 1.7 _ 105 M–1M s–1, which is the largest value yet reported for catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. The variant, which is a poor catalyst of disulfide bond reduction and dithiol oxidation, retains virtually all of the activity of wild-type PDI in catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. Thus, the C-terminal cysteine residues play an insignificant role in the isomerization of the disulfide bonds in nonnative tachyplesin I. We conclude that

  15. Catalysis of protein disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersteen, Elizabeth A; Barrows, Seth R; Raines, Ronald T

    2005-09-13

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the rearrangement of nonnative disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, a process that often limits the rate at which polypeptide chains fold into a native protein conformation. The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by PDI is unclear. In assays involving protein substrates, the reaction appears to involve the complete reduction of some or all of its nonnative disulfide bonds followed by oxidation of the resulting dithiols. The substrates in these assays are, however, heterogeneous, which complicates mechanistic analyses. Here, we report the first analysis of disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate. Our substrate is based on tachyplesin I, a 17-mer peptide that folds into a beta hairpin stabilized by two disulfide bonds. We describe the chemical synthesis of a variant of tachyplesin I in which its two disulfide bonds are in a nonnative state and side chains near its N and C terminus contain a fluorescence donor (tryptophan) and acceptor (N(epsilon)-dansyllysine). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from 280 to 465 nm increases by 28-fold upon isomerization of the disulfide bonds into their native state (which has a lower E(o') = -0.313 V than does PDI). We use this continuous assay to analyze catalysis by wild-type human PDI and a variant in which the C-terminal cysteine residue within each Cys-Gly-His-Cys active site is replaced with alanine. We find that wild-type PDI catalyzes the isomerization of the substrate with kcat/K(M) = 1.7 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which is the largest value yet reported for catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. The variant, which is a poor catalyst of disulfide bond reduction and dithiol oxidation, retains virtually all of the activity of wild-type PDI in catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. Thus, the C-terminal cysteine residues play an insignificant role in the isomerization of the disulfide bonds in nonnative tachyplesin I. We conclude

  16. Inhibiting Invasion into Human Bladder Carcinoma 5637 Cells with Diallyl Trisulfide by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities and Tightening Tight Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hyun Choi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl trisulfide (DATS, an organosulfur compound in garlic, possesses pronounced anti-cancer potential. However, the anti-invasive mechanism of this compound in human bladder carcinoma is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-invasive effects of DATS on a human bladder carcinoma (5637 cell line and investigated the underlying mechanism. The results indicated that DATS suppressed migration and invasion of 5637 cells by reducing the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the protein and mRNA levels. DATS treatment up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in 5637 cells. The inhibitory effects of DATS on invasiveness were associated with an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and repression of the levels of claudin family members. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that DATS exhibits anti-invasive effects in 5637 cells by down-regulating the activity of tight junctions and MMPs. DATS may have future utility in clinical applications for treating bladder cancer.

  17. Cell size increased in tissues from transgenic mice overexpressing a cell surface growth-related and cancer-specific hydroquinone oxidase, tNOX, with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagiz, Kader; Snyder, Paul W; Morré, D James; Morré, Dorothy M

    2008-12-15

    tNOX (ENOX2), a cancer-specific and growth-related cell surface protein with protein disulfide-thiol interchange and hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activities was overexpressed in a transgenic mouse model. Female transgenic mice grew faster than wild type as did embryonic fibroblast cells prepared from the transgenic mice. The tissue expression of tNOX mRNA was greatest in heart, lung and liver. When these tissues were analyzed for cell size, the cells from the tissues of transgenic animals were, on average, 20% larger in surface area than cells from corresponding wild-type tissues. Also analyzed were cells of intestine, spleen and kidney in which tNOX overexpression was observed but to a lesser extent. Cell size was increased as well with intestine and kidney but less so with spleen. At the end of the study, carcass weights of the transgenic animals were greater than those of wild type. This increase in carcass weight was reflected in an increase in femur weight and thickness in both male and female transgenic mice but not in femur length. Other carcass parameters such as skin weight and body fat or body fluids were unchanged or changes were insufficient to account for the increased carcass weight. The findings are consistent with the property of tNOX observed in studies with cultured cells as contributing to the enlargement phase of cell growth.

  18. Diallyl disulphide as natural organosulphur friction modifier via the in-situ tribo-chemical formation of tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel; Totolin, Vladimir; Gabler, Christoph; Bernardi, Johannes; Minami, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    The present work shows a novel method for generating in-situ low friction tribofilms containing tungsten disulphide in lubricated contacts using diallyl disulphide as sulphur precursor. The approach relies on the tribo-chemical interaction between the diallyl disulphide and a surface containing embedded sub-micrometer tungsten carbide particles. The results show that upon sliding contact between diallyl disulphide and the tungsten-containing surface, the coefficient of friction drops to values below 0.05 after an induction period. The reason for the reduction in friction is due to tribo-chemical reactions that leads to the in-situ formation of a complex tribofilm that contains iron and tungsten components. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate the presence of tungsten disulphide at the contact interface, thus justifying the low coefficient of friction achieved during the sliding experiments. It was proven that the low friction tribofilms can only be formed by the coexistence of tungsten and sulphur species, thus highlighting the synergy between diallyl disulphide and the tungsten-containing surface. The concept of functionalizing surfaces to react with specific additives opens up a wide range of possibilities, which allows tuning on-site surfaces to target additive interactions.

  19. Diallyl disulphide and lovastatin: effects on energy and protein utilisation in, as well as methane emission from, sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevenhusena, Fenja; Duval, Stephane; Zeitz, Johanna O; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2011-08-01

    Currently research on feed supplementation with natural compounds to improve energy and protein utilisation and to mitigate the greenhouse gas methane in ruminants is intensively pursued. Two compounds, diallyl disulphide (DADS), an important component of garlic oil, and lovastatin, an inhibitor of a key enzyme of methanogenic Archaea, were selected on the basis of their in vitro anti-methanogenic potential. In three 23-day experimental runs, six sheep received hay and concentrate in a duplicate 3 x 3 Latin square design. The concentrate was either not supplemented or supplemented with either 4 g DADS or 80 mg lovastatin per kg of total dietary dry matter. There were no refusals of concentrate for any treatment. Respiratory measurements were conducted on experimental days 7/8 (Period 1) and days 17/18 (Period 2). Relative to the control, digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) tended to increase (p = 0.09) with DADS by 14%. This was associated with an increased (p = 0.07) body energy retention of the animals. Effects on nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation traits were never significant. No influence of supplements or period was found on total daily CH4 production which averaged at 28.6 g per sheep. However, across both periods the amount of CH4 produced per kg NDF digested was lower (-8%; p = 0.02) with DADS than without supplementation, and the lovastatin treatment ranged in between. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a certain potential of DADS to improve fibre digestion and body energy retention and to limit CH4 formation in relation to digestible fibre intake, while lovastatin remained ineffective.

  20. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  1. Single-layer Molybdenum disulfide photodetectors

    OpenAIRE

    López Sánchez, Oriol

    2012-01-01

    Projecte realitzat mitjançant programa de mobilitat. École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne [ANGLÈS] Two-dimensional (2D) materials are very attractive candidates for use in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. Compared to one-dimensional materials, with 2D materials is relatively easy to fabricate complex structures. 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have attracted increasing attention for their electronic and optoelectronic particular properties and size. MoS2 is a...

  2. Rapid assembly of functionalised spirocyclic indolines by palladium-catalysed dearomatising diallylation of indoles with allyl acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Dhankher, P.; Benhamou, L.; Sheppard, T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the application of allyl acetate to the palladium-catalysed dearomatising diallylation of indoles. The reaction can be carried out by using a readily available palladium catalyst at room temperature, and can be applied to a wide range of substituted indoles to provide access to the corresponding 3,3-diallylindolinines. These compounds are versatile synthetic intermediates that readily undergo Ugi reactions or proline-catalysed asymmetric Mannich reactions. Alternatively, acy...

  3. Experimental study of inhibitory effects of diallyl trisulfide on the growth of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells by downregulating expression of glucose-regulated protein 78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yue Zhang,1,* Wen-Peng Xie,1,* Yong-Kui Zhang,2 Yi-Qiang Chen,3 Dong-Li Wang,2 Gang Li,2 Dong-Hui Guan2 1First Clinical Medical College, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, The First People’s Hospital of Taian City, Taian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the paper Background: Diallyl trisulfide (DATS is a natural organic sulfur compound isolated from garlic that has good anticancer activity according to many previous reports. There are many studies pointing out that DATS can downregulate expression of the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, which is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance in various types of human cancers. However, it remains unknown whether DATS has the same effect on human osteosarcoma cells. This study attempted to clarify the potential molecular mechanisms of the action of DATS in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.Methods: We used an inverted phase microscope and immunofluorescent staining to observe the morphological changes of Saos-2 cells after being cultured in different concentrations of DATS (0, 25, 50, and 100 µM for 24 h, or for four time periods (24, 48, 72, and 96 h in the same DATS concentration (50 µM. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the expression level of GRP78 mRNA and proteins in Saos-2 cells. GRP78 expression was suppressed in Saos-2 cells by utilizing small-interfering RNA, and the cells were subsequently used to study the anti-proliferative effects of DATS treatment.Results: The expression level of GRP78 mRNA and proteins was significantly downregulated due to the increased concentration and effective times of DATS (P<0.05. In addition, there were significant associations between GRP78

  4. Diallyl Trisulfide Inhibits Growth of NCI-H460in Vitroandin Vivo, and Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Injury in the Treatment of Lung Carcinoma in Xenograft Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Na; Xu, Hongya; Zhao, Zhongxi; Li, Siying; Li, Shanzhong; Cai, Jianhua; Cao, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an organosulfuric component of garlic oil, exhibits potential anticancer and chemopreventive effects. Cisplatin (DDP), a common chemotherapeutic agent, has provided great therapeutic contributions to treating solid tumors, but with serious side effects. Here, we verified the anti-tumor properties of DATS on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo , and evaluated synergistic effects of DATS combined with DDP on the NCI-H460 xenograft model. Significantly decreased cell viabilities, cell cycle G 1 arrest, and apoptosis induction were observed in DATS treated NCI-H460 cells ( p <0.05). And injection of DATS (30 or 40 mg/kg) to female Balb/c mice significantly inhibited the growth of human NCI-H460 cell tumor xenograft ( p <0.001). Moreover, DATS in combination with DDP exhibited enhanced anti-tumor activity via induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis pathways were confirmed by modulation of p53, Bcl-2 family members; induction of active caspase-3/8/9 and activation of JNK- and p38-MAPK pathways. Interestedly, DATS+DDP administration exerted fewer side effects, such as suppressing the weight loss and ameliorating DDP-induced oxidative injury, especially in renal parenchyma. In addition, increased E-cadherin and decreased MMP-9 expression levels were observed in DATS-treated tumor tissues. These studies provide supports that DATS might be a potential candidate for combination with DDP in cancer treatment.

  5. Native Conformation and Canonical Disulfide Bond Formation Are Interlinked Properties of HIV-1 Env Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Eden P; Cupo, Albert; Ringe, Rajesh; Pugach, Pavel; Moore, John P; Desaire, Heather

    2015-12-30

    We investigated whether there is any association between a native-like conformation and the presence of only the canonical (i.e., native) disulfide bonds in the gp120 subunits of a soluble recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein. We used a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method to map the disulfide bonds present in nonnative uncleaved gp140 proteins and native-like SOSIP.664 trimers based on the BG505 env gene. Our results show that uncleaved gp140 proteins were not homogeneous, in that substantial subpopulations (20 to 80%) contained aberrant disulfide bonds. In contrast, the gp120 subunits of the native-like SOSIP.664 trimer almost exclusively retained the canonical disulfide bond pattern. We also observed that the purification method could influence the proportion of an Env protein population that contained aberrant disulfide bonds. We infer that gp140 proteins may always contain a variable but substantial proportion of aberrant disulfide bonds but that the impact of this problem can be minimized via design and/or purification strategies that yield native-like trimers. The same factors may also be relevant to the production and purification of monomeric gp120 proteins that are free of aberrant disulfide bonds. It is widely thought that a successful HIV-1 vaccine will include a recombinant form of the Env protein, a trimer located on the virion surface. To increase yield and simplify purification, Env proteins are often made in truncated, soluble forms. A consequence, however, can be the loss of the native conformation concomitant with the virion-associated trimer. Moreover, some soluble recombinant Env proteins contain aberrant disulfide bonds that are not expected to be present in the native trimer. To assess whether these observations are linked, to determine the extent of disulfide bond scrambling, and to understand why scrambling occurs, we determined the disulfide bond profiles of two soluble Env proteins with

  6. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, V; Kurdoglu, Z; Alisik, M; Turgut, E; Sezgın, O O; Korkmaz, H; Ergun, Y; Erel, O

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on thiol/disulfide homeostasis. A total of 75 participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 40) was composed of healthy postmenopausal women, and group 2 (n = 35) was composed of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical findings and thiol/disulfide homeostasis were compared between the two groups. The disulfide/native thiol ratio was 8.6% ± 3.6 in group 1 and 12.7% ± 8.4 in group 2 (p = 0.04). The disulfide/native thiol percent ratio was significantly higher in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p menopause and age (p menopause in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Identification of Reduction-Susceptible Disulfide Bonds in Transferrin by Differential Alkylation Using O16/O18 Labeled Iodoacetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunhai; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2015-05-01

    Stabilization of native three-dimensional structure has been considered for decades to be the main function of disulfide bonds in proteins. More recently, it was becoming increasingly clear that in addition to this static role, disulfide bonds are also important for many other aspects of protein behavior, such as regulating protein function in a redox-sensitive fashion. Dynamic disulfide bonds can be taken advantage of as candidate anchor sites for site-specific modification (such as PEGylation of conjugation to a drug molecule), but are also frequently implicated in protein aggregation (through disulfide bond scrambling leading to formation of intermolecular covalent linkages). A common feature of all these labile disulfide bonds is their high susceptibility to reduction, as they need to be selectively regulated by either specific local redox conditions in vivo or well-controlled experimental conditions in vitro. The ability to identify labile disulfide bonds in a cysteine-rich protein can be extremely beneficial for a variety of tasks ranging from understanding the mechanistic aspects of protein function to identification of troublesome "hot spots" in biopharmaceutical products. Herein, we describe a mass spectrometry (MS)-based method for reliable identification of labile disulfide bonds, which consists of limited reduction, differential alkylation with an O18-labeled reagent, and LC-MS/MS analysis. Application of this method to a cysteine-rich protein transferrin allows the majority of its native disulfide bonds to be measured for their reduction susceptibility, which appears to reflect both solvent accessibility and bond strain energy.

  8. Improved production of single domain antibodies with two disulfide bonds by co-expression of chaperone proteins in the Escherichia coli periplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Goldman, Ellen R; Zabetakis, Daniel; Anderson, George P

    2017-04-01

    Single domain antibodies are recombinantly expressed variable domains derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Natural single domain antibodies can have noncanonical disulfide bonds between their complementarity-determining regions that help position the binding site. In addition, engineering a second disulfide bond serves to tie together β-sheets thereby inhibiting unfolding. Unfortunately, the additional disulfide bond often significantly decreases yield, presumably due to formation of incorrect disulfide bonds during the folding process. Here, we demonstrate that inclusion of the helper plasmid pTUM4, which results in the expression of four chaperones, DsbA, DsbC, FkpA, and SurA, increased yield on average 3.5-fold for the nine multi-disulfide bond single domain antibodies evaluated. No increase in production was observed for single domain antibodies containing only the canonical disulfide bond. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including acetaminophen (APAP, have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST and multidrug resistance (MDR1 proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM, a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  10. Novel Methods for the Chemical Synthesis of Insulin Superfamily Peptides and of Analogues Containing Disulfide Isosteres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed Akhter; Wade, John D

    2017-09-19

    The insulin superfamily of peptides is ubiquitous within vertebrates and invertebrates and is characterized by the presence of a set of three disulfide bonds in a unique disposition. With the exception of insulin-like growth factors I and II, which are single chain peptides, the remaining 8 members of the human insulin superfamily are two-chain peptides containing one intramolecular and two intermolecular disulfide bridges. These structural features have long made the chemical synthesis of the peptides a considerable challenge, in particular, including their correct disulfide bond pairing and formation. However, they have also afforded the opportunity to develop modern solid phase synthesis methods for the preparation of such peptides that incorporate novel or improved chemical methods for the controlled introduction of both disulfide bonds and their surrogates, both during and after peptide chain assembly. In turn, this has enabled a detailed probing of the structure and function relationship of this small but complex superfamily of peptides. After initially using and subsequently identifying significant limitations of the approach of simultaneous random chain combination and oxidative folding, our laboratory undertook to develop robust chemical synthesis strategies in concert with orthogonal cysteine S-protecting groups and corresponding regioselective disulfide bond formation. These have included the separate synthesis of each of the two chains or of the two chains linked by an artificial C-peptide that is removed following postoxidative folding. These, in turn, have enabled an increased ease of acquisition in a good yield of not only members of human insulin superfamily but other insulin-like peptides. Importantly, these successful methods have enabled, for the first time, a detailed analysis of the role that the disulfide bonds play in the structure and function of such peptides. This was achieved by selective removal of the disulfide bonds or by the judicious

  11. Brain MRI findings of carbon disulfide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Mi Jung; Yim, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Heon; Kim, Rok Ho

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the findings of brain MRI in patients with carbon disulfide poisoning. Ninety-one patients who had suffered carbon disulfide poisoning [male:female=87:4; age, 32-74 (mean 53.3) years] were included in this study. To determine the extent of white matter hyperintensity (Grade 0-V) and lacunar infarction, T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain was performed. T2-weighted images depicted white matter hyperintensity in 70 patients (76.9%) and lacunar infarcts in 27 (29.7%). In these patients, the prevalent findings at T2-weighted MR imaging of the brain were white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarcts. Disturbance of the cardiovascular system by carbon disulfide might account for these results

  12. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry with diselenides and disulfides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Brian; Sørensen, Anne; Gotfredsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Diselenide exchange is introduced as a reversible reaction in dynamic combinatorial chemistry in water. At neutral pH, diselenides are found to mix with disulfides and form dynamic combinatorial libraries of diselenides, disulfides, and selenenylsulfides. This journal is...

  13. Why is DsbA such an oxidizing disulfide catalyst?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauschopf, U; Winther, Jakob R.; Korber, P

    1995-01-01

    DsbA, a member of the thioredoxin family of disulfide oxidoreductases, acts in catalyzing disulfide bond formation by donating its disulfide to newly translocated proteins. We have found that the two central residues within the active site Cys-30-Pro-31-His-32-Cys-33 motif are critical in determi...

  14. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  15. Functional differences in yeast protein disulfide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Westphal, V; Tachibana, C

    2001-01-01

    PDI1 is the essential gene encoding protein disulfide isomerase in yeast. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, however, contains four other nonessential genes with homology to PDI1: MPD1, MPD2, EUG1, and EPS1. We have investigated the effects of simultaneous deletions of these genes. In several...

  16. Assigning Peptide Disulfide Linkage Pattern Among Regio-Isomers via Methoxy Addition to Disulfide and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Kirt L.; Tan, Lei; Stinson, Craig A.; Love-Nkansah, Chasity B.; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Pinpointing disulfide linkage pattern is critical in the characterization of proteins and peptides consisting of multiple disulfide bonds. Herein, we report a method based on coupling online disulfide modification and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to distinguish peptide disulfide regio-isomers. Such a method relies on a new disulfide bond cleavage reaction in solution, involving methanol as a reactant and 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This reaction leads to selective cleavage of a disulfide bond and formation of sulfenic methyl ester (-SOCH3) at one cysteine residue and a thiol (-SH) at the other. Under low energy collision-induced dissociation (CID), cysteine sulfenic methyl ester motif produces a signature methanol loss (-32 Da), allowing its identification from other possible isomeric structures such as S-hydroxylmethyl (-SCH2OH) and methyl sulfoxide (-S(O)-CH3). Since disulfide bond can be selectively cleaved and modified upon methoxy addition, subsequent MS2 CID of the methoxy addition product provides enhanced sequence coverage as demonstrated by the analysis of bovine insulin. More importantly, this reaction does not induce disulfide scrambling, likely due to the fact that radical intermediates are not involved in the process. An approach based on methoxy addition followed by MS3 CID has been developed for assigning disulfide linkage patterns in peptide disulfide regio-isomers. This methodology was successfully applied to characterizing peptide systems having two disulfide bonds and three disulfide linkage isomers: side-by-side, overlapped, and looped-within-a-loop configurations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa E; Roth, Doris; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator. However, the total cellular pools of thiols and disulfides and their relative abundance have never been...... cell types. However, when cells are exposed to a sublethal dose of the thiol-specific oxidant diamide, PSSG levels increase to >15% of all protein cysteine. Glutathione is typically characterized as the "cellular redox buffer"; nevertheless, our data show that protein thiols represent a larger active...

  18. Display of disulfide-rich proteins by complementary DNA display and disulfide shuffling assisted by protein disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimuddin, Mohammed; Kubo, Tai

    2011-12-01

    We report an efficient system to produce and display properly folded disulfide-rich proteins facilitated by coupled complementary DNA (cDNA) display and protein disulfide isomerase-assisted folding. The results show that a neurotoxin protein containing four disulfide linkages can be displayed in the folded state. Furthermore, it can be refolded on a solid support that binds efficiently to its natural acetylcholine receptor. Probing the efficiency of the display proteins prepared by these methods provided up to 8-fold higher enrichment by the selective enrichment method compared with cDNA display alone, more than 10-fold higher binding to its receptor by the binding assays, and more than 10-fold higher affinities by affinity measurements. Cotranslational folding was found to have better efficiency than posttranslational refolding between the two investigated methods. We discuss the utilities of efficient display of such proteins in the preparation of superior quality proteins and protein libraries for directed evolution leading to ligand discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid assembly of functionalised spirocyclic indolines by palladium-catalysed dearomatising diallylation of indoles with allyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankher, Persis; Benhamou, Laure; Sheppard, Tom D

    2014-10-06

    Herein, we report the application of allyl acetate to the palladium-catalysed dearomatising diallylation of indoles. The reaction can be carried out by using a readily available palladium catalyst at room temperature, and can be applied to a wide range of substituted indoles to provide access to the corresponding 3,3-diallylindolinines. These compounds are versatile synthetic intermediates that readily undergo Ugi reactions or proline-catalysed asymmetric Mannich reactions. Alternatively, acylation of the 3,3-diallylindolinines with an acid chloride or a chloroformate, followed by treatment with aluminium chloride, enables 2,3-diallylindoles to be prepared. By using ring-closing metathesis, functionalised spirocyclic indoline scaffolds can be accessed from the Ugi products, and a dihydrocarbazole can be prepared from the corresponding 2,3-diallylindole. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. Widespread Disulfide Bonding in Proteins from Thermophilic Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Jorda, Julien; Yeates, Todd O.

    2011-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are generally not used to stabilize proteins in the cytosolic compartments of bacteria or eukaryotic cells, owing to the chemically reducing nature of those environments. In contrast, certain thermophilic archaea use disulfide bonding as a major mechanism for protein stabilization. Here, we provide a current survey of completely sequenced genomes, applying computational methods to estimate the use of disulfide bonding across the Archaea. Microbes belonging to the Crenarchaea...

  1. Disulfide Chromophore and Its Optical Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maloň, Petr; Bednárová, Lucie; Straka, Michal; Krejčí, Lucie; Kumprecht, Lukáš; Kraus, Tomáš; Kubáňová, M.; Baumruk, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1E (2010), E47-E55 ISSN 0899-0042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1335; GA ČR GA203/06/1550; GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GAP208/10/0376; GA AV ČR IAA400550810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : disulfide chromophore * Raman optical activity * vibrational optical activity * circular dichroism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.892, year: 2010

  2. Stabilisation of the Fc fragment of human IgG1 by engineered intradomain disulfide bonds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Wozniak-Knopp

    Full Text Available We report the stabilization of the human IgG1 Fc fragment by engineered intradomain disulfide bonds. One of these bonds, which connects the N-terminus of the CH3 domain with the F-strand, led to an increase of the melting temperature of this domain by 10°C as compared to the CH3 domain in the context of the wild-type Fc region. Another engineered disulfide bond, which connects the BC loop of the CH3 domain with the D-strand, resulted in an increase of T(m of 5°C. Combined in one molecule, both intradomain disulfide bonds led to an increase of the T(m of about 15°C. All of these mutations had no impact on the thermal stability of the CH2 domain. Importantly, the binding of neonatal Fc receptor was also not influenced by the mutations. Overall, the stabilized CH3 domains described in this report provide an excellent basic scaffold for the engineering of Fc fragments for antigen-binding or other desired additional or improved properties. Additionally, we have introduced the intradomain disulfide bonds into an IgG Fc fragment engineered in C-terminal loops of the CH3 domain for binding to Her2/neu, and observed an increase of the T(m of the CH3 domain for 7.5°C for CysP4, 15.5°C for CysP2 and 19°C for the CysP2 and CysP4 disulfide bonds combined in one molecule.

  3. Dissecting the role of disulfide bonds on the amyloid formation of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Gong, Hao; Sun, Yue; Yan, Juan; Cheng, Biao; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Jing; Yu, Mengying; Guo, Yu; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We dissect how individual disulfide bond affects the amyloidogenicity of insulin. ► A controlled reduction system for insulin is established in this study. ► Disulfide breakage is associated with unfolding and increased amyloidogenicity. ► Breakage of A6-A11 is associated with significantly increased cytotoxicity. ► Analogs without A6-A11 have a higher potency to form high order toxic oligomers. -- Abstract: Disulfide bonds play a critical role in the stability and folding of proteins. Here, we used insulin as a model system, to investigate the role of its individual disulfide bond during the amyloid formation of insulin. Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) was applied to reduce two of the three disulfide bonds in porcine insulin and the reduced disulfide bonds were then alkylated by iodoacetamide. Three disulfide bond-modified insulin analogs, INS-2 (lack of A6-A11), INS-3 (lack of A7-B7) and INS-6 (lack of both A6-A11 and A7-B7), were obtained. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy results indicated that the secondary structure of INS-2 was the closest to insulin under neutral conditions, followed by INS-3 and INS-6, whereas in an acidic solution all analogs were essentially unfolded. To test how these modifications affect the amyloidogenicity of insulin, thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) were performed. Our results showed that all analogs were more prone to aggregation than insulin, with the order of aggregation rates being INS-6 > INS-3 > INS-2. Cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) assay results showed that analogs without A6-A11 (INS-2 and INS-6) have a higher potential for oligomerization than insulin and INS-3, which is accompanied with a higher cytotoxicity as the hemolytic assays of human erythrocytes suggested. The results indicated that breakage of A7-B7 induced more unfolding of the insulin structure and a higher amyloidogenicity than breakage of A6-A11, but breakage of A6

  4. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  5. Impact of SCILL catalysts for the S-S coupling of thiols to disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Octavian D; Podolean, Iunia; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Taylor, S F Rebecca; Manyar, Haresh G; Ralphs, Kathryn; Goodrich, Peter; Hardacre, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This study reports the behaviour of SCILL based catalysts in the oxidative S-S coupling of aliphatic and aromatic thiols, namely 1-butanethiol and thiophenol, to dibutyl disulfide and diphenyl disulfide. A range of ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and metal supported catalysts (5% Pt/SiO 2 ; 5% Ru/SiO 2 ; 5% Ru/C; 5% Pt/OMS-2) were used to prepare the SCILL catalysts and all were found to be active for the reaction following the trend 5% Pt-OMS-2 > 5% Pt/SiO 2 > 5% Ru/C > 5% Ru/SiO 2 . The presence of SCILL catalysts afforded high selectivity to the disulfide, and the activity of the SCILL catalyst was dependent on the ionic liquid used. A significant increase in the stability of all the supported metal catalysts was found in the presence of the ionic liquid, and there was no change in the selectivity towards disulfides. This demonstrated that the ionic liquids protect the active sites of the catalyst against sulfation, thus providing more stable and active catalysts.

  6. Accurate disulfide-bonding network predictions improve ab initio structure prediction of cysteine-rich proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; He, Bao-Ji; Jang, Richard; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Cysteine-rich proteins cover many important families in nature but there are currently no methods specifically designed for modeling the structure of these proteins. The accuracy of disulfide connectivity pattern prediction, particularly for the proteins of higher-order connections, e.g., >3 bonds, is too low to effectively assist structure assembly simulations. We propose a new hierarchical order reduction protocol called Cyscon for disulfide-bonding prediction. The most confident disulfide bonds are first identified and bonding prediction is then focused on the remaining cysteine residues based on SVR training. Compared with purely machine learning-based approaches, Cyscon improved the average accuracy of connectivity pattern prediction by 21.9%. For proteins with more than 5 disulfide bonds, Cyscon improved the accuracy by 585% on the benchmark set of PDBCYS. When applied to 158 non-redundant cysteine-rich proteins, Cyscon predictions helped increase (or decrease) the TM-score (or RMSD) of the ab initio QUARK modeling by 12.1% (or 14.4%). This result demonstrates a new avenue to improve the ab initio structure modeling for cysteine-rich proteins. http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/Cyscon/ zhng@umich.edu or hbshen@sjtu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Simple Formation of Nanostructured Molybdenum Disulfide Thin Films by Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide thin films were deposited on various substrates by direct current (DC electrolysis form aqueous electrolyte containing molybdate and sulfide ions. Post deposition annealing at higher temperatures in the range 450–700°C transformed the as-deposited amorphous films to nanocrystalline structure. High temperature X-ray diffraction studies clearly recorded the crystal structure transformations associated with grain growth with increase in annealing temperature. Surface morphology investigations revealed featureless structure in case of as-deposited surface; upon annealing it converts into a surface with protruding nanotubes, nanorods, or dumbbell shape nanofeatures. UV-visible and FTIR spectra confirmed about the presence of Mo-S bonding in the deposited films. Transmission electron microscopic examination showed that the annealed MoS2 films consist of nanoballs, nanoribbons, and multiple wall nanotubes.

  8. Disulfide Linkage Characterization of Disulfide Bond-Containing Proteins and Peptides by Reducing Electrochemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Haselmann, Kim F; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    to avoid disulfide scrambled and incorrectly folded forms in the final product. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a highly utilized analytical tool for this due to fast and accurate characterization. However, disulfide bonds being an additional covalent bond in the protein structure represent a challenge...... link between parent disulfide-linked fragments and free reduced peptides in an LC-EC-MS platform of nonreduced proteolytic protein digestions. Here we report the successful use of EC as a partial reduction approach in mapping of disulfide bonds of intact human insulin (HI) and lysozyme. In addition, we......Unravelling of disulfide linkage patterns is a crucial part of protein characterization, whether it is for a previously uncharacterized protein in basic research or a recombinant pharmaceutical protein. In the biopharmaceutical industry, elucidation of the cysteine connectivities is a necessity...

  9. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange in Peptides Derived from Human Growth Hormone during Lyophilization and Storage in the Solid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Lyophilization (freeze-drying) is frequently used to stabilize protein therapeutics. However, covalent modifications such as thiol-disulfide exchange and disulfide scrambling can occur even in the solid state. The effects of lyophilization and storage of lyophilized powders on the mechanism and kinetics of thioldisulfide exchange have not been elucidated and are explored here. Reaction kinetics were monitored in peptides corresponding to tryptic fragments of human growth hormone (T20 + T20-T21 or T20 + cT20-T21) during different stages of lyophilization and during storage of the lyophilized powders at 22 °C and ambient RH. The concentrations of reactants and products were determined using RP-HPLC and product identity confirmed using LC-MS. Loss of native disulfide was observed for the reaction of T20 with both linear (T20-T21) and cyclic (cT20-T21) peptides during the primary drying step, however, the native disulfides were regenerated during secondary drying with no further change till the end of lyophilization. Deviations from Arrhenius parameters predicted from solution studies and the absence of buffer effects during lyophilization suggest that factors such as temperature, initial peptide concentration, buffer type and concentration do not influence thiol-disulfide exchange during lyophilization. Results from a ‘cold finger’ method used to study peptide adsorption to ice indicate that there is no preferential adsorption to the ice surface and that its presence may not influence disulfide reactivity during primary drying. Overall, reaction rates and product distribution differ for the reaction of T20 with T20-T21 or cT20-T21 in the solid state and aqueous solution, while the mechanism of thiol-disulfide remains unchanged. Increased reactivity of the cyclic peptide in the solid state suggests that peptide cyclization does not offer protection against lyophilization and that damage induced by a process stress further affects storage stability at 22 °C and

  10. Identification of a disulfide bridge important for transport function of SNAT4 neutral amino acid transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer

    Full Text Available SNAT4 is a member of system N/A amino acid transport family that primarily expresses in liver and muscles and mediates the transport of L-alanine. However, little is known about the structure and function of the SNAT family of transporters. In this study, we showed a dose-dependent inhibition in transporter activity of SNAT4 with the treatment of reducing agents, dithiothreitol (DTT and Tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP, indicating the possible involvement of disulfide bridge(s. Mutation of residue Cys-232, and the two highly conserved residues Cys-249 and Cys-321, compromised the transport function of SNAT4. However, this reduction was not caused by the decrease of SNAT4 on the cell surface since the cysteine-null mutant generated by replacing all five cysteines with alanine was equally capable of being expressed on the cell surface as wild-type SNAT4. Interestingly, by retaining two cysteine residues, 249 and 321, a significant level of L-alanine uptake was restored, indicating the possible formation of disulfide bond between these two conserved residues. Biotinylation crosslinking of free thiol groups with MTSEA-biotin provided direct evidence for the existence of a disulfide bridge between Cys-249 and Cys-321. Moreover, in the presence of DTT or TCEP, transport activity of the mutant retaining Cys-249 and Cys-321 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner and this reduction is gradually recovered with increased concentration of H2O2. Disruption of the disulfide bridge also decreased the transport of L-arginine, but to a lesser degree than that of L-alanine. Together, these results suggest that cysteine residues 249 and 321 form a disulfide bridge, which plays an important role in substrate transport but has no effect on trafficking of SNAT4 to the cell surface.

  11. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in untreated schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcuoglu, Canan; Bakirhan, Abdurrahim; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan; Sahiner, Safak Yalcin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate dynamic thiol/disulfide (SH/SS) homeostasis in untreated schizophrenia. Blood thiol/disulfide homeostasis status, which reflects native thiol-disulfide exchanges, was investigated in 87 untreated patients (52 males, 35 females), and the obtained results were compared with 86 healthy controls. Blood serum native thiol and total thiol (ToSH) concentrations were measured in a paired test. The half value of the difference between native thiol and ToSH concentrations was calculated as the disulfide bond amount. SH and ToSH concentrations were found to be significantly lower (pschizophrenia compared with the control group, whereas disulfide levels were significantly higher (pSchizophrenia patients had significantly higher SS/ToSH and SS/SH ratios and a significantly lower SH/ToSH ratio compared to those of healthy individuals. SH and ToSH amounts were found to be insufficient in untreated schizophrenia patients. Additionally, according to the results of the study, thiol/disulfide homeostasis was also disturbed by a shift to the disulfide bond formation side. This might affect the neurotransmission processes, which are known to be related with many symptoms observed in schizophrenia. The replacement of the thiol gap and the reduction of excess SS amounts might have a positive effect in supporting therapy for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm during oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Robert C; Andon, Nancy L; Haynes, Paul A; Park, Minkyu; Fischer, Wolfgang H; Schubert, David

    2004-05-21

    The majority of disulfide-linked cytosolic proteins are thought to be enzymes that transiently form disulfide bonds while catalyzing oxidation-reduction (redox) processes. Recent evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species can act as signaling molecules by promoting the formation of disulfide bonds within or between select redox-sensitive proteins. However, few studies have attempted to examine global changes in disulfide bond formation following reactive oxygen species exposure. Here we isolate and identify disulfide-bonded proteins (DSBP) in a mammalian neuronal cell line (HT22) exposed to various oxidative insults by sequential nonreducing/reducing two-dimensional SDS-PAGE combined with mass spectrometry. By using this strategy, several known cytosolic DSBP, such as peroxiredoxins, thioredoxin reductase, nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, and ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase, were identified. Unexpectedly, a large number of previously unknown DSBP were also found, including those involved in molecular chaperoning, translation, glycolysis, cytoskeletal structure, cell growth, and signal transduction. Treatment of cells with a wide range of hydrogen peroxide concentrations either promoted or inhibited disulfide bonding of select DSBP in a concentration-dependent manner. Decreasing the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione also promoted select disulfide bond formation within proteins from cytoplasmic extracts. In addition, an epitope-tagged version of the molecular chaperone HSP70 forms mixed disulfides with both beta4-spectrin and adenomatous polyposis coli protein in the cytosol. Our findings indicate that disulfide bond formation within families of cytoplasmic proteins is dependent on the nature of the oxidative insult and may provide a common mechanism used to control multiple physiological processes.

  13. Steric effects in peptide and protein exchange with activated disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason; Schlosser, Jessica L; Griffin, Donald R; Wong, Darice Y; Kasko, Andrea M

    2013-08-12

    Disulfide exchange is an important bioconjugation tool, enabling chemical modification of peptides and proteins containing free cysteines. We previously reported the synthesis of a macromer bearing an activated disulfide and its incorporation into hydrogels. Despite their ability to diffuse freely into hydrogels, larger proteins were unable to undergo in-gel disulfide exchange. In order to understand this phenomenon, we synthesized four different activated disulfide-bearing model compounds (Mn = 300 Da to 10 kDa) and quantified their rate of disulfide exchange with a small peptide (glutathione), a moderate-sized protein (β-lactoglobulin), and a large protein (bovine serum albumin) in four different pH solutions (6.0, 7.0, 7.4, and 8.0) to mimic biological systems. Rate constants of exchange depend significantly on the size and accessibility of the thiolate. pH also significantly affects the rate of reaction, with the faster reactions occurring at higher pH. Surprisingly, little difference in exchange rates is seen between macromolecular disulfides of varying size (Mn = 2 kDa - 10 kDa), although all undergo exchange more slowly than their small molecule analogue (MW = 300 g/mol). The maximum exchange efficiencies (% disulfides exchanged after 24 h) are not siginificantly affected by thiol size or pH, but somewhat affected by disulfide size. Therefore, while all three factors investigated (pH, disulfide size, and thiolate size) can influence the exchange kinetics and extent of reaction, the size of the thiolate and its accessibility plays the most significant role.

  14. Reactivity of disulfide bonds is markedly affected by structure and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Maryam; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chan, Bun

    2016-01-01

    that selected disulfides react extremely rapidly, with a variation of 10(4) in rate constants. Five-membered ring disulfides are particularly reactive compared with acyclic (linear) disulfides or six-membered rings. Particular disulfides in proteins also show enhanced reactivity. This variation occurs...

  15. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Glutaredoxin and Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rasmus; Andersen, Peter Anders; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. Belonging to the thioredoxin family, they contain a conserved active site CXXC motif. The N-proximal active site cysteine can form a mixed disulfide with glutathione ...... has been replaced with serine. The exchange reaction between the reduced protein and oxidized glutathione leading to formation of the mixed disulfide could readily be monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) due to the enthalpic contributions from the noncovalent interactions...... and the protonation of glutathione thiolate. An algorithm for the analysis of this type of reaction by ITC was developed and showed that the interaction is enthalpy driven with a large entropy penalty. The applicability of the method was verified by a mass spectrometry-based approach, which gave a standard reduction...

  16. Evaporation dynamics of microdroplets on self-assembled monolayers of dialkyl disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangfen; Flores, Susana Moreno; Vavilala, Chandrasekhar; Schmittel, Michael; Graf, Karlheinz

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of the static wettability and evaporation dynamics of sessile microdroplets of water on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared with unsymmetric dialkyl disulfides CH(3)-(CH(2))(11+m)-S-S-(CH(2))(11)-OH (m = 0, +/- 2, +/- 4, +/- 6) on gold-covered mica. The advancing and receding contact angles decrease linearly with increasing hydrophilicity of the SAM. The latter was changed either via the molar ratio or via the chain length of the hydroxyl-terminated alkyl chains in the monolayer. In contrast to SAMs made of thiols, the contact angle hysteresis was 10 degrees for all disulfides, irrespective of their chain lengths. During evaporation of single droplets, a transition from pinning to constant contact angle mode was observed. The transition time between the modes increases with the surface hydrophilicity, leading to longer pinning. This way, the time for complete droplet evaporation decreases by approximately 30% owing to the fact that during pinning the overall droplet area stays large for a longer time. For single droplets the measured total evaporation times agree well with the calculated ones, showing the validity of the standard evaporation model for both evaporation modes. In contrast to the results for single droplets, many droplets with different initial volumes show a power-law dependence on the total evaporation time with an exponent different from 1.5 as expected from the standard model. For disulfides with m not equal 0, the exponent is in the range of 1.40-1.47 increasing with the surface hydrophilicity. For the SAMs with m = 0 the exponent increases up to 1.61 for the most hydrophilic surface. We explain this deviation from the standard evaporation model with the presence of a liquid precursor film around the droplet, which either enhances or decelerates evaporation. Our results suggest that SAMs of dialkyl disulfides offer the possibility to tune the wettability of gold surfaces in a more controlled way than thiols do.

  17. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; L. V. Stakhovskaya; L. E. Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin) versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis...

  18. Conformational Analysis of Large and Highly Disulfide-Stabilized Proteins by Integrating Online Electrochemical Reduction into an Optimized H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometry Workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabjerg, Esben; Jakobsen, Rasmus U.; Mysling, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of disulfide-bonded proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires effective and rapid reduction of disulfide bonds before enzymatic digestion in order to increase sequence coverage. In a conventional HDX-MS workflow, disulfide bonds are reduced chemically...... by addition of a reducing agent to the quench solution (e.g., tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP)). The chemical reduction, however, is severely limited under quenched conditions due to a narrow time window as well as low pH and temperature. Here, we demonstrate the real-world applicability of integrating...... electrochemical reduction into an online HDX-MS workflow. We have optimized the electrochemical reduction efficiency during HDX-MS analysis of two particularly challenging disulfide stabilized proteins: a therapeutic IgG1-antibody and nerve growth factor-β (NGF). Several different parameters (flow rate...

  19. Regulation of a phage endolysin by disulfide caging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuty, Gabriel F; Xu, Min; Struck, Douglas K; Summer, Elizabeth J; Young, Ry

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to canonical phage endolysins, which require holin-mediated disruption of the membrane to gain access to attack the cell wall, signal anchor release (SAR) endolysins are secreted by the host sec system, where they accumulate in an inactive form tethered to the membrane by their N-terminal SAR domains. SAR endolysins become activated by various mechanisms upon release from the membrane. In its inactive form, the prototype SAR endolysin, Lyz(P1), of coliphage P1, has an active-site Cys covalently blocked by a disulfide bond; activation involves a disulfide bond isomerization driven by a thiol in the newly released SAR domain, unblocking the active-site Cys. Here, we report that Lyz(103), the endolysin of Erwinia phage ERA103, is also a SAR endolysin. Although Lyz(103) does not have a catalytic Cys, genetic evidence suggests that it also is activated by a thiol-disulfide isomerization triggered by a thiol in the SAR domain. In this case, the inhibitory disulfide in nascent Lyz(103) is formed between cysteine residues flanking a catalytic glutamate, caging the active site. Thus, Lyz(P1) and Lyz(103) define subclasses of SAR endolysins that differ in the nature of their inhibitory disulfide, and Lyz(103) is the first enzyme found to be regulated by disulfide bond caging of its active site.

  20. Determination of Disulfide Bond Connectivity of Cysteine-rich Peptide IpTx{sub a}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Jim Il [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Sato, Kazuki [Fukuoka Women' s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Cysteine-rich peptides stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds have often been isolated from venoms of microbes, animals and plants. These peptides typically have much higher stability and improved biopharmaceutical properties compared to their linear counterparts. Therefore the correct disulfide bond formation of small proteins and peptides has been extensively studied for a better understanding of their folding mechanism and achieving efficient generation of the naturally occurring biologically active product. Imperatoxin A (IpTx{sub a}), a peptide toxin containing 6 cysteine residues, was isolated from the venom of scorpion Pandinus imperator, selectively binds the ryanodine receptors and activates Ca{sup 2+} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IpTx{sub a} increases the binding of ryanodine to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and encourages reconstituted single channel to induce subconductance states.

  1. Disulfide bond effects on protein stability: designed variants of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodszky, M; Chen, C W; Huang, J K; Zolkiewski, M; Wen, L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to increase protein stability by insertion of novel disulfide bonds have not always been successful. According to the two current models, cross-links enhance stability mainly through denatured state effects. We have investigated the effects of removal and addition of disulfide cross-links, protein flexibility in the vicinity of a cross-link, and disulfide loop size on the stability of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V; 7 kD) by differential scanning calorimetry. CMTI-V offers the advantage of a large, flexible, and solvent-exposed loop not involved in extensive intra-molecular interactions. We have uncovered a negative correlation between retention time in hydrophobic column chromatography, a measure of protein hydrophobicity, and melting temperature (T(m)), an indicator of native state stabilization, for CMTI-V and its variants. In conjunction with the complete set of thermodynamic parameters of denaturation, this has led to the following deductions: (1) In the less stable, disulfide-removed C3S/C48S (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -4 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -22 degrees C), the native state is destabilized more than the denatured state; this also applies to the less-stable CMTI-V* (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -3 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -11 degrees C), in which the disulfide-containing loop is opened by specific hydrolysis of the Lys(44)-Asp(45) peptide bond; (2) In the less stable, disulfide-inserted E38C/W54C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +2 degrees C), the denatured state is more stabilized than the native state; and (3) In the more stable, disulfide-engineered V42C/R52C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = +1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +17 degrees C), the native state is more stabilized than the denatured state. These results show that a cross-link stabilizes both native and denatured states, and differential stabilization of the two states causes either loss or gain in protein stability. Removal of hydrogen

  2. Oxidation Effect in Octahedral Hafnium Disulfide Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Jin, Youngjo; Kim, Tae Soo; Chung, Dong Seob; Na, Hyunyeong; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Hyun; Perello, David J; Jeong, Hye Yun; Ly, Thuc Hue; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-26

    Atomically smooth van der Waals materials are structurally stable in a monolayer and a few layers but are susceptible to oxygen-rich environments. In particular, recently emerging materials such as black phosphorus and perovskite have revealed stronger environmental sensitivity than other two-dimensional layered materials, often obscuring the interesting intrinsic electronic and optical properties. Unleashing the true potential of these materials requires oxidation-free sample preparation that protects thin flakes from air exposure. Here, we fabricated few-layer hafnium disulfide (HfS2) field effect transistors (FETs) using an integrated vacuum cluster system and study their electronic properties and stability under ambient conditions. By performing all the device fabrication and characterization procedure under an oxygen- and moisture-free environment, we found that few-layer AA-stacking HfS2-FETs display excellent field effect responses (Ion/Ioff ≈ 10(7)) with reduced hysteresis compared to the FETs prepared under ambient conditions. Oxidation of HfS2 occurs uniformly over the entire area, increasing the film thickness by 250% at a prolonged oxidation time of >120 h, while defects on the surface are the preferential initial oxidation sites. We further demonstrated that the stability of the device in air is significantly improved by passivating FETs with BN in a vacuum cluster.

  3. Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Host-Pathogen Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz S. Stolf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS production by immunological cells is known to cause damage to pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated in the last decade has shown, however, that ROS (and redox signals functionally regulate different cellular pathways in the host-pathogen interaction. These especially affect (i pathogen entry through protein redox switches and redox modification (i.e., intra- and interdisulfide and cysteine oxidation and (ii phagocytic ROS production via Nox family NADPH oxidase enzyme and the control of phagolysosome function with key implications for antigen processing. The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI family of redox chaperones is closely involved in both processes and is also implicated in protein unfolding and trafficking across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and towards the cytosol, a thiol-based redox locus for antigen processing. Here, we summarise examples of the cellular association of host PDI with different pathogens and explore the possible roles of pathogen PDIs in infection. A better understanding of these complex regulatory steps will provide insightful information on the redox role and coevolutional biological process, and assist the development of more specific therapeutic strategies in pathogen-mediated infections.

  4. Impairment of thiol-disulfide homeostasis in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Vakkas; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Alisik, Murat; Cetin, Orkun; Korkmaz, Hilal; Surer, Hatice; Erel, Ozcan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of severity of preeclampsia on thiol-disulfide homeostasis (TDH). A total of 108 participants were divided into three groups: Group 1 was composed of pregnant women with no obstetric complications, Group 2 included pregnant women with mild preeclampsia, and Group 3 consisted of pregnant women with severe preeclampsia. TDH parameters were determined, and comparisons of clinical and routine laboratory test findings were made in all groups. The serum native thiol level was 347.9 ± 27.4 in the control group, 237.2 ± 44.2 in the mild preeclampsia group, and 227.9 ± 53.1 in the severe preeclampsia group (p preeclampsia group, and 248.3 ± 57.4 in the severe preeclampsia group (p preeclampsia group, and 10.2 ± 4.8 in the severe preeclampsia group (p = 0.001). A significant correlation between impairment in degree of TDH and severity of preeclampsia was observed. TDH was impaired in women with preeclampsia, and this impairment increased with disease severity. Therefore, impaired TDH may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  5. Diallyl Trisulfide Inhibits Growth of NCI-H460 in Vitro and in Vivo, and Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Injury in the Treatment of Lung Carcinoma in Xenograft Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Na; Xu, Hongya; Zhao, Zhongxi; Li, Siying; Li, Shanzhong; Cai, Jianhua; Cao, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an organosulfuric component of garlic oil, exhibits potential anticancer and chemopreventive effects. Cisplatin (DDP), a common chemotherapeutic agent, has provided great therapeutic contributions to treating solid tumors, but with serious side effects. Here, we verified the anti-tumor properties of DATS on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated synergistic effects of DATS combined with DDP on the NCI-H460 xenograft model. Significantly decreased cell viabi...

  6. Production of Disulfide-Bonded Proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Na; Berkmen, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    Production of recombinant proteins at high yields in Escherichia coli requires extensive optimization of expression conditions. Production is further complicated for proteins that require specific post-translational modifications for their eventual folding. One common and particularly important post-translational modification is oxidation of the correct pair of cysteines to form a disulfide bond. This unit describes methods to produce disulfide-bonded proteins in E. coli in either the naturally oxidizing periplasm or the cytoplasm of appropriately engineered cells. The focus is on variables key to improving the oxidative folding of disulfide-bonded proteins, with the aim of helping the researcher optimize expression conditions for a protein of interest. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  8. Identification of Disulfides from the Biodegradation of Dibenzothiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, David C.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    2001-01-01

    Several investigations have identified benzothiophene-2,3-dione in the organic solvent extracts of acidified cultures degrading dibenzothiophene via the Kodama pathway. In solution at neutral pH, the 2,3-dione exists as 2-mercaptophenylglyoxylate, which cyclizes upon acidification and is extracted as the 2,3-dione. The fate of these compounds in microbial cultures has never been determined. This study investigated the abiotic reactions of 2-mercaptophenylglyoxylate incubated aerobically in mineral salts medium at neutral pH. Oxidation led to the formation of 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, formed from two molecules of 2-mercaptophenylglyoxylate. Two sequential abiotic, net losses of both a carbon and an oxygen atom produced two additional disulfides, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid 2-benzoic acid disulfide and 2,2′-dithiosalicylic acid. The methods developed to extract and detect these three disulfides were then used for the analysis of a culture of Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d grown on dibenzothiophene as its sole carbon and energy source. All three of the disulfides were detected, indicating that 2-mercaptophenylglyoxylate is an important, short-lived intermediate in the breakdown of dibenzothiophene via the Kodama pathway. The disulfides eluded previous investigations because of (i) their high polarity, being dicarboxylic acids; (ii) the need to lower the pH of the aqueous medium to <1 to extract them into an organic solvent such as dichloromethane; (iii) their poor solubility in organic solvents, (iv) their removal from organic extracts of cultures during filtration through the commonly used drying agent anhydrous sodium sulfate; and (v) their high molecular masses (362, 334, and 306 Da) compared to that of dibenzothiophene (184 Da). PMID:11679330

  9. Electrostatic influence of local cysteine environments on disulfide exchange kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G H; Cennerazzo, M J; Karalis, A J; Field, D

    1981-11-10

    The ionic strength dependence of the bimolecular rate constant for reaction of the negative disulfide 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) with cysteines in fragments of naturally occurring proteins was determined by stopped-flow spectroscopy. The Debye-Hückel relationship was applied to determine the effective charge at the cysteine and thereby determine the extent to which nearby neighbors in the primary sequence influence the kinetics. Corrections for the secondary salt effect on cysteine pKs were determined by direct spectrometric pH titration of sulfhydryl groups or by observation of the ionic strength dependence of kinetics of cysteine reaction with the neutral disulfide 2,2'-dithiodipyridine. Quantitative expressions was verified by model studies with N-acetyl-cystein. At ionic strengths equal to or greater than 20 mM, the net charge at the polypeptide cysteine site is the sum of the single negative charge of the thiolate anion and the charges of the amino acids immediately preceding and following the cysteine in the primary sequence. At lower ionic strengths, more distant residues influence kinetics. At pH 7.0, 23 degree C, and an ionic strength of 20 mM, rate constants for reaction of the negative disulfide with a cysteine having two positive neighbors, one positive and one neutral neighbor, or two neutral neighbors are 132000, 3350, and 367 s-1 M-1, respectively. This corresponds to a contribution to the activation energy of 0.65- 1.1 kcal/mol per ion pair involved in collision between the cysteine and disulfide regions. The results permit the estimation that cysteine local environments may provide a means of achieving a 10(6)-fold range in rate constants in disulfide exchange reactions in random-coil proteins. This range may prove useful in developing strategies for directing disulfide pairing in synthetic proteins.

  10. Structures and related properties of helical, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-11-01

    The three dimensional structure of several peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations. Each peptide formed a predictable, rigid structure, consisting of an α-helix, a "scaffold" region which packed along one face of the helix, and two disulfide bridges which covalently connect the helix and scaffold regions. The peptide Apa-M5 was designed to constrain the M5 peptide from MLCK in a helical geometry using the apamin disulfide scaffold. This scaffold constrains the N- terminal end of the helix with two disulfide bridges and a reverse turn. Like the M5 peptide, Apa-M5 was found to bind calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent 1:1 stoichiometry. However, the dissociation constant of the (Apa-M5)-calmodulin complex, 107 nM, was 100-fold higher than the dissociation constant of the M5-calmodulin complex. This difference was due to a putative steric overlap between the Apa-M5 scaffold and calmodulin. The peptide Apa-Cro was designed to replace the large structural protein matrix of λ Cro with the apamin disulfide scaffold. However, Apa-Cro did not bind the consensus DNA operator half-site of λ Cro, probably due to a steric overlap between the Apa-Cro disulfide framework and the DNA. The amino acid sequence of the scaffold-disulfide bridge arrangement of the peptide Max was derived from the core sequence of scyllatoxin, which contains an α-helix constrained at the C-terminal end by two disulfide bridges and a two-stranded βsheet scaffold. Max was shown to fold with >84% yield to form a predictable, stable structure that is similar to scyllatoxin. The folding and stability properties of Max make this scaffold and disulfide bridge arrangement an ideal candidate for the development of hybrid sequence peptides. The dynamics of a fraying C-terminal end of the helix of the peptide Apa-AlaN was determined by analysis of 15N NMR relaxation properties.

  11. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the disulfide-bond reducing potential of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Anita; Dóka, Éva; Fábián, István; Nagy, Péter

    2015-04-30

    The significance of persulfide species in hydrogen sulfide biology is increasingly recognized. However, the molecular mechanisms of their formation remain largely elusive. The obvious pathway of the reduction of biologically abundant disulfide moieties by sulfide was challenged on both thermodynamic and kinetic grounds. Using DTNB (5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), also known as Ellman's reagent) as a model disulfide we conducted a comprehensive kinetic study for its reaction with sulfide. The bimolecular reaction is relatively fast with a second-order rate constant of 889 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1) at pH = 7.4. pH dependence of the rate law revealed that the reaction proceeds via the bisulfide anion species with an initial nucleophilic thiol-disulfide exchange reaction to give 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) and TNB-persulfide with a pH independent second-order rate constant of 1090 ± 12 M(-1)s(-1). However, kinetic studies and stoichiometric analyses in a wide range of reactant ratios together with kinetic simulations revealed that it is a multistep process that proceeds via kinetically driven, practically irreversible reactions along the disulfide → persulfide → inorganic polysulfides axis. The kinetic model postulated here, which is fully consistent with the experimental data, suggests that the TNB-persulfide is further reduced by sulfide with a second-order rate constant in the range of 5 × 10(3) - 5 × 10(4) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.4 and eventually yields inorganic polysulfides and TNB. The reactions of cystine and GSSG with sulfide were found to be significantly slower and to occur via more complicated reaction schemes. (1)H NMR studies suggest that these reactions also generate Cys-persulfide and inorganic polysulfide species, but in contrast with DTNB, in consecutive equilibrium processes that are sensitive to changes in the reactant and product ratios. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reaction of disulfides with sulfide is a highly system

  12. MexT functions as a redox-responsive regulator modulating disulfide stress resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargier, Emilie; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Mooij, Marlies J; Woods, David F; Morrissey, John P; Dobson, Alan D W; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2012-07-01

    MexT is a global LysR transcriptional regulator known to modulate antibiotic resistance and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, a novel role for MexT in mediating intrinsic disulfide stress resistance was demonstrated, representing the first identified phenotype associated with inactivation of this regulator in wild-type cells. Disruption of mexT resulted in increased susceptibility to the disulfide stress elicitor diamide [diazenedicarboxylic acid bis(N,N,-di-methylamide)]. This compound is known to elicit a specific stress response via depletion of reduced glutathione and alteration of the cellular redox environment, implicating MexT in redox control. In support of this, MexT-regulated targets, including the MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux system, were induced by subinhibitory concentrations of diamide. A mexF insertion mutant also exhibited increased diamide susceptibility, implicating the MexEF-OprN efflux system in MexT-associated disulfide stress resistance. Purified MexT protein was observed to form an oligomeric complex in the presence of oxidized glutathione, with a calculated redox potential of -189 mV. This value far exceeds the thiol-disulfide redox potential of the bacterial cytoplasm, ensuring that MexT remains reduced under normal physiological conditions. MexT is activated by mutational disruption of the predicted quinone oxidoreductase encoded by mexS. Alterations in the cellular redox state were observed in a mexS mutant (PA14nfxC), supporting a model whereby the perception of MexS-associated redox signals by MexT leads to the induction of the MexEF-OprN efflux system, which, in turn, may mediate disulfide stress resistance via efflux of electrophilic compounds.

  13. Chemical and Photochemical Reactions of Thioctic Acid and RelatedDisulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1954-06-10

    The carbon cycle of photosynthesis is briefly reviewed in its entirety and the experiments involving it which led to the implication of disulfide rupture in photosynthesis are indicated. A review of the organic, physical and photochemistry of disulfides, with particular reference to the five-membered disulfide rings as they appear in thioctic acid, is given.

  14. Disulfide bridges as essential elements for the thermostability of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase LPMO10C from Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Magali; Danneels, Barbara; Last, Matthias; Beerens, Koen; Stals, Ingeborg; Desmet, Tom

    2017-05-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are crucial components of cellulase mixtures but their stability has not yet been studied in detail, let alone been engineered for industrial applications. In this work, we have evaluated the importance of disulfide bridges for the thermodynamic stability of Streptomyces coelicolor LPMO10C. Interestingly, this enzyme was found to retain 34% of its activity after 2-h incubation at 80°C while its apparent melting temperature (Tm) is only 51°C. When its three disulfide bridges were broken, however, irreversible unfolding occurred and no residual activity could be detected after a similar heat treatment. Based on these findings, additional disulfide bridges were introduced, as predicted by computational tools (MOdelling of DIsulfide bridges in Proteins (MODiP) and Disulfide by Design (DbD)) and using the most flexible positions in the structure as target sites. Four out of 16 variants displayed an improvement in Tm, ranging from 2 to 9°C. Combining the positive mutations yielded additional improvements (up to 19°C) but aberrant unfolding patterns became apparent in some cases, resulting in a diminished capacity for heat resistance. Nonetheless, the best variant, a combination of A143C-P183C and S73C-A115C, displayed a 12°C increase in Tm and was able to retain and was able to retain no less than 60% of its activity after heat treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Metal-free oxidative coupling of thiols to disulfides using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Efficient combination of nitro urea or guanidinium nitrate and silica sulfuric acid (SiO2OSO3H) as a new oxidizing system is able to oxidize a variety of aliphatic or aromatic thiols to the corresponding disulfides. The process reported here is operationally simple, environmentally benign and reactions have been ...

  16. Alpha-cyclodextrins reversibly capped with disulfide bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumprecht, Lukáš; Buděšínský, Miloš; Bouř, Petr; Kraus, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 10 (2010), s. 2254-2260 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cyclodextrin s * disulfide bond * dynamic covalent bond Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2010

  17. Computational design of disulfide cyclic peptide as potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of genomic and proteomic studies coupled with computational sciences could facilitate the discovery of various target proteins and potential inhibitor to be developed as drugs. Several researches by molecular docking method have been conducted to design disulfide cyclic peptide ligand as potential inhibitors ...

  18. Metal-free oxidative coupling of thiols to disulfides using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 4. Metal-free oxidative coupling of thiols to disulfides using guanidinium nitrate or nitro urea in the presence of silica sulfuric acid. Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani Mohsen Nikoorazm Hamid Goudarziafshar Alireza Shokr Hosein Almasi. Volume 123 Issue 4 ...

  19. Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis in hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, M; Cendek, B D; Neselioglu, S; Avsar, A F; Erel, O

    2015-10-01

    To determine serum thiol-disulfide homeostasis in hyperemesis gravidarum. Twenty-six pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum and 37 healthy pregnant women were included in the study. Native thiol, disulfide and total thiol concentrations were measured with a novel automated method. Serum disulfide levels were 15.68±4.41 μmol l(-1) in the hyperemesis gravidarum group and 13.49±2.81 μmol l(-1) in the healthy group (P=0.031). Native thiol levels were 213.86±26.29 μmol l(-1) in the hyperemesis gravidarum group and 232.18±19.21 μmol l(-1) in healthy group (P=0.004), and total thiol levels were 245.23±28.58 μmol l(-1) in the hyperemesis gravidarum group and 259.17±19.94 μmol l(-1) in the healthy group (P=0.038). Native and total thiol were deficient in the hyperemesis gravidarum group and this deficiency was correlated with the severity of the disease. The thiol-disulfide balance has shifted to the oxidative side. This metabolic disturbance may have a role in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  20. Impaired Thiol-Disulfide Balance in Acute Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgelier, Servet; Ergin, Merve; Demir, Lutfi Saltuk; Inkaya, Ahmet Cagkan; Aktug Demir, Nazlim; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-05-24

    The objective of this study was to examine a novel profile: thiol-disulfide homeostasis in acute brucellosis. The study included 90 patients with acute brucellosis, and 27 healthy controls. Thiol-disulfide profile tests were analyzed by a recently developed method, and ceruloplasmin levels were determined. Native thiol levels were 256.72 ± 48.20 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 461.13 ± 45.37 μmol/L in the healthy group, and total thiol levels were 298.58 ± 51.78 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 504.83 ± 51.05 μmol/L in the healthy group (p brucellosis than in the healthy controls (p brucellosis. The strong associations between thiol-disulfide parameters and a positive acute-phase reactant reflected the disruption of the balance between the antioxidant and oxidant systems. Since thiol groups act as anti-inflammatory mediators, the alteration in the thiol-disulfide homeostasis may be involved in brucellosis.

  1. Domain architecture of protein-disulfide isomerase facilitates its dual role as an oxidase and an isomerase in Ero1p-mediated disulfide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulp, M. S.; Frickel, E. M.; Ellgaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    catalytic (A) domain. The specific order of thioredoxin domains in PDI is important in establishing the asymmetry in the rate of oxidation of the two active sites thus allowing A and A', two thioredoxin domains that are similar in sequence and structure, to serve opposing functional roles as a disulfide...... isomerase and disulfide oxidase, respectively. These findings reveal how native disulfide folding is accomplished in the endoplasmic reticulum and provide a context for understanding the proliferation of PDI homologs with combinatorial arrangements of thioredoxin domains.......Native disulfide bond formation in eukaryotes is dependent on protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs, which contain varying combinations of catalytically active and inactive thioredoxin domains. However, the specific contribution of PDI to the formation of new disulfides versus...

  2. Dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride and diallylamin Co-polymer modified bio-film derived from palm dates for the adsorption of dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabli, Mahjoub; Saleh, Tawfik A; Sebeia, Nouha; Tka, Najeh; Khiari, Ramzi

    2017-10-31

    For the first time, co-polymer of dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride and diallylamin (PDDACD) was used to modify the films derived from the waste of palm date fruits, which were then investigated by the purification of colored aqueous solutions. The physico-chemical characteristics were identified using data color, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM features. The modified films were evaluated as adsorbents of Methylene Blue (MB), Direct Yellow 50 (DY50), Reactive Blue 198 (RB198) and Naphtol Blue Black (NBB). High retention capacities were achieved in the following order: The equilibrium da DY50 (14 mg g -1 ) adsorption data follows the pseudo second order model. It was fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Redushkevich equations, and the data best fit the Freundlich model indicating that the adsorption might occur in the heterogeneous adsorption sites. These results reveal that PDDACD modified films are valuable materials for the treatment of industrial wastewater. Moreover, the as-prepared adsorbent is economically viable and easily controllable for pollutant adsorption.

  3. Simultaneous Disulfide and Boronic Acid Ester Exchange in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemer, Sanna L.; Kristensen, Morten; Rasmussen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    combinatorial libraries (DCLs) ensuring thermodynamic control over the system. If more than one reversible reaction operates in a single dynamic combinatorial library, the complexity of the system increases dramatically, and so does its possible applications. One can imagine two reversible reactions...... that operate simultaneously or two reversible reactions that operate independently. Both these scenarios have advantages and disadvantages. In this contribution, we show how disulfide exchange and boronic ester transesterification can function simultaneous in dynamic combinatorial libraries under appropriate...... conditions. We describe the detailed studies necessary to establish suitable reaction conditions and highlight the analytical techniques appropriate to study this type of system....

  4. Defect-Mediated Lithium Adsorption and Diffusion on Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high capacities. In this work, first principle calculations based on spin density functional theory were performed to investigate adsorption and diffusion of lithium on monolayer MoS2 with defects, such as single- and few-atom vacancies, antisite, and grain boundary. The values of adsorption energies on the monolayer MoS2 with the defects were increased compared to those on the pristin...

  5. Conformational differences in protein disulfide linkages between normal hair and hair from subjects with trichothiodystrophy: a quantitative analysis by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlücker, S; Liang, C; Strehle, K R; DiGiovanna, J J; Kraemer, K H; Levin, I W

    2006-08-15

    Raman spectra of normal hair shafts and hair shafts from patients exhibiting trichothiodystrophy (TTD) were obtained using line focus laser illumination. Because hair from TTD patients has a significant decrease in the content of the sulfur-containing amino acids in comparison to normal hair, the 550-500 cm(-1) disulfide stretching mode region of the Raman spectrum was examined in detail. A quantitative spectral analysis demonstrates significant increases in the two energetically less favored gauche-gauche-trans (g-g-t) and trans-gauche-trans (t-g-t) forms. These observations suggest that the increased amounts of these less stable disulfide conformers are contributing factors to or associated with the hair brittleness observed for this congenital disorder. Structure-spectra correlations for the three dominant disulfide conformers are confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using modern density functional theory (DFT). Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry with Diselenides, Disulfides, Imines and Metal Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne

    The design and preparation of strong and selective artificial receptors, especially biomi-metic receptors that function in aqueous solution, has proved truly challenging. In this thesis it will be described how the strengths of dynamic combinatorial chemistry can be used to great advantage...... in this field. The aim of this project has therefore been to develop new ways of using dynamic combinatorial libraries for molecular recognition in aqueous media. The focus has been on using what has been learned from the well-established di-sulfide exchange chemistry to incorporate a new reaction into dynamic...... experimentally and theoretically and found to be unique in organoselenium chemistry by proceeding through a four-membered cyclic transition state following first-order kinetics. Subsequently, this thesis illustrates how an aliphatic diselenide could be used to catalyse the formation of a disulfide based dynamic...

  7. Reactive copolymers based on N-vinyl lactams with pyridyl disulfide side groups via RAFT polymerization and postmodification via thiol-disulfide exchange reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Huan; Rübsam, Kristin; Huang, Xiaobin; Jakob, Felix; Karperien, Marcel; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Pich, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a series of novel pyridyl disulfide (PDS)-functionalized statistical reactive copolymers that enable facile access to complex polymeric architectures through highly selective thiol-disulfide exchange reaction with thiol-containing ligands or proteins. Functional

  8. A structural model of pestivirus E(rns) based on disulfide bond connectivity and homology modeling reveals an extremely rare vicinal disulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, J.P.M.; Veelen, van P.A.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Ru, de A.H.; Meloen, R.H.; Hulst, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Erns is a pestivirus envelope glycoprotein and is the only known viral surface protein with RNase activity. Erns is a disulfide-linked homodimer of 100 kDa; it is found on the surface of pestivirus-infected cells and is secreted into the medium. In this study, the disulfide arrangement of the nine

  9. Diallyl sulfide as a potential dietary agent to reduce TNF-α- and histamine-induced proinflammatory responses in A7r5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Ying; Weng, Chia-Jui; Jhang, Jhih-Jia; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huang, Shang-Ming; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2014-05-01

    Oxidative stress-aggravated chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway are well documented; hence, treatment with antioxidants to ameliorate oxidative stress might be an effective strategy to reduce airway complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of diallyl sulfide (DAS), which is a natural organosulfuric compound found in garlic, on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)- or histamine-induced inflammation in rat aortic smooth muscle A7r5 cells. A7r5 cells were coincubated with DAS before exposure to TNF-α or histamine. DAS significantly blocked the accumulation of the nuclear p65 protein in TNF-α-induced A7r5 cells by attenuating the TNF-α receptor complex through the dissociation of the TNF receptor-associated death domain and TNF receptor-associated factor 2. Moreover, DAS inhibited histamine-induced inflammation by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by enhancing the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2-related antioxidative enzyme. DAS also inhibited inflammation by suppressing interleukin-1β and TNF-α through the inhibition of ROS-induced PI3K/Akt and the downstream NF-κB and activator protein-1. Our results demonstrate that DAS is a potential phytochemical to inhibit TNF-α- and histamine-induced inflammation, suggesting that DAS might be an effective dietary agent for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced inflammation of the airway. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain-Targeted Thiamine Disulfide Prodrugs of Ampakine Compound LCX001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ampakine compounds have been shown to reverse opiate-induced respiratory depression by activation of amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA glutamate receptors. However, their pharmacological exploitations are hindered by low blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability and limited brain distribution. Here, we explored whether thiamine disulfide prodrugs with the ability of “lock-in” can be used to solve these problems. A series of thiamine disulfide prodrugs 7a–7f of ampakine compound LCX001 was synthesized and evaluated. The trials in vitro showed that prodrugs 7e, 7d, 7f possessed a certain stability in plasma and quickly decomposed in brain homogenate by the disulfide reductase. In vivo, prodrug 7e decreased the peripheral distribution of LCX001 and significantly increased brain distribution of LCX001 after i.v. administration. This compound showed 2.23- and 3.29-fold greater increases in the AUC0-t and MRT0-t of LCX001 in brain, respectively, than did LCX001 itself. A preliminary pharmacodynamic study indicated that the required molar dose of prodrug 7e was only one eighth that of LCX001 required to achieve the same effect in mice. These findings provide an important reference to evaluate the clinical outlook of ampakine compounds.

  11. Alkali metal and alkali metal hydroxide intercalates of the layered transition metal disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Konuma, M.; Matsumoto, O.

    1981-01-01

    The intercalation reaction of some layered transition metal disulfides with alkali metals, alkali metal hydroxides, and tetraalkylammonium hydroxides were investigated. The alkali metal intercalates were prepared in the respective metal-hexamethylphosphoric triamide solutions in vaccuo, and the hydroxide intercalates in aqueous hydroxide solutions. According to the intercalation reaction, the c-lattice parameter was increased, and the increase indicated the expansion of the interlayer distance. In the case of alkali metal intercalates, the expansion of the interlayer distance increased continuously, corresponding to the atomic radius of the alkali metal. On the other hand, the hydroxide intercalates showed discrete expansion corresponding to the effective ionic radius of the intercalated cation. All intercalates of TaS 2 amd NbS 2 were superconductors. The expansion of the interlayer distance tended to increase the superconducting transition temperature in the intercalates of TaS 2 and vice versa in those of NbS 2 . (orig.)

  12. Structural Role of the Terminal Disulfide Bond in the Sweetness of Brazzein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittli, Sannali M.; Rao, Hongyu; Tonelli, Marco; Quijada, Jeniffer; Markley, John L.; Max, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Brazzein, a 54 residue sweet-tasting protein, is thought to participate in a multipoint binding interaction with the sweet taste receptor. Proposed sites for interaction with the receptor include 2 surface loops and the disulfide bond that connects the N- and C-termini. However, the importance of each site is not well understood. To characterize the structural role of the termini in the sweetness of brazzein, the position of the disulfide bond connecting the N- and C-termini was shifted by substituting K3-C4-K5 with C3-K4-R5. The apparent affinity and Vmax of the C3-K4-R5-brazzein (CKR-brazzein) variant were only modestly decreased compared with the wild-type (WT) brazzein. We determined a high-resolution structure of CKR-brazzein by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (backbone root mean square deviation of 0.39 Å). Comparing the structure of CKR-brazzein with that of WT-brazzein revealed that the terminal β-strands of the variant display extended β-structure and increased dynamics relative to WT-brazzein. These results support previous mutagenesis studies and further suggest that, whereas interactions involving the termini are necessary for full function of brazzein, the termini do not constitute the primary site of interaction between brazzein and the sweet taste receptor. PMID:21765060

  13. Effect of Doping on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction of Vanadium Disulfide Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanju; Pan, Hui; Kwok, Chi Tat; Wang, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    As cheap and abundant materials, transitional metal dichalcogenide monolayers have attracted increasing interests for their application as catalysts in hydrogen production. In this work, the hydrogen evolution reduction of doped vanadium disulfide monolayers is investigated based on first-principles calculations. We find that the doping elements and concentration affect strongly the catalytic ability of the monolayer. We show that Ti-doping can efficiently reduce the Gibbs free energy of hydrogen adsorption in a wide range of hydrogen coverage. The catalytic ability of the monolayer at high hydrogen coverage can be improved by low Ti-density doping, while that at low hydrogen coverage is enhanced by moderate Ti-density doping. We further show that it is much easier to substitute the Ti atom to the V atom in the vanadium disulfide (VS2) monolayer than other transitional metal atoms considered here due to its lowest and negative formation energy. It is expected that the Ti-doped VS2 monolayer may be applicable in water electrolysis with improved efficiency.

  14. Disulfide bond-conjugated dual PEGylated siRNAs for prolonged multiple gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zi-Xian; Hsiao, Chun-Wen; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2013-09-01

    Many human diseases carry at least two independent gene mutations, further exacerbating clinical disorders. In this work, disulfide bond-conjugated dual PEGylated siRNAs were synthesized, capable of specifically targeting and silencing two genes simultaneously. To achieve efficient delivery, the conjugated siRNAs were formulated with the cationic chitosan together with an anionic polymer, poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γPGA), to form a ternary complex. Experimental results indicate that the incorporated γPGA could significantly enhance their intracellular delivery efficiency, allowing for reduction of the disulfide bond-conjugated PEGylated siRNAs delivered to the PEGylated siRNAs in the reductive cytoplasmic environment. The PEGylated siRNAs could more significantly increase their enzymatic tolerability, effectively silence multiple genes, and prolong the duration of their gene silencing capability than the unmodified siRNAs could. Silencing of different genes simultaneously significantly contributes to the efforts to treat multiple gene disorders, and prolonged duration of gene silencing can reduce the need for frequent administrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Disulfide and Sulfenic Acid to Form the Strongly Nucleophilic Persulfide*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Lange, Mike; Bonanata, Jenner; Coitiño, E. Laura; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Filipovic, Milos R.; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized to modulate physiological processes in mammals through mechanisms that are currently under scrutiny. H2S is not able to react with reduced thiols (RSH). However, H2S, more precisely HS−, is able to react with oxidized thiol derivatives. We performed a systematic study of the reactivity of HS− toward symmetric low molecular weight disulfides (RSSR) and mixed albumin (HSA) disulfides. Correlations with thiol acidity and computational modeling showed that the reaction occurs through a concerted mechanism. Comparison with analogous reactions of thiolates indicated that the intrinsic reactivity of HS− is 1 order of magnitude lower than that of thiolates. In addition, H2S is able to react with sulfenic acids (RSOH). The rate constant of the reaction of H2S with the sulfenic acid formed in HSA was determined. Both reactions of H2S with disulfides and sulfenic acids yield persulfides (RSSH), recently identified post-translational modifications. The formation of this derivative in HSA was determined, and the rate constants of its reactions with a reporter disulfide and with peroxynitrite revealed that persulfides are better nucleophiles than thiols, which is consistent with the α effect. Experiments with cells in culture showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide enhanced the formation of persulfides. Biological implications are discussed. Our results give light on the mechanisms of persulfide formation and provide quantitative evidence for the high nucleophilicity of these novel derivatives, setting the stage for understanding the contribution of the reactions of H2S with oxidized thiol derivatives to H2S effector processes. PMID:26269587

  16. Solubilization and folding of a fully active recombinant Gaussia luciferase with native disulfide bonds by using a SEP-Tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayaka, Tharangani; Tawa, Minako; Nakamura, Takashi; Sohya, Shihori; Kuwajima, Kunihiro; Yohda, Masafumi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) is the smallest known bioluminescent protein and is attracting much attention as a potential reporter protein. However, its 10 disulfide bond forming cysteines have hampered the efficient production of recombinant GLuc and thus limited its use in bio-imaging application. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of a short solubility enhancement peptide tag (SEP-Tag) to the C-terminus of GLuc (GLuc-C9D) significantly increased the fraction of soluble protein at a standard expression temperature. The expression time was much shorter, and the final yield of GLuc-C9D was significantly higher than with our previous pCold expression system. Reversed phase HPLC indicated that the GLuc-C9D variant folded with a single disulfide bond pattern after proper oxidization. Further, the thermal denaturation of GLuc-C9D was completely reversible, and its secondary structure content remained unchanged until 40°C as assessed by CD spectroscopy. The (1)H-NMR spectrum of GLuc indicated sharp well dispersed peaks typical for natively folded proteins. GLuc-C9D bioluminescence activity was strong and fully retained even after incubation at high temperatures. These results suggest that solubilization using SEP-Tags can be useful for producing large quantities of proteins containing multiple disulfide bonds. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Microwave-assisted acid and base hydrolysis of intact proteins containing disulfide bonds for protein sequence analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiz, Bela; Li, Liang

    2010-09-01

    Controlled hydrolysis of proteins to generate peptide ladders combined with mass spectrometric analysis of the resultant peptides can be used for protein sequencing. In this paper, two methods of improving the microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis process are described to enable rapid sequencing of proteins containing disulfide bonds and increase sequence coverage, respectively. It was demonstrated that proteins containing disulfide bonds could be sequenced by MS analysis by first performing hydrolysis for less than 2 min, followed by 1 h of reduction to release the peptides originally linked by disulfide bonds. It was shown that a strong base could be used as a catalyst for microwave-assisted protein hydrolysis, producing complementary sequence information to that generated by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. However, using either acid or base hydrolysis, amide bond breakages in small regions of the polypeptide chains of the model proteins (e.g., cytochrome c and lysozyme) were not detected. Dynamic light scattering measurement of the proteins solubilized in an acid or base indicated that protein-protein interaction or aggregation was not the cause of the failure to hydrolyze certain amide bonds. It was speculated that there were some unknown local structures that might play a role in preventing an acid or base from reacting with the peptide bonds therein. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ TEM observations of the lithiation of molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janish, Matthew T.; Carter, C. Barry

    2015-01-01

    The lithiation of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has been directly studied in situ in the TEM by observing specimens with the viewing direction parallel to the basal planes. The MoS 2 lamella was characterized by bright-field imaging during the lithiation, and both selected-area diffraction and high-resolution imaging before and after. An overall expansion of ∼5% along the c-direction was observed with concurrent local contraction. The contraction can be related to the expulsion of Mo as Li reduces it to form Li 2 S

  19. Complete Mapping of Complex Disulfide Patterns with Closely-Spaced Cysteines by In-Source Reduction and Data-Dependent Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of disulfide bonds is an essential part of protein characterization to ensure correct cysteine pairings. For this, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used technique due to fast and accurate characterization. However, MS-based disulfide mapping is challenged when multiple disulfide...... of individual disulfide bonds could be done in species containing closely spaced disulfide bonds. The strength of this methodology was demonstrated by complete mapping of all four disulfide bonds in lysozyme and all 17 disulfide bonds in human serum albumin, including nested disulfide bonds and motifs...

  20. The Chemistry of Alk-1-yn-1-yl DisulfidesA Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and the properties of the elusive alk-1-yn-1-yl disulfides are reviewed, including the most recent quantum chemical findings with regard to their reactivity.......The preparation and the properties of the elusive alk-1-yn-1-yl disulfides are reviewed, including the most recent quantum chemical findings with regard to their reactivity....

  1. Inhibition of carbon disulfide on bio-desulfurization in the process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological desulfurization is a novel technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from some biogas or sour gas, in which there are always a certain amounts of carbon disulfide together with much hydrogen sulfide. Nowadays, carbon disulfide is found to have negative effect on the biological desulfurization, but seldom ...

  2. Selective inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinases by dinucleoside disulfide mimics of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Sham, Yuk Yin; Chen, Liqiang; Felczak, Krzysztof; Bennett, Eric; Wilson, Daniel; Aldrich, Courtney; Yu, Jose S; Cappellacci, Loredana; Franchetti, Palmarisa; Grifantini, Mario; Mazzola, Francesca; Di Stefano, Michele; Magni, Giulio; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W

    2009-08-01

    Diadenosine disulfide (5) was reported to inhibit NAD kinase from Listeria monocytogenes and the crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex has been solved. We have synthesized tiazofurin adenosine disulfide (4) and the disulfide 5, and found that these compounds were moderate inhibitors of human NAD kinase (IC(50)=110 microM and IC(50)=87 microM, respectively) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD kinase (IC(50)=80 microM and IC(50)=45 microM, respectively). We also found that NAD mimics with a short disulfide (-S-S-) moiety were able to bind in the folded (compact) conformation but not in the common extended conformation, which requires the presence of a longer pyrophosphate (-O-P-O-P-O-) linkage. Since majority of NAD-dependent enzymes bind NAD in the extended conformation, selective inhibition of NAD kinases by disulfide analogues has been observed. Introduction of bromine at the C8 of the adenine ring restricted the adenosine moiety of diadenosine disulfides to the syn conformation making it even more compact. The 8-bromoadenosine adenosine disulfide (14) and its di(8-bromoadenosine) analogue (15) were found to be the most potent inhibitors of human (IC(50)=6 microM) and mycobacterium NAD kinase (IC(50)=14-19 microM reported so far. None of the disulfide analogues showed inhibition of lactate-, and inosine monophosphate-dehydrogenase (IMPDH), enzymes that bind NAD in the extended conformation.

  3. Identification of thioredoxin target disulfides in proteins released from barley aleurone layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, J.; Yang, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxins are ubiquitous disulfide reductases involved in a wide range of cellular processes including DNA synthesis, oxidative stress response and apoptosis. In cereal seeds thioredoxins are proposed to facilitate the germination process by reducing disulfide bonds in storage proteins and other...

  4. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Aspects of Cellular Thiol-Disulfide Redox Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Hansen, Rosa Erritzøe; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    that affect the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange and stability of disulfide bonds are discussed within the framework of the underlying chemical foundations. This includes the effect of thiol acidity (pKa), the local electrostatic environment, molecular strain and entropy. Even though a thiol...

  5. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a {beta}-turn and an {alpha}-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the {alpha}-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences.

  6. Folding and activity of hybrid sequence, disulfide-stabilized peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, J.H.B.; Storrs, R.W.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Peptides have been synthesized that have hybrid sequences, partially derived from the bee venom peptide apamin and partially from the S peptide of ribonuclease A. The hybrid peptides were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy to fold, forming the same disulfides and basic three-dimensional structure as native apamin, containing a β-turn and an α-helix. These hybrids were active in complementing S protein, reactivating nuclease activity. In addition, the hybrid peptide was effective in inducing antibodies that cross-react with the RNase, without conjugation to a carrier protein. The stability of the folded structure of this peptide suggests that it should be possible to elicit antibodies that will react not only with a specific sequence, but also with a specific secondary structure. Hybrid sequence peptides also provide opportunities to study separately nucleation and propagation steps in formation of secondary structure. The authors show that in S peptide the α-helix does not end abruptly but rather terminates gradually over four or five residues. In general, these hybrid sequence peptides, which fold predictably because of disulfide bond formation, can provide opportunities for examining structure - function relationships for many biologically active sequences

  7. Efficient on-column conversion of IgG1 trisulfide linkages to native disulfides in tandem with Protein A affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Hiromasa; Wen, Dingy; Zang, Li; Houde, Damian; Pepinsky, R Blake; Evans, David R H

    2010-08-06

    Protein trisulfide linkages are generated by the post-translational insertion of a sulfur atom into a disulfide bond. Molecular heterogeneity was detected in a recombinant IgG(1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and attributed to the presence of a protein trisulfide moiety. The predominant site of trisulfide modification was the bond between the heavy and light chains. The trisulfide was eliminated during purification of the IgG(1) mAb via a cysteine wash step incorporated into Protein A affinity column chromatography. Analysis of the cysteine-treated mAb by electrophoresis and peptide mapping indicated that the trisulfide linkages were efficiently converted to intact disulfide bonds (13% trisulfide decreased consistently to 1% or less) without disulfide scrambling or an increase in free sulfhydryls. The on-column trisulfide conversion caused no change in protein folding detectable by hydrogen/deuterium exchange or differential scanning calorimetry. Consistent with this, binding of the mAb to its antigen in vitro was insensitive to the presence of the trisulfide modification and to its removal by the on-column cysteine treatment. Similar, high efficiency trisulfide conversion was achieved for a second IgG(1) mAb using the column wash strategy (at least 7% trisulfide decreased to 1% or less). Therefore, trisulfide/disulfide heterogeneity can be eliminated from IgG(1) molecules via a convenient and inexpensive procedure compatible with routine Protein A affinity capture. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Air oxidation method employed for the disulfide bond formation of natural and synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Amodeo, Pietro; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-08-01

    Among the available protocols, chemically driven approaches to oxidize cysteine may not be required for molecules that, under the native-like conditions, naturally fold in conformations ensuring an effective pairing of the right disulfide bridge pattern. In this contest, we successfully prepared the distinctin, a natural heterodimeric peptide, and some synthetic cyclic peptides that are inhibitors of the CXCR4 receptor. In the first case, the air oxidation reaction allowed to connect two peptide chains via disulfide bridge, while in the second case allowed the cyclization of rationally designed peptides by an intramolecular disulfide bridge. Computational approaches helped to either drive de-novo design or suggest structural modifications and optimal oxidization protocols for disulfide-containing molecules. They are able to both predict and to rationalize the propensity of molecules to spontaneously fold in suitable conformations to achieve the right disulfide bridges.

  9. The influence of zinc(II) on thioredoxin/glutathione disulfide exchange: QM/MM studies to explore how zinc(II) accelerates exchange in higher dielectric environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Roby; Bruce, Mitchell R M; Bruce, Alice E; Amar, François G

    2015-08-01

    QM/MM studies were performed to explore the energetics of exchange reactions of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and the active site of thioredoxin [Cys32-Gly33-Pro34-Cys35] with and without zinc(II), in vacuum and solvated models. The activation energy for exchange, in the absence of zinc, is 29.7 kcal mol(-1) for the solvated model. This is 3.3 kcal mol(-1) higher than the activation energy for exchange in the gas phase, due to ground state stabilization of the active site Cys-32 thiolate in a polar environment. In the presence of zinc, the activation energy for exchange is 4.9 kcal mol(-1) lower than in the absence of zinc (solvated models). The decrease in activation energy is attributed to stabilization of the charge-separated transition state, which has a 4-centered, cyclic arrangement of Zn-S-S-S with an estimated dipole moment of 4.2 D. A difference of 4.9 kcal mol(-1) in activation energy would translate to an increase in rate by a factor of about 4000 for zinc-assisted thiol-disulfide exchange. The calculations are consistent with previously reported experimental results, which indicate that metal-thiolate, disulfide exchange rates increase as a function of solvent dielectric. This trend is opposite to that observed for the influence of the dielectric environment on the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange in the absence of metal. The results suggest a dynamic role for zinc in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions, involving accessible cysteine sites on proteins, which may contribute to redox regulation and mechanistic pathways during oxidative stress.

  10. Cystamine-mediated inhibition of protein disulfide isomerase triggers aggregation of misfolded orexin-A in the Golgi apparatus and prevents extracellular secretion of orexin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Issei; Nobunaga, Mizuki; Seki, Takahiro; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2017-07-22

    Orexins (orexin-A and orexin-B) are neuropeptides that are reduced in narcolepsy, a sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden sleep attacks and cataplexy. However, it remains unclear how orexins in the brain and orexin neurons are reduced in narcolepsy. Orexin-A has two closely located intramolecular disulfide bonds and is prone to misfolding due to the formation of incorrect disulfide bonds. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) possesses disulfide interchange activity. PDI can modify misfolded orexin-A to its native form by rearrangement of two disulfide bonds. We have previously demonstrated that sleep deprivation and a high fat diet increase nitric oxide in the brain. This increase triggers S-nitrosation and inactivation of PDI, leading to aggregation of orexin-A and reduction of orexin neurons. However, the relationship between PDI inactivation and loss of orexin neurons has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we used a PDI inhibitor, cystamine, to elucidate the precise molecular mechanism by which PDI inhibition reduces the number of orexin neurons. In rat hypothalamic slice cultures, cystamine induced selective depletion of orexin-A, but not orexin-B and melanin-concentrating hormone. Moreover, cystamine triggered aggregation of orexin-A, but not orexin-B in the Golgi apparatus of hypothalamic slice cultures and in vivo mouse brains. However, cystamine did not induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and an ER stress inducer did not trigger aggregation of orexin-A in slice cultures. Finally, we demonstrated that cystamine significantly decreased extracellular secretion of orexin-A in AD293 cells overexpressing prepro-orexin. These findings suggest that cystamine-induced PDI inhibition induces selective depletion, aggregation in the Golgi apparatus and impaired secretion of orexin-A. These effects may represent an initial step in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Molybdenum Disulfide as a Protection Layer and Catalyst for Gallium Indium Phosphide Solar Water Splitting Photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Reuben J; Benck, Jesse D; Young, James L; Hahn, Christopher; Deutsch, Todd G; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2016-06-02

    Gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) is a semiconductor with promising optical and electronic properties for solar water splitting, but its surface stability is problematic as it undergoes significant chemical and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials are promising to both protect GaInP2 and to improve catalysis because MoS2 is resistant to corrosion and also possesses high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, we demonstrate that GaInP2 photocathodes coated with thin MoS2 surface protecting layers exhibit excellent activity and stability for solar hydrogen production, with no loss in performance (photocurrent onset potential, fill factor, and light-limited current density) after 60 h of operation. This represents a 500-fold increase in stability compared to bare p-GaInP2 samples tested in identical conditions.

  12. Molybdenum Disulfide as a Protection Layer and Catalyst for Gallium Indium Phosphide Solar Water Splitting Photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, Reuben J.; Benck, Jesse D.; Young, James L.; Hahn, Christopher; Deutsch, Todd G.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-06-02

    Gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) is a semiconductor with promising optical and electronic properties for solar water splitting, but its surface stability is problematic as it undergoes significant chemical and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanomaterials are promising to both protect GaInP2 and to improve catalysis since MoS2 is resistant to corrosion and also possesses high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, we demonstrate that GaInP2 photocathodes coated with thin MoS2 surface protecting layers exhibit excellent activity and stability for solar hydrogen production, with no loss in performance (photocurrent onset potential, fill factor, and light limited current density) after 60 hours of operation. This represents a five-hundred fold increase in stability compared to bare p-GaInP2 samples tested in identical conditions.

  13. Simultaneous Disulfide and Boronic Acid Ester Exchange in Dynamic Combinatorial Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna L. Diemer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has emerged as a promising tool for the discovery of complex receptors in supramolecular chemistry. At the heart of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are the reversible reactions that enable the exchange of building blocks between library members in dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs ensuring thermodynamic control over the system. If more than one reversible reaction operates in a single dynamic combinatorial library, the complexity of the system increases dramatically, and so does its possible applications. One can imagine two reversible reactions that operate simultaneously or two reversible reactions that operate independently. Both these scenarios have advantages and disadvantages. In this contribution, we show how disulfide exchange and boronic ester transesterification can function simultaneous in dynamic combinatorial libraries under appropriate conditions. We describe the detailed studies necessary to establish suitable reaction conditions and highlight the analytical techniques appropriate to study this type of system.

  14. In-Depth Characterization of Protein Disulfide Bonds by Online Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemistry-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzar, Linda; Nicolardi, Simone; Rutten, Julie W.; Oberstein, Saskia A. J. Lesnik; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are an important class of protein post-translational modifications, yet this structurally crucial modification type is commonly overlooked in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approaches. Recently, the benefits of online electrochemistry-assisted reduction of protein S-S bonds prior to MS analysis were exemplified by successful characterization of disulfide bonds in peptides and small proteins. In the current study, we have combined liquid chromatography (LC) with electrochemistry (EC) and mass analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS in an online LC-EC-MS platform to characterize protein disulfide bonds in a bottom-up proteomics workflow. A key advantage of a LC-based strategy is the use of the retention time in identifying both intra- and interpeptide disulfide bonds. This is demonstrated by performing two sequential analyses of a certain protein digest, once without and once with electrochemical reduction. In this way, the "parent" disulfide-linked peptide detected in the first run has a retention time-based correlation with the EC-reduced peptides detected in the second run, thus simplifying disulfide bond mapping. Using this platform, both inter- and intra-disulfide-linked peptides were characterized in two different proteins, ß-lactoglobulin and ribonuclease B. In order to prevent disulfide reshuffling during the digestion process, proteins were digested at a relatively low pH, using (a combination of) the high specificity proteases trypsin and Glu-C. With this approach, disulfide bonds in ß-lactoglobulin and ribonuclease B were comprehensively identified and localized, showing that online LC-EC-MS is a useful tool for the characterization of protein disulfide bonds.

  15. Cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates natriuretic peptide generation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchong Pan

    Full Text Available The family of natriuretic peptides (NPs, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP, and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP, exert important and diverse actions for cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. The autocrine and paracrine functions of the NPs are primarily mediated through the cellular membrane bound guanylyl cyclase-linked receptors GC-A (NPR-A and GC-B (NPR-B. As the ligands and receptors each contain disulfide bonds, a regulatory role for the cell surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI was investigated.We utilized complementary in vitro and in vivo models to determine the potential role of PDI in regulating the ability of the NPs to generate its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate.Inhibition of PDI attenuated the ability of ANP, BNP and CNP to generate cGMP in human mesangial cells (HMCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs, each of which were shown to express PDI. In LLC-PK1 cells, where PDI expression was undetectable by immunoblotting, PDI inhibition had a minimal effect on cGMP generation. Addition of PDI to cultured LLC-PK1 cells increased intracellular cGMP generation mediated by ANP. Inhibition of PDI in vivo attenuated NP-mediated generation of cGMP by ANP. Surface Plasmon Resonance demonstrated modest and differential binding of the natriuretic peptides with immobilized PDI in a cell free system. However, PDI was shown to co-localize on the surface of cells with GC-A and GC-B by co-immunoprecpitation and immunohistochemistry.These data demonstrate for the first time that cell surface PDI expression and function regulate the capacity of natriuretic peptides to generate cGMP through interaction with their receptors.

  16. Tuning thermal conductivity in molybdenum disulfide by electrochemical intercalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gaohua; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qiye; Zhang, Ruigang; Li, Dongyao; Banerjee, Debasish; Cahill, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) materials is of interest for energy storage, nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Here, we report that the thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide can be modified by electrochemical intercalation. We observe distinct behaviour for thin films with vertically aligned basal planes and natural bulk crystals with basal planes aligned parallel to the surface. The thermal conductivity is measured as a function of the degree of lithiation, using time-domain thermoreflectance. The change of thermal conductivity correlates with the lithiation-induced structural and compositional disorder. We further show that the ratio of the in-plane to through-plane thermal conductivity of bulk crystal is enhanced by the disorder. These results suggest that stacking disorder and mixture of phases is an effective mechanism to modify the anisotropic thermal conductivity of 2D materials. PMID:27767030

  17. Contact-induced doping in aluminum-contacted molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Arai, Kensuke; Iwabuchi, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    The interface between two-dimensional semiconductors and metal contacts is an important topic of research of nanoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional semiconducting materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). We report transport properties of thin MoS2 flakes in a field-effect transistor geometry with Ti/Au and Al contacts. In contrast to widely used Ti/Au contacts, the conductance of flakes with Al contacts exhibits a smaller gate-voltage dependence, which is consistent with a substantial electron doping effect of the Al contacts. The temperature dependence of two-terminal conductance for the Al contacts is also considerably smaller than for the Ti/Au contacts, in which thermionic emission and thermally assisted tunneling play a dominant role. This result is explained in terms of the assumption that the carrier injection mechanism at an Al contact is dominated by tunneling that is not thermally activated.

  18. Tuning thermal conductivity in molybdenum disulfide by electrochemical intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gaohua; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qiye; Zhang, Ruigang; Li, Dongyao; Banerjee, Debasish; Cahill, David G

    2016-10-21

    Thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) materials is of interest for energy storage, nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Here, we report that the thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide can be modified by electrochemical intercalation. We observe distinct behaviour for thin films with vertically aligned basal planes and natural bulk crystals with basal planes aligned parallel to the surface. The thermal conductivity is measured as a function of the degree of lithiation, using time-domain thermoreflectance. The change of thermal conductivity correlates with the lithiation-induced structural and compositional disorder. We further show that the ratio of the in-plane to through-plane thermal conductivity of bulk crystal is enhanced by the disorder. These results suggest that stacking disorder and mixture of phases is an effective mechanism to modify the anisotropic thermal conductivity of 2D materials.

  19. The multisubunit structure of synaptophysin. Relationship between disulfide bonding and homo-oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P A; Südhof, T C

    1990-05-25

    Synaptophysin, a major membrane protein of synaptic vesicles, contains four transmembrane regions and two intravesicular loops. Synaptophysin monomers associate into homopolymers that have the potential to form channels in the synaptic vesicle membrane. Here we show that in native synaptophysin, homopolymers are linked by noncovalent forces. The molecule contains unstable intramolecular disulfide bonds that undergo disulfide exchange during solubilization, thereby covalently cross-linking neighboring synaptophysin molecules. The locations of the intramolecular disulfide bonds in synaptophysin were determined, revealing that each of the two intravesicular loops of synaptophysin is circularized by a single disulfide bond. Cross-linking of synaptophysin by disulfide bonds can be triggered in synaptic vesicles and in intact cells by a cycle of reduction and oxidation, suggesting that native synaptophysin is a homomultimer in situ. In addition, chemical cross-linking of native synaptophysin demonstrates that a low molecular weight protein is specifically associated with synaptophysin complexes and is lost upon reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bonds. These data suggest that native synaptophysin forms a noncovalent homomultimeric complex whose structure and interaction with other proteins are dependent on the integrity of its intramolecular disulfide bonds and phospholipid environment.

  20. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser108/121, HB-EGF-Cys/Ser116/132, and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser134/143) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with Mr of 6.5, 21 and 24kDa were observed from lys...

  1. Protein disulfide bond generation in Escherichia coli DsbB–DsbA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Kenji, E-mail: inaba-k@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of the DsbB–DsbA–ubiquinone ternary complex has revealed a mechanism of protein disulfide bond generation in Escherichia coli. Protein disulfide bond formation is catalyzed by a series of Dsb enzymes present in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. The crystal structure of the DsbB–DsbA–ubiquinone ternary complex provided important insights into mechanisms of the de novo disulfide bond generation cooperated by DsbB and ubiquinone and of the disulfide bond shuttle from DsbB to DsbA. The structural basis for prevention of the crosstalk between the DsbA–DsbB oxidative and the DsbC–DsbD reductive pathways has also been proposed.

  2. Protein disulfide bond generation in Escherichia coli DsbB–DsbA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the DsbB–DsbA–ubiquinone ternary complex has revealed a mechanism of protein disulfide bond generation in Escherichia coli. Protein disulfide bond formation is catalyzed by a series of Dsb enzymes present in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. The crystal structure of the DsbB–DsbA–ubiquinone ternary complex provided important insights into mechanisms of the de novo disulfide bond generation cooperated by DsbB and ubiquinone and of the disulfide bond shuttle from DsbB to DsbA. The structural basis for prevention of the crosstalk between the DsbA–DsbB oxidative and the DsbC–DsbD reductive pathways has also been proposed

  3. The Mitochondrial Disulfide Relay System: Roles in Oxidative Protein Folding and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disulfide bond formation drives protein import of most proteins of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. The main components of this disulfide relay machinery are the oxidoreductase Mia40 and the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1/ALR. Their precise functions have been elucidated in molecular detail for the yeast and human enzymes in vitro and in intact cells. However, we still lack knowledge on how Mia40 and Erv1/ALR impact cellular and organism physiology and whether they have functions beyond their role in disulfide bond formation. Here we summarize the principles of oxidation-dependent protein import mediated by the mitochondrial disulfide relay. We proceed by discussing recently described functions of Mia40 in the hypoxia response and of ALR in influencing mitochondrial morphology and its importance for tissue development and embryogenesis. We also include a discussion of the still mysterious function of Erv1/ALR in liver regeneration.

  4. Edge eigen-stress and eigen-displacement of armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Quan; Li, Xi [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Volinsky, Alex A., E-mail: volinsky@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Su, Yanjing, E-mail: yjsu@ustb.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory for Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-05-10

    Edge effects on mechanical properties of armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons were investigated using first principles calculations. The edge eigen-stress model was applied to explain the relaxation process of forming molybdenum disulfide nanoribbon. Edge effects on surface atoms fluctuation degree were obtained from each fully relaxed nanoribbon with different width. Changes of the relaxed armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons structure can be expressed using hexagonal perimeters pattern. Based on the thickness change, relaxed armchair molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons tensile/compression tests were simulated, providing intrinsic edge elastic parameters, such as eigen-stress, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. - Highlights: • Edge effects on mechanical properties of armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons were investigated. • Structure changes of different width armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons were obtained. • Tensile/compressive tests were conducted to determine elastic constants. • Mechanical properties are compared for two and three dimensional conditions.

  5. Influence of liposome forms of the rhenium compounds and cis-platin on thiol-disulfide coefficient in the rats’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Klenina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-disulfide coefficient (TDC and its different modifications in model in vivo were studied. Introduction of the liposome forms of cluster rhenium compounds with organic ligands (CROL leads to both TDC increasing and to the constancy of the TDC. Thus, CROLs aren’t toxic agents and some compounds could mobilize organisms’ thiol defence system. Liposome form of cis-platin leads to the TDC decreasing. Important CROL capacities for its future medical treatment practice were shown.

  6. Characterization of Disulfide-Linked Peptides Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Automated Data Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan; McGuinness, Kenneth N.; Crespo, Alejandro; Zhong, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation is critical for maintaining structure stability and function of many peptides and proteins. Mass spectrometry has become an important tool for the elucidation of molecular connectivity. However, the interpretation of the tandem mass spectral data of disulfide-linked peptides has been a major challenge due to the lack of appropriate tools. Developing proper data analysis software is essential to quickly characterize disulfide-linked peptides. A thorough and in-depth understanding of how disulfide-linked peptides fragment in mass spectrometer is a key in developing software to interpret the tandem mass spectra of these peptides. Two model peptides with inter- and intra-chain disulfide linkages were used to study fragmentation behavior in both collisional-activated dissociation (CAD) and electron-based dissociation (ExD) experiments. Fragments generated from CAD and ExD can be categorized into three major types, which result from different S-S and C-S bond cleavage patterns. DiSulFinder is a computer algorithm that was newly developed based on the fragmentation observed in these peptides. The software is vendor neutral and capable of quickly and accurately identifying a variety of fragments generated from disulfide-linked peptides. DiSulFinder identifies peptide backbone fragments with S-S and C-S bond cleavages and, more importantly, can also identify fragments with the S-S bond still intact to aid disulfide linkage determination. With the assistance of this software, more comprehensive disulfide connectivity characterization can be achieved. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Site‐Selective Disulfide Modification of Proteins: Expanding Diversity beyond the Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Wang, Tao; Weil, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthetic transformation of polypeptides with molecular accuracy holds great promise for providing functional and structural diversity beyond the proteome. Consequently, the last decade has seen an exponential growth of site‐directed chemistry to install additional features into peptides and proteins even inside living cells. The disulfide rebridging strategy has emerged as a powerful tool for site‐selective modifications since most proteins contain disulfide bonds. In this Revie...

  8. Disulfide-bond scrambling promotes amorphous aggregates in lysozyme and bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Dutta, Colina; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-03-12

    Disulfide bonds are naturally formed in more than 50% of amyloidogenic proteins, but the exact role of disulfide bonds in protein aggregation is still not well-understood. The intracellular reducing agents and/or improper use of antioxidants in extracellular environment can break proteins disulfide bonds, making them unstable and prone to misfolding and aggregation. In this study, we report the effect of disulfide-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) on hen egg white lysozyme (lysozyme) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregation at pH 7.2 and 37 °C. BSA and lysozyme proteins treated with disulfide-reducing agents form very distinct amorphous aggregates as observed by scanning electron microscope. However, proteins with intact disulfide bonds were stable and did not aggregate over time. BSA and lysozyme aggregates show unique but measurable differences in 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) and 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) fluorescence, suggesting a loose and flexible aggregate structure for lysozyme but a more compact aggregate structure for BSA. Scrambled disulfide-bonded protein aggregates were observed by nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for both proteins. Similar amorphous aggregates were also generated using a nonthiol-based reducing agent, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP), at pH 7.2 and 37 °C. In summary, formation of distinct amorphous aggregates by disulfide-reduced BSA and lysozyme suggests an alternate pathway for protein aggregation that may be relevant to several proteins.

  9. Bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics, a novel subgroup of lantibiotics featured by an indispensable disulfide bridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides with potent antimicrobial activities. Discovery of novel lantibiotics has been greatly accelerated with the soaring release of genomic information of microorganisms. As a unique class II lantibiotic, bovicin HJ50 is produced by Streptococcus bovis HJ50 and contains one rare disulfide bridge. By using its precursor BovA as a drive sequence, 16 BovA-like peptides were revealed in a wide variety of species. From them, three representative novel lan loci from Clostridium perfringens D str. JGS1721, Bacillus cereus As 1.348 and B. thuringiensis As 1.013 were identified by PCR screening. The corresponding mature lantibiotics designated perecin, cerecin and thuricin were obtained and structurally elucidated to be bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics especially by containing a conserved disulfide bridge. The disulfide bridge was substantiated to be essential for the function of bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics as its disruption eliminated their antimicrobial activities. Further analysis indicated that the disulfide bridge played a crucial role in maintaining the hydrophobicity of bovicin HJ50, which might facilitate it to exert antimicrobial function. This study unveiled a novel subgroup of disulfide-containing lantibiotics from bacteria of different niches and further demonstrated the indispensable role of disulfide bridge in these novel bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics.

  10. Optical Controlled Terahertz Modulator Based on Tungsten Disulfide Nanosheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiyuan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Lv, Xiaoqin; Su, Yue; Yang, Yuping; Liu, Jian; Chen, Hongda

    2017-11-01

    The terahertz (THz) modulator, which will be applied in next-generation wireless communication, is a key device in a THz communication system. Current THz modulators based on traditional semiconductors and metamaterials have limited modulation depth or modulation range. Therefore, a THz modulator based on annealed tungsten disulfide (WS 2 , p-type) and high-resistivity silicon (n-type) is demonstrated. Pumped by a laser, the modulator presents a laser power-dependent modulation effect. Ranging from 0.25 to 2 THz, the modulation depth reaches 99% when the pumping laser is 2.59 W/cm 2 . The modulator works because the p-n heterojunction can separate and limit carriers to change the conductivity of the device, which results in a modulation of the THz wave. The wide band gap of WS 2 can promote the separation and limitation of carriers to obtain a larger modulation depth, which provides a new direction for choosing new materials and new structures to fabricate a better THz modulator.

  11. Ferroelectric memory based on molybdenum disulfide and ferroelectric hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wui Chung; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Zhu, Wenjuan

    Recently, ferroelectric hafnium oxide (HfO2) was discovered as a new type of ferroelectric material with the advantages of high coercive field, excellent scalability (down to 2.5 nm), and good compatibility with CMOS processing. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, 2D ferroelectric memories with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the channel material and aluminum doped HfO2 as the ferroelectric gate dielectric. A 16 nm thick layer of HfO2, doped with 5.26% aluminum, was deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD), then subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C, and the polarization-voltage characteristics of the resulting metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors were measured, showing a remnant polarization of 0.6 μC/cm2. Ferroelectric memories with embedded ferroelectric hafnium oxide stacks and monolayer MoS2 were fabricated. The transfer characteristics after program and erase pulses revealed a clear ferroelectric memory window. In addition, endurance (up to 10,000 cycles) of the devices were tested and effects associated with ferroelectric materials, such as the wake-up effect and polarization fatigue, were observed. This research can potentially lead to advances of 2D materials in low-power logic and memory applications.

  12. Bright monolayer tungsten disulfide via exciton and trion chemical modulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Yu, Xuechao; Li, Jiewei; Liang, Houkun; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Wei; Wang, Qi Jie

    2018-04-05

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with exceptional electrical and optical properties have drawn tremendous attention for use in novel optoelectronic applications as photodetectors, transistors, light emitters, etc. However, electron bound trions formed through the combination of neutral excitons and electrons significantly decrease the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of TMDCs. In this study, we report a simple yet efficient chemical doping strategy to modulate the optical properties of monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2). As a demonstrative example, a chemically doped monolayer of WS2 exhibits remarkable PL enhancement of about one order of magnitude higher than that of pristine WS2. This outstanding PL enhancement is attributed to the fact that excess electrons, which promote the formation of electron-bound trions, are reduced in number through charge transfer from WS2 to the chemical dopant. Furthermore, an improved degree of circular polarization from ∼9.0% to ∼41.5% was also observed in the chemically doped WS2 monolayer. This work describes a feasible strategy to manipulate the optical properties of TMDCs via exciton modulation, making TMDCs promising candidates for versatile semiconductor-based photonic devices.

  13. Tension-Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction on Vanadium Disulfide Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Water electrolysis is an efficient way for hydrogen production. Finding efficient, cheap, and eco-friendly electrocatalysts is essential to the development of this technology. In the work, we present a first-principles study on the effects of tension on the hydrogen evolution reaction of a novel electrocatalyst, vanadium disulfide (VS2) monolayer. Two electrocatalytic processes, individual and collective processes, are investigated. We show that the catalytic ability of VS2 monolayer at higher hydrogen coverage can be efficiently improved by escalating tension. We find that the individual process is easier to occur in a wide range of hydrogen coverage and the collective process is possible at a certain hydrogen coverage under the same tension. The best hydrogen evolution reaction with near-zero Gibbs free energy can be achieved by tuning tension. We further show that the change of catalytic activity with tension and hydrogen coverage is induced by the change of free carrier density around the Fermi level, that is, higher carrier density, better catalytic performance. It is expected that tension can be a simple way to improve the catalytic activity, leading to the design of novel electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen production from water electrolysis.

  14. Toward barrier free contact to molybdenum disulfide using graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Yang, Sen; Zhu, Enbo; He, Qiyuan; Ding, Mengning; Li, Dehui; Guo, Jian; Weiss, Nathan O; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-05-13

    Two-dimensional layered semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have attracted tremendous interest as a new class of electronic materials. However, there are considerable challenges in making reliable contacts to these atomically thin materials. Here we present a new strategy by using graphene as the back electrodes to achieve ohmic contact to MoS2. With a finite density of states, the Fermi level of graphene can be readily tuned by a gate potential to enable a nearly perfect band alignment with MoS2. We demonstrate for the first time a transparent contact to MoS2 with zero contact barrier and linear output behavior at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.9 K) for both monolayer and multilayer MoS2. Benefiting from the barrier-free transparent contacts, we show that a metal-insulator transition can be observed in a two-terminal MoS2 device, a phenomenon that could be easily masked by Schottky barriers found in conventional metal-contacted MoS2 devices. With further passivation by boron nitride (BN) encapsulation, we demonstrate a record-high extrinsic (two-terminal) field effect mobility up to 1300 cm(2)/(V s) in MoS2 at low temperature.

  15. 9-Fluorenylmethyl (Fm) Disulfides: Biomimetic Precursors for Persulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chung-Min; Johnson, Brett A.; Duan, Jicheng; Park, Jeong-Jin; Day, Jacob J.; Gang, David; Qian, Wei-Jun; Xian, Ming

    2016-03-04

    Protein S-sulfhydration has been recognized as an important post-translational modification that regulates H2S signals. However, the reactivity and biological implications of the products of S-sulfhydration, i.e. persulfides, are still unclear. This is mainly due to the instability of persulfides and difficulty to access these molecules. Under physiological conditions persulfides mainly exist in anionic forms because of their low pKa values. However, current methods do not allow for the direct generation of persulfide anions under biomimetic and non-H2S conditions. Herein we report the development of a functional disulfide, FmSSPy-A (Fm =9-fluorenylmethyl; Py = pyridinyl). This reagent can effectively convert both small molecule and protein thiols (-SH) to form –S-SFm adducts under mild conditions. It allows for a H2S-free and biomimetic protocol to generate highly reactive persulfides (in their anionic forms). We also demonstrated the high nucleophilicity of persulfides toward a number of thiol-blocking reagents. This method holds promise for further understanding the chemical biology of persulfides and S-sulfhydration.

  16. Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Ostwal, Mayur

    2017-12-24

    Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes were prepared using vacuum filtration technique. The thickness and the MoS2 content in the membranes were varied and their H2 permeance and H2/CO2 selectivity are reported. A 60nm hybrid membrane containing ~75% by weight of MoS2 exhibited the highest H2 permeance of 804×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa with corresponding H2/CO2 selectivity of 26.7; while a 150nm hybrid membrane with ~29% MoS2 showed the highest H2/CO2 selectivity of 44.2 with corresponding H2 permeance of 287×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa. The hybrid membranes exhibited much higher H2 permeance compared to graphene oxide membranes and higher selectivity compared to MoS2 membranes, which fully demonstrated the synergistic effect of both nanomaterials. The membranes also displayed excellent operational long-term stability.

  17. Biotechnology for removal of carbon disulfide emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Biological removal in a ``biofilter`` plant of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide from the air effluent of a viscose plant at Teepak, Inc., is analyzed from process and economic standpoints by use of the Aspen Plus simulation program. The metabolic product from the biofilter, 3% sulfuric acid, must be transformed at the source into either a marketable or recyclable commodity (such as 95% sulfuric acid, high-quality sulfur, or high-quality gypsum) or a material with reasonable landfill costs (such as sulfur or gypsum). The simulations indicate that the total capital requirement for production of concentrated sulfuric acid is $48.9 million; for high-quality gypsum, $40.4 million; and for high-quality sulfur, $29.4 million. Production of concentrated sulfur for landfill is not economically practical. The process to neutralize the 3% acid effluent with limestone and landfill the resulting low-quality gypsum requires the lowest total investment of the processes simulated, $8.7 million, including the biofilter plant.

  18. DNA origami deposition on native and passivated molybdenum disulfide substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the structural fidelity of DNA origami structures on substrates is a prerequisite for the successful fabrication of hybrid DNA origami/semiconductor-based biomedical sensor devices. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 is an ideal substrate for such future sensors due to its exceptional electrical, mechanical and structural properties. In this work, we performed the first investigations into the interaction of DNA origami with the MoS2 surface. In contrast to the structure-preserving interaction of DNA origami with mica, another atomically flat surface, it was observed that DNA origami structures rapidly lose their structural integrity upon interaction with MoS2. In a further series of studies, pyrene and 1-pyrenemethylamine, were evaluated as surface modifications which might mitigate this effect. While both species were found to form adsorption layers on MoS2 via physisorption, 1-pyrenemethylamine serves as a better protective agent and preserves the structures for significantly longer times. These findings will be beneficial for the fabrication of future DNA origami/MoS2 hybrid electronic structures.

  19. Catalytic mechanism of Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase: sulfur transfer is mediated by disulfide and persulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchen; Dos Santos, Patricia C; Zhu, Xiang; Orlando, Ron; Dean, Dennis R; Söll, Dieter; Yuan, Jing

    2012-02-17

    Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS) catalyzes the sulfhydrylation of tRNA-bound O-phosphoserine (Sep) to form cysteinyl-tRNA(Cys) (Cys-tRNA(Cys)) in methanogens that lack the canonical cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS). A crystal structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus SepCysS apoenzyme provides information on the binding of the pyridoxal phosphate cofactor as well as on amino acid residues that may be involved in substrate binding. However, the mechanism of sulfur transfer to form cysteine was not known. Using an in vivo Escherichia coli complementation assay, we showed that all three highly conserved Cys residues in SepCysS (Cys(64), Cys(67), and Cys(272) in the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii enzyme) are essential for the sulfhydrylation reaction in vivo. Biochemical and mass spectrometric analysis demonstrated that Cys(64) and Cys(67) form a disulfide linkage and carry a sulfane sulfur in a portion of the enzyme. These results suggest that a persulfide group (containing a sulfane sulfur) is the proximal sulfur donor for cysteine biosynthesis. The presence of Cys(272) increased the amount of sulfane sulfur in SepCysS by 3-fold, suggesting that this Cys residue facilitates the generation of the persulfide group. Based upon these findings, we propose for SepCysS a sulfur relay mechanism that recruits both disulfide and persulfide intermediates.

  20. Effect of disulfide and sulfhydryl reagents on abortive and productive elongation catalyzed by ''Escheridia coli'' RNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radlowski, M.; Job, D.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of disulfide and sulfhydryl reagents on the rate of abortive and productive elongation has been studied using ''Escherichia coli'' RNA polymerase holoenzyme and poly[d(A-T)] as template. In the presence of UTP as a single substrate and UpA as a primer, the enzyme catalyzed efficiently the synthesis of the trinucleotide product UpApU. Incubation of RNA polymerase with 1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol resulted in a 5-fold increase of the rate of UpApU synthesis. In contrast, incubation of the enzyme with 1 mM 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic) acid resulted in a 6-fold decrease of the rate of abortive elongation. Determination of the steady state kinetic constants associated with UpApU synthesis disclosed that the disulfide and sulfhydryl reagents mainly affected the rate of UpApU release from the ternary transcription complexes and therefore influenced the stability of such complexes. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Cytotoxicity and Efflux Pump Inhibition Induced by Molybdenum Disulfide and Boron Nitride Nanomaterials with Sheetlike Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Shen, Zhuoyan; Wu, Bing; Yu, Yue; Hou, Hui; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2017-09-19

    Sheetlike molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have attracted attention in the past few years due to their unique material properties. However, information on adverse effects and their underlying mechanisms for sheetlike MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials is rare. In this study, cytotoxicities of sheetlike MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials on human hepatoma HepG2 cells were systematically investigated at different toxic end points. Results showed that MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials decreased cell viability at 30 μg/mL and induced adverse effects on intracellular ROS generation (≥2 μg/mL), mitochondrial depolarization (≥4 μg/mL), and membrane integrity (≥8 μg/mL for MoS 2 and ≥2 μg/mL for BN). Furthermore, this study first found that low exposure concentrations (0.2-2 μg/mL) of MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials could increase plasma membrane fluidity and inhibit transmembrane ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter activity, which make both nanomaterials act as a chemosensitizer (increasing arsenic toxicity). Damage to plasma membrane and release of soluble Mo or B species might be two reasons that both nanomaterials inhibit efflux pump activities. This study provides a systematic understanding of the cytotoxicity of sheetlike MoS 2 and BN nanomaterials at different exposure levels, which is important for their safe use.

  2. Protective role for the disulfide isomerase PDIA3 in methamphetamine neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Pendyala

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse continues to be a worldwide problem, damaging the individual user as well as society. Only minimal information exists on molecular changes in the brain that result from methamphetamine administered in patterns typical of human abusers. In order to investigate such changes, we examined the effect of methamphetamine on the transcriptional profile in brains of monkeys. Gene expression profiling of caudate and hippocampus identified protein disulfide isomerase family member A3 (PDIA3 to be significantly up-regulated in the animals treated with methamphetamine as compared to saline treated control monkeys. Methamphetamine treatment of mice also increased striatal PDIA3 expression. Treatment of primary striatal neurons with methamphetamine revealed an up-regulation of PDIA3, showing a direct effect of methamphetamine on neurons to increase PDIA3. In vitro studies using a neuroblastoma cell line demonstrated that PDIA3 expression protects against methamphetamine-induced cell toxicity and methamphetamine-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production, revealing a neuroprotective role for PDIA3. The current study implicates PDIA3 to be an important cellular neuroprotective mechanism against a toxic drug, and as a potential target for therapeutic investigations.

  3. Protein disulfide isomerases: Impact of thapsigargin treatment on their expression in melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Zélia; Veríssimo, Teresa; Videira, Paula A; Novo, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Anti-cancer treatments usually elevate the content of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we aimed to get insights into the relation between sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin (THG) and the genetic expression of protein disulfide isomerase family members (PDIs). The expression of PDIs was analysed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The results showed that SK-MEL-30, the less THG sensitive cell line, displays higher basal PDIs' expression levels and the sensitivity is increased by the PDIs inhibitor bacitracin. While SK-MEL-30 PDIs' expression is not THG dose-dependent, an increase in glucose related protein 78 (GRP78), PDIA5, PDIA6, and thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins' (TMX3 and TMX4) expression, in response to higher drug concentrations, was observed in MNT-1. The differences in PDIs' gene expression in MNT-1 suggest a different response to ER stress compared to the other cell lines and highlight the importance of understanding the diversity among cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and site-directed disulfide cross-linking suggest an important dynamic interface between the two lysostaphin domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Rong; Gu, Mei-Gang; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Jin-jiang; Lu, Wan-Ying; Lu, Hong; Huang, Qing-Shan

    2013-04-01

    Lysostaphin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase secreted by Staphylococcus simulans. It can specifically lyse Staphylococcus aureus and is being tested as a novel antibacterial agent. The protein contains an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal cell wall targeting domain. Although the two domains from homologous enzymes were structurally determined, the structural organization of lysostaphin domains remains unknown. We used hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) and site-directed disulfide cross-linking to probe the interface between the lysostaphin catalytic and targeting domains. H/DX-MS-mediated comparison of peptides from full-length lysostaphin and the separated domains identified four peptides of lower solvent accessibility in the full-length protein. Cross-linking analysis using cysteine pair substitutions within those peptides showed that two pairs of cysteines can form disulfide bonds, supporting the domain association role of the targeted peptides. The cross-linked mutant exhibited a binding capacity to S. aureus that was similar to that of the wild-type protein but reduced bacteriolytic activity probably because of restraint in conformation. The diminished activity was further reduced with increasing NaCl concentrations that can cause contractions of bacterial peptidoglycan. The lytic activity, however, could be fully recovered by reducing the disulfide bonds. These results suggest that lysostaphin may require dynamic association of the two domains for coordinating substrate binding and target cleavage on the elastic peptidoglycan. Our study will help develop site-specific PEGylated lysostaphin to treat systemic S. aureus infections.

  5. Carbon disulfide mediates socially-acquired nicotine self-administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Wang

    Full Text Available The social environment plays a critical role in smoking initiation as well as relapse. We previously reported that rats acquired nicotine self-administration with an olfactogustatory cue only when another rat consuming the same cue was present during self-administration. Because carbon disulfide (CS2 mediates social learning of food preference in rodents, we hypothesized that socially acquired nicotine self-administration is also mediated by CS2. We tested this hypothesis by placing female adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats in operant chambers equipped with two lickometers. Licking on the active spout meeting a fixed-ratio 10 schedule triggered the concurrent delivery of an i.v. infusion (saline, or 30 µg/kg nicotine, free base and an appetitive olfactogustatory cue containing CS2 (0-500 ppm. Rats that self-administered nicotine with the olfactogustatory cue alone licked less on the active spout than on the inactive spout. Adding CS2 to the olfactogustatory cue reversed the preference for the spouts. The group that received 500 ppm CS2 and the olfactogustatory cue obtained a significantly greater number of nicotine infusions than other groups. After extinction training, the original self-administration context reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior in all nicotine groups. In addition, in rats that received the olfactogustatory cue and 500 ppm CS2 during SA, a social environment where the nicotine-associated olfactory cue is present, induced much stronger drug-seeking behavior compared to a social environment lacking the olfactogustatory cue. These data established that CS2 is a critical signal that mediates social learning of nicotine self-administration with olfactogustatory cues in rodents. Additionally, these data showed that the social context can further enhance the drug-seeking behavior induced by the drug-taking environment.

  6. Green polymer chemistry: Synthesis of poly(disulfide) polymers and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal-Kim, Emily Quinn

    The disulfide group is unique in that it presents a covalent bond that is easily formed and cleaved under certain biological conditions. While the ease of disulfide bond cleavage is often harnessed as a method of biodegradation, the ease of disulfide bond formation as a synthetic strategy is often overlooked. The objective this research was to synthesize poly(disulfide) polymers and disulfide crosslinked networks from a green chemistry approach. The intent of the green chemistry approach was to take advantage of the mild conditions applicable to disulfide bond synthesis from thiols. With anticipated use as biomaterials, it was also desired that the polymer materials could be degraded under biological conditions. Here, a new method of poly(disulfide) polymer synthesis is introduced which was inspired by the reaction conditions and reagents found in Nature. Ambient temperatures and aqueous mixtures were used in the new method. Hydrogen peroxide, one of the Nature's most powerful oxidizing species was used as the oxidant in the new polymerization reaction. The dithiol monomer, 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol was first solubilized in triethylamine, which activated the thiol groups and made the monomer water soluble. At room temperature, the organic dithiol/amine solution was then mixed with dilute aqueous hydrogen peroxide (3% by weight) to make the poly(disulfide) polymers. The presence of a two phase system (organic and aqueous phases) was critical to the polymerization reaction. As the reaction progresses, a third, polymer phase appeared. At ambient temperatures and above, this phase separated from the reaction mixture and the polymer product was easily removed from the reaction solution. These polymers reach Mn > 250,000 g/mol in under two hours. Molecular weight distributions were between 1.5 and 2.0. Reactions performed in an ice bath which remain below room temperature contain high molecular weight polymers with Mn ≈ 120,000 g/mol and have a molecular weight

  7. Dynamic Chemistry of Disulfide Terminated Oligonucleotides in Duplexes and Double-Crossover Tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Mattia; Vesterager Gothelf, Kurt

    2016-06-16

    Designed nanostructures formed by self-assembly of multiple DNA strands suffer from low stability at elevated temperature and under other denaturing conditions. Here, we propose a method for covalent coupling of DNA strands in such structures by the formation of disulfide bonds; this allows disassembly of the structure under reducing conditions. The dynamic chemistry of disulfides and thiols was applied to crosslink DNA strands with terminal disulfide modifications. The formation of disulfide-linked DNA duplexes consisting of three strands is demonstrated, as well as a more-complex DNA double-crossover tile. All the strands in the fully disulfide-linked structures are covalently and geometrically interlocked, and it is demonstrated that the structures are stable under heating and in the presence of denaturants. Such a reversible system can be exploited in applications where higher DNA stability is needed only temporarily, such as delivery of cargoes to cells by DNA nanostructures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Disulfide bond within mu-calpain active site inhibits activity and autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametsch, René; Lonergan, Steven; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative processes have the ability to influence mu-calpain activity. In the present study the influence of oxidation on activity and autolysis of mu-calpain was examined. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis was employed to identify and characterize protein modifications caused by oxidation. The results revealed that the activity of mu-calpain is diminished by oxidation with H2O2 in a reversible manner involving cysteine and that the rate of autolysis of mu-calpain concomitantly slowed. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the oxidized mu-calpain revealed that the amino acid residues 105-133 contained a disulfide bond between Cys(108) and Cys(115). The finding that the active site cysteine in mu-calpain is able to form a disulfide bond has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This could be part of a unique oxidation mechanism for mu-calpain. The results also showed that the formation of the disulfide bond is limited in the control (no oxidant added), and further limited in a concentration-dependent manner when beta-mercaptoethanol is added. However, the disulfide bond is still present to some extent in all conditions indicating that the active site cysteine is potentially highly susceptible to the formation of this intramolecular disulfide bond.

  9. The significance of disulfide bonding in biological activity of HB-EGF, a mutagenesis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.T.; Zhou, Z.; Harding, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    A site-directed mutagenesis approach was taken to disrupt each of 3 disulfide bonds within human HB-EGF by substituting serine for both cysteine residues that contribute to disulfide bonding. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue (HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 , HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 , and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 134/143 ) was cloned under the regulation of the mouse metallothionein (MT) promoter and stably expressed in mouse fibroblasts. HB-EGF immunoreactive proteins with M r of 6.5, 21 and 24 kDa were observed from lysates of HB-EGF and each HB-EGF disulfide analogue. HB-EGF immunohistochemical analyses of each HB-EGF stable cell line demonstrated ubiquitous protein expression except HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 stable cell lines which exhibited accumulated expression immediately outside the nucleus. rHB-EGF, HB-EGF, and HB-EGF 134/143 proteins competed with 125 I-EGF in an A431 competitive binding assay, whereas HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 108/121 and HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 116/132 failed to compete. Each HB-EGF disulfide analogue lacked the ability to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the 170 kDa EGFR. These results suggest that HB-EGF-Cys/Ser 134/143 antagonizes EGFRs

  10. Delicate balance of electrostatic interactions and disulfide bridges in thermostability of firefly luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Somayeh; Moradi, Maryam; Hosseinkhani, Saman

    2012-12-01

    The wild type Photinus pyralis luciferase does not have any disulfide bridge. Disulfide bridges are determinant in inherent stability of protein at moderate temperatures. Meanwhile, arginin is responsible for thermostability at higher temperatures. In this study, by concomitant introduction of disulfide bridge and a surface arginin in a mutant (A296C-A326C/I232R), the contribution of disulfide bridge introduction and surface hydrophilic residue on activity and global stability of P. pyralis luciferase is investigated. In addition to the mentioned mutant; I232R, A296C-A326C and wild type luciferases are characterized. Though addition of Arg caused stability against proteolysis but in combination with disulfide bridge resulted in decreased thermal stability compared to A296C-A326C mutant. In spite of long distance of two different mutations (A296C-A326C and I232R) from each other in the three-dimensional structure, combination of their effects on the stability of luciferase was not cumulative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immediate stabilization of human blood for delayed quantification of endogenous thiols and disulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustarini, Daniela; Galvagni, Federico; Orlandini, Maurizio; Fanti, Paolo; Rossi, Ranieri

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous thiols undergo rapid and reversible oxidation to disulfides when exposed to oxidants and are, therefore, suitable biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, accurate analysis of thiols in blood is frequently compromised by their artifactual oxidation during sample manipulation, which spuriously elevates the disulfide levels. Here, we describe a validated pre-analytical procedure that prevents both artifactual oxidation of thiols during sample manipulation and their oxidative decay for months in biosamples that are stored at −80°C. Addition of N-ethylmaleimide to blood samples from healthy donors was used to stabilize whole blood, red blood cells, platelets and plasma disulfides, whereas addition of citrate buffer followed by dilution of plasma with H2O was used to stabilize plasma thiols. The concentrations of thiols and disulfides were stable in all biosamples for at least 6 months when analyzed by UV/Vis HPLC at regular intervals. Only 3 ml of blood were needed to perform the analyses of thiols and disulfides in the different blood fractions. This pre-analytical procedure is reliable for use in both animal and human prospective studies. Its ease of implementation makes the method suitable for application to multicenter studies where blood samples are collected by different sites and personnel and are shipped to specific specialized laboratories. PMID:26896310

  12. Performance enhancement of graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance biosensor using tungsten disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anower, M. Shamim; Rahman, M. Saifur; Rikta, Khaleda Akter

    2018-01-01

    An improved performance of graphene-coated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor using tungsten disulfide (WS2) for sensing deoxyribonucleicacid (DNA) hybridization is investigated. This biosensor structure consisted of prism (SF10 glass), gold (Au), WS2, graphene, and sensing medium. Highly enhanced overall performances are achieved using a thin layer of WS2 between metal and graphene layer and are provided in terms of sensitivity, detection accuracy (DA), and quality factor (QF). Concurrent improvement of all performance parameters is depicted by adding a WS2 layer instead of another graphene layer with the existing graphene layer. This overcomes the limitation of graphene-only sensors where addition of a graphene layer increases the sensitivity but decreases the DA and QF. Analysis of Au thickness effect and limit of detection are also investigated. Numerical study demonstrates that the deviation of SPR angle for mismatched DNA strands is relatively insignificant while that for complementary DNA strands is noticeably reckonable. Thus, the proposed biosensor offers a window for detecting DNA hybridization.

  13. Synthesis of novel disulfide and sulfone hybrid scaffolds as potent β-glucuronidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Imran, Syahrul; Wadood, Abdul; Rahim, Fazal; Al Muqarrabin, Laode Muhammad Ramadhan; Zaki, Hamizah Mohd; Ahmat, Norizan; Nasir, Abdul; Khan, Fahad

    2016-10-01

    Novel series of disulfide and sulfone hybrid analogs (1-20) were synthesized and characterized through EI-MS and (1)H NMR and evaluated for β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. All synthesized analogs except 13 and 15 showed excellent β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential with IC50 value ranging in between 2.20-88.16μM as compared to standard d-saccharic acid 1,4 lactone (48.4±1.25μM). Analogs 19, 16, 4, 1, 17, 6, 10, 3, 18, 2, 11, 14 and 5 showed many fold potent activity against β-glucuronidase inhibitor. Structure activity relationship showed that substitution of electron withdrawing groups at ortho as well as para position on phenyl ring increase potency. Electron withdrawing groups at meta position on phenyl ring showed slightly low potency as compared to ortho and para position. The binding interactions were confirmed through molecular docking studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen-assisted post-growth substitution of tellurium into molybdenum disulfide monolayers with tunable compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guoli; Zhu, Dancheng; Lv, Danhui; Hashemi, Arsalan; Fei, Zhen; Lin, Fang; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Zhang, Ze; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Jin, Chuanhong

    2018-04-01

    Herein we report the successful doping of tellurium (Te) into molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers to form MoS2x Te2(1-x) alloy with variable compositions via a hydrogen-assisted post-growth chemical vapor deposition process. It is confirmed that H2 plays an indispensable role in the Te substitution into as-grown MoS2 monolayers. Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy allows us to determine the lattice sites and the concentration of introduced Te atoms. At a relatively low concentration, tellurium is only substituted in the sulfur sublattice to form monolayer MoS2(1-x)Te2x alloy, while with increasing Te concentration (up to ˜27.6% achieved in this study), local regions with enriched tellurium, large structural distortions, and obvious sulfur deficiency are observed. Statistical analysis of the Te distribution indicates the random substitution. Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the stability of the alloy structures and their electronic properties. Comparison with experimental results indicate that the samples are unstrained and the Te atoms are predominantly substituted in the top S sublattice. Importantly, such ultimately thin Janus structure of MoS2(1-x)Te2x exhibits properties that are distinct from their constituents. We believe our results will inspire further exploration of the versatile properties of asymmetric 2D TMD alloys.

  15. Defect-Mediated Lithium Adsorption and Diffusion on Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Fu, Y Q

    2015-12-22

    Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its high capacities. In this work, first principle calculations based on spin density functional theory were performed to investigate adsorption and diffusion of lithium on monolayer MoS2 with defects, such as single- and few-atom vacancies, antisite, and grain boundary. The values of adsorption energies on the monolayer MoS2 with the defects were increased compared to those on the pristine MoS2. The presence of defects causes that the Li is strongly bound to the monolayer MoS2 with adsorption energies in the range between 2.81 and 3.80 eV. The donation of Li 2s electron to the defects causes an enhancement of adsorption of Li on the monolayer MoS2. At the same time, the presence of defects does not apparently affect the diffusion of Li, and the energy barriers are in the range of 0.25-0.42 eV. The presence of the defects can enhance the energy storage capacity, suggesting that the monolayer MoS2 with defects is a suitable anode material for the Li-ion batteries.

  16. In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)

  17. Mutations in the RAM network confer resistance to the thiol oxidant 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R; Thorsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    -specific oxidant dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) yielded tao3-516, which is impaired in the function of the RAM signaling network protein Tao3/Pag1p. We suggest that the DPS-resistance of the tao3-516 mutant might be due to deficient cell-cycle-regulated production of the chitinase Cts1p, which functions in post......-mitotic cell separation and depends on Tao3p and the RAM network for regulated expression. Consistent with this, deletion of other RAM genes or CTS1 also resulted in increased resistance to DPS. Exposure to DPS caused extensive depolarization of the actin cytoskeleton. We found that tao3-516 is resistant...... to latrunculin, a specific inhibitor of actin polymerization, and that ram, Deltaace2, and Deltacts1 mutants are resistant to benomyl, a microtubule-destabilizing drug. Since septum build-up depends on the organization of cytoskeletal proteins, the resistance to cytoskeletal stress of Cts1p-deficient mutants...

  18. Protein disulfide isomerase ameliorates β-cell dysfunction in pancreatic islets overexpressing human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montane, Joel; de Pablo, Sara; Obach, Mercè; Cadavez, Lisa; Castaño, Carlos; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; Visa, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Comas, Júlia; Parrizas, Marcelina; Servitja, Joan Marc; Novials, Anna

    2016-01-15

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major component of amyloid deposits in islets of type 2 diabetic patients. hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may lead to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endogenous chaperones are described to be important for the folding and functioning of proteins. Here, we examine the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) on β-cell dysfunction. Among other chaperones, PDI was found to interact with hIAPP in human islet lysates. Furthermore, intrinsically recovered PDI levels were able to restore the effect of high glucose- and palmitate-induced β-cell dysfunction by increasing 3.9-fold the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels and restoring insulin content up to basal control values. Additionally, PDI transduction decreased induced apoptosis by glucolipotoxic conditions. This approach could reveal a new therapeutic target and aid in the development of strategies to improve β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of liposome bearing disulfide proteinoid and its reduction-responsive release property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyeongnan; Kim, Jin-Chul

    2017-09-01

    Egg phosphatidylcholine (Egg PC) liposome bearing a disulfide proteinoid exhibited a reduction-responsive release property. Proteinoid composed of Asp, Leu, and cystamine (Prot(ALC)) and Asp and Leu (Prot(AL)) were synthesized by thermal condensation, confirmed by Raman, FT-IR, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Egg PC liposome bearing the proteinoid was prepared by a film hydration and sonication method. The fluorescence quenching of dye (i.e. calcein) loaded in liposome bearing the proteinoid was 68.1-78.1%. The mean hydrodynamic diameter of liposome bearing the proteinoid was less than 200 nm and it decreased with increasing amount of the proteinoid. On the TEM photo, multi-lamellar vesicles were observed and the vesicle diameter was 100-300 nm. At all the phospholipid to proteinod ratios tested (i.e. 1:0.01, 1:0.02, and 1:0.05 (w/w)), the release degree in 12 h of dye loaded in liposome bearing Prot(AL) was less than 2%, and it was almost the same regardless of dithiothreitol (DTT, a reducing agent) concentration (i.e. 0, 10, and 20 mM). Whereas the release degree of dye loaded in liposome bearing Prot(ALC) was 1.5-8.4% and it was significantly dependent on DTT concentration.

  20. A novel graphene coated surface plasmon resonance biosensor with tungsten disulfide (WS2) for sensing DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Hasan, Md. Rabiul; Rikta, Khaleda Akter; Anower, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a rigorous configuration of graphene coated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) for sensing DNA hybridization. The present configuration is consisted of prism (SF10 glass), Gold (Au), WS2- graphene and sensing medium. We perform the performance parameters of the proposed sensor in terms of sensitivity, detection accuracy and quality factor. Here we report a dramatic enhancement of the overall performance. Addition of graphene layers increase the sensitivity but decrease the other performance parameters. To increase the all performance parameters we add WS2 between metal and graphene layer. Furthermore in this paper, the thickness effect of Gold (Au) is also analyzed. Numerical analysis shows that the variation of SPR angle for mismatched DNA strands is quiet negligible whereas that for complementary DNA strands is considerably countable. Therefore, the proposed biosensor opens a new window towards detection for biomolecular interactions.

  1. Antimetastatic Therapies of the Polysulfide Diallyl Trisulfide against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC via Suppressing MMP2/9 by Blocking NF-κB and ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Liu

    Full Text Available Migration and invasion are two crucial steps of tumor metastasis. Blockage of these steps may be an effective strategy to reduce the risk. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS, a natural organosulfuric compound with most sulfur atoms found in garlic, on migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of DATS were further investigated.MDA-MB-231 cells and HS 578t breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. DATS obviously suppressed the migration and invasion of two cell lines and changed the morphological. Moreover, DATS inhibited the mRNA/protein/ enzymes activities of MMP2/9 via attenuating the NF-κB pathway. DATS also inhibited ERK/MAPK rather than p38 and JNK.DATS inhibits MMP2/9 activity and the metastasis of TNBC cells, and emerges as a potential anti-cancer agent. The inhibitory effects are associated with down-regulation of the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways.

  2. Antimetastatic Therapies of the Polysulfide Diallyl Trisulfide against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) via Suppressing MMP2/9 by Blocking NF-κB and ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuping; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Yingyu; Wei, Zhonghong; Tao, Li; Zhu, Zhijie; Sheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Siliang; Ruan, Junshan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Cao, Yuzhu; Shan, Yunlong; Sun, Lihua; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Lu, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Migration and invasion are two crucial steps of tumor metastasis. Blockage of these steps may be an effective strategy to reduce the risk. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a natural organosulfuric compound with most sulfur atoms found in garlic, on migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of DATS were further investigated. MDA-MB-231 cells and HS 578t breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. DATS obviously suppressed the migration and invasion of two cell lines and changed the morphological. Moreover, DATS inhibited the mRNA/protein/ enzymes activities of MMP2/9 via attenuating the NF-κB pathway. DATS also inhibited ERK/MAPK rather than p38 and JNK. DATS inhibits MMP2/9 activity and the metastasis of TNBC cells, and emerges as a potential anti-cancer agent. The inhibitory effects are associated with down-regulation of the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways.

  3. pH-dependent sustained release characteristics of disulfide polymers prepared by simple thermal polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Ho; Lee, Jonghwi

    2013-01-01

    Biocompatible polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery systems. The discovery of a novel polymer with innovative properties can provide great opportunities to enhance drug efficacy as well as reduce side effects. In this study, a novel disulfide polymer was synthesized and characterized. Its monomer is alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), which is synthesized in all cells in the human body. The disulfide polymer was obtained by the simple thermal polymerization of crystalline particles at a temperature higher than its melting point, followed by precipitation purification. It had rubbery and sticky characteristics. In vitro release tests demonstrated that the disulfide polymer had both pH-dependent degradation and related sustained release profiles, with a degraded form of ALA. Therefore, this novel class of responsive polymers that can be prepared by simple thermal polymerization has pronounced potential to contribute to future drug delivery systems.

  4. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...... as a structural reorganization of residues in the immediate chromophore environment. By combining this information with spectroscopic data, we propose a detailed mechanism accounting for the observed redox state-dependent fluorescence. The redox potential of the cysteine couple was found to be within...

  5. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... the physiological range for redox-active cysteines. In the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, the protein was a sensitive probe for the redox changes that occur upon disruption of the thioredoxin reductive pathway....... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...

  6. Allicin-inspired pyridyl disulfides as antimicrobial agents for multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Jordan G; McAleer, Jeremy P; Saralkar, Pushkar; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Long, Timothy E

    2018-01-01

    A chemical library comprised of nineteen synthesized pyridyl disulfides that emulate the chemical reactivity of allicin (garlic) was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria. Gram-positive species including vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA, VRSA) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility toward analogs with S-alkyl chains of 7-9 carbons in length. Further biological studies revealed that the disulfides display synergy with vancomycin against VRSA, cause dispersal of S. aureus biofilms, exhibit low cytotoxicity, and decelerate S. aureus metabolism. In final analysis, pyridyl disulfides represent a novel class of mechanism-based antibacterial agents that have a potential application as antibiotic adjuvants in combination therapy of S. aureus infections with reduced vancomycin susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-terminal memtransistors from polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Lee, Hong-Sub; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Beck, Megan E.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-02-01

    Memristors are two-terminal passive circuit elements that have been developed for use in non-volatile resistive random-access memory and may also be useful in neuromorphic computing. Memristors have higher endurance and faster read/write times than flash memory and can provide multi-bit data storage. However, although two-terminal memristors have demonstrated capacity for basic neural functions, synapses in the human brain outnumber neurons by more than a thousandfold, which implies that multi-terminal memristors are needed to perform complex functions such as heterosynaptic plasticity. Previous attempts to move beyond two-terminal memristors, such as the three-terminal Widrow-Hoff memristor and field-effect transistors with nanoionic gates or floating gates, did not achieve memristive switching in the transistor. Here we report the experimental realization of a multi-terminal hybrid memristor and transistor (that is, a memtransistor) using polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a scalable fabrication process. The two-dimensional MoS2 memtransistors show gate tunability in individual resistance states by four orders of magnitude, as well as large switching ratios, high cycling endurance and long-term retention of states. In addition to conventional neural learning behaviour of long-term potentiation/depression, six-terminal MoS2 memtransistors have gate-tunable heterosynaptic functionality, which is not achievable using two-terminal memristors. For example, the conductance between a pair of floating electrodes (pre- and post-synaptic neurons) is varied by a factor of about ten by applying voltage pulses to modulatory terminals. In situ scanning probe microscopy, cryogenic charge transport measurements and device modelling reveal that the bias-induced motion of MoS2 defects drives resistive switching by dynamically varying Schottky barrier heights. Overall, the seamless integration of a memristor and transistor into one multi-terminal device could

  8. On the relevance of sophisticated structural annotations for disulfide connectivity pattern prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Becker

    Full Text Available Disulfide bridges strongly constrain the native structure of many proteins and predicting their formation is therefore a key sub-problem of protein structure and function inference. Most recently proposed approaches for this prediction problem adopt the following pipeline: first they enrich the primary sequence with structural annotations, second they apply a binary classifier to each candidate pair of cysteines to predict disulfide bonding probabilities and finally, they use a maximum weight graph matching algorithm to derive the predicted disulfide connectivity pattern of a protein. In this paper, we adopt this three step pipeline and propose an extensive study of the relevance of various structural annotations and feature encodings. In particular, we consider five kinds of structural annotations, among which three are novel in the context of disulfide bridge prediction. So as to be usable by machine learning algorithms, these annotations must be encoded into features. For this purpose, we propose four different feature encodings based on local windows and on different kinds of histograms. The combination of structural annotations with these possible encodings leads to a large number of possible feature functions. In order to identify a minimal subset of relevant feature functions among those, we propose an efficient and interpretable feature function selection scheme, designed so as to avoid any form of overfitting. We apply this scheme on top of three supervised learning algorithms: k-nearest neighbors, support vector machines and extremely randomized trees. Our results indicate that the use of only the PSSM (position-specific scoring matrix together with the CSP (cysteine separation profile are sufficient to construct a high performance disulfide pattern predictor and that extremely randomized trees reach a disulfide pattern prediction accuracy of [Formula: see text] on the benchmark dataset SPX[Formula: see text], which corresponds to

  9. New analogs of the CART peptide with anorexigenic potency: the importance of individual disulfide bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechová, Miroslava; Nagelová, Veronika; Záková, Lenka; Demianová, Zuzana; Zelezná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide is an anorexigenic neuropeptide that acts in the hypothalamus. The receptor and the mechanism of action of this peptide are still unknown. In our previous study, we showed that the CART peptide binds specifically to PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells in both the native and differentiated into neuronal phenotype. Two biologically active forms, CART(55-102) and CART(61-102), with equal biological activity, contain three disulfide bridges. To clarify the importance of each of these disulfide bridges in maintaining the biological activity of CART(61-102), an Ala scan at particular S-S bridges forming cysteines was performed, and analogs with only one or two disulfide bridges were synthesized. In this study, a stabilized CART(61-102) analog with norleucine instead of methionine at position 67 was also prepared and was found to bind to PC12 cells with an anorexigenic potency similar to that of CART(61-102). The binding study revealed that out of all analogs tested, [Ala(68,86)]CART(61-102), which contains two disulfide bridges (positions 74-94 and 88-101), preserved a high affinity to both native PC12 cells and those that had been differentiated into neurons. In food intake and behavioral tests with mice after intracerebroventricular administration, this analog showed strong and long-lasting anorexigenic potency. Therefore, the disulfide bridge between cysteines 68 and 86 in CART(61-102) can be omitted without a loss of biological activity, but the preservation of two other disulfide bridges and the full-length peptide are essential for biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most...... diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed...

  11. Minor element distribution in iron disulfides in coal: a geochemical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam microanalysis of coal samples in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) labs confirms that As is the most abundant minor constituent in Fe disulfides in coal and that Se, Ni, and other minor constituents are present less commonly and at lower concentrations than those for As. In nearly all cases, Hg occurs in Fe disulfides in coal at concentrations below detection by electron beam instruments. Its presence is shown by laser ablation ICP-MS, by selective leaching studies of bulk coal, and by correlation with Fe disulfide proxies such as total Fe and pyritic sulfur. Multiple generations of Fe disulfides are present in coal. These commonly show grain-to-grain and within-grain minor- or trace element compositional variation that is a function of the early diagenetic, coalification, and post-coalification history of the coal. Framboidal pyrite is almost always the earliest Fe disulfide generation, as shown by overgrowths of later Fe disulfides which may include pyrite or marcasite. Cleat- (or vein) pyrite (or marcasite) is typically the latest Fe disulfide generation, as shown by cross-cutting relations. Cleat pyrite forms by fluid migration within a coal basin and consequently may be enriched in elements such as As by deposition from compaction-driven fluids, metal enriched basinal brines or hydrothermal fluids. In some cases, framboidal pyrite shows preferential Ni enrichment with respect to co-occurring pyrite forms. This is consistent with bacterial complexing of metals in anoxic sediments and derivation of framboidal pyrite from greigite (Fe3S4), an Fe monosulfide precursor to framboidal pyrite having the thio-spinel structure which accommodates transition metals. Elements such as As, Se, and Sb substitute for S in the pyrite structure whereas metals, including transition metals, Hg and Pb, are thought to substitute for Fe. Understanding the distribution of minor and trace elements in Fe disulfides in coal has important implications for their availability to

  12. Electrochemical reduction of disulfide-containing proteins for hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Salbo, Rune; Ploug, Michael

    2014-01-01

    requires a high concentration (>200 mM) of the chemical reducing agent Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as the reduction rate constant is decreased at low pH and temperature. Serious adverse effects on chromatographic and mass spectrometric performances have been reported when using high concentrations......Characterization of disulfide bond-containing proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires reduction of the disulfide bonds under acidic and cold conditions, where the amide hydrogen exchange reaction is quenched (pH 2.5, 0°C). The reduction typically...

  13. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  14. Chemical Vapor Transport Deposition of Molybdenum Disulfide Layers Using H2O Vapor as the Transport Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 layers show excellent optical and electrical properties and have many potential applications. However, the growth of high-quality MoS2 layers is a major bottleneck in the development of MoS2-based devices. In this paper, we report a chemical vapor transport deposition method to investigate the growth behavior of monolayer/multi-layer MoS2 using water (H2O as the transport agent. It was shown that the introduction of H2O vapor promoted the growth of MoS2 by increasing the nucleation density and continuous monolayer growth. Moreover, the growth mechanism is discussed.

  15. Recent Advancement on the Optical Properties of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Ye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of two-dimensional (2D materials has led to tremendous interest in the study of graphene and a series of mono- and few-layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs. Among these TMDCs, the study of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 has gained increasing attention due to its promising optical, electronic, and optoelectronic properties. Of particular interest is the indirect to direct band-gap transition from bulk and few-layered structures to mono-layered MoS2, respectively. In this review, the study of these properties is summarized. The use of Raman and Photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy of MoS2 has become a reliable technique for differentiating the number of molecular layers in 2D MoS2.

  16. Role of disulfide linkage in action of bis(dialkylaminethiocarbonyl)disulfides as potent double-Edged microbicidal spermicide: Design, synthesis and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Nand; Jangir, Santosh; Bala, Veenu; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Sarswat, Amit; Kumar, Lalit; Jain, Ashish; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Pandey, Atindra K; Krishna, Shagun; Rawat, Tara; Shukla, Praveen K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2016-06-10

    Trichomoniasis and candidiasis are amongst the most common morbidity-causing reproductive tract infections, generally treated by Metronidazole and Fluconazole respectively. Poor vaginal efficacy, drug-resistance and non-spermicidal nature limit their use as topical microbicidal contraceptives. Bis(dialkylaminethiocarbonyl)disulfides (4-38) were designed as dually active, non-surfactant molecules capable of eliminating Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida strains as well as irreversibly immobilizing 100% human sperm instantly, at doses non-cytotoxic to human cervical epithelial cells and vaginal microflora in vitro. Compounds 12, 16, 17 were fifty times more active than nonoxynol-9, OTC vaginal spermicide, and compounds 12 and 17 have shown remarkable in vivo activity in rabbit model. Most promising compound 17 has shown promise for further development as a double-edged vaginal microbicide due to their improved activity and safety along with notable in vivo trichomonicidal activity. Role of disulfide group was established by loss of spermicidal activity on chemical modifications (39-56). These disulfides might be targeting thiol groups present over cell membrane of human sperm and Trichomonas as shown by fluorescence labeling of free thiols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Synergistic effect of tungsten disulfide and cenosphere combination on braking performance of composite friction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachhap, Rakesh K.; Satapathy, Bhabani K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract showing correlation between enhanced frictional stability and enhanced visc-oelastic energy dissipation. - Highlights: • Developed new class of brake composites based on WS 2 and cenosphere. • Synergistic effect of WS 2 and cenosphere for enhanced friction stability. • Wear surface morphology revealed composition specific topography. • Friction fade-recovery performance remained optimal. - Abstract: Tungsten disulfide (WS 2 /TDS) based cenosphere (Cn) filled friction composites with varying cenosphere to WS 2 ratio (Cn/TDS) were fabricated by compression molding of phenolic resin based dry formulation mix and evaluated for their thermal, thermo-mechanical and tribological performances. The loss and revival of braking friction effectiveness due to heating or cooling of the disc termed as fade and recovery performance have been characterized on a Krauss friction testing machine following ECE R-90 industrial standards. The fade performance remained dependent on Cn/TDS, where enhanced fading could be correlated to lower Cn/TDS value accompanied with broader frictional fluctuations i.e. μ max –μ min . A decrease in the frictional-recovery response ensued with increase in Cn/TDS. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed an increase in storage modulus till 2.5 wt.% of TDS loading followed by consistent decrease whereas two distinct peaks in loss modulus plots that are composition independent have been observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the worn surface morphology associated with the dynamics of contact patches formation and deformation vis-a-vis friction layer formation as integrally responsible for the observed friction performance. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) enabled compositional analysis of the friction layer viz. Fe, W, Si, and Al content which may have a mechanistic role in controlling phenomena like, disc rubbing, lubricity, porosity, and hardness of friction layer formed during braking

  18. Molybdenum disulfide nanoflower-chitosan-Au nanoparticles composites based electrochemical sensing platform for bisphenol A determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ke-Jing, E-mail: kejinghuang@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Yan-Ming; Wang, Ling-Ling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • This work constructs a novel electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection. • Flower-like MoS{sub 2} are prepared by a simple hydrothermal procedure. • AuNPs are assembled on MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers modified electrode for signal amplification. • The developed sensor exhibits low detection limit and wide linear range. - Abstract: Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide are attracting increasing attention in electrochemical sensing due to their unique electronic properties. In this work, flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed the MoS{sub 2} nanoflower had sizes with diameter of about 200 nm and was constructed with many irregular sheets as a petal-like structure with thickness of several nanometers. A novel electrochemical sensor was constructed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) based on MoS{sub 2} and chitosan-gold nanoparticles composites modified electrode. The sensor showed an efficient electrocatalytic role for the oxidation of BPA, and the oxidation overpotentials of BPA decreased significantly and the peak current increased greatly compared with bare GCE and other modified electrode. A good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and BPA concentration was obtained in the range from 0.05 to 100 μM with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10{sup −9} M (S/N = 3). The developed sensor exhibited high sensitivity and long-term stability, and it was successfully applied for the determination of BPA in different samples. This work indicated MoS{sub 2} nanoflowers were promising in electrochemical sensing and catalytic applications.

  19. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Dongah [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Lee, Joo Sung [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Hasmukh A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Jakobsen, Mogens H. [Department of Micro and Nano technology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, 345B, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Hwang, Yuhoon [Department of Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongreung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Yavuz, Cafer T. [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Andersen, Henrik R., E-mail: henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Disulfide/thiol polymer networks are promising as sorbent for heavy metals. • Rapid sorption and high Langmuir affinity constant (a{sub L}) for stormwater treatment. • Selective sorption for copper, cadmium, and zinc in the presence of calcium. • Reusability likely due to structure stability of disulfide linked polymer networks. - Abstract: Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions–copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water.

  20. Per-2,3-O-alkylated beta-cyclodextrin duplexes connected with disulfide bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tatar, Ameneh; Grishina, Anastasia; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kraus, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-48 ISSN 1061-0278 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12019 Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclodextrins * inclusion complexes * disulfide bonds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  1. Disulfide-bridging PEGylation during refolding for the more efficient production of modified proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Claire; Choi, Ji-Won; Brocchini, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Proteins that are modified by chemical conjugation require at least two separate purification processes. First the bulk protein is purified, and then after chemical conjugation, a second purification process is required to obtain the modified protein. In an effort to develop new enabling technologies to integrate bioprocessing and protein modification, we describe the use of disulfide-bridging conjugation to conduct PEGylation during protein refolding. Preliminary experiments using a PEG-mono-sulfone reagent with partially unfolded leptin and unfolded RNAse T1 indicated that the cysteine thiols underwent disulfide-bridging conjugation to give the PEGylated proteins. Interferon-β1b (IFN-β1b) was then expressed in E.coli as inclusion bodies and found to undergo disulfide bridging-conjugation during refolding. The PEG-IFN-β1b was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and displayed in vitro biological activity. In the absence of the PEGylation reagent, IFN-β1b refolding was less efficient and yielded protein aggregates. No PEGylation was observed if the cysteines on IFN-β1b were first modified with iodoacetamide prior to refolding. Our results demonstrate that the simultaneous refolding and disulfide bridging PEGylation of proteins could be a useful strategy in the development of affordable modified protein therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Structural basis for target protein recognition by the protein disulfide reductase thioredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin is ubiquitous and regulates various target proteins through disulfide bond reduction. We report the structure of thioredoxin (HvTrxh2 from barley) in a reaction intermediate complex with a protein substrate, barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI). The crystal structure...

  3. Sulfur-Switch Ugi Reaction for Macrocyclic Disulfide-Bridged Peptidomimetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vishwanatha, Thimmalapura M; Bergamaschi, Enrico; Dömling, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A general strategy is introduced for the efficient synthetic access of disulfide linked artificial macrocycles via a Ugi four-component reaction (U4CR) followed by oxidative cyclization. The double-mercapto input is proposed for use in the Ugi reaction, thereby yielding all six topologically

  4. Decontamination of Oils Contaminated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dibenzyl Disulfide Using Polar Aprotic Solvents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Matějková, Martina; Spáčilová, Lucie; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, P.; Šolcová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2015), s. 41-48 ISSN 2319-5967 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04020151 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : corrosive sulfur * dibenzyl disulfide * polar aprotic solvents Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ijesit.com/Volume%204/Issue%202/IJESIT201502_06.pdf

  5. Identification of Thioredoxin Target Disulfides Using Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    extracts is described. The procedure utilizes the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagents containing a thiol reactive iodoacetamide group and a biotin affinity tag to target peptides containing reduced cysteine residues. The identification of substrates for Trx and the extent of target disulfide...

  6. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges...

  7. Production of asymmetric disulfides based metiltiol - example of nano-structure of elemental sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. Dyusengaliev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methods of obtaining of asymmetric organic disulfides on the basis of metylthiol and nanostructures of element sulfur are discussed. The way of preparation of metyletyldisulfide with the release of 99 % was protected by the innovative patent of RK.

  8. Functional Groups and Sulfur K-Edge XANES Spectra : Divalent Sulfur and Disulfides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijovilovich, A.E.; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur K-edge XANES was measured for two divalent sulfurs (dibenzyl and benzyl phenyl) and two disulfides (dibenzyl and diphenyl). The absorption spectra could be assigned using density functional theory with the "half core hole" approximation for the core hole including relaxation of selected

  9. Protein disulfide isomerase of Toxoplasma gondii is targeted by mucosal IgA antibodies in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Bob; Back, Jaap Willem; Klaren, Vincent N. A.; Speijer, Dave; Peek, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analysis identified a 49 kDa antigen from Toxoplasma gondii as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). This antigen is generally recognized by IgA in tears of healthy humans. We determined the complete open reading frame and expressed PDI recombinantly. Recombinant PDI was recognized

  10. Carbophilic versus thiophilic attack in the reaction of metallated aromates and heteroaromates with carbon disulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkruijsse, H.D.; Brandsma, L.

    1987-01-01

    Copper(I) halides catalyse the formation of carbodithioates RCSSLi in the reaction of aryl- or heteroaryl-lithium reagents with carbon disulfide. Subsequent addition of methyl iodide gives the dithioesters RCSSCH3 in high yields. Appreciable amounts of the methyl sulfides RSCH3 and tars are obtained

  11. Patagonfibrase modifies protein expression of tissue factor and protein disulfide isomerase in rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2016-09-01

    Patagonfibrase is a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the South American rear-fanged snake Philodryas patagoniensis, and is an important contributor to local lesions inflicted by this species. The tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa complex, besides triggering the coagulation cascade, has been demonstrated to be involved in inflammatory events. Our aim was to determine whether patagonfibrase affects the expression of TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an enzyme that controls TF biological activity, at the site of patagonfibrase injection, and thus if they may play a role in hemostatic and inflammatory events induced by snake venoms. Patagonfibrase (60 μg/kg) was administered s.c. to rats, and after 3 h blood was collected to evaluate hemostasis parameters, and skin fragments close to the site of injection were taken to assess TF and PDI expression. Patagonfibrase did not alter blood cell counts, plasma fibrinogen levels, or levels of TF activity in plasma. However, by semiquantitative Western blotting, patagonfibrase increased TF expression by 2-fold, and decreased PDI expression by 3-fold in skin samples. In agreement, by immunohistochemical analyses, prominent TF expression was observed in the subcutaneous tissue. Thus, patagonfibrase affects the local expression of TF and PDI without inducing any systemic hemostatic disturbance, although that they may be involved in the local inflammatory events induced by hemorrhagic metalloproteinases. Once antivenom therapy is not totally effective to treat the local injury induced by snake venoms, modulation of the activity and expression of TF and/or PDI might become a strategy for treating snake envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diallyl trisulfide ameliorates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in type 1 diabetic rats: role of SIRT1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liming; Li, Shu; Tang, Xinlong; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Xiaodong; Han, Jinsong; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yuji; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Yinli; Yang, Yang; Wang, Huishan

    2017-07-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) protects against apoptosis during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in diabetic state, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Previously, we and others demonstrated that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activation inhibited oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during MI/R injury. We hypothesize that DATS reduces diabetic MI/R injury by activating SIRT1 signaling. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were subjected to MI/R surgery with or without perioperative administration of DATS (40 mg/kg). We found that DATS treatment markedly improved left ventricular systolic pressure and the first derivative of left ventricular pressure, reduced myocardial infarct size as well as serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Furthermore, the myocardial apoptosis was also suppressed by DATS as evidenced by reduced apoptotic index and cleaved caspase-3 expression. However, these effects were abolished by EX527 (the inhibitor of SIRT1 signaling, 5 mg/kg). We further found that DATS effectively upregulated SIRT1 expression and its nuclear distribution. Additionally, PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed by DATS treatment. Moreover, DATS significantly activated Nrf-2/HO-1 antioxidant signaling pathway, thus reducing Nox-2/4 expressions. However, the ameliorative effects of DATS on oxidative stress and ER stress-mediated myocardial apoptosis were inhibited by EX527 administration. Taken together, these data suggest that perioperative DATS treatment effectively ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic setting by enhancing cardiac SIRT1 signaling. SIRT1 activation not only upregulated Nrf-2/HO-1-mediated antioxidant signaling pathway but also suppressed PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP-mediated ER stress level, thus reducing myocardial apoptosis and eventually preserving cardiac function.

  13. An HLA-B27 Homodimer Specific Antibody Recognizes a Discontinuous Mixed-Disulfide Epitope as Identified by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuraşcu, Marius-Ionuţ; Marroquin Belaunzanar, Osiris; Cozma, Claudia; Petrausch, Ulf; Renner, Christoph; Przybylski, Michael

    2016-06-01

    HLA-B27 homodimer formation is believed to be a hallmark of HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthritides. Recently, we have generated a homodimer-specific monoclonal antibody (HD6) and have demonstrated that HLA-B27 homodimer complexes are present on monocytes of healthy HLA-B27 gene carriers at low levels, with significantly increased levels at active disease. The capability of the HD6 antibody to discriminate between correctly formed HLA-B27 heterotrimers and pathology-associated homodimers is striking and cannot be explained by the primary structure of HLA-B27. We hypothesized that HD6 accesses a unique epitope and used affinity-mass spectrometry for its identification. The HD6 antibody was immobilized on an activated sepharose affinity column, and HLA-B27 homodimer characterized for affinity. The epitope was identified by proteolytic epitope excision and MALDI mass spectrometry, and shown to comprise a discontinuous Cys-203- 257-Cys mixed-disulfide peptide structure that is not accessible in HLA-B27 heterotrimers due to protection by noncovalently linked β2-microglobulin. The epitope peptides were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis, and the two monomeric peptide components, HLA-B27(203-219) and HLA-B27(257-273), as well as the homo- and hetero-dimeric disulfide linked combinations prepared. The affinity binding constants KD towards the antibodies were determined using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor, and showed the highest affinity with a KD of approximately 40 nM to the HD6 antibody for the (203-219)-SS-(257-273) mixed disulfide epitope.

  14. A second disulfide bridge from the N-terminal domain to extracellular loop 2 dampens receptor activity in GPR39

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storjohann, Laura; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W

    2008-01-01

    A highly conserved feature across all families of 7TM receptors is a disulfide bridge between a Cys residue located at the extracellular end of transmembrane segment III (TM-III) and one in extracellular loop 2 (ECL-2). The zinc sensor GPR39 contains four Cys residues in the extracellular domains...... on the receptor already lacking the second disulfide bridge and already displaying a high Zn (2+) potency. We conclude that the second disulfide bridge, which according to the beta2-adrenergic structure will form a covalent link across the entrance to the main ligand binding pocket, serves to dampen GPR39...... activation. We suggest that formation of extra disulfide bridges may be an important general mechanism for regulating the activity of 7TM receptors....

  15. Disruption of reducing pathways is not essential for efficient disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatahet Feras

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of native disulfide bonds is a complex and essential post-translational modification for many proteins. The large scale production of these proteins can be difficult and depends on targeting the protein to a compartment in which disulfide bond formation naturally occurs, usually the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes or the periplasm of prokaryotes. It is currently thought to be impossible to produce large amounts of disulfide bond containing protein in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli due to the presence of multiple pathways for their reduction. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and FAD-dependent catalyst of disulfide bond formation found in the inter membrane space of mitochondria, allows the efficient formation of native disulfide bonds in heterologously expressed proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli even without the disruption of genes involved in disulfide bond reduction, for example trxB and/or gor. Indeed yields of active disulfide bonded proteins were higher in BL21 (DE3 pLysSRARE, an E. coli strain with the reducing pathways intact, than in the commercial Δgor ΔtrxB strain rosetta-gami upon co-expression of Erv1p. Conclusions Our results refute the current paradigm in the field that disruption of at least one of the reducing pathways is essential for the efficient production of disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli and open up new possibilities for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.

  16. Disulfide bridges in tomato pectinesterase: variations from pectinesterases of other species; conservation of possible active site segments.

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, O.; Jörnvall, H.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of tomato pectinesterase by carboxymethylation, with and without reduction, shows that the enzyme has two intrachain disulfide bridges. Analysis of fragments obtained from the native enzyme after digestion with pepsin identified bridges connecting Cys-98 with Cys-125, and Cys-166 with Cys-200. The locations of disulfide bridges in tomato pectinesterase are not identical to those in three distantly related pectinesterases (18-33% residue identities) from microorganisms. However, one h...

  17. The biologically active form of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm is a disulfide-bonded homo-multimer

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Since many cell surface receptors exist in their active form as oligomeric complexes, we have investigated the subunit composition of the biologically active sperm receptor in egg plasma membranes from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Electrophoretic analysis of the receptor without prior reduction of disulfide bonds revealed that the surface receptor exists in the form of a disulfide-bonded multimer, estimated to be a tetramer. These findings are in excellent agreement with the fact that the N...

  18. A Strategy for Production of Correctly Folded Disulfide-Rich Peptides in the Periplasm of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Natalie J; Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Anangi, Raveendra; King, Glenn F

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant expression of disulfide-reticulated peptides and proteins is often challenging. We describe a method that exploits the periplasmic disulfide-bond forming machinery of Escherichia coli and combines this with a cleavable, solubility-enhancing fusion tag to obtain higher yields of correctly folded target protein than is achievable via cytoplasmic expression. The protocols provided herein cover all aspects of this approach, from vector construction and transformation to purification of the cleaved target protein and subsequent quality control.

  19. Nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms homo-dimers stabilized by disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Daniel; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H; Bueno, Carlos; Santos, Marco; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Batista, Cesar V; Zimic, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    Recombinant wild-pyrazinamidase from H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis was analyzed by gel electrophoresis under differential reducing conditions to evaluate its quaternary structure. PZAse was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography under non-reducing conditions. PZAse activity was measured and mass spectrometry analysis was performed to determine the identity of proteins by de novo sequencing and to determine the presence of disulfide bonds. This study confirmed that M. tuberculosis wild type PZAse was able to form homo-dimers in vitro. Homo-dimers showed a slightly lower specific PZAse activity compared to monomeric PZAse. PZAse dimers were dissociated into monomers in response to reducing conditions. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the existence of disulfide bonds (C72-C138 and C138-C138) stabilizing the quaternary structure of the PZAse homo-dimer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dongah; Lee, Joo Sung; Patel, Hasmukh A; Jakobsen, Mogens H; Hwang, Yuhoon; Yavuz, Cafer T; Hansen, Hans Chr Bruun; Andersen, Henrik R

    2017-06-15

    Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions-copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Autonomic healable waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids based on aromatic disulfide moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Aguirresarobe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic disulfide dynamic structures were incorporated as chain extenders in waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids in order to provide autonomic healable characteristics. The synthesis was carried out following the acetone process methodology and the influence of the introduction of the healing agents in the polymer dispersion stability was analyzed. After the crosslinking process at room temperature, organic-inorganic hybrid films, which presented autonomic healing characteristics, were obtained. These features were evaluated by means of stress-strain tests and the films showed repetitive healing abilities. Thus, the optimum healing time at room temperature (25 °C as well as the influence of different parameters in the healing efficiency, such the aromatic disulfide concentration or the physical properties of the polymer matrix were analyzed.

  2. Conversion of a disulfide bond into a thioacetal group during echinomycin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, Kinya; Keegan, Ronan M.; Ranganathan, Soumya; Fang, Minyi; Bibby, Jaclyn; Winn, Martyn D.; Sato, Michio; Lian, Mingzhu; Watanabe, Kenji; Rigden, Daniel J.; Kim, Chu-Young (Liverpool); (Daresbury); (NU Singapore); (Shizuoka); (RAL)

    2013-12-02

    Echinomycin is a nonribosomal depsipeptide natural product with a range of interesting bioactivities that make it an important target for drug discovery and development. It contains a thioacetal bridge, a unique chemical motif derived from the disulfide bond of its precursor antibiotic triostin A by the action of an S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase, Ecm18. The crystal structure of Ecm18 in complex with its reaction products S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and echinomycin was determined at 1.50 Å resolution. Phasing was achieved using a new molecular replacement package called AMPLE, which automatically derives search models from structure predictions based on ab initio protein modelling. Structural analysis indicates that a combination of proximity effects, medium effects, and catalysis by strain drives the unique transformation of the disulfide bond into the thioacetal linkage.

  3. Disulfide bridges remain intact while native insulin converts into amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kurouski

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils are β-sheet-rich protein aggregates commonly found in the organs and tissues of patients with various amyloid-associated diseases. Understanding the structural organization of amyloid fibrils can be beneficial for the search of drugs to successfully treat diseases associated with protein misfolding. The structure of insulin fibrils was characterized by deep ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy combined with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. The compositions of the fibril core and unordered parts were determined at single amino acid residue resolution. All three disulfide bonds of native insulin remained intact during the aggregation process, withstanding scrambling. Three out of four tyrosine residues were packed into the fibril core, and another aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine, was located in the unordered parts of insulin fibrils. In addition, using all-atom MD simulations, the disulfide bonds were confirmed to remain intact in the insulin dimer, which mimics the fibrillar form of insulin.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow after long-term exposure to carbon disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaserud, O.; Russell, D.; Nyberg-Hansen, R.; Joergensen, E.B.; Gjerstad, L.; Rootwelt, K.; Nakstad, P.; Hommeren, O.J.; Tvedt, B.

    1992-01-01

    Sixteen former rayon viscose workers were investigated four years after the exposure to carbon disulfide was discontinued. Median age was 58 years (range 43-65 years), median exposure time was 17 years (range 10-35 years). Encephalopathy was diagnosed in altogether 14 workers. To further explore pathophysiological mechanisms, cerebrovascular investigations were employed. Doppler ultrasound examination of the precerebral vessels in 15 workers showed a slight stenosis of the left internal carotid artery in one. Regional cerebral blood flow investigation (rCBF) with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with Xenon-133 gas was performed in 14. There was no significant difference from a control group. Regional side-to-side asymmetries beyond reference limits were demonstrated in eight workers. The abnormalities were modest, but may indicate a tendency toward focal blood flow disturbances in workers with long-term exposure to carbon disulfide. (au)

  5. Plant antimicrobial peptides snakin-1 and snakin-2: chemical synthesis and insights into the disulfide connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul W R; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Molina, Antonio; López, Gemma; Middleditch, Martin; Brimble, Margaret A

    2014-04-22

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins represent an important class of plant defensive compounds against pathogens and provide a rich source of lead compounds in the field of drug discovery. We describe the effective preparation of the cysteine-rich snakin-1 and -2 antimicrobial peptides by using a combination of solid-phase synthesis and native chemical ligation. A subsequent cysteine/cystine mediated oxidative folding to form the six internal disulfide bonds concurrently gave the folded proteins in 40-50 % yield. By comparative evaluation of mass spectrometry, HPLC, biological data and trypsin digest mapping of folded synthetic snakin-2 compared to natural snakin-2, we demonstrated that synthetic snakin-2 possesses full antifungal activity and displayed similar chromatographic behaviour to natural snakin-2. Trypsin digest analysis allowed tentative assignment of three of the purported six disulfide bonds. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Selective removal of heavy metal ions by disulfide linked polymer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ko, Dongah; Sung Lee, Joo; Patel, Hasmukh A.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal contaminated surface water is one of the oldest pollution problems, which is critical to ecosystems and human health. We devised disulfide linked polymer networks and employed as a sorbent for removing heavy metal ions from contaminated water. Although the polymer network material has...... a moderate surface area, it demonstrated cadmium removal efficiency equivalent to highly porous activated carbon while it showed 16 times faster sorption kinetics compared to activated carbon, owing to the high affinity of cadmium towards disulfide and thiol functionality in the polymer network. The metal...... sorption mechanism on polymer network was studied by sorption kinetics, effect of pH, and metal complexation. We observed that the metal ions―copper, cadmium, and zinc showed high binding affinity in polymer network, even in the presence of competing cations like calcium in water....

  7. Electronic and Vibrational Optical Activity of Several Peptides Related to Neurohypophyseal Hormones: Disulfide Group Conformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pazderková, Markéta; Bednárová, Lucie; Dlouhá, Helena; Flegel, Martin; Lebl, M.; Hlaváček, Jan; Setnička, V.; Urbanová, M.; Hynie, S.; Klenerová, V.; Baumruk, V.; Maloň, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 11 (2012), s. 923-932 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/1276 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 578212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : neurohypophyseal hormones * disulfide bridge * Raman optical activity * vibrational circular dichroism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.879, year: 2012

  8. {sup 13}C-NMR studies on disulfide bond isomerization in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Kumamoto University, Department of Structural BioImaging, Faculty of Life Sciences (Japan); Miyanoiri, Yohei [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Terauchi, Tsutomu [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@tmu.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Conformational isomerization of disulfide bonds is associated with the dynamics and thus the functional aspects of proteins. However, our understanding of the isomerization is limited by experimental difficulties in probing it. We explored the disulfide conformational isomerization of the Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), by performing an NMR line-shape analysis of its Cys carbon peaks. In this approach, 1D {sup 13}C spectra were recorded at small temperature intervals for BPTI samples selectively labeled with site-specifically {sup 13}C-enriched Cys, and the recorded peaks were displayed in the order of the temperature after the spectral scales were normalized to a carbon peak. Over the profile of the line-shape, exchange broadening that altered with temperature was manifested for the carbon peaks of Cys14 and Cys38. The Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond reportedly exists in equilibrium between a high-populated (M) and two low-populated states (m{sub c14} and m{sub c38}). Consistent with the three-site exchange model, biphasic exchange broadening arising from the two processes was observed for the peak of the Cys14 α-carbon. As the exchange broadening is maximized when the exchange rate equals the chemical shift difference in Hz between equilibrating sites, semi-quantitative information that was useful for establishing conditions for {sup 13}C relaxation dispersion experiments was obtained through the carbon line-shape profile. With respect to the m{sub c38} isomerization, the {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C signals at the β-position of the minor state were resolved from the major peaks and detected by exchange experiments at a low temperature.

  9. (13)C-NMR studies on disulfide bond isomerization in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Miyanoiri, Yohei; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-09-01

    Conformational isomerization of disulfide bonds is associated with the dynamics and thus the functional aspects of proteins. However, our understanding of the isomerization is limited by experimental difficulties in probing it. We explored the disulfide conformational isomerization of the Cys14-Cys38 disulfide bond in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), by performing an NMR line-shape analysis of its Cys carbon peaks. In this approach, 1D (13)C spectra were recorded at small temperature intervals for BPTI samples selectively labeled with site-specifically (13)C-enriched Cys, and the recorded peaks were displayed in the order of the temperature after the spectral scales were normalized to a carbon peak. Over the profile of the line-shape, exchange broadening that altered with temperature was manifested for the carbon peaks of Cys14 and Cys38. The Cys14-Cys38 disulfide bond reportedly exists in equilibrium between a high-populated (M) and two low-populated states (m c14 and m c38). Consistent with the three-site exchange model, biphasic exchange broadening arising from the two processes was observed for the peak of the Cys14 α-carbon. As the exchange broadening is maximized when the exchange rate equals the chemical shift difference in Hz between equilibrating sites, semi-quantitative information that was useful for establishing conditions for (13)C relaxation dispersion experiments was obtained through the carbon line-shape profile. With respect to the m c38 isomerization, the (1)H-(13)C signals at the β-position of the minor state were resolved from the major peaks and detected by exchange experiments at a low temperature.

  10. 13C-NMR studies on disulfide bond isomerization in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Miyanoiri, Yohei; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-01-01

    Conformational isomerization of disulfide bonds is associated with the dynamics and thus the functional aspects of proteins. However, our understanding of the isomerization is limited by experimental difficulties in probing it. We explored the disulfide conformational isomerization of the Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), by performing an NMR line-shape analysis of its Cys carbon peaks. In this approach, 1D 13 C spectra were recorded at small temperature intervals for BPTI samples selectively labeled with site-specifically 13 C-enriched Cys, and the recorded peaks were displayed in the order of the temperature after the spectral scales were normalized to a carbon peak. Over the profile of the line-shape, exchange broadening that altered with temperature was manifested for the carbon peaks of Cys14 and Cys38. The Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond reportedly exists in equilibrium between a high-populated (M) and two low-populated states (m c14 and m c38 ). Consistent with the three-site exchange model, biphasic exchange broadening arising from the two processes was observed for the peak of the Cys14 α-carbon. As the exchange broadening is maximized when the exchange rate equals the chemical shift difference in Hz between equilibrating sites, semi-quantitative information that was useful for establishing conditions for 13 C relaxation dispersion experiments was obtained through the carbon line-shape profile. With respect to the m c38 isomerization, the 1 H- 13 C signals at the β-position of the minor state were resolved from the major peaks and detected by exchange experiments at a low temperature.

  11. Neutron in-beam Moessbauer spectroscopic study of iron disulfide at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, M. K. [International Christian University, College of Liberal Arts (Japan); Kobayashi, Y., E-mail: kyoshio@riken.jp [RIKEN (Japan); Nonaka, H.; Yamada, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Sakai, Y. [Daido Institute of Technology (Japan); Shoji, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Matsue, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    An in-beam emission Moessbauer spectrum of {sup 57}Fe arising from the {sup 56}Fe(n, {gamma}) {sup 57}Fe reaction in iron disulfide at room temperature was measured with a parallel plate avalanche counter. It was clearly observed that the nuclear reaction and the following process lead to the production of a new chemical species of iron different from the parent compound.

  12. Neutron in-beam Moessbauer spectroscopy of iron disulfide at 298 and 78 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y., E-mail: kyoshio@riken.jp [RIKEN (Japan); Yamada, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Tsuruoka, Y.; Kubo, M. K. [International Christian University (Japan); Shoji, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Saint-Gobain K. K., Crystal Division (Japan); Takayama, T.; Sakai, Y. [Daido Institute of Technology (Japan); Sato, W.; Shinohara, A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Segawa, M.; Matsue, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Emission Moessbauer spectra of {sup 57}Fe arising from the {sup 56}Fe(n, {gamma}){sup 57}Fe reaction in two crystal forms of iron disulfide were measured at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Both forms exhibited two doublets assignable to the parent material and the new species produced by the nuclear reaction. At low temperature three doublets explained the spectra obtained. Production of thermally unstable species after the neutron capture reaction was suggested.

  13. Modified electrophoretic and digestion conditions allow a simplified mass spectrometric evaluation of disulfide bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pompach, Petr; Man, Petr; Kavan, Daniel; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Kumar, Vinay; Bezouška, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír; Novák, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 11 (2009), s. 1571-1578 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400200501; GA AV ČR IAA5020403; GA AV ČR KJB500200612; GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : disulfide bond * cystamine * gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2009

  14. Photochemical synthesis of ultrafine organosilicon particles from trimethyl(2-propynyloxy)silane and carbon disulfide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morita, H.; Nozawa, R.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-2 (2006), s. 142-148 ISSN 1010-6030 Grant - others:MEXT(JP) 767/15085203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ultrafine particles * photo-polymerization * trimethyl(2-propynyloxy)silane * carbon disulfide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2006

  15. The Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond N-H···S in 2,2'-Diaminodiphenyl Disulfide: Experimental and Computational Thermochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Flores, Henoc; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M; Sandoval-Lira, Jacinto; Camarillo, E Adriana

    2018-01-11

    The intramolecular hydrogen bond of the N-H···S type has been investigated sparingly by thermochemical and computational methods. In order to study this interaction, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in gaseous phase of diphenyl disulfide, 2,2'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide at T = 298.15 K were determined by experimental thermochemical methods and computational calculations. The experimental enthalpies of formation in gas-phase were obtained from enthalpies of formation in crystalline phase and enthalpies of sublimation. Enthalpies of formation in crystalline phase were obtained using rotatory bomb combustion calorimetry. By thermogravimetry, enthalpies of vaporization were obtained, and by combining them with enthalpies of fusion, the enthalpies of sublimation were calculated. The Gaussian-4 procedure and the atomization method were applied to obtain enthalpies of formation in gas-phase of the compounds under study. Theoretical and experimental values are in good agreement. Through natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and a topological analysis of the electronic density, the intramolecular hydrogen bridge (N-H···S) in the 2,2'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide was confirmed. Finally, an enthalpic difference of 11.8 kJ·mol -1 between the 2,2'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide was found, which is attributed to the intramolecular N-H···S interaction.

  16. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  17. An analytic study of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids using the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Abro, Kashif; Hussain, Mukkarum; Mahmood Baig, Mirza

    2017-10-01

    The significance of the different shapes of molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles contained in ethylene glycol has recently attracted researchers, because of the numerical or experimental analyses on the shapes of molybdenum disulfide and the lack of fractionalized analytic approaches. This work is dedicated to examining the shape impacts of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids in the mixed convection flow with magnetic field and a porous medium. Ethylene glycol is chosen as the base fluid in which molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles are suspended. Non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles, namely, platelet, blade, cylinder and brick, are utilized in this analysis. The modeling of the problem is characterized by employing the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives and the governing partial differential equations are solved via Laplace transforms with inversion. Solutions are obtained for temperature distribution and velocity field and expressed in terms of compact form of M-function, Mba(T) . In the end, a figures are drawn to compare the different non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives model has been compared with ordinary derivatives models and discussed graphically by setting various rheological parameters.

  18. Resolution of Disulfide Heterogeneity in Nogo Receptor 1 Fusion Proteins by Molecular Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Weinreb; D Wen; F Qian; C Wildes; E Garber; L Walus; M Jung; J Wang; J Relton; et al.

    2011-12-31

    NgRI (Nogo-66 receptor) is part of a signalling complex that inhibits axon regeneration in the central nervous system. Truncated soluble versions of NgRI have been used successfully to promote axon regeneration in animal models of spinal-cord injury, raising interest in this protein as a potential therapeutic target. The LRR (leucine-rich repeat) regions in NgRI are flanked by N- and C-terminal disulfide-containing 'cap' domains (LRRNT and LRRCT respectively). In the present work we show that, although functionally active, the NgRI(310)-Fc fusion protein contains mislinked and heterogeneous disulfide patterns in the LRRCT domain, and we report the generation of a series of variant molecules specifically designed to prevent this heterogeneity. Using these variants we explored the effects of modifying the NgRI truncation site or the spacing between the NgRI and Fc domains, or replacing cysteines within the NgRI or IgG hinge regions. One variant, which incorporates replacements of Cys{sup 266} and Cys{sup 309} with alanine residues, completely eliminated disulfide scrambling while maintaining functional in vitro and in vivo efficacy. This modified NgRI-Fc molecule represents a significantly improved candidate for further pharmaceutical development, and may serve as a useful model for the optimization of other IgG fusion proteins made from LRR proteins.

  19. Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds from carbon disulfide under hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2005-12-01

    Abiotic formation of organic compounds under hydrothermal conditions is of interest to bio, geo-, and cosmochemists. Oceanic sulfur-rich hydrothermal systems have been proposed as settings for the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds. Carbon disulfide is a common component of magmatic and hot spring gases, and is present in marine and terrestrial hydrothermal systems. Thus, its reactivity should be considered as another carbon source in addition to carbon dioxide in reductive aqueous thermosynthesis. We have examined the formation of organic compounds in aqueous solutions of carbon disulfide and oxalic acid at 175 degrees C for 5 and 72 h. The synthesis products from carbon disulfide in acidic aqueous solutions yielded a series of organic sulfur compounds. The major compounds after 5 h of reaction included dimethyl polysulfides (54.5%), methyl perthioacetate (27.6%), dimethyl trithiocarbonate (6.8%), trithianes (2.7%), hexathiepane (1.4%), trithiolanes (0.8%), and trithiacycloheptanes (0.3%). The main compounds after 72 h of reaction consisted of trithiacycloheptanes (39.4%), pentathiepane (11.6%), tetrathiocyclooctanes (11.5%), trithiolanes (10.6%), tetrathianes (4.4%), trithianes (1.2%), dimethyl trisulfide (1.1%), and numerous minor compounds. It is concluded that the abiotic formation of aliphatic straight-chain and cyclic polysulfides is possible under hydrothermal conditions and warrants further studies.

  20. Structure of the Noncatalytic Domains and Global Fold of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase ERp72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, G.; Määttänen, P; Schrag, J; Hura, G; Gabrielli, L; Cygler, M; Thomas, D; Gehring, K

    2009-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerases are a family of proteins that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. The family includes general enzymes such as PDI that recognize unfolded proteins, and others that are selective for specific classes of proteins. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of central non-catalytic domains of a specific isomerase, ERp72 (also called CaBP2 and protein disulfide-isomerase A4) from Rattus norvegicus. The structure reveals strong similarity to ERp57, a PDI-family member that interacts with the lectin-like chaperones calnexin and calreticulin but, unexpectedly, ERp72 does not interact with calnexin as shown by isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of ERp72 was used to develop models of the full-length protein using both rigid body refinement and ab initio simulated annealing of dummy atoms. The two methods show excellent agreement and define the relative positions of the five thioredoxin-like domains of ERp72 and potential substrate or chaperone binding sites.

  1. Protein disulfide-isomerase interacts with a substrate protein at all stages along its folding pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G Irvine

    Full Text Available In contrast to molecular chaperones that couple protein folding to ATP hydrolysis, protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI catalyzes protein folding coupled to formation of disulfide bonds (oxidative folding. However, we do not know how PDI distinguishes folded, partly-folded and unfolded protein substrates. As a model intermediate in an oxidative folding pathway, we prepared a two-disulfide mutant of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI and showed by NMR that it is partly-folded and highly dynamic. NMR studies show that it binds to PDI at the same site that binds peptide ligands, with rapid binding and dissociation kinetics; surface plasmon resonance shows its interaction with PDI has a Kd of ca. 10(-5 M. For comparison, we characterized the interactions of PDI with native BPTI and fully-unfolded BPTI. Interestingly, PDI does bind native BPTI, but binding is quantitatively weaker than with partly-folded and unfolded BPTI. Hence PDI recognizes and binds substrates via permanently or transiently unfolded regions. This is the first study of PDI's interaction with a partly-folded protein, and the first to analyze this folding catalyst's changing interactions with substrates along an oxidative folding pathway. We have identified key features that make PDI an effective catalyst of oxidative protein folding - differential affinity, rapid ligand exchange and conformational flexibility.

  2. Two-dimensional metallic tantalum disulfide as a hydrogen evolution catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianping; Wang, Xina; Zhang, Shuai; Xiao, Lingfeng; Huan, Yahuan; Gong, Yue; Zhang, Zhepeng; Li, Yuanchang; Zhou, Xiebo; Hong, Min; Fang, Qiyi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Xinfeng; Gu, Lin; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2017-10-16

    Two-dimensional metallic transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as prototypes for uncovering fundamental physical phenomena, such as superconductivity and charge-density waves, as well as for engineering-related applications. However, the batch production of such envisioned transition metal dichalcogenides remains challenging, which has hindered the aforementioned explorations. Herein, we fabricate thickness-tunable tantalum disulfide flakes and centimetre-sized ultrathin films on an electrode material of gold foil via a facile chemical vapour deposition route. Through temperature-dependent Raman characterization, we observe the transition from nearly commensurate to commensurate charge-density wave phases with our ultrathin tantalum disulfide flakes. We have obtained high hydrogen evolution reaction efficiency with the as-grown tantalum disulfide flakes directly synthesized on gold foils comparable to traditional platinum catalysts. This work could promote further efforts for exploring new efficient catalysts in the large materials family of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides, as well as exploiting their applications towards more versatile applications.Metallic transition metal dichalcogenides are important materials for catalysis, but scalable and controllable preparation methods are scarce. Here, the authors synthesize 2H-TaS 2 as centimetre-scale films of tunable thickness and show they are an efficient catalyst for hydrogen evolution.

  3. The coenzyme A disulfide reductase of Borrelia burgdorferi is important for rapid growth throughout the enzootic cycle and essential for infection of the mammalian host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Christian H.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Malizia, Robert A.; Kariu, Toru; Cusack, Brian; Desrosiers, Daniel C.; Hazlett, Karsten R.O.; Claiborne, Al; Pal, Utpal; Radolf, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In a microarray analysis of the RpoS regulon in mammalian host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi, bb0728 (cdr) was found to be dually-transcribed by the sigma factors σ70 and RpoS. The cdr gene encodes a coenzyme A disulfide reductase (CoADR) that reduces CoA-disulfides to CoA in an NADH-dependent manner. Based on the abundance of CoA in B. burgdorferi and the biochemistry of the enzyme, CoADR has been proposed to play a role in the spirochete’s response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). To better understand the physiologic function(s) of Bb CoADR, we generated a B. burgdorferi mutant in which the cdr gene was disrupted. RT-PCR and 5′-RACE analysis revealed that cdr and bb0729 are co-transcribed from a single transcriptional start site upstream of the bb0729 coding sequence; a shuttle vector containing the bb0729-cdr operon and upstream promoter element was used to complement the cdr mutant. Although the mutant was no more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than its parent, it did exhibit increased sensitivity to high concentrations of t -butyl-hydroperoxide, an oxidizing compound that damages spirochetal membranes. Characterization of the mutant during standard (15% oxygen, 6% CO2) and anaerobic (damage; one or more of these functions are essential for infection of the mammalian host by B. burgdorferi. PMID:21923763

  4. Effect of substrate and temperature on the electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qizhi; Fang, Jiajia; Zhang, Guangru; Wang, Quan

    2018-03-01

    The use of two-dimensional nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films in field-effect transistors (FETs) in place of graphene was investigated. Monolayer MoS2 films were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. The output and transfer curves of supported and suspended MoS2 FETs were measured. The mobility of the suspended device reached 364.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 150 °C. The hysteresis of the supported device in transfer curves was much larger than that of the suspended device, and it increased at higher temperatures. These results indicate that the device mobility was limited by Coulomb scattering at ambient temperature, and surface/interface phonon scattering at 150 °C, and the injection of electrons, via quantum tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contact, was enhanced at higher temperatures and led to the increase of the hysteresis. The suspended MoS2 films show potential for application as a channel material in electronic devices, and further understanding the causes of hysteresis in a material is important for its use in technologies, such as memory devices and sensing cells.

  5. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobstein Julie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using

  6. Collision Induced Dissociation Products of Disulfide-Bonded Peptides: Ions Result from the Cleavage of More Than One Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel F.; Go, Eden P.; Toumi, Melinda L.; Desaire, Heather

    2011-03-01

    Disulfide bonds are a post-translational modification (PTM) that can be scrambled or shuffled to non-native bonds during recombinant expression, sample handling, or sample purification. Currently, mapping of disulfide bonds is not easy because of various sample requirements and data analysis difficulties. One step towards facilitating this difficult work is developing a better understanding of how disulfide-bonded peptides fragment during collision induced dissociation (CID). Most automated analysis algorithms function based on the assumption that the preponderance of product ions observed during the dissociation of disulfide-bonded peptides result from the cleavage of just one peptide bond, and in this report we tested that assumption by extensively analyzing the product ions generated when several disulfide-bonded peptides are subjected to CID on a quadrupole time of flight (QTOF) instrument. We found that one of the most common types of product ions generated resulted from two peptide bond cleavages, or a double cleavage. We found that for several of the disulfide-bonded peptides analyzed, the number of double cleavage product ions outnumbered those of single cleavages. The influence of charge state and precursor ion size was investigated, to determine if those parameters dictated the amount of double cleavage product ions formed. It was found in this sample set that no strong correlation existed between the charge state or peptide size and the portion of product ions assigned as double cleavages. These data show that these ions could account for many of the product ions detected in CID data of disulfide bonded peptides. We also showed the utility of double cleavage product ions on a peptide with multiple cysteines present. Double cleavage products were able to fully characterize the bonding pattern of each cysteine where typical single b/ y cleavage products could not.

  7. INCREASING PRODUCTION OF PROTEINS IN GRAM-POSITIVE MICROORGANISMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, Wim; Caldwell, Robert M

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to secretion in Gram-positive microorganisms. The present invention provides the nuclei acid and amino acid sequences for the Bacillus subtilis disulfide bond isomerases, Dsb1 and Dsb2. The present invention also provides means for increasing the secretion of

  8. Real-time Monitoring of Intermediates Reveals the Reaction Pathway in the Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Disulfide Bond Formation Protein A (DsbA) and B (DsbB) on a Membrane-immobilized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Kenjiro; Furusawa, Hiroyuki; Okahata, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation protein B (DsbBS-S,S-S) is an inner membrane protein in Escherichia coli that has two disulfide bonds (S-S, S-S) that play a role in oxidization of a pair of cysteine residues (SH, SH) in disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbASH,SH). The oxidized DsbAS-S, with one disulfide bond (S-S), can oxidize proteins with SH groups for maturation of a folding preprotein. Here, we have described the transient kinetics of the oxidation reaction between DsbASH,SH and DsbBS-S,S-S. We immobilized DsbBS-S,S-S embedded in lipid bilayers on the surface of a 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device to detect both formation and degradation of the reaction intermediate (DsbA-DsbB), formed via intermolecular disulfide bonds, as a mass change in real time. The obtained kinetic parameters (intermediate formation, reverse, and oxidation rate constants (kf, kr, and kcat, respectively) indicated that the two pairs of cysteine residues in DsbBS-S,S-S were more important for the stability of the DsbA-DsbB intermediate than ubiquinone, an electron acceptor for DsbBS-S,S-S. Our data suggested that the reaction pathway of almost all DsbASH,SH oxidation processes would proceed through this stable intermediate, avoiding the requirement for ubiquinone. PMID:24145032

  9. Study of the helium cross-section of unsymmetric disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Erol [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir 40000 (Turkey); Karabuga, Semistan [Department of Chemistry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46030 (Turkey); Bracco, Gianangelo [CNR-IMEM and Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genoa 16146 (Italy); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Unsymmetrtic disulfide (HDD and HOD) self assembled monolayers were grown on Au(111) by supersonic molecular beam deposition. • Helium scattering cross sections for these two different unsymmetric disulfides were determined. • A common low temperature film phase was observed for the studied disulfides. - Abstract: We have investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-hydroxyundecyl decyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 9}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HDD) and 11-hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HOD) produced by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SMBD). The study has been carried out by means of helium diffraction at very low film coverage. In this regime helium single molecule cross sections have been estimated in a temperature range between 100 K and 450 K. The results show a different behavior above 300 K that has been interpreted as the starting of mobility with the formation of two thiolate moieties either linked by a gold adatom or distant enough to prevent cross section overlapping. Finally, helium diffraction patterns measured at 80 K for the SAMs grown at 200 K are discussed and the results support the proposed hypothesis of molecular dissociation based on the cross section data.

  10. Antagonistic effect of disulfide-rich peptide aptamers selected by cDNA display on interleukin-6-dependent cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Naoto; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ueno, Shingo; Machida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibits IL-6-dependent cell proliferation. ► Disulfide bond of peptide aptamer is essential for its affinity to IL-6R. ► Inhibitory effect of peptide depends on number and pattern of its disulfide bonds. -- Abstract: Several engineered protein scaffolds have been developed recently to circumvent particular disadvantages of antibodies such as their large size and complex composition, low stability, and high production costs. We previously identified peptide aptamers containing one or two disulfide-bonds as an alternative ligand to the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). Peptide aptamers (32 amino acids in length) were screened from a random peptide library by in vitro peptide selection using the evolutionary molecular engineering method “cDNA display”. In this report, the antagonistic activity of the peptide aptamers were examined by an in vitro competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an IL-6-dependent cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that a disulfide-rich peptide aptamer inhibited IL-6-dependent cell proliferation with similar efficacy to an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody.

  11. Disulfide Bonds within the C2 Domain of RAGE Play Key Roles in Its Dimerization and Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen; Lampe, Leonie; Park, Sungha; Vangara, Bhavana S.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie; Subaran, Sarah S.; Yang, Dongmei; Lakatta, Edward G.; Lin, Li

    2012-01-01

    Background The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on the cell surface transmits inflammatory signals. A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, RAGE possesses the V, C1, and C2 ectodomains that collectively constitute the receptor's extracellular structure. However, the molecular mechanism of RAGE biogenesis remains unclear, impeding efforts to control RAGE signaling through cellular regulation. Methodology and Result We used co-immunoprecipitation and crossing-linking to study RAGE oligomerization and found that RAGE forms dimer-based oligomers. Via non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mutagenesis, we found that cysteines 259 and 301 within the C2 domain form intermolecular disulfide bonds. Using a modified tripartite split GFP complementation strategy and confocal microscopy, we also found that RAGE dimerization occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and that RAGE mutant molecules without the double disulfide bridges are unstable, and are subjected to the ER-associated degradation. Conclusion Disulfide bond-mediated RAGE dimerization in the ER is the critical step of RAGE biogenesis. Without formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds in the C2 region, RAGE fails to reach cell surface. Significance This is the first report of RAGE intermolecular disulfide bond. PMID:23284645

  12. Determination and reoxidation of the disulfide bridges of a squash-type trypsin inhibitor from Sechium edule seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faça, Vitor M; Pereira, Sandra R; Laure, Hélen J; Greene, Lewis J

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the disulfide pairings of SETI-II, a trypsin inhibitor isolated from Sechium edule, is described herein. The inhibitor contains 31 amino acid residues per mol, 6 of which are cysteine. Forty-five nmol (160 microg) of SETI-II was hydrolyzed with 20 microg thermolysin for 48 hr at 45 degrees C, and peptides were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The major products were identified by amino acid composition, Edman degradation, and on the basis of the sequence of the inhibitor. The disulfide bridge pairings and (yields) are: Cys1-Cys4 (79%), Cys2-Cys5 (21%) and Cys3-Cys6 (43%). When the reduced inhibitor was reoxidized with glutathione reduced form (GSH)/glutathione oxidized form (GSSG) at pH 8.5 for 3 hr, full activity was recovered. These data show that disulfide bridge pairing and oxidation can be determined at nanomole levels and that sensitive and quantitative Edman degradation can eliminate the final time- and material-consuming step of disulfide determinations by eliminating the need to purify and cleave each peptide containing a disulfide bridge.

  13. Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Property in Alkaline Solution of Molybdenum Disulfide Modified by Surface Anchor of Nickel–Phosphorus Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 is unfavorable for practical application in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER process due to its inert basal surface, inferior conductivity, and limited amount of active edge sites. For the purpose of enhancing the HER performance of this catalyst, the HER activity of its basal surface should be increased. Herein, three types of nickel-phosphorus (Ni–P coatings—namely, low phosphorus (LP, medium phosphorus (MP and high phosphorus (HP —were anchored onto the surfaces of MoS2 nanoparticles via an electroless plating process; thus, three Ni–P/MoS2 composites (Ni–LP/MoS2, Ni–MP/MoS2, and Ni–HP/MoS2 were fabricated. Crystal structures, morphologies, chemical components, and HER performances of each in an alkaline solution were characterized. Both Ni–LP/MoS2 and Ni–MP/MoS2 showed a crystal nature, while the amorphous feature for Ni–HP/MoS2 was validated. The three Ni–P/MoS2 composites exhibited a higher HER activity than the pure MoS2. The HER performance of the Ni–MP/MoS2 composite was more outstanding than those of other two composites, which could be attributed to the presence of metastable nickel phosphides, and the excellent conductivity of Ni–MP coating anchored on the basal surface of MoS2.

  14. Assessment of exposure to carbon disulfide in viscose production workers from urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riihimaeki, V.K.; Kivistoe, H.P.; Peltonen, K.; Helpioe, E.A.; Aitio, A. (Department of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-01-01

    The follow-up of environmental carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure and urinary excretion of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) among 20 operatives over a 4-day working week in two viscose producing factories confirmed earlier observations that TTCA is a sensitive and reliable indicator of exposure to CS2. Exposure to as low as 0.5-1.0 ppm (1.6-3.2 mg/m3) of CS2 (8-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) was associated with detectable amounts of TTCA in end-of-shift urine. Moreover, the excretion of TTCA, relative to estimated CS2 uptake, appeared surprisingly constant in the studied work force. Approximately 3% (range 2-6.5%) of absorbed CS2 was detected in urine as TTCA. The proportional TTCA excretion did not show dose dependency in the estimated CS2 dose range which varied by about 20-fold. TTCA elimination exhibited both a fast (T 1/2 6 hour) and a slow (T 1/2 68 hour) phase. The slow elimination is compatible with a high lipid solubility and reversible protein binding of CS2. Consequently, urinary excretion of TTCA, relative to CS2 exposure, increased by about a third during the workweek. Urinary TTCA concentration of 4.5 mmol/mol creatinine in a postshift sample corresponded to a TWA exposure to 10 ppm CS2 towards the end of the working week.

  15. Hierarchical Polyphosphazene@Molybdenum Disulfide Hybrid Structure for Enhancing the Flame Retardancy and Mechanical Property of Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Qiu, Shuilai; Xing, Weiyi; Gangireddy, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2017-08-30

    A novel polyphosphazene (PZS) microsphere@molybdenum disulfide nanoflower (MoS 2 ) hierarchical hybrid architecture was first synthesized and applied for enhancing the mechanical performance and flame retardancy of epoxy (EP) resin via a cooperative effect. Herein, using PZS microsphere as the template, a layer of MoS 2 nanoflowers were anchored to PZS spheres via a hydrothermal strategy. The well-designed PZS@MoS 2 exhibits excellent fire retardancy and a reinforcing effect. The obtained PZS@MoS 2 significantly enhanced the flame-retardant performance of EP composites, which can be proved by thermogravimetric and cone calorimeter results. For instance, the incorporation of 3 wt % PZS@MoS 2 brought about a 41.3% maximum reduction in the peak heat-release rate and decreased by 30.3% maximum in the total heat release, accompanying the higher graphitized char layer. With regard to mechanical property, the storage modulus of EP/PZS@MoS 2 3.0 in the glassy state was dramatically increased to 22.4 GPa in comparison with that of pure EP (11.15 GPa). It is sensible to know that the improved flame-retardant performance for EP composites is primarily assigned to a physical barrier effect of the MoS 2 nanoflowers and the polyphosphazene structure has an positive impact on promoting char formation in the condensed phase.

  16. Differential regulation of tissue thiol-disulfide redox status in a murine model of peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton Shana M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and cysteine (Cys/cystine (CySS are major redox pools with important roles in cytoprotection. We determined the impact of septic peritonitis on thiol-disulfide redox status in mice. Methods FVB/N mice (6–12 week old; 8/group underwent laparotomy with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or laparotomy alone (control. Sections of ileum, colon, lung and liver were obtained and GSH, GSSG, Cys and CySS concentrations determined by HPLC 24 h after laparotomy. Redox potential [Eh in millivolts (mV] of the GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS pools was calculated using the Nernst equation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (mean ± SE. Results GSH/GSSG Eh in ileum, colon, and liver was significantly oxidized in septic mice versus control mice (ileum: septic −202±4 versus control −228±2 mV; colon: -195±8 versus −214±1 mV; and liver: -194±3 vs. -210±1 mV, all Ph was unchanged with CLP, while liver and lung Cys/CySS Eh became significantly more reducing (liver: septic = −103±3 versus control −90±2 mV; lung: -101±5 versus −81±1 mV, each P Conclusions Septic peritonitis induced by CLP oxidizes ileal and colonic GSH/GSSG redox but Cys/CySS Eh remains unchanged in these intestinal tissues. In liver, CLP oxidizes the GSH/GSSG redox pool and CyS/CySS Eh becomes more reducing; in lung, CLP does not alter GSH/GSSG Eh, and Cys/CySS Eh is less oxidized. CLP-induced infection/inflammation differentially regulates major thiol-disulfide redox pools in this murine model.

  17. Chemically exfoliated large-area two-dimensional flakes of molybdenum disulfide for device applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pachauri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A solution-based exfoliation method for obtaining large-area two-dimensional flakes of molybdenum disulfide, followed by the fabrication of electrical devices is presented in this manuscript. The exfoliation method is based on the use of an aprotic solvent, namely, acetonitrile under mild sonication steps. In order to fabricate devices, a dielectrophoresis technique is used for transferring MoS2 flakes site-specifically on to the electrode pairs pre-written on the glass chips. The devices fabricated thus can be operated as chemical sensor in liquids while investigations under photo illumination indicate that such devices can also efficiently function as photodetectors.

  18. Influence of the degree of crosslinking on the depolymerization of disulfide polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalicj, J.V.; Radosavljevicj, D.S.; Popovicj, E.M.; Stashicj, L.

    1976-01-01

    The action of nucleophilic reagents (hydrogen sulfide ion, dithionite ion and hydrazine) on disulfide polymers prepd. from bis-2-chloroethyl formal and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, taken in various mol rations is studied. The depolymerization efficiency is higher with hydrazine and dithionite than with a mixt. of sodium hydrogen sulfide and sodium sulfite. An interpretation of the results is given, attempting to correlate the content of SH-groups in the obtained product with the same quantity in some defined compds. which can be present after the depolymerization

  19. Dissecting molecular interactions involved in recognition of target disulfides by the barley thioredoxin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Maeda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    thioredoxin reductase. HvTrxh2 M88G and M88A adjacent to the invariant cis-proline lost efficiency in both BASI disulfide reduction and recycling by thioredoxin reductase. These effects were further pronounced in M88P lacking a backbone NH group. Remarkably, HvTrxh2 E86R in the same loop displayed overall...... reductase. The findings support important roles in target recognition of backbone-backbone hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions and are discussed in relation to earlier structural and functional studies of thioredoxins and related proteins. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  20. Design of new disulfide-based organic compounds for the improvement of self-healing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matxain, Jon M; Asua, José M; Ruipérez, Fernando

    2016-01-21

    Self-healing materials are a very promising kind of materials due to their capacity to repair themselves. Among others, diphenyl disulfide-based compounds (Ph2S2) appear to be among the best candidates to develop materials with optimum self-healing properties. However, few is known regarding both the reaction mechanism and the electronic structure that make possible such properties. In this vein, theoretical approaches are of great interest. In this work, we have carried out theoretical calculations on a wide set of different disulfide compounds, both aromatic and aliphatic, in order to elucidate the prevalent reaction mechanism and the necessary electronic conditions needed for improved self-healing properties. Two competitive mechanisms were considered, namely, the metathesis and the radical-mediated mechanism. According to our calculations, the radical-mediated mechanism is the responsible for this process. The formation of sulfenyl radicals strongly depends on the S-S bond strength, which can be modulated chemically by the use of proper derivatives. At this point, amino derivatives appear to be the most promising ones. In addition to the S-S bond strength, hydrogen bonding between disulfide chains seems to be relevant to favour the contact among disulfide units. This is crucial for the reaction to take place. The calculated hydrogen bonding energies are of the same order of magnitude as the S-S bond energies. Finally, reaction barriers have been analysed for some promising candidates. Two reaction mechanisms were compared, namely, the [2+2] metathesis reaction mechanism and the [2+1] radical-mediated mechanism. No computational evidence for the existence of any transition state for the metathesis mechanism was found, which indicates that the radical-mediated mechanism is the one responsible in the self-healing process of these materials. Interestingly, the calculated reaction barriers are around 10 kcal mol(-1) regardless the substituent employed. All these

  1. Quantifying changes in the cellular thiol-disulfide status during differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rosa Rebecca Erritzøe; Otsu, Mieko; Braakman, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cells produce and secrete massive amounts of disulfide-containing antibodies. To accommodate this load on the secretory machinery, the differentiation of resting B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells is accompanied by a preferential expansion of the secretory compartments of the cells...... and by an up-regulation of enzymes involved in redox regulation and protein folding. We have quantified the absolute levels of protein thiols, protein disulfides, and glutathionylated proteins in whole cells. The results show that while the global thiol-disulfide state is affected to some extent...... by the differentiation, steady-state levels of glutathionylated protein thiols are less than 0.3% of the total protein cysteines, even in fully differentiated cells, and the overall protein redox state is not affected until late in differentiation, when large-scale IgM production is ongoing. A general expansion...

  2. GRP78 protects a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 against protein-disulfide isomerase A6 catalyzed inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Miriam; Granato, Daniela C; Krossa, Sebastian; Bartels, Anne-Kathrin; Yokoo, Sami; Düsterhöft, Stefan; Koudelka, Tomas; Scheidig, Axel J; Tholey, Andreas; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Grötzinger, Joachim; Lorenzen, Inken

    2017-11-01

    The shedding of ectodomains is a crucial mechanism in many physiological and pathological events. A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) is a key sheddase involved in essential processes, such as development, regeneration, and immune defense. ADAM17 exists in two conformations which differ in their disulfide connection in the membrane-proximal domain (MPD). Protein-disulfide isomerases (PDIs) on the cell surface convert the open MPD into a rigid closed form, which corresponds to inactive ADAM17. ADAM17 is expressed in its open activatable form in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and consequently must be protected against ER-resident PDI activity. Here, we show that the chaperone 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) protects the MPD against PDI-dependent disulfide-bond isomerization by binding to this domain and, thereby, preventing ADAM17 inhibition. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Succination of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Links Mitochondrial Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Adipocyte During Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Allison M; Walla, Michael D; Faccenda, Adam; Martin, Stephanie L; Tanis, Ross M; Piroli, Gerardo G; Adam, Julie; Kantor, Boris; Mutus, Bulent; Townsend, Danyelle M; Frizzell, Norma

    2017-12-01

    Protein succination by fumarate increases in the adipose tissue of diabetic mice and in adipocytes matured in high glucose as a result of glucotoxicity-driven mitochondrial stress. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductase protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is succinated in adipocytes that are matured in high glucose, and in this study we investigated whether succination would alter PDI oxidoreductase activity, directly linking mitochondrial stress and ER stress. Protein succination and the ER stress marker C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were diminished after pharmaceutical targeting of mitochondrial stress with the chemical uncoupler niclosamide in adipocytes matured in high-glucose concentrations. PDI was succinated by fumarate on both CXXC-containing active sites, contributing to reduced enzymatic activity. Succinated PDI decreased reductase activity in adipocytes matured in high glucose, and in db/db epididymal adipose tissue, in association with increased levels of CHOP. PDI succination was increased in fumarase knockdown adipocytes, leading to reduced PDI oxidoreductase activity, increased CHOP levels, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, confirming the specific role of elevated fumarate levels in contributing to ER stress. In addition, PDI succination and ER stress were decreased, and PDI reductase activity was restored when exposure to chronic high glucose was limited, highlighting the importance of calorie restriction in the improvement of adipocyte metabolic function. These experiments identify PDI succination as a novel biochemical mechanism linking altered mitochondrial metabolism to ER stress in the adipocyte during diabetes. The current study demonstrates that early biochemical changes in mitochondrial metabolism have important implications for the development of adipocyte stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1281-1296.

  4. MTH1745, a protein disulfide isomerase-like protein from thermophilic archaea, Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicum involving in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xia; Lv, Zhen-Mei; Zhao, Yang; Min, Hang; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2008-01-01

    MTH1745 is a putative protein disulfide isomerase characterized with 151 amino acid residues and a CPAC active-site from the anaerobic archaea Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicum. The potential functions of MTH1745 are not clear. In the present study, we show a crucial role of MTH1745 in protecting cells against stress which may be related to its functions as a disulfide isomerase and its chaperone properties. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses, the level of MTH1745 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the thermophilic archaea M. thermoautotrophicum was found to be stress-induced in that it was significantly higher under low (50 degrees C) and high (70 degrees C) growth temperatures than under the optimal growth temperature for the organism (65 degrees C). Additionally, the expression of MTH1745 mRNA was up-regulated by cold shock (4 degrees C). Furthermore, the survival of MTH1745 expressing Escherichia coli cells was markedly higher than that of control cells in response to heat shock (51.0 degrees C). These results indicated that MTH1745 plays an important role in the resistance of stress. By assay of enzyme activities in vitro, MTH1745 also exhibited a chaperone function by promoting the functional folding of citrate synthase after thermodenaturation. On the other hand, MTH1745 was also shown to function as a disulfide isomerase on the refolding of denatured and reduced ribonuclease A. On the basis of its single thioredoxin domain, function as a disulfide isomerase, and its chaperone activity, we suggest that MTH1745 may be an ancient protein disulfide isomerase. These studies may provide clues to the understanding of the function of protein disulfide isomerase in archaea.

  5. In vivo reduction-oxidation state of protein disulfide isomerase: the two active sites independently occur in the reduced and oxidized forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Ellgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases of the human protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while also assisting the retrotranslocation of toxins and misfolded ER proteins to the cytosol. The redox activity of PDI-like proteins is determined by...

  6. Rhodium-Catalyzed Insertion Reaction of PhP Group of Pentaphenylcyclopentaphosphine with Acyclic and Cyclic Disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Mieko; Sawahata, Kyosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Sarkar, Debayan; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2018-02-16

    Organophosphorus compounds with a phosphorus atom attached to a phenyl group and two organothio/organoseleno groups were synthesized using the rhodium-catalyzed insertion reaction of the PhP group of pentaphenylcyclopentaphosphine (PhP) 5 with acyclic disulfides and diselenides. The method was applied to the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds containing the S-P-S group by the reaction of (PhP) 5 and cyclic disulfides such as 1,2-dithietes, 1,2-dithiocane, 1,4,5-dithiopane, and 1,2-dithiolanes.

  7. Respiratory chain strongly oxidizes the CXXC motif of DsbB in the Escherichia coli disulfide bond formation pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, T; Ito, K

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli DsbB has four essential cysteine residues, among which Cys41 and Cys44 form a CXXC redox active site motif and the Cys104-Cys130 disulfide bond oxidizes the active site cysteines of DsbA, the disulfide bond formation factor in the periplasm. Functional respiratory chain is required for the cell to keep DsbA oxidized. In this study, we characterized the roles of essential cysteines of DsbB in the coupling with the respiratory chain. Cys104 was found to form the inactive comple...

  8. Coupling gold nanoparticles to silica nanoparticles through disulfide bonds for glutathione detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yupeng; Zhang Heng; Zhang Zhaomin; Yi Changqing; Yue Zhenfeng; Teng, Kar-Seng; Li Meijin; Yang Mengsu

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the controlled assembly of nanoscale building blocks have resulted in functional devices which can find applications in electronics, biomedical imaging, drug delivery etc. In this study, novel covalent nanohybrid materials based upon [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ -doped silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which could be conditioned as OFF–ON probes for glutathione (GSH) detection, were designed and assembled in sequence, with the disulfide bonds as the bridging elements. The structural and optical properties of the nanohybrid architectures were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Zeta potential measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to monitor the reaction processes of the SiNPs–S–S–COOH and SiNPs–S–S–AuNPs synthesis. It was found that the covalent nanohybrid architectures were fluorescently dark (OFF state), indicating that SiNPs were effectively quenched by AuNPs. The fluorescence of the OFF–ON probe was resumed (ON state) when the bridge of the disulfide bond was cleaved by reducing reagents such as GSH. This work provides a new platform and strategy for GSH detection using covalent nanohybrid materials. (paper)

  9. Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangqian; Wu, Chao; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianmeng; Chen, Dongzhi

    2015-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs).

  10. Is insulin binding followed by disulfide interchange between insulin and the receptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Lipkin, E.W.; Teller, D.C.; de Haeen, C.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics of insulin binding to rat adipocytes at 15 0 C can best be described by a 2-step model. Insulin, I, first binds to the receptor, R. Occupied receptors, RI, then convert reversibly to another form, R'I, from which insulin cannot dissociate directly. At equilibrium, the R'I:RI ratio is ∼3:2. To elucidate the nature of R'I, the effects of 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) on the kinetics of insulin binding were investigated. DTNB (2.5 mM) added with 1 nM 125 I-iodoinsulin doubled insulin binding relative to cells without DTNB. When labeled insulin prebound to cells was dissociated with excess unlabeled insulin, DTNB added with the unlabeled insulin reduced the amount of dissociating label. Treatment of adipocytes with DTNB prior to insulin exposure did not alter the subsequent response of insulin binding to DTNB. These data suggest that the receptor exists in at least two conformational states: R, the unoccupied receptor, with a cryptic sulfhydryl group, and the occupied receptors RI and R'I, in which a sulfhydryl group is sensitive to DTNB. The authors propose that R'I formation is the result of disulfide exchange between the receptor and insulin, in accordance with the kinetics evidence that insulin cannot directly dissociate from R'I. The disulfide exchange generates a free sulfhydryl on insulin, with which DTNB reacts to trap insulin covalently bound in the R'I form

  11. Characteristics of layered tin disulfide deposited by atomic layer deposition with H2S annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjin Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tin disulfide (SnS2 has attracted much attention as a two-dimensional (2D material. A high-quality, low-temperature process for producing 2D materials is required for future electronic devices. Here, we investigate tin disulfide (SnS2 layers deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD using tetrakis(dimethylaminotin (TDMASn as a Sn precursor and H2S gas as a sulfur source at low temperature (150° C. The crystallinity of SnS2 was improved by H2S gas annealing. We carried out H2S gas annealing at various conditions (250° C, 300° C, 350° C, and using a three-step method. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS results revealed the valence state corresponding to Sn4+ and S2- in the SnS2 annealed with H2S gas. The SnS2 annealed with H2S gas had a hexagonal structure, as measured via X-ray diffraction (XRD and the clearly out-of-plane (A1g mode in Raman spectroscopy. The crystallinity of SnS2 was improved after H2S annealing and was confirmed using the XRD full-width at half-maximum (FWHM. In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM images indicated a clear layered structure.

  12. Functional Role of the Disulfide Isomerase ERp57 in Axonal Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Castillo

    Full Text Available ERp57 (also known as grp58 and PDIA3 is a protein disulfide isomerase that catalyzes disulfide bonds formation of glycoproteins as part of the calnexin and calreticulin cycle. ERp57 is markedly upregulated in most common neurodegenerative diseases downstream of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. Despite accumulating correlative evidence supporting a neuroprotective role of ERp57, the contribution of this foldase to the physiology of the nervous system remains unknown. Here we developed a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses ERp57 in the nervous system under the control of the prion promoter. We analyzed the susceptibility of ERp57 transgenic mice to undergo neurodegeneration. Unexpectedly, ERp57 overexpression did not affect dopaminergic neuron loss and striatal denervation after injection of a Parkinson's disease-inducing neurotoxin. In sharp contrast, ERp57 transgenic animals presented enhanced locomotor recovery after mechanical injury to the sciatic nerve. These protective effects were associated with enhanced myelin removal, macrophage infiltration and axonal regeneration. Our results suggest that ERp57 specifically contributes to peripheral nerve regeneration, whereas its activity is dispensable for the survival of a specific neuronal population of the central nervous system. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of a component of the ER proteostasis network in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  13. N,N'-Dithiobisphthalimide, a disulfide aromatic compound, is a potent spermicide agent in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Martha; Díaz, Emilce S; Brito, Iván; González, Jorge; Morales, Patricio

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have shown that users of vaginal preparations containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9) are at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Therefore, there is a great interest in identifying compounds that can specifically inhibit sperm without damaging the vaginal lining, possess a powerful spermicide activity, and can be used in contraceptive vaginal preparations to replace N-9. In this work, we studied the spermostatic and/or spermicidal activity of five non-detergent, disulfide compounds on human sperm, HeLa cells, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The motility and viability of human sperm in semen and culture medium was evaluated after treatment with different concentrations of the disulfide compounds (2.5 - 100 µM). In addition, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells and L. acidophilus. We identified compound 101, N,N'-dithiobisphthalimide (No. CAS 7764-30-9), as the most effective molecule. It has a half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) of 8 µM and a minimum effective concentration (defined as the concentration that immobilizes 100 percent of the sperm in 20 sec) of 24 µM. At these concentrations, compound 101 does not affect the viability of the sperm, HeLa cells, or L. acidophilus. Our results indicate that dithiobisphthalimide has a potent spermostatic, irreversible effect with no toxic effects on HeLa cells and L. acidophilus.

  14. The disulfide isomerase ERp57 mediates platelet aggregation, hemostasis, and thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Ahmad, Syed S.; Zhou, Junsong; Wang, Lu; Cully, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    A close homologue to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) called ERp57 forms disulfide bonds in glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and is expressed on the platelet surface. We generated 2 rabbit Abs to ERp57. One Ab strongly inhibited ERp57 in a functional assay and strongly inhibited platelet aggregation. There was minimal cross-reactivity of this Ab with PDI by Western blot or in the functional assay. This Ab substantially inhibited activation of the αIIbβ3 fibrinogen receptor and P-selectin expression. Furthermore, adding ERp57 to platelets potentiated aggregation. In contrast, adding a catalytically inactive ERp57 inhibited platelet aggregation. When infused into mice the inactive ERp57 prolonged the tail bleeding times. We generated 2 IgG2a mAbs that reacted with ERp57 by immunoblot. One of these Abs inhibited both ERp57 activity and platelet aggregation. The other Ab did not inhibit ERp57 activity or platelet aggregation. The inhibitory Ab inhibited activation of αIIbβ3 and P-selectin expression, prolonged tail bleeding times, and inhibited FeCl3-induced thrombosis in mice. Finally, we found that a commonly used mAb to PDI also inhibited ERp57 activity. We conclude that a glycoprotein-specific member of the PDI family, ERp57, is required for platelet aggregation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. PMID:22207737

  15. Polymeric redox-responsive delivery systems bearing ammonium salts cross-linked via disulfides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dollendorf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A redox-responsive polycationic system was synthesized via copolymerization of N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEAAm and 2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA. N,N’-bis(4-chlorobutanoylcystamine was used as disulfide-containing cross-linker to form networks by the quaternization of tertiary amine groups. The insoluble cationic hydrogels become soluble by reduction of disulfide to mercaptanes by use of dithiothreitol (DTT, tris(2-carboxyethylphosphine (TCEP or cysteamine, respectively. The soluble polymeric system can be cross-linked again by using oxygen or hydrogen peroxide under basic conditions. The redox-responsive polymer networks can be used for molecular inclusion and controlled release. As an example, phenolphthalein, methylene blue and reactive orange 16 were included into the network. After treatment with DTT a release of the dye could be recognized. Physical properties of the cross-linked materials, e.g., glass transition temperature (Tg, swelling behavior and cloud points (Tc were investigated. Redox-responsive behavior was further analyzed by rheological measurements.

  16. Prokaryotic Soluble Overexpression and Purification of Bioactive Human Growth Hormone by Fusion to Thioredoxin, Maltose Binding Protein, and Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Vu, Thu Trang; Song, Jung-A; Chong, Seon-Ha; Jeong, Boram; Ryu, Han-Bong; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Choe, Han

    2014-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is synthesized by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and induces cell proliferation and growth. This protein has been approved for the treatment of various conditions, including hGH deficiency, chronic renal failure, and Turner syndrome. Efficient production of hGH in Escherichia coli (E. coli) has proven difficult because the E. coli-expressed hormone tends to aggregate and form inclusion bodies, resulting in poor solubility. In this study, seven N-terminal fusion partners, hexahistidine (His6), thioredoxin (Trx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), maltose-binding protein (MBP), N-utilization substance protein A (NusA), protein disulfide bond isomerase (PDI), and the b′a′ domain of PDI (PDIb′a′), were tested for soluble overexpression of codon-optimized hGH in E. coli. We found that MBP and hPDI tags significantly increased the solubility of the hormone. In addition, lowering the expression temperature to 18°C also dramatically increased the solubility of all the fusion proteins. We purified hGH from MBP-, PDIb′a′-, or Trx-tagged hGH expressed at 18°C in E. coli using simple chromatographic techniques and compared the final purity, yield, and activity of hGH to assess the impact of each partner protein. Purified hGH was highly pure on silver-stained gel and contained very low levels of endotoxin. On average, ∼37 mg, ∼12 mg, and ∼7 mg of hGH were obtained from 500 mL-cell cultures of Trx-hGH, MBP-hGH, and PDIb′a′-hGH, respectively. Subsequently, hGH was analyzed using mass spectroscopy to confirm the presence of two intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The bioactivity of purified hGHs was demonstrated using Nb2-11 cell. PMID:24614134

  17. Prokaryotic soluble overexpression and purification of bioactive human growth hormone by fusion to thioredoxin, maltose binding protein, and protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Tan Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is synthesized by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and induces cell proliferation and growth. This protein has been approved for the treatment of various conditions, including hGH deficiency, chronic renal failure, and Turner syndrome. Efficient production of hGH in Escherichia coli (E. coli has proven difficult because the E. coli-expressed hormone tends to aggregate and form inclusion bodies, resulting in poor solubility. In this study, seven N-terminal fusion partners, hexahistidine (His6, thioredoxin (Trx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, maltose-binding protein (MBP, N-utilization substance protein A (NusA, protein disulfide bond isomerase (PDI, and the b'a' domain of PDI (PDIb'a', were tested for soluble overexpression of codon-optimized hGH in E. coli. We found that MBP and hPDI tags significantly increased the solubility of the hormone. In addition, lowering the expression temperature to 18°C also dramatically increased the solubility of all the fusion proteins. We purified hGH from MBP-, PDIb'a'-, or Trx-tagged hGH expressed at 18°C in E. coli using simple chromatographic techniques and compared the final purity, yield, and activity of hGH to assess the impact of each partner protein. Purified hGH was highly pure on silver-stained gel and contained very low levels of endotoxin. On average, ∼37 mg, ∼12 mg, and ∼7 mg of hGH were obtained from 500 mL-cell cultures of Trx-hGH, MBP-hGH, and PDIb'a'-hGH, respectively. Subsequently, hGH was analyzed using mass spectroscopy to confirm the presence of two intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The bioactivity of purified hGHs was demonstrated using Nb2-11 cell.

  18. Protein disulfide isomerase-P5, down-regulated in the final stage of boar epididymal sperm maturation, catalyzes disulfide formation to inhibit protein function in oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, Kuniko; Horikoshi, Tomoe; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Nakahata, Satoko; Akitsu, Aoi; Niwa, Nobuyoshi; Intoh, Atsushi; Kakui, Yasutaka; Sugaya, Michiko; Takei, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Noriaki; Sato, Takaya; Matsumoto, Rena; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kashiwabara, Shin-ichi; Baba, Tadashi; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Tosifusa

    2010-06-01

    In mammalian spermiogenesis, sperm mature during epididymal transit to get fertility. The pig sharing many physiological similarities with humans is considered a promising animal model in medicine. We examined the expression profiles of proteins from boar epididymal caput, corpus, and cauda sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Our results indicated that protein disulfide isomerase-P5 (PDI-P5) human homolog was down-regulated from the epididymal corpus to cauda sperm, in contrast to the constant expression of protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) human homolog. To examine the functions of PDIA3 and PDI-P5, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs of pig PDIA3 and PDI-P5 protein precursors. Each recombinant pig mature PDIA3 and PDI-P5 expressed in Escherichia coli showed thiol-dependent disulfide reductase activities in insulin turbidity assay. Although PDIA3 showed chaperone activity to promote oxidative refolding of reduced denatured lysozyme, PDI-P5 exhibited anti-chaperone activity to inhibit oxidative refolding of lysozyme at an equimolar ratio. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis suggested that disulfide cross-linked and non-productively folded lysozyme was responsible for the anti-chaperone activity of PDI-P5. These results provide a molecular basis and insights into the physiological roles of PDIA3 and PDI-P5 in sperm maturation and fertilization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Homocysteine pre-treatment increases redox capacity in both endothelial and tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santiago, Elena; Rodríguez-Caso, Luis; Cárdenas, Casimiro; Serrano, José J; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-01

    We studied the modulatory effects of homocysteine pre-treatment on the disulfide reduction capacity of tumor and endothelial cells. Human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma and bovine aorta endothelial cells were pre-treated for 1-24 hours with 0.5-5 mM homocysteine or homocysteine thiolactone. After washing to eliminate any rest of homocysteine or homocysteine thiolactone, cell redox capacity was determined by using a method for measuring disulfide reduction. Homocysteine pre-treatments for 1-4 hours at a concentration of 0.5-5 mM increase the disulfide reduction capacity of both tumor and endothelial cells. This effect cannot be fully mimicked by either cysteine or homocysteine thiolactone pre-treatments of tumor cells. Taken together, our data suggest that homocysteine can behave as an anti-oxidant agent by increasing the anti-oxidant capacity of tumor and endothelial cells.

  20. Identification, activity and disulfide connectivity of C-di-GMP regulating proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Gupta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available C-di-GMP, a bacterial second messenger plays a key role in survival and adaptation of bacteria under different environmental conditions. The level of c-di-GMP is regulated by two opposing activities, namely diguanylate cyclase (DGC and phosphodiesterase (PDE-A exhibited by GGDEF and EAL domain, respectively in the same protein. Previously, we reported a bifunctional GGDEF-EAL domain protein, MSDGC-1 from Mycobacterium smegmatis showing both these activities (Kumar and Chatterji, 2008. In this current report, we have identified and characterized the homologous protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv 1354c named as MtbDGC. MtbDGC is also a bifunctional protein, which can synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP in vitro. Further we expressed Mtbdgc in M. smegmatis and it was able to complement the MSDGC-1 knock out strain by restoring the long term survival of M. smegmatis. Another protein Rv 1357c, named as MtbPDE, is an EAL domain protein and degrades c-di-GMP to pGpG in vitro. Rv1354c and 1357c have seven cysteine amino acids in their sequence, distributed along the full length of the protein. Disulfide bonds play an important role in stabilizing protein structure and regulating protein function. By proteolytic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis of MtbDGC, connectivity between cysteine pairs Cys94-Cys584, Cys2-Cys479 and Cys429-Cys614 was determined, whereas the third cysteine (Cys406 from N terminal was found to be free in MtbDGC protein, which was further confirmed by alkylation with iodoacetamide labeling. Bioinformatics modeling investigations also supported the pattern of disulfide connectivity obtained by Mass spectrometric analysis. Cys406 was mutated to serine by site directed mutagenesis and the mutant MtbC406S was not found to be active and was not able to synthesize or degrade c-di-GMP. The disulfide connectivity established here would help further in understanding the structure - function relationship in MtbDGC.

  1. Single Layer Molybdenum Disulfide under Direct Out-of-Plane Compression: Low-Stress Band-Gap Engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Álvarez, M. P.; del Corro, Elena; Morales-García, A.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kalbáč, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2015), s. 3139-3146 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Molybdenum disulfide * band gap engineering * out-of-plane compression Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.779, year: 2015

  2. Protein binding of N-2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane via mixed disulfide formation after oral administration of WR 2721

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabachnik, N.F.; Blackburn, P.; Peterson, C.M.; Cerami, A.

    1982-02-01

    Earlier studies have shown that WR 2721 (H2N-(CH2)3-NH(CH2)2SPO3H2) is converted to its free thiol form, N-2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (MDP), at the acidic pH of the stomach. MDP is a radioprotective compound and a mucolytic agent capable of decreasing sputum viscosity in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Conversion of WR 2721 and MDP to the corresponding sulfonic acid (MDP-SO3H) permits quantitative determination of these compounds in physiological fluids by use of an automatic amino acid analyzer. After oral administration of WR 2721 to human patients and rabbits it is converted to MDP and the free thiol form of the drug associates with plasma proteins by mixed disulfide linkage. The plasma proteins serve as a depot and reservoir of MDP for potential exchange at the tissues. When incubated with whole sputum or with purified mucin solutions in vitro, MDP decreased the viscosity of these solutions by reduction of the accessible disulfide bonds of the mucin molecule and was subsequently found in mixed disulfide association with the mucin molecule. The association of MDP with proteins via mixed disulfide linkage has important implications for the development of optimal dose regimens for administration of WR 2721 to patients.

  3. Protein binding of N-2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane via mixed disulfide formation after oral administration of WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachnik, N.F.; Blackburn, P.; Peterson, C.M.; Cerami, A.

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that WR 2721 [H2N-(CH2)3-NH(CH2)2SPO3H2] is converted to its free thiol form, N-2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (MDP), at the acidic pH of the stomach. MDP is a radioprotective compound and a mucolytic agent capable of decreasing sputum viscosity in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Conversion of WR 2721 and MDP to the corresponding sulfonic acid (MDP-SO3H) permits quantitative determination of these compounds in physiological fluids by use of an automatic amino acid analyzer. After oral administration of WR 2721 to human patients and rabbits it is converted to MDP and the free thiol form of the drug associates with plasma proteins by mixed disulfide linkage. The plasma proteins serve as a depot and reservoir of MDP for potential exchange at the tissues. When incubated with whole sputum or with purified mucin solutions in vitro, MDP decreased the viscosity of these solutions by reduction of the accessible disulfide bonds of the mucin molecule and was subsequently found in mixed disulfide association with the mucin molecule. The association of MDP with proteins via mixed disulfide linkage has important implications for the development of optimal dose regimens for administration of WR 2721 to patients

  4. The effects of morphology re-arrangements on the pseudocapacitive properties of mesoporous molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khawula, TNY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous molybdenum disulfide (MoS(sub2)) with different morphologies have been prepared via hydrothermal method using different solvents, water or water/acetone mixture. The MoS(sub2) obtained with water alone gave a graphene-like nanoflakes (g...

  5. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63.500 Protection... limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. (a) Owners or operators of sources subject to this subpart producing styrene butadiene rubber using an emulsion process shall operate the process...

  6. Characterization of intramolecular disulfide bonds and secondary modifications of the glycoprotein from viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh; Roepstorff, Peter

    1998-01-01

    of the protein, The present study was initiated to identify the disulfide bonds and other structural aspects relevant to vaccine design. The N-terminal amino acid residue was identified as being a pyroglutamic acid, corresponding to Gln21 of the primary transcript, Peptides from endoproteinase-degraded G protein...

  7. Disulfide bridges in tomato pectinesterase: variations from pectinesterases of other species; conservation of possible active site segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, O; Jörnvall, H

    1992-10-01

    Analysis of tomato pectinesterase by carboxymethylation, with and without reduction, shows that the enzyme has two intrachain disulfide bridges. Analysis of fragments obtained from the native enzyme after digestion with pepsin identified bridges connecting Cys-98 with Cys-125, and Cys-166 with Cys-200. The locations of disulfide bridges in tomato pectinesterase are not identical to those in three distantly related pectinesterases (18-33% residue identities) from microorganisms. However, one half-Cys (i.e., Cys-166) position is conserved in all four enzymes. Sequence comparisons of the overall structures suggest a special importance for three short segments of the entire protein. One segment is at the N-terminal part of the tomato pectinesterase, another in the C-terminal portion near the distal end of the second disulfide loop, and the third segment is located in the central part between the two disulfide bridges. The latter segment, encompassing only 40 residues of the entire protein, appears to high-light a functional site in a midchain segment.

  8. The road to the first, fully active and more stable human insulin variant with an additional disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Kjeldsen, Thomas B.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin, a small peptide hormone, is crucial in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The stability and activity of the protein is directed by an intricate system involving disulfide bonds to stabilize the active monomeric species and by their non-covalent oligomerization. All known insulin vari...

  9. Protection of the Queuosine Biosynthesis Enzyme QueF from Irreversible Oxidation by a Conserved Intramolecular Disulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeba Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available QueF enzymes catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-dependent reduction of the nitrile group of 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0 to 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine (preQ1 in the biosynthetic pathway to the tRNA modified nucleoside queuosine. The QueF-catalyzed reaction includes formation of a covalent thioimide intermediate with a conserved active site cysteine that is prone to oxidation in vivo. Here, we report the crystal structure of a mutant of Bacillus subtilis QueF, which reveals an unanticipated intramolecular disulfide formed between the catalytic Cys55 and a conserved Cys99 located near the active site. This structure is more symmetric than the substrate-bound structure and exhibits major rearrangement of the loops responsible for substrate binding. Mutation of Cys99 to Ala/Ser does not compromise enzyme activity, indicating that the disulfide does not play a catalytic role. Peroxide-induced inactivation of the wild-type enzyme is reversible with thioredoxin, while such inactivation of the Cys99Ala/Ser mutants is irreversible, consistent with protection of Cys55 from irreversible oxidation by disulfide formation with Cys99. Conservation of the cysteine pair, and the reported in vivo interaction of QueF with the thioredoxin-like hydroperoxide reductase AhpC in Escherichia coli suggest that regulation by the thioredoxin disulfide-thiol exchange system may constitute a general mechanism for protection of QueF from oxidative stress in vivo.

  10. Disulfide scrambling in superoxide dismutase 1 reduces its cytotoxic effect in cultured cells and promotes protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Leinartaitė

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene coding for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 are associated with familiar forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. These mutations are believed to result in a "gain of toxic function", leading to neuronal degeneration. The exact mechanism is still unknown, but misfolding/aggregation events are generally acknowledged as important pathological events in this process. Recently, we observed that demetallated apoSOD1, with cysteine 6 and 111 substituted for alanine, is toxic to cultured neuroblastoma cells. This toxicity depended on an intact, high affinity Zn(2+ site. It was therefor contradictory to discover that wild-type apoSOD1 was not toxic, despite of its high affinity for Zn(2+. This inconsistency was hypothesized to originate from erroneous disulfide formation involving C6 and C111. Using high resolution non-reducing SDS-PAGE, we have in this study demonstrated that the inability of wild-type apoSOD1 to cause cell death stems from formation of non-native intra-molecular disulfides. Moreover, monomeric apoSOD1 variants capable of such disulfide scrambling aggregated into ThT positive oligomers under physiological conditions without agitation. The oligomers were stabilized by inter-molecular disulfides and morphologically resembled what has in other neurodegenerative diseases been termed protofibrils. Disulfide scrambling thus appears to be an important event for misfolding and aggregation of SOD1, but may also be significant for protein function involving cysteines, e.g. mitochondrial import and copper loading.

  11. Identification and characterization of GmPDIL7, a soybean ER membrane-bound protein disulfide isomerase family protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Aya; Matsusaki, Motonori; Masuda, Taro; Urade, Reiko

    2017-02-01

    Most proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) possess intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds, which play an important role in the conformational stability and function of proteins. Hence, eukaryotic cells contain protein disulfide bond formation pathways such as the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) system in the ER lumen. In this study, we identified soybean PDIL7 (GmPDIL7), a novel soybean ER membrane-bound PDI family protein, and determined its enzymatic properties. GmPDIL7 has a putative N-terminal signal sequence, a thioredoxin domain with an active center motif (CGHC), and a putative C-terminal transmembrane region. Likewise, we demonstrated that GmPDIL7 is ubiquitously expressed in soybean tissues and is localized in the ER membrane. Furthermore, GmPDIL7 associated with other soybean PDI family proteins in vivo and GmPDIL7 mRNA was slightly upregulated under ER stress. The redox potential of recombinant GmPDIL7 expressed in Escherichia coli was -187 mV, indicating that GmPDIL7 could oxidize unfolded proteins. GmPDIL7 exhibited a dithiol oxidase activity level that was similar to other soybean PDI family proteins. However, the oxidative refolding activity of GmPDIL7 was lower than other soybean PDI family proteins. GmPDIL7 was well oxidized by GmERO1. Taken together, our results indicated that GmPDIL7 primarily plays a role as a supplier of disulfide bonds in nascent proteins for oxidative folding on the ER membrane. The nucleotide sequence data for the GmPDIL7 cDNA are available in the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) databases under the accession numbers LC158001. Protein disulfide isomerase: EC 5.3.4.1. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Thiol–Disulfide Exchange Covering Direct Substitution and Thiol Oxidation-Mediated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Disulfides are important building blocks in the secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, serving as inter- and intra-subunit cross links. Disulfides are also the major products of thiol oxidation, a process that has primary roles in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and in redox regulation of cell signaling. Although disulfides are relatively stable, their reduction, isomerisation, and interconversion as well as their production reactions are catalyzed by delicate enzyme machineries, providing a dynamic system in biology. Redox homeostasis, a thermodynamic parameter that determines which reactions can occur in cellular compartments, is also balanced by the thiol–disulfide pool. However, it is the kinetic properties of the reactions that best represent cell dynamics, because the partitioning of the possible reactions depends on kinetic parameters. Critical Issues: This review is focused on the kinetics and mechanisms of thiol–disulfide substitution and redox reactions. It summarizes the challenges and advances that are associated with kinetic investigations in small molecular and enzymatic systems from a rigorous chemical perspective using biological examples. The most important parameters that influence reaction rates are discussed in detail. Recent Advances and Future Directions: Kinetic studies of proteins are more challenging than small molecules, and quite often investigators are forced to sacrifice the rigor of the experimental approach to obtain the important kinetic and mechanistic information. However, recent technological advances allow a more comprehensive analysis of enzymatic systems via using the systematic kinetics apparatus that was developed for small molecule reactions, which is expected to provide further insight into the cell's machinery. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1623–1641. PMID:23075118

  13. Fluorometric polyethyleneglycol-peptide hybrid substrates for quantitative assay of protein disulfide isomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla; St Hilaire, Phaedria M; Winther, Jakob R.

    2004-01-01

    . This means that PDI activity is typically measured in the context of a globular protein folding pathway. The absence of small, well-defined substrates for the quantitation of both oxidation and reduction reactions constitutes an inherent problem in the analysis of PDI activity. We describe a new type...... of substrate for PDI where two cysteine-containing oligopeptides are connected by an onameric ethylene glycol linker. We term such hybrid compounds PEGtides. The oligopeptides are each marked with a fluorescent aminobenzoic acid and a quenching nitrotyrosine group, respectively. The reversible formation...... of an intramolecular disulfide bond between fluorophore-containing and quencher-containing peptide segments results in a redox-dependent fluorescence signal. We find a model compound of this type to be a highly sensitive substrate for PDI both in oxidation and in reduction assays under steady state conditions...

  14. Spin-Polarized Tunneling through Chemical Vapor Deposited Multilayer Molybdenum Disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, André; Pashaei, Parham; Kamalakar, M Venkata; Gaur, Anand P S; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Rungger, Ivan; Narayan, Awadhesh; Dolui, Kapildeb; Hoque, Md Anamul; Patel, Ram Shanker; de Jong, Michel P; Katiyar, Ram S; Sanvito, Stefano; Dash, Saroj P

    2017-06-27

    The two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has attracted widespread attention for its extraordinary electrical-, optical-, spin-, and valley-related properties. Here, we report on spin-polarized tunneling through chemical vapor deposited multilayer MoS 2 (∼7 nm) at room temperature in a vertically fabricated spin-valve device. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of 0.5-2% has been observed, corresponding to spin polarization of 5-10% in the measured temperature range of 300-75 K. First-principles calculations for ideal junctions result in a TMR up to 8% and a spin polarization of 26%. The detailed measurements at different temperature, bias voltages, and density functional theory calculations provide information about spin transport mechanisms in vertical multilayer MoS 2 spin-valve devices. These findings form a platform for exploring spin functionalities in 2D semiconductors and understanding the basic phenomena that control their performance.

  15. Molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide: highly sensitive and selective hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, A.; Rathi, Servin; Lee, In-yeal; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Kang, Moonshik; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Gil-Ho; Kannan, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we report on the hydrogen (H2) sensing behavior of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nano particles (NPs) based composite film. The RGO/MoS2 composite exhibited a highly enhanced H2 response (∼15.6%) for 200 ppm at an operating temperature of 60 °C. Furthermore, the RGO/MoS2 composite showed excellent selectivity to H2 with respect to ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) which are highly reactive gas species. The composite’s response to H2 is 2.9 times higher than that of NH3 whereas for NO it is 3.5. This highly improved H2 sensing response and selectivity of RGO/MoS2 at low operating temperatures were attributed to the structural integration of MoS2 nanoparticles in the nanochannels and pores in the RGO layer.

  16. Identification of intra- and intermolecular disulfide bridges in the multidrug resistance transporter ABCG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulla Birk; Fog, Jacob U; Litman, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    cysteines predicted to be on the extracellular face of ABCG2. Upon mutation of Cys-592 or Cys-608 to alanine (C592A and C608A), ABCG2 migrated as a dimer in SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions; however, mutation of Cys-603 to Ala (C603A) caused the transporter to migrate as a single monomeric band....... Despite this change, C603A displayed efficient membrane targeting and preserved transport function. Because the transporter migrated as a dimer in SDS-PAGE, when only Cys-603 was present (C592A-C608A), the data suggest that Cys-603 forms a symmetrical intermolecular disulfide bridge in the ABCG2 homodimer...

  17. Extended red light harvesting in a poly(3-hexylthiophene)/iron disulfide nanocrystal hybrid solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yun-Yue; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Chen, Chun-Wei; Wang, Di-Yan; Yen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Ming; Tang, Chih-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A polymer solar cell based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/iron disulfide (FeS 2 ) nanocrystal (NC) hybrid is presented. The FeS 2 NCs of 10 nm in diameter were homogeneously blended with P3HT to form an active layer of a solar cell. An extended red light harvesting up to 900 nm resulting from the NCs in the device has been demonstrated, compared to a typical absorption edge of 650 nm of a pristine P3HT. The environmentally friendly and low-cost FeS 2 NCs can be used as a promising candidate for an acceptor in the polymer solar cell device application with an enhanced photovoltaic response in the extended red light region.

  18. Efficient assembly of recombinant major histocompatibility complex class I molecules with preformed disulfide bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard Pedersen, L; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Hansen, N J

    2001-01-01

    The expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) crucially depends upon the binding of appropriate peptides. MHC-I from natural sources are therefore always preoccupied with peptides complicating their purification and analysis. Here, we present an efficient solution to this problem....... Recombinant MHC-I heavy chains were produced in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified under denaturing conditions. In contrast to common practice, the molecules were not reduced during the purification. The oxidized MHC-I heavy chain isoforms were highly active with respect to peptide binding....... This suggests that de novo folding of denatured MHC-I molecules proceed efficiently if directed by preformed disulfide bond(s). Importantly, these molecules express serological epitopes and stain specific T cells; and they bind peptides specifically. Several denatured MHC-I heavy chains were analyzed and shown...

  19. Ring structures on natural molybdenum disulfide investigated by scanning tunneling and scanning force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckl, W.M.; Ohnesorge, F.; Binnig, G. (IBM Research Division, Muenchen (West Germany)); Specht, M. (Univ. Muenchen (West Germany)); Hashmi, M. (MPIf. Plasmaphysics, Garching (West Germany))

    In this paper the authors present a study of ring-like structures of two different sizes on a nanometer scale found on natural molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Investigation by scanning tunneling and scanning force microscopy as well as secondary-ion mass spectroscopy indicate that these rings might originate from included molecules. Synthetic compared to natural MoS{sub 2} shows characteristic differences. The origin of these striking structures could be the morphology of organic or even remnants of biological material included at the geological time when the mineral was formed and could therefore be regarded as a result of a molecular fossilization process. The alternative explanation that the ring structure is a nonmorphological and purely electronic effect caused by a point defect like a dopant is also discussed.

  20. High-performance molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors with spin tunnel contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, André; Langouche, Lennart; Kamalakar, Mutta Venkata; Dash, Saroj Prasad

    2014-01-28

    Molybdenum disulfide has recently emerged as a promising two-dimensional semiconducting material for nanoelectronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications. Here, we investigate the field-effect transistor behavior of MoS2 with ferromagnetic contacts to explore its potential for spintronics. In such devices, we elucidate that the presence of a large Schottky barrier resistance at the MoS2/ferromagnet interface is a major obstacle for the electrical spin injection and detection. We circumvent this problem by a reduction in the Schottky barrier height with the introduction of a thin TiO2 tunnel barrier between the ferromagnet and MoS2. This results in an enhancement of the transistor on-state current by 2 orders of magnitude and an increment in the field-effect mobility by a factor of 6. Our magnetoresistance calculation reveals that such integration of ferromagnetic tunnel contacts opens up the possibilities for MoS2-based spintronic devices.

  1. Disulfide-crosslinked electrospun poly(gamma-glutamic acid) nonwovens as reduction-responsive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Klinkhammer, Kristina; Matsusaki, Michiya; Möller, Martin; Klee, Doris; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2009-06-11

    Novel water-insoluble, and reduction-responsive nonwoven scaffolds were fabricated from gamma-PGA and tested in cell culture. An electrospinning method was developed to produce scaffolds of fibers with diameters of 0.05-0.5 microm. Crosslinking of the fibers with cystamine in the presence of EDC resulted in water-insoluble gamma-PGA nonwovens with disulfide crosslinkages. These crosslinked fibers were easily decomposed under physiological conditions using L-cysteine, a biocompatible reductant. In vitro experiments with mouse L929 fibroblasts showed good adhesion onto gamma-PGA-SS fiber matrices and excellent cell proliferation. These gamma-PGA-SS nonwovens can be used as novel biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds with reduction-responsiveness for biomedical or tissue engineering applications.

  2. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bingzhen [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shen, Chunzi [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zibo (China); Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhiping, E-mail: zhipingw@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  3. Development of novel hybrid materials based on poly(2-aminophenyl disulfide)/silica gel: Preparation, characterization and electrochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyakhou, S.; Belmokhtar, A.; Zehhaf, A.; Benyoucef, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrochloric acid functionalized silica gel (SiO2) has been successfully used for the grafting of poly(2-Aminophenyl disulfide) (poly(2APhS)) moieties through in-situ polymerization in the presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) as oxidant. The organic-inorganic hybrid (poly(2APhS)/SiO2 with different amounts of SiO2: 0.5 g, 1.5 g and 2 g) were thoroughly characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) measurements. The results confirm the successful formation of the poly(2APhS)/SiO2 composite. The surface morphology of the samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained images show the formation of poly(2APhS) on surface of silica gel. Although the incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles reduces the electric conductivity of the poly(2APhS), the resulting samples still keep high conductivities, ranging between 8.2 × 10-4 to 1.1 × 10-6 S cm-1. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry. The comparison between the different samples shows that the electrochemical activity is significantly depending on the amount of added SiO2. There is a clear and good electroactivity for poly(2APhS)/SiO2 with amounts of SiO2: 0.5 g and 1.5 g, respectively, compared to that observed in materials nanocomposite with amounts of SiO2: 2.0 g. However, that effect may be explained by a decrease of polymer in surface area with increase amount of SiO2 nanoparticle.

  4. Crystallographic studies evidencing the high energy tolerance to disrupting the interface disulfide bond of thioredoxin 1 from white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Acevedo, Adam A; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2014-12-15

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small 12-kDa redox protein that catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins from different biological systems. A recent study of the crystal structure of white leg shrimp thioredoxin 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) revealed a dimeric form of the protein mediated by a covalent link through a disulfide bond between Cys73 from each monomer. In the present study, X-ray-induced damage in the catalytic and the interface disulfide bond of LvTrx was studied at atomic resolution at different transmission energies of 8% and 27%, 12.8 keV at 100 K in the beamline I-24 at Diamond Light Source. We found that at an absorbed dose of 32 MGy, the X-ray induces the cleavage of the disulfide bond of each catalytic site; however, the interface disulfide bond was cleaved at an X-ray adsorbed dose of 85 MGy; despite being the most solvent-exposed disulfide bond in LvTrx (~50 Å2). This result clearly established that the interface disulfide bond is very stable and, therefore, less susceptible to being reduced by X-rays. In fact, these studies open the possibility of the existence in solution of a dimeric LvTrx.

  5. Crystallographic Studies Evidencing the High Energy Tolerance to Disrupting the Interface Disulfide Bond of Thioredoxin 1 from White Leg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Campos-Acevedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (Trx is a small 12-kDa redox protein that catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins from different biological systems. A recent study of the crystal structure of white leg shrimp thioredoxin 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx revealed a dimeric form of the protein mediated by a covalent link through a disulfide bond between Cys73 from each monomer. In the present study, X-ray-induced damage in the catalytic and the interface disulfide bond of LvTrx was studied at atomic resolution at different transmission energies of 8% and 27%, 12.8 keV at 100 K in the beamline I-24 at Diamond Light Source. We found that at an absorbed dose of 32 MGy, the X-ray induces the cleavage of the disulfide bond of each catalytic site; however, the interface disulfide bond was cleaved at an X-ray adsorbed dose of 85 MGy; despite being the most solvent-exposed disulfide bond in LvTrx (~50 Å2. This result clearly established that the interface disulfide bond is very stable and, therefore, less susceptible to being reduced by X-rays. In fact, these studies open the possibility of the existence in solution of a dimeric LvTrx.

  6. Production of recombinant disulfide-rich venom peptides for structural and functional analysis via expression in the periplasm of E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie K Klint

    Full Text Available Disulfide-rich peptides are the dominant component of most animal venoms. These peptides have received much attention as leads for the development of novel therapeutic agents and bioinsecticides because they target a wide range of neuronal receptors and ion channels with a high degree of potency and selectivity. In addition, their rigid disulfide framework makes them particularly well suited for addressing the crucial issue of in vivo stability. Structural and functional characterization of these peptides necessitates the development of a robust, reliable expression system that maintains their native disulfide framework. The bacterium Escherichia coli has long been used for economical production of recombinant proteins. However, the expression of functional disulfide-rich proteins in the reducing environment of the E. coli cytoplasm presents a significant challenge. Thus, we present here an optimised protocol for the expression of disulfide-rich venom peptides in the periplasm of E. coli, which is where the endogenous machinery for production of disulfide-bonds is located. The parameters that have been investigated include choice of media, induction conditions, lysis methods, methods of fusion protein and peptide purification, and sample preparation for NMR studies. After each section a recommendation is made for conditions to use. We demonstrate the use of this method for the production of venom peptides ranging in size from 2 to 8 kDa and containing 2-6 disulfide bonds.

  7. Cu(II)-disulfide complexes display simultaneous superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Margarita E; Andrade-Acuña, Daniela; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristián; Speisky, Hernán

    2013-12-01

    Superoxide is a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism. We have addressed here the in vitro ability of complexes formed between copper(II) ions and various biologically-occurring disulfides (RSSR: oxidized glutathione, cystine, homocystine and α-lipoic acid) to react with superoxide. The studied complexes were found to react with superoxide (generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system) at rate constants (kCu(II)-RSSR) close to 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), which are three orders of magnitude lower than that reported for superoxide dismutase (SOD) but comparable to that of several other copper-containing complexes reported as SOD mimetics. The interaction between the tested Cu(II)-RSSR and superoxide, led to the generation and recovery of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen that were, respectively, below and above those theoretically-expected from a sole SOD mimetic action. Interestingly, oxygen was generated when the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes were directly incubated with hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results reveal that the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes not only have the capacity to dismutate superoxide but also to simultaneously act like catalase mimetic molecules. When added to superoxide-overproducing mitochondria (condition attained by its exposure to diclofenac), three of the tested complexes were able (2-4μM), not only to totally restore, but also to lower below the basal level the mitochondrial production of superoxide. The present study is first in reporting on the potential of Cu(II)-disulfide complexes to act as SOD and catalase like molecules, suggesting a potential for these types of molecules to act as such under physiological and/or oxidative-stress conditions. © 2013.

  8. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Vanessa; Stockhausen, Sven; Busse, Johanna; Antonelli, Antonella; Miller, Meike; Schubert, Irene; Hoseinpour, Parandis; Chandraratne, Sue; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Gaertner, Florian; Lorenz, Michael; Agresti, Alessandra; Coletti, Raffaele; Antoine, Daniel J.; Heermann, Ralf; Jung, Kirsten; Reese, Sven; Laitinen, Iina; Schwaiger, Markus; Walch, Axel; Sperandio, Markus; Nawroth, Peter P.; Reinhardt, Christoph; Jäckel, Sven; Bianchi, Marco E.; Massberg, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Although sterile inflammation has recently been shown to boost coagulation during DVT, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully resolved, which could potentially identify new anti-inflammatory approaches to prophylaxis and therapy of DVT. Using a mouse model of venous thrombosis induced by flow reduction in the vena cava inferior, we identified blood-derived high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a prototypical mediator of sterile inflammation, to be a master regulator of the prothrombotic cascade involving platelets and myeloid leukocytes fostering occlusive DVT formation. Transfer of platelets into Hmgb1−/− chimeras showed that this cell type is the major source of HMGB1, exposing reduced HMGB1 on their surface upon activation thereby enhancing the recruitment of monocytes. Activated leukocytes in turn support oxidation of HMGB1 unleashing its prothrombotic activity and promoting platelet aggregation. This potentiates the amount of HMGB1 and further nurtures the accumulation and activation of monocytes through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 2, leading to local delivery of monocyte-derived tissue factor and cytokines. Moreover, disulfide HMGB1 facilitates formation of prothrombotic neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) mediated by RAGE, exposing additional HMGB1 on their extracellular DNA strands. Eventually, a vicious circle of coagulation and inflammation is set in motion leading to obstructive DVT formation. Therefore, platelet-derived disulfide HMGB1 is a central mediator of the sterile inflammatory process in venous thrombosis and could be an attractive target for an anti-inflammatory approach for DVT prophylaxis. PMID:27574188

  9. New type polyamides containing disulfide bonds for positive active material of lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Okada, Keiji; Fujita, Kazunari; Oishi, Tsutomu

    Various polyamides containing a disulfide bond in their main chain were prepared by condensation of a diacid, 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (P), 6,6'-dithiodinicotinic acid (N), or 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid (B) and a diamine, alkyldiamine (I, II, III, and IV: NH 2-(CH 2) n-NH 2, n = 4, 6, 8, and 12) or cystamine, V: NH 2-(CH 2) 2-S-S-(CH 2) 2-NH 2. Polyamides P-I, P-II, P-III, P-IV, and P-V were insoluble common organic solvents, but soluble in formic acid or trifluoroacetic acid. Polyamides containing N or B as the acid moiety, i.e. aromatic polyamides, were soluble in N,N'-dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide. The electrochemical behavior of P-II electrode in the organic electrolytes, such as propylene carbonate (PC), PC—1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) mixture, ethylene carbonate (EC)—DME mixture, which are used as the electrolytes for common lithium batteries was investigated. In the mixed electrolyte, PC—DME (1:1, by volume) a good electrochemical response of P-II electrode based on the redox of disulfide bonds in the polymer was observed. Charge/discharge cycling tests of Li/P-II cells were also performed. At the first discharge, the net capacity of the cell was 97.5 Ah kg -1 (this value was calculated from the weight of loaded P-II on the electrode). Utilization of P-II was 53%. Cell capacity versus cycle number was also investigated.

  10. Structure of conkunitzin-S1, a neurotoxin and Kunitz-fold disulfide variant from cone snail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dy, Catherine Y. [Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0840 (United States); Buczek, Pawel [Cognetix Inc., 421 Wakara Way, Suite 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 (United States); Imperial, Julita S. [Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0840 (United States); Bulaj, Grzegorz [Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0840 (United States); Cognetix Inc., 421 Wakara Way, Suite 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84108 (United States); Horvath, Martin P., E-mail: horvath@biology.utah.edu [Biology, University of Utah, 257 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0840 (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Most Kunitz proteins like BPTI and α-dendrotoxin are stabilized by three disulfide bonds. The crystal structure shows how subtle repacking of non-covalent interactions may compensate for disulfide bond loss in a naturally occurring two-disulfide variant, conkunitzin-S1, the first discovered member of a new conotoxin family. Cone snails (Conus) are predatory marine mollusks that immobilize prey with venom containing 50–200 neurotoxic polypeptides. Most of these polypeptides are small disulfide-rich conotoxins that can be classified into families according to their respective ion-channel targets and patterns of cysteine–cysteine disulfides. Conkunitzin-S1, a potassium-channel pore-blocking toxin isolated from C. striatus venom, is a member of a newly defined conotoxin family with sequence homology to Kunitz-fold proteins such as α-dendrotoxin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). While conkunitzin-S1 and α-dendrotoxin are 42% identical in amino-acid sequence, conkunitzin-S1 has only four of the six cysteines normally found in Kunitz proteins. Here, the crystal structure of conkunitzin-S1 is reported. Conkunitzin-S1 adopts the canonical 3{sub 10}–β–β–α Kunitz fold complete with additional distinguishing structural features including two completely buried water molecules. The crystal structure, although completely consistent with previously reported NMR distance restraints, provides a greater degree of precision for atomic coordinates, especially for S atoms and buried solvent molecules. The region normally cross-linked by cysteines II and IV in other Kunitz proteins retains a network of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions comparable to those found in α-dendrotoxin and BPTI. In conkunitzin-S1, glycine occupies the sequence position normally reserved for cysteine II and the special steric properties of glycine allow additional van der Waals contacts with the glutamine residue substituting for cysteine IV. Evolution has thus defrayed

  11. The role of protein disulfide isomerase in the post-ligation phase of β3 integrin-dependent cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Avi; Mor-Cohen, Ronit; Ram, Ron; Sheptovitsky, Vera; Seligsohn, Uri; Rosenberg, Nurit; Lahav, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes disulfide bond exchange. It is crucial for integrin-mediated platelet adhesion and aggregation and disulfide bond exchange is necessary for αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 activation. However, the role of disulfide bond exchange and PDI in the post-ligation phase of αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 mediated cell adhesion has yet to be determined. To investigate a possible such role, we expressed wild type (WT) human αIIb and either WT human β3, or β3 harboring single or double cysteine to serine substitutions disrupting Cys473-Cys503 or Cys523-Cys544 bonds, in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, leading to expression of both human αIIbβ3 and a chimeric hamster/human αvβ3. Adhesion to fibrinogen-coated wells was studied in the presence or absence of bacitracin, a PDI inhibitor, with and without an αvβ3 blocker. Flow cytometry showed WT and mutant αIIbβ3 expression in BHK cells and indicated that mutated αIIbβ3 receptors were constitutively active while WT αIIbβ3 was inactive. Both αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrins, WT and mutants, mediated adhesion to fibrinogen as shown by reduced but still substantial adhesion following treatment with the αvβ3 blocker. Mutated αIIbβ3 integrins disrupted in the Cys523-Cys544 bond still depended on PDI for adhesion as shown by the inhibitory effect of bacitracin in the presence of the αvβ3 blocker. Mutated integrins disrupted in the Cys473-Cys503 bond showed a similar trend. PDI-mediated disulfide bond exchange plays a pivotal role in the post-ligation phase of αIIbβ3-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen, while this step in αvβ3-mediated adhesion is independent of disulfide exchange. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Symmetric pseudocapacitors based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-modified carbon nanospheres: correlating physicochemistry and synergistic interaction on energy storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khawula, TNY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide-modified carbon nanospheres (MoS(sub2)/CNS) with two different morphologies (spherical and flower-like) have been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques and investigated as symmetric pseudocapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte...

  13. Dissulfeto de molibdênio, um material multifuncional e surpreendente Molybdenum disulfide, a multifunctional and remarkable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Wypych

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to review the chemical and physical properties of layered molybdenum disulfide. The three polymorphic/polytypic modifications of the compound were found, the polytypes 2H (molybdenite and 3R are semiconductors while the polymorph 1T is an electronic conductor. 2H-MoS2 has several important industrial applications as hydrotreatment catalysts, energy storage devices, solar cells, solid lubricants, among others. When intercalated, the 2H phase changes to a distorted 1T phase, producing unstable intercalation compounds that can be exfoliated in solution, producing single layers and consequently nanocomposites. The direct synthesis of the 1T phase produces stable intercalation compounds. Recently molybdenum disulfide was prepared as nanotubes and fulerene-like structures that bring new insights in the investigation of this important material.

  14. Structural insights into Cn-AMP1, a short disulfide-free multifunctional peptide from green coconut water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mábio J; de Oliveira, Aline L; Queiroz Júnior, Luiz H K; Mandal, Santi M; Matos, Carolina O; Dias, Renata de O; Franco, Octavio L; Lião, Luciano M

    2015-02-27

    Multifunctional and promiscuous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can be used as an efficient strategy to control pathogens. However, little is known about the structural properties of plant promiscuous AMPs without disulfide bonds. CD and NMR were used to elucidate the structure of the promiscuous peptide Cn-AMP1, a disulfide-free peptide isolated from green coconut water. Data here reported shows that peptide structure is transitory and could be different according to the micro-environment. In this regard, Cn-AMP1 showed a random coil in a water environment and an α-helical structure in the presence of SDS-d25 micelles. Moreover, deuterium exchange experiments showed that Gly4, Arg5 and Met9 residues are less accessible to solvent, suggesting that flexibility and cationic charges seem to be essential for Cn-AMP1 multiple activities. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Thioredoxin Disulfide Targets Using a Quantitative Proteomics Approach Based on Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Maeda, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a ubiquitous protein disulfide reductase involved in a wide range of cellular redox processes. A large number of putative target proteins have been identified using proteomics approaches, but insight into target specificity at the molecular level is lacking since the reactivity......, protein extract of embryos from germinated barley seeds was treated +/- Trx, and thiols released from target protein disulfides were irreversibly blocked with iodoacetamide. The remaining cysteine residues in the Trx-treated and the control (-Trx) samples were then chemically reduced and labeled...... with the "light" (C-12) and "heavy" (C-13) ICAT reagent, respectively. The extent of Trx-mediated reduction was thus quantified for individual cysteine residues based on ratios of tryptic peptides labeled with the two ICAT reagents as measured by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC...

  16. Species-Specific Thiol-Disulfide Equilibrium Constant: A Tool To Characterize Redox Transitions of Biological Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-08-13

    Microscopic redox equilibrium constants, a new species-specific type of physicochemical parameters, were introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The thiol-disulfide redox equilibria of glutathione with cysteamine, cysteine, and homocysteine were approached from both sides, and the equilibrium mixtures were analyzed by quantitative NMR methods to characterize the highly composite, co-dependent acid-base and redox equilibria. The directly obtained, pH-dependent, conditional constants were then decomposed by a new evaluation method, resulting in pH-independent, microscopic redox equilibrium constants for the first time. The 80 different, microscopic redox equilibrium constant values show close correlation with the respective thiolate basicities and provide sound means for the development of potent agents against oxidative stress.

  17. A novel disulfide-rich protein motif from avian eggshell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi K Kodali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the shell of a chicken egg are two opposed proteinaceous disulfide-rich membranes. They are fabricated in the avian oviduct using fibers formed from proteins that are extensively coupled by irreversible lysine-derived crosslinks. The intractability of these eggshell membranes (ESM has slowed their characterization and their protein composition remains uncertain. In this work, reductive alkylation of ESM followed by proteolytic digestion led to the identification of a cysteine rich ESM protein (abbreviated CREMP that was similar to spore coat protein SP75 from cellular slime molds. Analysis of the cysteine repeats in partial sequences of CREMP reveals runs of remarkably repetitive patterns. Module a contains a C-X(4-C-X(5-C-X(8-C-X(6 pattern (where X represents intervening non-cysteine residues. These inter-cysteine amino acid residues are also strikingly conserved. The evolutionarily-related module b has the same cysteine spacing as a, but has 11 amino acid residues at its C-terminus. Different stretches of CREMP sequences in chicken genomic DNA fragments show diverse repeat patterns: e.g. all a modules; an alternation of a-b modules; or an a-b-b arrangement. Comparable CREMP proteins are found in contigs of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and in the oviparous green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis. In all these cases the long runs of highly conserved modular repeats have evidently led to difficulties in the assembly of full length DNA sequences. Hence the number, and the amino acid lengths, of CREMP proteins are currently unknown. A 118 amino acid fragment (representing an a-b-a-b pattern from a chicken oviduct EST library expressed in Escherichia coli is a well folded, highly anisotropic, protein with a large chemical shift dispersion in 2D solution NMR spectra. Structure is completely lost on reduction of the 8 disulfide bonds of this protein fragment. Finally, solid state NMR spectra suggest a surprising degree of order in intact

  18. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Disulfide-Containing Uranyl Compounds. In Situ Ligand Synthesis versus Direct Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Clare E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Belai, Nebebech [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Knope, Karah E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cahill, Christopher L. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-01-29

    Three disulfide-containing uranyl compounds, [UO2(C7H4O2S)3]·H2O (1), [UO2(C7H4O2S)2(C7H5O2S)] (2), and [UO2(C7H4O2S)4] (3) have been hydrothermally synthesized. Both in situ disulfide bond formation from 3- and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (C7H5O2S, MBA) to yield 3,3'- and 4,4'-dithiobisbenzoic acid (C14H8O4S2, DTBA) and direct assembly with the presynthesized dimeric ligands have been explored. While the starting materials 4-MBA and 4,4'-DTBA both yield 2 via in situ ligand synthesis and direct assembly, respectively, we observe the formation of 1 from the starting material 3-MBA via in situ ligand synthesis and of 3 from the direct assembly of the uranyl cation with 3,3'-DTBA. Concurrently with the synthesis of 1 and 2, we have observed the in situ formation of the crystalline dimeric organic species, 3,3'-DTBA, [(C7H5O2S)2] (4) and 4,4'-DTBA, [(C7H5O2S)2] (5). Herein we report the synthesis and crystallographic characterization of 1-5, as well as observations regarding the utility of product formation via direct assembly and in situ ligand synthesis.

  19. A two disulfide bridge Kazal domain from Phytophthora exhibits stable inhibitory activity against serine proteases of the subtilisin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoun Sophien

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kazal-like serine protease inhibitors are defined by a conserved sequence motif. A typical Kazal domain contains six cysteine residues leading to three disulfide bonds with a 1–5/2–4/3–6 pattern. Most Kazal domains described so far belong to this class. However, a novel class of Kazal domains with two disulfide bridges resulting from the absence of the third and sixth cysteines have been found in biologically important molecules, such as human LEKTI, a 15-domain inhibitor associated with the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome. These domains are referred to as atypical Kazal domains. Previously, EPI1, a Kazal-like protease inhibitor from the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans, was shown to be a tight-binding inhibitor of subtilisin A. EPI1 also inhibits and interacts with the pathogenesis-related P69B subtilase of the host plant tomato, suggesting a role in virulence. EPI1 is composed of two Kazal domains, the four-cysteine atypical domain EPI1a and the typical domain EPI1b. Results In this study, we predicted the inhibition constants of EPI1a and EPI1b to subtilisin A using the additivity-based sequence to reactivity algorithm (Laskowski algorithm. The atypical domain EPI1a, but not the typical domain EPI1b, was predicted to have strong inhibitory activity against subtilisin A. Inhibition assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that recombinant domain EPI1a exhibited stable inhibitory activity against subilisin A and was solely responsible for inhibition and interaction with tomato P69B subtilase. Conclusion The finding that the two disulfide bridge atypical Kazal domain EPI1a is a stable inhibitor indicates that the missing two cysteines and their corresponding disulfide bond are not essential for inhibitor reactivity and stability. This report also suggests that the Laskowski algorithm originally developed and validated with typical Kazal domains might operate accurately for atypical

  20. Acid-denatured Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rosa E; Meléndez-López, Samuel G; Ramos, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has been observed after acid-induced denaturation. Furthermore, this acid-denatured GFP has been used as substrate in studies of the folding activity of some bacterial chaperones and other chaperone-like molecules. Protein disulfide isomerase enzymes, a family of eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in nascent polypeptides, play a key role in protein folding and it could display chaperone activity. However, contrasting results have been reported using different proteins as model substrates. Here, we report the further application of GFP as a model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) enzymes. Since refolding of acid-denatured GFP can be easily and directly monitored, a simple micro-assay was used to study the effect of the molecular participants in protein refolding assisted by PDI. Additionally, the effect of a well-known inhibitor of PDI chaperone activity was also analyzed. Because of the diversity their functional activities, PDI enzymes are potentially interesting drug targets. Since PDI may be implicated in the protection of cells against ER stress, including cancer cells, inhibitors of PDI might be able to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy; furthermore, it has been demonstrated that blocking the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds of proteins associated with the cell surface markedly reduces the infectivity of the human immunodeficiency virus. Although several high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to test PDI reductase activity have been described, we report here a novel and simple micro-assay to test the chaperone activity of PDI enzymes, which is amenable for HTS of PDI

  1. Effect of trastuzumab interchain disulfide bond cleavage on Fcγ receptor binding and antibody-dependent tumour cell phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mami; Yamanoi, Ayaka; Machino, Yusuke; Ootsubo, Michiko; Izawa, Ken-ichi; Kohroki, Junya; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The Fc domain of human IgG1 binds to Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) to induce effector functions such as phagocytosis. There are four interchain disulfide bonds between the H and L chains. In this study, the disulfide bonds within the IgG1 trastuzumab (TRA), which is specific for HER2, were cleaved by mild S-sulfonation or by mild reduction followed by S-alkylation with three different reagents. The cleavage did not change the binding activities of TRA to HER2-bearing SK-BR-3 cells. The binding activities of TRA to FcγRIIA and FcγRIIB were greatly enhanced by modification with mild reduction and S-alkylation with ICH2CONH2 or N-(4-aminophenyl) maleimide, while the binding activities of TRA to FcγRI and FcγRIIIA were decreased by any of the four modifications. However, the interchain disulfide bond cleavage by the different modifications did not change the antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of SK-BR-3 cells by activated THP-1 cells. The order of FcγR expression levels on the THP-1 cells was FcγRII > FcγRI > FcγRIII and ADCP was inhibited by blocking antibodies against FcγRI and FcγRII. These results imply that the effect of the interchain disulfide bond cleavage on FcγRs binding and ADCP is dependent on modifications of the cysteine residues and the FcγR isotypes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. A Pseudo MS3 Approach for Identification of Disulfide-Bonded Proteins: Uncommon Product Ions and Database Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Shiyanov, Pavel; Schlager, John J.; Green, Kari B.

    2012-02-01

    It has previously been reported that disulfide and backbone bonds of native intact proteins can be concurrently cleaved using electrospray ionization (ESI) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). However, the cleavages of disulfide bonds result in different cysteine modifications in product ions, making it difficult to identify the disulfide-bonded proteins via database search. To solve this identification problem, we have developed a pseudo MS3 approach by combining nozzle-skimmer dissociation (NSD) and CID on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer using chicken lysozyme as a model. Although many of the product ions were similar to those typically seen in MS/MS spectra of enzymatically derived peptides, additional uncommon product ions were detected including ci-1 ions (the ith residue being aspartic acid, arginine, lysine and dehydroalanine) as well as those from a scrambled sequence. The formation of these uncommon types of product ions, likely caused by the lack of mobile protons, were proposed to involve bond rearrangements via a six-membered ring transition state and/or salt bridge(s). A search of 20 pseudo MS3 spectra against the Gallus gallus (chicken) database using Batch-Tag, a program originally designed for bottom up MS/MS analysis, identified chicken lysozyme as the only hit with the expectation values less than 0.02 for 12 of the spectra. The pseudo MS3 approach may help to identify disulfide-bonded proteins and determine the associated post-translational modifications (PTMs); the confidence in the identification may be improved by incorporating the fragmentation characteristics into currently available search programs.

  3. Production of disulfide bond-rich peptides by fusion expression using small transmembrane proteins of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ziwei; Lu, Ming; Ma, Yunqi; Kwag, Dong-Geon; Kim, Seo-Hyun; Park, Ji-Min; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Ok; An, Cheul-Min; Li, Huayue; Jung, Jee H; Park, Jang-Su

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli allows the simple, economical, and effective production of bioactive peptides. On the other hand, the production of native peptides, particularly those rich in disulfide bonds, is a major problem. Previous studies have reported that the use of carrier proteins for fusion expression can result in good peptide yields, but few are folded correctly. In this study, two transmembrane small proteins in E. coli, YoaJ and YkgR, which both orientate with their N-termini in cytoplasm and their C-termini in periplasm, were used for fusion expression. The recombinant production of two peptides, asteropsin A (ASPA) and β-defensin (BD), was induced in the periplasm of E. coli using a selected carrier protein. Both peptides were expressed at high levels, at yields of approximately 5-10 mg/L of culture. Mass spectrometry showed that the resulting peptide had the same molecular weight as their natural forms. After purification, single peaks were observed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), demonstrating the absence of isoforms. Furthermore, cytoplasmically expressed fusion proteins with a carrier at their C-termini did not contain disulfide bonds. This study provides new carrier proteins for fusion expression of disulfide bond-rich peptides in E. coli.

  4. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Bates, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  5. Tailoring the Edge Structure of Molybdenum Disulfide toward Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Pedram; Asadi, Mohammad; Liu, Cong; Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh; Sayahpour, Baharak; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Zapol, Peter; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Curtiss, Larry A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-01-24

    Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into energy-rich fuels is considered to be the most efficient approach to achieve a carbon neutral cycle. Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently shown a very promising catalytic performance for CO2 reduction reaction in an ionic liquid electrolyte. Here, we report that the catalytic performance of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a member of TMDCs, can be significantly improved by using an appropriate dopant. Our electrochemical results indicate that 5% niobium (Nb)-doped vertically aligned MoS2 in ionic liquid exhibits 1 order of magnitude higher CO formation turnover frequency (TOF) than pristine MoS2 at an overpotential range of 50-150 mV. The TOF of this catalyst is also 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of Ag nanoparticles over the entire range of studied overpotentials (100-650 mV). Moreover, the in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry experiment shows the onset overpotential of 31 mV for this catalyst, which is the lowest onset potential for CO2 reduction reaction reported so far. Our density functional theory calculations reveal that low concentrations of Nb near the Mo edge atoms can enhance the TOF of CO formation by modifying the binding energies of intermediates to MoS2 edge atoms.

  6. Cathode based on molybdenum disulfide nanoflakes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Liu, Cong; Phillips, Patrick; Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Zapol, Peter; Klie, Robert F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2016-02-01

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O-2) batteries have been recognized as an emerging technology for energy storage systems owing to their high theoretical specific energy. One challenge is to find an electrolyte/cathode system that is efficient, stable, and cost-effective. We present such a system based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoflakes combined with an ionic liquid (IL) that work together as an effective cocatalyst for discharge and charge in a Li-O-2 battery. Cyclic voltammetry results show superior catalytic performance for this cocatalyst for both oxygen reduction and evolution reactions compared to Au and Pt catalysts. It also performs remarkably well in the Li-O-2 battery system with 85% round-trip efficiency and reversibility up to 50 cycles. Density functional calculations provide a mechanistic understanding of the MoS2 nanoflakes/IL system. cocatalyst reported in this work could open the way for exploiting the unique properties of ionic liquids in Li-air batteries in combination with nanostructured MoS2 as a cathode material.

  7. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of iron disulfide and its use for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Vogel, Ralf; Giersig, M.; Weller, Horst; Tributsch, Helmut

    1992-12-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of iron disulfide have been grown on different substrates by chemical vapour deposition. The films were characterized using optical absorption and TEM. RBS and EDAX analysis has been used to explore the chemical stoichiometry. XRD and FTIR allowed the identification of both FeS2 phases pyrite and marcasite. A novel method for sensitization of highly porous Ti02 elecrodes with ultra thin (10-20 nm) polycrystalline films of FeS2 (pyrite) is presented. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using the above electrode generated high photovoltage of up to 600mV compared with single crystalline electrode (200 mV). In this device the semiconductor with a small band gap and high absorption coefficient (FeS2 pyrite; EG = 0.9 eV; a = 6 x 105 cm-1) absorbs the light and injects electrons into the conduction band the wide band gap semiconductor (Ti02 anatase; EG = 3.2 eV). Regeneration of holes is taking place by electron transfer from redox system in the electrolyte.

  8. Solution synthesis of stannous sulfide and stannic disulfide quantum dots for their optical and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zhou, Liyan; Yan, Shancheng; Song, Haizeng; Shi, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Quantum dot devices have been viewed as one of solutions for the next step in the development of integrated circuit. Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductors such as tin sulfide (SnS) and tin disulfide (SnS2) are promising materials for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) devices. However, the challenges in the synthesis of QDs with pure phases severely limit applications in such fields. In this work, uniform SnS and SnS2 QDs were synthesized via a convenient and facile ultrasonic method. TEM and AFM images confirmed the morphology of the SnS and SnS2 QDs. The optical characteristics of the QDs were obtained via UV-vis absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, volt-current measurements of devices fabricated using the SnS and SnS2 QDs were carried out. Our results demonstrate the potential of SnS and SnS2 QDs for optical and electronic applications.

  9. Captopril and its dimer captopril disulfide: comparative structural and conformational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarska, Joanna; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Fruziński, Andrzej; Sieroń, Lesław; Remko, Milan

    2015-03-01

    The crystal structures of captopril {systematic name: (2S)-1-[(2S)-2-methyl-3-sulfanylpropanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid}, C(9)H(15)NO(3)S, (1), and its dimer disulfide metabolite, 1,1'-{disulfanediylbis[(2S)-2-methyl-1-oxopropane-3,1-diyl]}bis-L-proline, C(18)H(28)N(2)O(6)S(2), (2), were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound (1) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), while compound (2) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1), both with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The molecular geometries of (1) and (2) are quite similar, but certain differences appear in the conformations of the five-membered proline rings and the side chains containing the sulfhydryl group. The proline ring adopts an envelope conformation in (1), while in (2) it exists in envelope and slightly deformed half-chair conformations. The conformation adopted by the side chain is extended in (1) and folded in (2). A minimum-energy conformational search using Monte Carlo methods in the aqueous phase reveals that the optimized conformations of the title compounds differ from those determined crystallographically, which depend on their immediate environment. Intermolecular O-H...O and relatively weak C-H...O interactions seem to be effective in both structures and, together with S-H...O and C-H...S contacts, they create three-dimensional networks.

  10. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Heckler

    Full Text Available Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed.

  11. Contact research strategy for emerging molybdenum disulfide and other two-dimensional field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Layered two-dimensional (2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs have been widely isolated, synthesized, and characterized recently. Numerous 2D materials are identified as the potential candidates as channel materials for future thin film technology due to their high mobility and the exhibiting bandgaps. While many TMD filed-effect transistors (FETs have been widely demonstrated along with a significant progress to clearly understand the device physics, large contact resistance at metal/semiconductor interface still remain a challenge. From 2D device research point of view, how to minimize the Schottky barrier effects on contacts thus reduce the contact resistance of metals on 2D materials is very critical for the further development of the field. Here, we present a review of contact research on molybdenum disulfide and other TMD FETs from the fundamental understanding of metal-semiconductor interfaces on 2D materials. A clear contact research strategy on 2D semiconducting materials is developed for future high-performance 2D FETs with aggressively scaled dimensions.

  12. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Oh, Seyong; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Ali, Muhammad Hasnain; Choi, Woo-Young; Heo, Keun; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, negative differential resistance devices have attracted considerable attention due to their folded current–voltage characteristic, which presents multiple threshold voltage values. Because of this remarkable property, studies associated with the negative differential resistance devices have been explored for realizing multi-valued logic applications. Here we demonstrate a negative differential resistance device based on a phosphorene/rhenium disulfide (BP/ReS2) heterojunction that is formed by type-III broken-gap band alignment, showing high peak-to-valley current ratio values of 4.2 and 6.9 at room temperature and 180 K, respectively. Also, the carrier transport mechanism of the BP/ReS2 negative differential resistance device is investigated in detail by analysing the tunnelling and diffusion currents at various temperatures with the proposed analytic negative differential resistance device model. Finally, we demonstrate a ternary inverter as a multi-valued logic application. This study of a two-dimensional material heterojunction is a step forward toward future multi-valued logic device research. PMID:27819264

  13. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Oh, Seyong; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Ali, Muhammad Hasnain; Choi, Woo-Young; Heo, Keun; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Recently, negative differential resistance devices have attracted considerable attention due to their folded current-voltage characteristic, which presents multiple threshold voltage values. Because of this remarkable property, studies associated with the negative differential resistance devices have been explored for realizing multi-valued logic applications. Here we demonstrate a negative differential resistance device based on a phosphorene/rhenium disulfide (BP/ReS2) heterojunction that is formed by type-III broken-gap band alignment, showing high peak-to-valley current ratio values of 4.2 and 6.9 at room temperature and 180 K, respectively. Also, the carrier transport mechanism of the BP/ReS2 negative differential resistance device is investigated in detail by analysing the tunnelling and diffusion currents at various temperatures with the proposed analytic negative differential resistance device model. Finally, we demonstrate a ternary inverter as a multi-valued logic application. This study of a two-dimensional material heterojunction is a step forward toward future multi-valued logic device research.

  14. Sodium and Lithium Storage Properties of Spray-Dried Molybdenum Disulfide-Graphene Hierarchical Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Seng, Kuok Hau; Guo, Zaiping; Du, Aijun; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-07-01

    Developing nano/micro-structures which can effectively upgrade the intriguing properties of electrode materials for energy storage devices is always a key research topic. Ultrathin nanosheets were proved to be one of the potential nanostructures due to their high specific surface area, good active contact areas and porous channels. Herein, we report a unique hierarchical micro-spherical morphology of well-stacked and completely miscible molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets and graphene sheets, were successfully synthesized via a simple and industrial scale spray-drying technique to take the advantages of both MoS2 and graphene in terms of their high practical capacity values and high electronic conductivity, respectively. Computational studies were performed to understand the interfacial behaviour of MoS2 and graphene, which proves high stability of the composite with high interfacial binding energy (-2.02 eV) among them. Further, the lithium and sodium storage properties have been tested and reveal excellent cyclic stability over 250 and 500 cycles, respectively, with the highest initial capacity values of 1300 mAh g-1 and 640 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1.

  15. Gold nanoparticles physicochemically bonded onto tungsten disulfide nanosheet edges exhibit augmented plasmon damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory T. Forcherio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Augmented plasmonic damping of dipole-resonant gold (Au nanoparticles (NP physicochemically bonded onto edges of tungsten disulfide (WS2 nanosheets, ostensibly due to hot electron injection, is quantified using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. EELS allows single-particle spatial resolution. A measured 0.23 eV bandwidth expansion of the localized surface plasmon resonance upon covalent bonding of 20 nm AuNP to WS2 edges was deemed significant by Welch’s t-test. Approximately 0.19 eV of the measured 0.23 eV expansion went beyond conventional radiative and nonradiative damping mechanisms according to discrete dipole models, ostensibly indicating emergence of hot electron transport from AuNP into the WS2. A quantum efficiency of up to 11±5% spanning a 7 fs transfer process across the optimized AuNP-TMD ohmic junction is conservatively calculated. Putative hot electron transport for AuNP physicochemically bonded to TMD edges exceeded that for AuNP physically deposited onto the TMD basal plane. This arose from contributions due to (i direct physicochemical bond between AuNP and WS2; (ii AuNP deposition at TMD edge sites; and (iii lower intrinsic Schottky barrier. This improves understanding of photo-induced doping of TMD by metal NP which could benefit emerging catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  16. Ammonia gas sensors based on poly (3-hexylthiophene)-molybdenum disulfide film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Tao; Xie, Guangzhong; Su, Yuanjie; Hongfei, Du; Ye, Zongbiao; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, in order to enhance the recovery performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) ammonia (NH 3 ) sensors, poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) were combined as sensitive materials. Different sensitive film structures as active layers of OTFTs, i.e., P3HT-MoS 2 composite film, P3HT/MoS 2 bilayer film and MoS 2 /P3HT bilayer film were fabricated by spray technology. OTFT gas sensors based on P3HT-MoS 2 composite film showed a shorter recovery time than others when the ammonia concentration changed from 4 to 20 ppm. Specifically, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and UV-visible absorption were employed to explore the interface properties between P3HT and single-layer MoS 2 . Through the complementary characterization, a mechanism based on charge transfer is proposed to explain the physical originality of these OTFT gas sensors: closer interlayer d-spacing and better π–π stacking of the P3HT chains in composite film have ensured a short recovery time of OTFT gas sensors. Moreover, sensing mechanisms of OTFTs were further studied by comparing the device performance in the presence of nitrogen or dry air as a carrier gas. This work not only strengthens the fundamental understanding of the sensing mechanism, but provides a promising approach to optimizing the OTFT gas sensors. (paper)

  17. The flux of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide between the atmosphere and a spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS and carbon disulfide (CS2 were measured over a spruce forest in Central Germany using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA technique. A REA sampler was developed and validated using simultaneous measurements of CO2 fluxes by REA and by eddy correlation. REA measurements were conducted during six campaigns covering spring, summer, and fall between 1997 and 1999. Both uptake and emission of COS and CS2 by the forest were observed, with deposition occurring mainly during the sunlit period and emission mainly during the dark period. On the average, however, the forest acts as a sink for both gases. The average fluxes for COS and CS2 are  -93 ± 11.7 pmol m-2 s-1 and  -18 ± 7.6 pmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The fluxes of both gases appear to be correlated to photosynthetically active radiation and to the CO2 and chem{H_2O} fluxes, supporting the idea that the air-vegetation exchange of both gases is controlled by stomata. An uptake ratio COS/CO2 of 10 ± 1.7 pmol m mol-1 has been derived from the regression line for the correlation between the COS and CO2 fluxes. This uptake ratio, if representative for the global terrestrial net primary production, would correspond to a sink of 2.3 ± 0.5 Tg COS yr-1.

  18. Structural insight into activation mechanism of Toxoplasma gondii nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases by disulfide reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Ulrike; Zebisch, Matthias; Krauss, Michel; Sträter, Norbert

    2012-01-27

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces two nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDase1 and -3). These tetrameric, cysteine-rich enzymes require activation by reductive cleavage of a hitherto unknown disulfide bond. Despite a 97% sequence identity, both isozymes differ largely in their ability to hydrolyze ATP and ADP. Here, we present crystal structures of inactive NTPDase3 as an apo form and in complex with the product AMP to resolutions of 2.0 and 2.2 Å, respectively. We find that the enzyme is present in an open conformation that precludes productive substrate binding and catalysis. The cysteine bridge 258-268 is identified to be responsible for locking of activity. Crystal structures of constitutively active variants of NTPDase1 and -3 generated by mutation of Cys(258)-Cys(268) show that opening of the regulatory cysteine bridge induces a pronounced contraction of the whole tetramer. This is accompanied by a 12° domain closure motion resulting in the correct arrangement of all active site residues. A complex structure of activated NTPDase3 with a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog and the cofactor Mg(2+) to a resolution of 2.85 Å indicates that catalytic differences between the NTPDases are primarily dictated by differences in positioning of the adenine base caused by substitution of Arg(492) and Glu(493) in NTPDase1 by glycines in NTPDase3.

  19. Uptake Pathways of Guandinylated Disulfide Containing Polymers as Nonviral Gene Carrier Delivering DNA to Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinmin; Yu, Jiankun; Jiang, Jingzheng; Chen, Xiao; Sun, Yanping; Yang, Zhen; Yang, Tianzhi; Cai, Cuifang; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Ding, Pingtian

    2017-04-01

    Polymers of guanidinylated disulfide containing poly(amido amine)s (Gua-SS-PAAs), have shown high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Previously, we synthesized two Gua-SS-PAA polymers, using guanidino containing monomers (i.e., arginine and agmatine, denoted as ARG and AGM, respectively) and N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA). In this study, these two polymers, AGM-CBA and ARG-CBA were complexed with plasmid DNA, and their uptake pathway was investigated. Complexes distribution in MCF-7 cells, and changes on cell endosomes/lysosomes and membrane after the cells were exposed to complexes were tested. In addition, how the transfection efficiency changed with the cell cycle status as well as endocytosis inhibitors were studied. The polymers of AGM-CBA and ARG-CBA can avoid endosomal/lysosomal trap, therefore, greatly delivering plasmid DNA (pDNA) to the cell nucleoli. It is the guanidine groups in the polymers that enhanced complexes' permeation through cell membrane with slight membrane damage, and targeting to the nucleoli. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 903-913, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Health effect of chronic exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) on women employed in viscose industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieja, Krzysztof; von Mach-Szczypiński, Jarosław; von Mach-Szczypiński, Joanna

    2017-11-23

    Many women are exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) hazards at work every day. Working with CS2 may cause some women to experience abnormalities in their reproductive health. Until now obtained data is generally concentrated on the health effects of CS2 observed in the viscose industry. To date, CS2 has not been studied precisely for its potential to have damaging effects on female reproductive system, especially the frequency of menstrual disturbances and the course of menopause. The aim of the study was to sum up female reproductive health hazards amongst women chronically exposed to CS2 in their workplace in the viscose industry. In order to study the effect of CS2 in the contemporary viscose industry, exposure measurements should be collected in prospective or cross-sectional studies. In conclusion, reproductive health hazards for women chronically exposed to CS2 in the workplace in the viscose industry are the following: 1) menstrual disorders essentially are more frequent than in the case of the healthy women, 2) for women chronically exposed to CS2 the average menopausal age is statistically earlier, as compared to healthy women, 3) complex disturbances in neurohormonal system for women exposed to CS2, resulting from toxic influences of CS2, which cause the secretion of estrogens and progesterone in ovaries and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in the adrenal gland to diminish. Med Pr 2018;69(3). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Tuning the Schottky rectification in graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-molybdenum disulfide heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Yu, Zhuo-Liang; Wang, Lin-Zhi; Cai, Meng-Qiu

    2017-12-04

    It was still a great challenge to design high performance of rectification characteristic for the rectifier diode. Lately, a new approach was proposed experimentally to tune the Schottky barrier height (SBH) by inserting an ultrathin insulated tunneling layer to form metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures. However, the electronic properties touching off the high performance of these heterostructures and the possibility of designing more efficient applications for the rectifier diode were not presently clear. In this paper, the structural, electronic and interfacial properties of the novel MIS diode with the graphene/hexagonal boron nitride/monolayer molybdenum disulfide (GBM) heterostructure had been investigated by first-principle calculations. The calculated results showed that the intrinsic properties of graphene and MoS 2 were preserved due to the weak van der Waals contact. The height of interfacial Schottky barrier can be tuned by the different thickness of hBN layers. In addition, the GBM Schottky diode showed more excellent rectification characteristic than that of GM Schottky diode due to the interfacial band bending caused by the epitaxial electric field. Based on the electronic band structure, we analyzed the relationship between the electronic structure and the nature of the Schottky rectifier, and revealed the potential of utilizing GBM Schottky diode for the higher rectification characteristic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) via Chlorine-Driven Chemical Vapor Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modtland, Brian J; Navarro-Moratalla, Efren; Ji, Xiang; Baldo, Marc; Kong, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale production of high-quality tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ) monolayers is a prerequisite for potential device applications using this promising transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor. The most researched technique is chemical vapor deposition, typically involving the reaction of sulfur vapors with tungsten oxide. Other techniques such as physical vapor deposition have been explored with some success, but low vapor pressures make growth difficult. This study demonstrates a growth process that relies on halide-driven vapor transport commonly utilized in bulk crystal growth. Using a small amount of sodium chloride salt as a source of chlorine, nonvolatile WS 2 can react to form gaseous tungsten chloride and sulfur. With an open tube system, a controlled reaction generates mono and few-layer WS 2 crystals. Optical and physical characterization of the monolayer material shows good uniformity and triangular domains over 50 µm in length. Photoluminescence transient measurements show similar nonlinear exciton dynamics as exfoliated flakes, attributed to multiparticle physics. Requiring only the powder of the desired crystal and appropriate halide salt as precursors, the technique has the potential to realize other layered materials that are challenging to grow with current processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide during GTE/CITE 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David J.; Saltzman, Eric S.

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were made over the North and South Atlantic Ocean as part of the Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) project. DMS and CS2 samples were collected and analyzed using an automated gas chromatography/flame photometric detection system with a sampling frequency of 10 min. H2S samples were collected using silver nitrate impregnated filters and analyzed by fluorescence quenching. The DMS data from both hemispheres have a bimodal distribution. Over the North Atlantic this reflects the difference between marine and continental air masses. Over the South Atlantic it may reflect differences in the sea surface source of DMS, corresponding to different air mass source regions. The median boundary layer H2S and CS2 levels were significantly higher in the northern hemisphere than the southern hemisphere, reflecting the higher frequency of samples influenced by pollutant and/or coastal emissions. Composite vertical profiles of DMS and H2S are similar to each other, and are consistent with a sea surface source. Vertical profiles of CS2 have maxima in the free troposphere, implicating a continental source. The low levels of H2S and CS2 found in the southern hemisphere constrain the role of these compounds in global budgets to significantly less than previously estimated.

  4. Chemical vapor deposition based tungsten disulfide (WS2) thin film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-04-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2) is a layered transition metal dichalcogenide with a reported band gap of 1.8 eV in bulk and 1.32-1.4 eV in its thin film form. 2D atomic layers of metal dichalcogenides have shown changes in conductivity with applied electric field. This makes them an interesting option for channel material in field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, we show a highly manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) based simple process to grow WS2 directly on silicon oxide in a furnace and then its transistor action with back gated device with room temperature field effect mobility of 0.1003 cm2/V-s using the Schottky barrier contact model. We also show the semiconducting behavior of this WS2 thin film which is more promising than thermally unstable organic materials for thin film transistor application. Our direct growth method on silicon oxide also holds interesting opportunities for macro-electronics applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9 GHz, fMAX~1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of liquid phase exfoliated two-dimensional layers of molybdenum disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Feng, Simin; Elias, Ana Laura; Mallouk, Tom; Terrones, Mauricio; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-02-12

    We report on the electrochemical charge storage behavior of few-layered flakes of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) obtained by liquid phase exfoliation of bulk MoS2 powder in 1-dodecyl-2-pyrrolidinone. The specific capacitances of the exfoliated flakes obtained using a 6 M KOH aqueous solution as an electrolyte were found to be an order of magnitude higher than those of bulk MoS2 (∼0.5 and ∼2 mF cm(-2) for bulk and exfoliated MoS2 electrodes, respectively). The exfoliated MoS2 flakes also showed significant charge storage in different electrolytes, such as organic solvents [1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC)] and ionic liquids [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6)]. The values of specific capacitances obtained using Et4NBF4 in PC and BMIM-PF6 were ∼2.25 and ∼2.4 mF cm(-2), respectively. An analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using an equivalent circuit modeling was performed to understand the charge storage mechanism of these exfoliated MoS2 flakes using different electrolytes. Our findings indicate that liquid phase exfoliation methods can be used to produce large quantities of electrochemically active, two-dimensional layers of MoS2 and can act as an ideal material in several applications related to electrochemistry.

  7. Removal and recovery of carbon disulfide emitted by the viscose process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1992-02-01

    Teepak, Inc., which manufactures cellulose food casings by means of the viscose process, has a plant in Danville, Illinois, that emits approximately 400,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of water-saturated air containing approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}). Both Teepak and the state of Illinois desire to reduce these emissions as soon as possible; however, the large air flow and very small CS{sub 2} concentration result in a difficult and costly separations problem without an obvious economically viable solution. One possibility is to incinerate the CS{sub 2}, but a more environmentally and economically acceptable alternative is to recover the CS{sub 2} for recycle to the process. The recovered CS{sub 2} would be worth about $700,000 annually to Teepak. Teepak has sponsored, with the Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center (HWRIC) of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate current gas- purification and recovery technology and to suggest a route of development that will lead to a CS{sub 2} recovery process. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs later provided on Illinois Challenge Grant to allow laboratory studies to supplement this effort. This report is a result of all those studies.

  8. Removal and recovery of carbon disulfide emitted by the viscose process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1992-02-01

    Teepak, Inc., which manufactures cellulose food casings by means of the viscose process, has a plant in Danville, Illinois, that emits approximately 400,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of water-saturated air containing approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}). Both Teepak and the state of Illinois desire to reduce these emissions as soon as possible; however, the large air flow and very small CS{sub 2} concentration result in a difficult and costly separations problem without an obvious economically viable solution. One possibility is to incinerate the CS{sub 2}, but a more environmentally and economically acceptable alternative is to recover the CS{sub 2} for recycle to the process. The recovered CS{sub 2} would be worth about $700,000 annually to Teepak. Teepak has sponsored, with the Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center (HWRIC) of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate current gas- purification and recovery technology and to suggest a route of development that will lead to a CS{sub 2} recovery process. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs later provided on Illinois Challenge Grant to allow laboratory studies to supplement this effort. This report is a result of all those studies.

  9. Ferroelectric transistors with monolayer molybdenum disulfide and ultra-thin aluminum-doped hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Wui Chung; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Jialun; Xia, Qiangfei; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate ferroelectric memory devices with monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the channel material and aluminum (Al)-doped hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the ferroelectric gate dielectric. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors with 16 nm thick Al-doped HfO2 are fabricated, and a remnant polarization of 3 μC/cm2 under a program/erase voltage of 5 V is observed. The capability of potential 10 years data retention was estimated using extrapolation of the experimental data. Ferroelectric transistors based on embedded ferroelectric HfO2 and MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition are fabricated. Clockwise hysteresis is observed at low program/erase voltages due to slow bulk traps located near the 2D/dielectric interface, while counterclockwise hysteresis is observed at high program/erase voltages due to ferroelectric polarization. In addition, the endurances of the devices are tested, and the effects associated with ferroelectric materials, such as the wake-up effect and polarization fatigue, are observed. Reliable writing/reading in MoS2/Al-doped HfO2 ferroelectric transistors over 2 × 104 cycles is achieved. This research can potentially lead to advances of two-dimensional (2D) materials in low-power logic and memory applications.

  10. Adsorption and desorption of bis-(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide during Cu electrodeposition and stripping at Au electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yong-Da; Dow, Wei-Ping; Krug, Klaus; Liu, Yung-Fang; Lee, Yuh-Lang; Yau, Shueh-Lin

    2012-10-09

    The adsorption and desorption of bis-(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS) on Cu and Au electrodes and its electrochemical effect on Cu deposition and dissolution were examined using cyclic voltammetry stripping (CVS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SPS dissociates into 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate when it is contacted with Au and Cu electrodes, producing Cu(I)- and Au(I)-thiolate species. These thiolates couple with chloride ions and promote not only the reduction of Cu(2+) in Cu deposition but also the oxidation of Cu(0) to Cu(+) in Cu stripping. During Cu electrodeposition on the SPS-modified Au electrode, thiolates transfer from Au onto the Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) layer. The Cu UPD layer stabilizes a large part of the transferred thiolates which subsequently is buried by the Cu overpotential deposition (OPD) layer. The buried thiolates reappear on the Au electrode after the copper deposit is electrochemically stripped off. A much smaller part of thiolates transfers to the top of the Cu OPD layer. In contrast, when SPS preadsorbs on a Cu-coated Au electrode, almost all of the adsorbed SPS leaves the Cu surface during Cu electrochemical stripping and does not return to the uncovered Au surface. A reaction mechanism is proposed to explain these results.

  11. Gold nanoparticles physicochemically bonded onto tungsten disulfide nanosheet edges exhibit augmented plasmon damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcherio, Gregory T.; Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Backes, Claudia; Vaynzof, Yana; Benamara, Mourad; Roper, D. Keith

    2017-07-01

    Augmented plasmonic damping of dipole-resonant gold (Au) nanoparticles (NP) physicochemically bonded onto edges of tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets, ostensibly due to hot electron injection, is quantified using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EELS allows single-particle spatial resolution. A measured 0.23 eV bandwidth expansion of the localized surface plasmon resonance upon covalent bonding of 20 nm AuNP to WS2 edges was deemed significant by Welch's t-test. Approximately 0.19 eV of the measured 0.23 eV expansion went beyond conventional radiative and nonradiative damping mechanisms according to discrete dipole models, ostensibly indicating emergence of hot electron transport from AuNP into the WS2. A quantum efficiency of up to 11±5% spanning a 7 fs transfer process across the optimized AuNP-TMD ohmic junction is conservatively calculated. Putative hot electron transport for AuNP physicochemically bonded to TMD edges exceeded that for AuNP physically deposited onto the TMD basal plane. This arose from contributions due to (i) direct physicochemical bond between AuNP and WS2; (ii) AuNP deposition at TMD edge sites; and (iii) lower intrinsic Schottky barrier. This improves understanding of photo-induced doping of TMD by metal NP which could benefit emerging catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  12. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm-2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm-2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  13. Molybdenum disulfide for ultra-low detection of free radicals: electrochemical response and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Rawal, Takat B.; Neal, Craig J.; Das, Soumen; Rahman, Talat S.; Seal, Sudipta

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) offers attractive properties due to its band gap modulation and has led to significant research-oriented applications (i.e. DNA and protein detection, cell imaging (fluorescent label) etc.). In biology, detection of free radicals (i.e. reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen (NO*) species are very important for early discovery and treatment of diseases. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate the ultra-low (pico-molar) detection of pharmaceutically relevant free radicals using MoS2 for electrochemical sensing. We present pico- to nano- molar level sensitivity in smaller MoS2 with S-deficiency as revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the detection mechanism and size-dependent sensitivity have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) showing the change in electronic density of states of Mo atoms at edges which lead to the preferred adsorption of H2O2 on Mo edges. The DFT analysis signifies the role of size and S-deficiency in the higher catalytic activity of smaller MoS2 particles and, thus, ultra-low detection.

  14. Self-healing polyurethane/attapulgite nanocomposites based on disulfide bonds and shape memory effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yurun; Chen, Dajun, E-mail: cdj@dhu.edu.cn

    2017-07-01

    Nanocomposites with remarkable enhanced mechanical properties have attracted great research efforts recently. In this work, a series of self-healing polyurethane/attapulgite nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending. Introducing self-healing ability and attapulgite (AT) reinforcement simultaneously led to prolonged material lifetime and enhanced mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicated that AT could achieve a uniform dispersion in polyurethane matrix when AT content was relatively low. The influences on mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile test. Results showed that incorporating an appropriate content of AT would lead to an enhanced tensile properties. The interactions between AT and polyurethane matrix were studied by effective cross-linking density calculation and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Results indicated that rich hydrogen bonds were formed between AT and polyurethane matrix. Displacement data was utilized to evaluate the influence on shape memory effect. With the incorporation of AT, deformation of the sample under external force was restrained. Meanwhile, closure of the scratches still can be accomplished during healing process. Results of healing test suggested that incorporating 1% of AT would also promote self-healing property. - Highlights: • Composites with both self-healing and enhanced mechanical property are prepared. • Healing mechanism relies on disulfide exchange reaction and shape memory effect. • Mechanical enhancement is caused by rich hydrogen bonds introduced by attapulgite.

  15. An olfactory subsystem that detects carbon disulfide and mediates food-related social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Steven D; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; McDougall, Lisa M; Cockerham, Renee E; Schmid, Andreas; Wandernoth, Petra; Wennemuth, Gunther; Biel, Martin; Zufall, Frank; Kelliher, Kevin R

    2010-08-24

    Olfactory signals influence social interactions in a variety of species. In mammals, pheromones and other social cues can promote mating or aggression behaviors; can communicate information about social hierarchies, genetic identity and health status; and can contribute to associative learning. However, the molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms underlying many olfactory-mediated social interactions remain poorly understood. Here, we report that a specialized olfactory subsystem that includes olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D, the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunit CNGA3, and the carbonic anhydrase isoform CAII (GC-D(+) OSNs) is required for the acquisition of socially transmitted food preferences (STFPs) in mice. Using electrophysiological recordings from gene-targeted mice, we show that GC-D(+) OSNs are highly sensitive to the volatile semiochemical carbon disulfide (CS(2)), a component of rodent breath and a known social signal mediating the acquisition of STFPs. Olfactory responses to CS(2) are drastically reduced in mice lacking GC-D, CNGA3, or CAII. Disruption of this sensory transduction cascade also results in a failure to acquire STFPs from either live or surrogate demonstrator mice or to exhibit hippocampal correlates of STFP retrieval. Our findings indicate that GC-D(+) OSNs detect chemosignals that facilitate food-related social interactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vasodilation effect of volatile oil from Allium macrostemon Bunge are mediated by PKA/NO pathway and its constituent dimethyl disulfide in isolated rat pulmonary arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chenghua; Qi, Jing; Gao, Sainan; Li, Chunxiang; Ma, Ying; Wang, Jing; Bai, Yuhua; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the vasodilation effects of Allium macrostemon Bunge (AMB) on isolated rat pulmonary arterials (PAs) and to assess the underling mechanisms. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation from the bulbs of AMB. Then the volatile oil from AMB was studied on isolated rat PA, removal of endothelium, or pretreatment with nitro oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor PKI but not cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin significantly blocked the AMB induced relaxation on PE-contracted PA rings. AMB increased the phosphorylation level of NOS in a dose and time-dependent manner, which was through PKA activation. AMB dose-dependently increased the [Ca 2+ ] i through Ca 2+ influx in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells. A total of 18 components from the volatile oil of AMB were identified. The principle constituents of AMB, Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS) but not Dimethyltrisulfide displayed dilation effects in PAs. Our results suggest that AMB induces relaxation in rat PAs via an endothelium-dependent mechanism involving Ca 2+ entry, PKA dependent NOS phosphorylation and NO signaling. The vasodilator activities of AMB may through its constituent DMDS. The present study indicates therapeutic potentials of AMB on pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Chemical synthesis of La1 isolated from the venom of the scorpion Liocheles australasiae and determination of its disulfide bonding pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Junya; Miyashita, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2015-08-01

    La1 is a 73-residue cysteine-rich peptide isolated from the scorpion Liocheles australasiae venom. Although La1 is the most abundant peptide in the venom, its biological function remains unknown. Here, we describe a method for efficient chemical synthesis of La1 using the native chemical ligation (NCL) strategy, in which three peptide components of less than 40 residues were sequentially ligated. The peptide thioester necessary for NCL was synthesized using an aromatic N-acylurea approach with Fmoc-SPPS. After completion of sequential NCL, disulfide bond formation was carried out using a dialysis method, in which the linear peptide dissolved in an acidic solution was dialyzed against a slightly alkaline buffer to obtain correctly folded La1. Next, we determined the disulfide bonding pattern of La1. Enzymatic and chemical digests of La1 without reduction of disulfide bonds were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), which revealed two of four disulfide bond linkages. The remaining two linkages were assigned based on MS/MS analysis of a peptide fragment containing two disulfide bonds. Consequently, the disulfide bonding pattern of La1 was found to be similar to that of a von Willebrand factor type C (VWC) domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the experimental determination of the disulfide bonding pattern of peptides having a single VWC domain as well as their chemical synthesis. La1 synthesized in this study will be useful for investigation of its biological role in the venom. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hexa-histidin tag position influences disulfide structure but not binding behavior of in vitro folded N-terminal domain of rat corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Jana; Wendt, Norbert; Kubald, Sybille; Krause, Eberhard; Fechner, Klaus; Beyermann, Michael; Bienert, Michael; Rudolph, Rainer; Rothemund, Sven

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative folding, particularly the arrangement of disulfide bonds of recombinant extracellular N-terminal domains of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a bearing five cysteines (C2 to C6), was investigated. Depending on the position of a His-tag, two types of disulfide patterns were found. In the case of an N-terminal His-tag, the disulfide bonds C2–C3 and C4–C6 were found, leaving C5 free, whereas the C-terminal position of the His-tag led to the disulfide pattern C2–C5 a...

  19. Modification of nanoelectrode ensembles by thiols and disulfides to prevent non specific adsorption of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrini, M.; Schiavuta, P.; Scopece, P.; Pecchielan, G.; Moretto, L.M.; Ugo, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Complex nanostructures are built on the gold surface of ensembles of nanoelectrodes. → Gold surface of nanoelectrodes was functionalized with SAM of organic sulphurs. → The polycarbonate surrounding nanoelectrodes was functionalized with proteins. → SAMs protect the nanoelectrodes from undesired proteins adsorption. - Abstract: The possibility to functionalize selectively with thiols or disulfides the surface of the gold nanoelectrodes of polycarbonate templated nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) is studied. It is shown that the Au nanoelectrodes can be coated by a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid (TA) or 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic (MES) acid. The study of the electrochemical behavior of SAM-modified NEEs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different solution pH, using ferrocenecarboxylate as an anionic redox probe (FcCOO - ) and (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FA + ) as a cationic redox probe, demonstrate that the SAM-modified nanoelectrodes are permselective, in that only cationic or neutral probes can access the SAM-coated nanoelectrode surface. CV, AFM and FTIR-ATR data indicate that proteins such as casein or bovine serum albumin, which are polyanionic at pH 7, adsorb on the surface of NEEs untreated with thiols, tending to block the electron transfer of the ferrocenyl redox probes. On the contrary, the pre-treatment of the NEE with an anionic SAM protects the nanoelectrodes from protein fouling, allowing the detection of well shaped voltammetric patterns for the redox probe. Experimental results indicate that, in the case of MES treated NEEs, the protein is bound only onto the polycarbonate surface which surrounds the nanoelectrodes, while the tips of the gold nanoelectrodes remain protein free.

  20. Post-streptococcal auto-antibodies inhibit protein disulfide isomerase and are associated with insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Aran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-streptococcal autoimmunity affects millions worldwide, targeting multiple organs including the heart, brain, and kidneys. To explore the post-streptococcal autoimmunity spectrum, we used western blot analyses, to screen 310 sera from healthy subjects with (33% and without (67% markers of recent streptococcal infections [anti-Streptolysin O (ASLO or anti-DNAse B (ADB]. A 58 KDa protein, reacting strongly with post-streptococcal sera, was identified as Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI, an abundant protein with pleiotropic metabolic, immunologic, and thrombotic effects. Anti-PDI autoantibodies, purified from human sera, targeted similar epitopes in Streptolysin O (SLO, P51-61 and PDI (P328-338. The correlation between post-streptococcal status and anti-human PDI auto-immunity was further confirmed in a total of 2987 samples (13.6% in 530 ASLO positive versus 5.6% in 2457 ASLO negative samples, p<0.0001. Finally, anti-PDI auto-antibodies inhibited PDI-mediated insulin degradation in vitro (n = 90, p<0.001, and correlated with higher serum insulin (14.1 iu/ml vs. 12.2 iu/ml, n = 1215, p = 0.039 and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA 4.1 vs. 3.1, n = 1215, p = 0.004, in a population-based cohort. These results identify PDI as a major target of post-streptococcal autoimmunity, and establish a new link between infection, autoimmunity, and metabolic disturbances.

  1. Vertical 2D/3D Semiconductor Heterostructures Based on Epitaxial Molybdenum Disulfide and Gallium Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Zhang, Kehao; Stan, Gheorghe; Kalanyan, Berc; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Burke, Robert A; Shah, Pankaj B; O'Regan, Terrance P; Crowne, Frank J; Birdwell, A Glen; Robinson, Joshua A; Davydov, Albert V; Ivanov, Tony G

    2016-03-22

    When designing semiconductor heterostructures, it is expected that epitaxial alignment will facilitate low-defect interfaces and efficient vertical transport. Here, we report lattice-matched epitaxial growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) directly on gallium nitride (GaN), resulting in high-quality, unstrained, single-layer MoS2 with strict registry to the GaN lattice. These results present a promising path toward the implementation of high-performance electronic devices based on 2D/3D vertical heterostructures, where each of the 3D and 2D semiconductors is both a template for subsequent epitaxial growth and an active component of the device. The MoS2 monolayer triangles average 1 μm along each side, with monolayer blankets (merged triangles) exhibiting properties similar to that of single-crystal MoS2 sheets. Photoluminescence, Raman, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses identified monolayer MoS2 with a prominent 20-fold enhancement of photoluminescence in the center regions of larger triangles. The MoS2/GaN structures are shown to electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction, confirming the potential of directly synthesized 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures for vertical current flow. Finally, we estimate a MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω·cm(2) and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer of approximately 1 μm in diameter.

  2. The influence of molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelets on the dispersion of nano silica in natural rubber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Peijin; Wei, Qiuyan; Tang, Zhenghai; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The dispersion of silica in rubber is improved by incorporating MoS{sub 2} nanoplatelets. • The charge transferring between MoS{sub 2} and silica is verified. • The mechanical performance of the composites are enhanced by incorporating MoS{sub 2} plates. • The heat build-up of the composites is decreased by incorporating MoS{sub 2} plates. - Abstract: The dispersion of nanofiller in polymer composites is critical in governing the ultimate performances. Present study aimed to improve the dispersion of silica in elastomeric materials based on natural rubber (NR) composites using the nanoplatelets of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), a graphene-like layered inorganic. NR latex was co-coagulated with MoS{sub 2} suspension to form NR/MoS{sub 2} compounds (1∼5 phr). Then silica (30 phr) was incorporated into NR/MoS{sub 2} compounds, followed by curing with sulfur, to obtained NR/MoS{sub 2}/silica composites. The dispersion state of silica in the composites was examined by TEM and the effects of MoS{sub 2} on the performance of the composites were investigated. It was found that a small amount of MoS{sub 2} nanoplatelets significantly improved the silica dispersion. Consequently, the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the crosslinked natural rubber materials were greatly enhanced. The improved dispersion of silica is associated with charge transfer interaction, giving rise to electrostatic repulsion among silica.

  3. Dithiolopyrrolones: biosynthesis, synthesis, and activity of a unique class of disulfide-containing antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wever, Walter J; Walsh, Christopher T; Bowers, Albert A

    2014-07-01

    Covering: up to 2014. Dithiolopyrrolone (DTP) group antibiotics were first isolated in the early half of the 20th century, but only recently has research been reawakened by insights gained from the synthesis and biosynthesis of this structurally intriguing class of molecules. DTPs are characterized by an electronically unique bicyclic structure, which contains a compact disulfide bridge between two ene-thiols. Points of diversity within the compound class occur outside of the bicyclic core, at the two amide nitrogens. Such modifications distinguish three of the most well studied members of the class, holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin; the DTP core has also more recently been identified in the marine antibiotic thiomarinol, in which it is linked to a marinolic acid moiety, analog of the FDA-approved topical antibiotic Bactroban® (GlaxoSmithKline). Dithiolopyrrolones exhibit relatively broad-spectrum antibiotic activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, they have been shown to exhibit potent and selective anti-cancer activity. Despite this promising profile, there is still much unknown about the mechanisms of action for DTPs. Early reports suggested that they inhibit yeast growth at the level of transcription and that this effect is largely responsible for their distinctive microbial static properties; a similar mechanism is supported in bacteria. Elucidation of biosynthetic pathways for holomycin in Streptomyces clavuligerus and Yersinia ruckeri and thiomarinol in Alteromonas rava sp. nov. SANK 73390, have contributed evidence suggesting that multiple mechanisms may be operative in the activity of these compounds. This review will comprehensively cover the history and development of dithiolopyrrolones with particular emphasis on the biosynthesis, synthesis, biological activity and mechanism of action.

  4. The C-terminal CGHC motif of protein disulfide isomerase supports thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junsong; Wu, Yi; Wang, Lu; Rauova, Lubica; Hayes, Vincent M.; Poncz, Mortimer; Essex, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has two distinct CGHC redox-active sites; however, the contribution of these sites during different physiologic reactions, including thrombosis, is unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of PDI and redox-active sites of PDI in thrombosis by generating mice with blood cells and vessel wall cells lacking PDI (Mx1-Cre Pdifl/fl mice) and transgenic mice harboring PDI that lacks a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(ss-oo) mice]. Both mouse models showed decreased fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation in laser-induced cremaster arteriole injury, and PDI(ss-oo) mice had attenuated platelet accumulation in FeCl3-induced mesenteric arterial injury. These defects were rescued by infusion of recombinant PDI containing only a functional C-terminal CGHC motif [PDI(oo-ss)]. PDI infusion restored fibrin formation, but not platelet accumulation, in eptifibatide-treated wild-type mice, suggesting a direct role of PDI in coagulation. In vitro aggregation of platelets from PDI(ss-oo) mice and PDI-null platelets was reduced; however, this defect was rescued by recombinant PDI(oo-ss). In human platelets, recombinant PDI(ss-oo) inhibited aggregation, while recombinant PDI(oo-ss) potentiated aggregation. Platelet secretion assays demonstrated that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for P-selectin expression and ATP secretion through a non-αIIbβ3 substrate. In summary, our results indicate that the C-terminal CGHC motif of PDI is important for platelet function and coagulation. PMID:26529254

  5. Out-of-Plane Electromechanical Response of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Measured by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christopher J; Ghosh, Rudresh; Koul, Kalhan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Lu, Nanshu; Yu, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently been theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed to exhibit electromechanical coupling. Specifically, monolayer and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have been measured to be piezoelectric within the plane of their atoms. This work demonstrates and quantifies a nonzero out-of-plane electromechanical response of monolayer MoS 2 and discusses its possible origins. A piezoresponse force microscope was used to measure the out-of-plane deformation of monolayer MoS 2 on Au/Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates. Using a vectorial background subtraction technique, we estimate the effective out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 eff , for monolayer MoS 2 to be 1.03 ± 0.22 pm/V when measured on the Au/Si substrate and 1.35 ± 0.24 pm/V when measured on Al 2 O 3 /Si. This is on the same order as the in-plane coefficient d 11 reported for monolayer MoS 2 . Interpreting the out-of-plane response as a flexoelectric response, the effective flexoelectric coefficient, μ eff * , is estimated to be 0.10 nC/m. Analysis has ruled out the possibility of elastic and electrostatic forces contributing to the measured electromechanical response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy detected some contaminants on both MoS 2 and its substrate, but the background subtraction technique is expected to remove major contributions from the unwanted contaminants. These measurements provide evidence that monolayer MoS 2 exhibits an out-of-plane electromechanical response and our analysis offers estimates of the effective piezoelectric and flexoelectric coefficients.

  6. Tungsten disulfide (as catalyst) in cracking (of hydrocarbons) at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, G.; Meier, H.

    1943-05-19

    The catalytic effects of tungsten disulfide (code-named K5058) on paraffinic hydrocarbons at atmospheric pressure and temperatures from 400/sup 0/C to 460/sup 0/C, in a porcelain tube are considered. The principal effect was a far-reaching aromatization of the middle-oil fractions to hydrogen gas and products held tightly to the catalyst. A much less predominant effect was a cracking of the paraffins to gasoline or gaseous hydrocarbons. Variations in boilingpoint of starting material seemed to make no difference in the results. Evidence for the predominance of aromatization over cracking came from properties of reaction products (compositions, iodine numbers, aniline points, specific gravity, etc.) and thermodynamic considerations. For example, in a contrastive pari of experiments, one using K5058 and the other using K6108 (Terrana), a known cracking catalyst, but each operating on 186 grams of pure cetane (hexadecane) at temperature of 460/sup 0/ for one hour with a throughput of 1.2 vol./vol./hr, the fifferences in results were significatn. For each mole of cetane introduced, K5058 produced 0.02 moles of gasoline, 1.6 mole of hydrogen, 0.84 moles of middle oil, 0.07 moles of ethane, 0.08 moles ethylene, 0.04 moles methane, and non propane or butane, whereas K6108 produced 0.43 moles of gaoline, 0.03 moles of hydrogen, 0.69 moles of middle oil, 0.02 moles of ethane, 0.01 moles ethylene, 0.04 moles methane, and 0.34 moles of propane and butane combined. In addition, K5058 gave a considerable amount (about 7% by weight) of coke-like precipitates which were not analyzed, but which were assumed to by polymerization or condensation products from olefins or aromatics; K6108 gave almost none of this material. 5 tables

  7. Modification of nanoelectrode ensembles by thiols and disulfides to prevent non specific adsorption of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestrini, M. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Schiavuta, P.; Scopece, P. [Associazione CIVEN, via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera - Venice (Italy); Pecchielan, G.; Moretto, L.M. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Ugo, P., E-mail: ugo@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, University Ca' Foscari of Venice, Santa Marta 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Complex nanostructures are built on the gold surface of ensembles of nanoelectrodes. > Gold surface of nanoelectrodes was functionalized with SAM of organic sulphurs. > The polycarbonate surrounding nanoelectrodes was functionalized with proteins. > SAMs protect the nanoelectrodes from undesired proteins adsorption. - Abstract: The possibility to functionalize selectively with thiols or disulfides the surface of the gold nanoelectrodes of polycarbonate templated nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) is studied. It is shown that the Au nanoelectrodes can be coated by a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioctic acid (TA) or 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic (MES) acid. The study of the electrochemical behavior of SAM-modified NEEs by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different solution pH, using ferrocenecarboxylate as an anionic redox probe (FcCOO{sup -}) and (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium (FA{sup +}) as a cationic redox probe, demonstrate that the SAM-modified nanoelectrodes are permselective, in that only cationic or neutral probes can access the SAM-coated nanoelectrode surface. CV, AFM and FTIR-ATR data indicate that proteins such as casein or bovine serum albumin, which are polyanionic at pH 7, adsorb on the surface of NEEs untreated with thiols, tending to block the electron transfer of the ferrocenyl redox probes. On the contrary, the pre-treatment of the NEE with an anionic SAM protects the nanoelectrodes from protein fouling, allowing the detection of well shaped voltammetric patterns for the redox probe. Experimental results indicate that, in the case of MES treated NEEs, the protein is bound only onto the polycarbonate surface which surrounds the nanoelectrodes, while the tips of the gold nanoelectrodes remain protein free.

  8. Redox biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: protein-protein interaction between GlgB and WhiB1 involves exchange of thiol-disulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan KV Radha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen encounters redox stress throughout its life inside the host. In order to protect itself from the redox onslaughts of host immune system, M. tuberculosis appears to have developed accessory thioredoxin-like proteins which are represented by ORFs encoding WhiB-like proteins. We have earlier reported that WhiB1/Rv3219 is a thioredoxin like protein of M. tuberculosis and functions as a protein disulfide reductase. Generally thioredoxins have many substrate proteins. The current study aims to identify the substrate protein(s of M. tuberculosis WhiB1. Results Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified alpha (1,4-glucan branching enzyme (GlgB of M. tuberculosis as a interaction partner of WhiB1. In vitro GST pull down assay confirmed the direct physical interaction between GlgB and WhiB1. Both mass spectrometry data of tryptic digests and in vitro labeling of cysteine residues with 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid showed that in GlgB, C95 and C658 are free but C193 and C617 form an intra-molecular disulfide bond. WhiB1 has a C37XXC40 motif thus a C40S mutation renders C37 to exist as a free thiol to form a hetero-disulfide bond with the cysteine residue of substrate protein. A disulfide mediated binary complex formation between GlgB and WhiB1C40S was shown by both in-solution protein-protein interaction and thioredoxin affinity chromatography. Finally, transfer of reducing equivalent from WhiB1 to GlgB disulfide was confirmed by 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid trapping by the reduced disulfide of GlgB. Two different thioredoxins, TrxB/Rv1471 and TrxC/Rv3914 of M. tuberculosis could not perform this reaction suggesting that the reduction of GlgB by WhiB1 is specific. Conclusion We conclude that M. tuberculosis GlgB has one intra-molecular disulfide bond which is formed between C193 and C617. WhiB1, a thioredoxin like protein

  9. Effect of NaCl addition during diafiltration on the solubility, hydrophobicity, and disulfide bonds of 80% milk protein concentrate powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X Y; Tong, P S; Gualco, S; Vink, S

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the surface hydrophobicity index based on different fluorescence probes [1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) and 6-propionyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-naphthalene (PRODAN)], free sulfhydryl and disulfide bond contents, and particle size of 80% milk protein concentrate (MPC80) powders prepared by adding various amounts of NaCl (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) during the diafiltration process. The solubility of MPC80 powder was not strictly related to surface hydrophobicity. The MPC80 powder obtained by addition of 150 mM NaCl during diafiltration had the highest solubility but also the highest ANS-based surface hydrophobicity, the lowest PRODAN-based surface hydrophobicity, and the least aggregate formation. Intermolecular disulfide bonds caused by sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions and hydrophobic interactions may be responsible for the lower solubility of the control MPC80 powder. The enhanced solubility of MPC80 powder with addition of NaCl during diafiltration may result from the modified surface hydrophobicity, the reduced intermolecular disulfide bonds, and the associated decrease in mean particle size. Addition of NaCl during the diafiltration process can modify the strength of hydrophobic interactions and sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions and thereby affect protein aggregation and the solubility of MPC powders. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanistic insight of photo-induced aggregation of chicken egg white lysozyme: the interplay between hydrophobic interactions and formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinbing; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Recently, it was reported that ultraviolet (UV) illumination could trigger the unfolding of proteins by disrupting the buried disulfide bonds. However, the consequence of such unfolding has not been adequately evaluated. Here, we report that unfolded chicken egg white lysozyme (CEWL) triggered by UV illumination can form uniform globular aggregates as confirmed by dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The assembling process of such aggregates was also monitored by several other methods, such as circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry based on chymotrypsin digestion, ANS-binding assay, Ellman essay, and SDS-PAGE. Our finding is that due to the dissociation of the native disulfide bonds by UV illumination, CEWL undergoes drastic conformational changes resulting in the exposure of some hydrophobic residues and free thiols. Subsequently, these partially unfolded molecules self-assemble into small granules driven by intermolecular hydrophobic interaction. With longer UV illumination or longer incubation time, these granules can further self-assemble into larger globular aggregates. The combined effects from both the hydrophobic interaction and the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds dominate this process. Additionally, similar aggregation behavior can also be found in other three typical disulfide-bonded proteins, that is, α-lactalbumin, RNase A, and bovine serum albumin. Thus, we propose that such aggregation behavior might be a general mechanism for some disulfide-bonded proteins under UV irradiation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A Promising Vector for TCR Gene Therapy: Differential Effect of siRNA, 2A Peptide, and Disulfide Bond on the Introduced TCR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy using TCR gene-modified T-lymphocytes is an attractive strategy for targeting malignancies. However, TCR mispairings between endogenous and introduced TCR chains are a major concern, as they may induce mixed TCRs with unknown specificities and may reduce the expression of therapeutic TCRs. To overcome these problems, we have recently established a novel retroviral siTCR vector encoding small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs to knockdown endogenous TCR genes for the efficient expression of therapeutic TCRs. In this study, to improve the efficacy of siTCR vectors, we developed 2A peptide-based siTCR vectors that could increase the expression levels of transduced TCRs compared with internal promoter-based siTCR vectors. We also evaluated the efficacy of an siTCR strategy and the addition of a new interchain disulfide bond created by cysteine modification. We found that the effect of the cysteine modification depended on TCR variations, while the siTCR strategy improved the expression of all TCRs tested. Furthermore, the combined effect of the siTCR and cysteine modification strategies was highly significant for certain TCRs. Therefore, our novel siTCR technology, in isolation or in combination with another strategy, may open the door to effective immunotherapy for cancer patients.

  12. Marine cycling of the climate relevant trace gases carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) in the Peruvian upwelling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartz, Sinikka; von Hobe, Marc; Booge, Dennis; Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Bracher, Astrid; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Ksionzek, Kerstin B.; Koch, Boris P.; Fischer, Tim; Bittig, Henry; Quack, Birgit; Krüger, Kirstin; Marandino, Christa A.

    2017-04-01

    The ocean is a major source for the climate relevant trace gases carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2). While the greenhouse gas CS2 quickly oxidizes to OCS in the atmosphere, the atmospheric lifetime of OCS of 2-7 years leads to an accumulation of this gas and makes it the most abundant reduced sulfur compound in the atmosphere. OCS has a counteracting effect on the climate: in the troposphere, it acts as a greenhouse gas causing warming, whereas it also sustains the stratospheric aerosol layer, and thus increases Earth's albedo causing cooling. To better constrain the important oceanic source of these trace gases, the marine cycling needs to be well understood and quantified. For OCS, the production and consumption processes are identified, but photoproduction and light-independent production rates remain to be quantified across different regions. In contrast, the processes that influence the oceanic cycling of CS2 are less well understood. Here we present new data from a cruise to the Peruvian upwelling regime and relate measurements of OCS and CS2 to key parameters, such as dissolved organic sulfur, chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter. We use a 1D water column model to further constrain their production and degradation rates. A focus is set on the influence of oxygen on the marine cycling of these two gases in oxygen depleted zones in the ocean, which are expected to expand in the future.

  13. The KIM-family protein-tyrosine phosphatases use distinct reversible oxidation intermediates: Intramolecular or intermolecular disulfide bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luciana E S F; Shen, Tun-Li; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2017-05-26

    The kinase interaction motif (KIM) family of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) includes hematopoietic protein-tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP), striatal-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR). KIM-PTPs bind and dephosphorylate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and thereby critically modulate cell proliferation and differentiation. PTP activity can readily be diminished by reactive oxygen species (ROS), e.g. H 2 O 2 , which oxidize the catalytically indispensable active-site cysteine. This initial oxidation generates an unstable sulfenic acid intermediate that is quickly converted into either a sulfinic/sulfonic acid (catalytically dead and irreversible inactivation) or a stable sulfenamide or disulfide bond intermediate (reversible inactivation). Critically, our understanding of ROS-mediated PTP oxidation is not yet sufficient to predict the molecular responses of PTPs to oxidative stress. However, identifying distinct responses will enable novel routes for PTP-selective drug design, important for managing diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we performed a detailed biochemical and molecular study of all KIM-PTP family members to determine their H 2 O 2 oxidation profiles and identify their reversible inactivation mechanism(s). We show that despite having nearly identical 3D structures and sequences, each KIM-PTP family member has a unique oxidation profile. Furthermore, we also show that whereas STEP and PTPRR stabilize their reversibly oxidized state by forming an intramolecular disulfide bond, HePTP uses an unexpected mechanism, namely, formation of a reversible intermolecular disulfide bond. In summary, despite being closely related, KIM-PTPs significantly differ in oxidation profiles. These findings highlight that oxidation protection is critical when analyzing PTPs, for example, in drug screening. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

  14. A mathematical analysis of Prx2-STAT3 disulfide exchange rate constants for a bimolecular reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Troy F; Deen, William M; Sikes, Hadley D

    2018-03-22

    Appreciation of peroxiredoxins as the major regulators of H 2 O 2 concentrations in human cells has led to a new understanding of redox signaling. In addition to their status as the primary reducers of H 2 O 2 to water, the oxidized peroxiredoxin byproduct of this reaction has recently been shown capable of participation in H 2 O 2 -mediated signaling pathways through disulfide exchange reactions with the transcription factor STAT3. The dynamics of peroxidase-transcription factor disulfide exchange reactions have not yet been considered in detail with respect to how these reactions fit into the larger network of competing reactions in human cells. In this study, we used a kinetic model of oxidation and reduction reactions related to H 2 O 2 metabolism in the cytosol of human cells to study the dynamics of peroxiredoxin-2 mediated oxidation of the redox-regulated transcription factor STAT3. In combination with previously reported experimental data, the model was used to estimate the rate coefficient of a biomolecular reaction between Prx2 and STAT3 for two sets of assumptions that constitute lower and upper bound cases. Using these estimates, we calculated the relative rates of the reaction of oxidized peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3 and other competing reactions in the cytosol. These calculations revealed that peroxiredoxin-2-mediated oxidation of STAT3 likely occurs at a much slower rate than competing reactions in the cytosol. This analysis suggests the existence of more complex mechanisms, potentially involving currently unknown protein-protein recognition partners, which facilitate disulfide exchange reactions between peroxiredoxin-2 and STAT3. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of cysteine-protease CGHC motifs of ER-60, a protein disulfide isomerase, in hepatic apolipoprotein B100 degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Angela C; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Rianna; Urade, Reiko; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-09-01

    Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB), the structural component of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), is susceptible to misfolding and subsequent degradation by several intracellular pathways. ER-60, which has been implicated in apoB degradation, is a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) that forms or rearranges disulfide bonds in substrate proteins and also possesses cysteine protease activity. To determine which ER-60 function is important for apoB degradation, adenoviruses encoding wild-type human ER-60 or a mutant form of human ER-60 (C60A, C409A) that lacked cysteine protease activity were overexpressed in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of wild-type ER-60 in HepG2 cells promoted apoB degradation and impaired apoB secretion, but mutant ER-60 overexpression did not. In McArdle RH-7777 cells, VLDL secretion was markedly inhibited following overexpression of wild-type but not mutant ER-60, an effect that could be blocked by oleate treatment. Mutant ER-60 was not trapped on apoB as it was with the control substrate tapasin, suggesting that ER-60's role in apoB degradation is likely unrelated to its protein disulfide isomerase activity. Thus, ER-60 may participate in apoB degradation by acting as a cysteine protease. We postulate that apoB cleavage by ER-60 within the ER lumen could facilitate proteasomal degradation of the C-terminus of translocationally-arrested apoB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2-nitroveratryl as a photocleavable thiol-protecting group for directed disulfide bond formation in the chemical synthesis of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, John A; Scanlon, Denis B; Forbes, Briony E; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Gardiner, James; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed A

    2014-07-28

    Chemical synthesis of peptides can allow the option of sequential formation of multiple cysteines through exploitation of judiciously chosen regioselective thiol-protecting groups. We report the use of 2-nitroveratryl (oNv) as a new orthogonal group that can be cleaved by photolysis under ambient conditions. In combination with complementary S-pyridinesulfenyl activation, disulfide bonds are formed rapidly in situ. The preparation of Fmoc-Cys(oNv)-OH is described together with its use for the solid-phase synthesis of complex cystine-rich peptides, such as insulin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fast and efficient green synthesis of thiosulfonate S-esters by microwave-supported permanganate oxidation of symmetrical disulfides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thi, Luu Thi Xuan; Thi Nguyen, Thao-Tran; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Potassium permanganate absorbed on copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate has been found to be an efficient, inexpensive, and green oxidation agent for the synthesis of “symmetrical” thiosulfonate S-esters by oxidation of the corresponding symmetrical disulfides. The oxidation reactions were carried out...... under solvent-free reaction conditions within 15 min under the influence of microwave irradiation, as well as (for comparison) supported by conventional heating, to afford yields of the thiosulfonate S-esters in the range of 60–83%. The oxidation reaction appears to proceed (at least partly) via...

  18. Processing, disulfide pattern, and biological activity of a sugar beet defensin, AX2, expressed in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Nielsen, J E

    1999-01-01

    AX2 is a 46-amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide isolated from sugar beet leaves infected with the fungus Cercospora beticola (Sacc.). AX2 strongly inhibits the growth of C. beticola and other filamentous fungi, but has little or no effect against bacteria. AX2 is produced in very low amounts in sugar...... beet leaves, and to study the protein in greater detail with respect to biological function and protein structural analysis, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used for large-scale production. The amino acid sequence, processing of the signal peptide, disulfide bridges, and biological...

  19. Efficient production of (2)H, (13)C, (15)N-enriched industrial enzyme Rhizopus chinensis lipase with native disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Swapna, G V T; Xiao, Rong; Zheng, Haiyan; Sha, Chong; Xu, Yan; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2016-07-13

    In order to use most modern methods of NMR spectroscopy to study protein structure and dynamics, isotope-enriched protein samples are essential. Especially for larger proteins (>20 kDa), perdeuterated and Ile (δ1), Leu, and Val methyl-protonated protein samples are required for suppressing nuclear relaxation to provide improved spectral quality, allowing key backbone and side chain resonance assignments needed for protein structure and dynamics studies. Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris are two of the most popular expression systems for producing isotope-enriched, recombinant protein samples for NMR investigations. The P. pastoris system can be used to produce (13)C, (15)N-enriched and even (2)H,(13)C, (15)N-enriched protein samples, but efficient methods for producing perdeuterated proteins with Ile (δ1), Leu and Val methyl-protonated groups in P. pastoris are still unavailable. Glycosylation heterogeneity also provides challenges to NMR studies. E. coli expression systems are efficient for overexpressing perdeuterated and Ile (δ1), Leu, Val methyl-protonated protein samples, but are generally not successful for producing secreted eukaryotic proteins with native disulfide bonds. The 33 kDa protein-Rhizopus chinensis lipase (RCL), an important industrial enzyme, was produced using both P. pastoris and E. coli BL21 trxB (DE3) systems. Samples produced from both systems exhibit identical native disulfide bond formation and similar 2D NMR spectra, indicating similar native protein folding. The yield of (13)C, (15)N-enriched r27RCL produced using P. pastoris was 1.7 times higher that obtained using E. coli, while the isotope-labeling efficiency was ~15 % lower. Protein samples produced in P. pastoris exhibit O-glycosylation, while the protein samples produced in E. coli were not glycosylated. The specific activity of r27RCL from P. pastoris was ~1.4 times higher than that produced in E. coli. These data demonstrate efficient production of (2)H, (13)C, (15)N

  20. Study of disulfide reduction and alkyl chloroformate derivatization of plasma sulfur amino acids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švagera, Z.; Hanzlíková, D.; Šimek, Petr; Hušek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 402, č. 9 (2012), s. 2953-2963 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9755; GA ČR GAP206/10/2401; GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : plasma amino acids * disulfide-reducing agents * trichloroacetic acid deproteinization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.659, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/781wln3085q3v21r/

  1. Synthesis of PAF, an antifungal protein from P. chrysogenum, by native chemical ligation: native disulfide pattern and fold obtained upon oxidative refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Györgyi; Tóth, Gábor K; Kele, Zoltán; Galgóczy, László; Fizil, Ádám; Batta, Gyula

    2013-09-16

    The folding of disulfide proteins is of considerable interest because knowledge of this may influence our present understanding of protein folding. However, sometimes even the disulfide pattern cannot be unequivocally determined by the available experimental techniques. For example, the structures of a few small antifungal proteins (PAF, AFP) have been disclosed recently using NMR spectroscopy but with some ambiguity in the actual disulfide pattern. For this reason, we carried out the chemical synthesis of PAF. Probing different approaches, the oxidative folding of the synthetic linear PAF yielded a folded protein that has identical structure and antifungal activity as the native PAF. In contrast, unfolded linear PAF was inactive, a result that may have implications concerning its redox state in the mode of action.

  2. Purification of correctly oxidized MHC class I heavy-chain molecules under denaturing conditions: a novel strategy exploiting disulfide assisted protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Henrik; Ruffet, Emmanuel; Blicher, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    with correct disulfide bonding are formed under non-reducing denaturing conditions and separated from scrambled disulfide bond forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. In the second step, rapid refolding of the oxidized heavy chains is afforded by disulfide bond-assisted folding in the presence of beta......The aim of this study has been to develop a strategy for purifying correctly oxidized denatured major histocompability complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain molecules, which on dilution, fold efficiently and become functional. Expression of heavy-chain molecules in bacteria results in the formation...... of insoluble cellular inclusion bodies, which must be solubilized under denaturing conditions. Their subsequent purification and refolding is complicated by the fact that (1). correct folding can only take place in combined presence of beta(2)-microglobulin and a binding peptide; and (2). optimal in vitro...

  3. Protein disulfide isomerase interacts with tau protein and inhibits its fibrillization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tau protein is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as tauopathies including Alzheimer disease, and Tau fibrillization is thought to be related to neuronal toxicity. Physiological inhibitors of Tau fibrillization hold promise for developing new strategies for treatment of Alzheimer disease. Because protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is both an enzyme and a chaperone, and implicated in neuroprotection against Alzheimer disease, we want to know whether PDI can prevent Tau fibrillization. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between PDI and Tau protein and the effect of PDI on Tau fibrillization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, human PDI interacts and co-locates with some endogenous human Tau on the endoplasmic reticulum of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that one full-length human PDI binds to one full-length human Tau (or human Tau fragment Tau244-372 monomer with moderate, micromolar affinity at physiological pH and near physiological ionic strength. As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays, Sarkosyl-insoluble SDS-PAGE, and transmission electron microscopy, full-length human PDI remarkably inhibits both steps of nucleation and elongation of Tau244-372 fibrillization in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we find that two molecules of the a-domain of human PDI interact with one Tau244-372 molecule with sub-micromolar affinity, and inhibit both steps of nucleation and elongation of Tau244-372 fibrillization more strongly than full-length human PDI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time that human PDI binds to Tau protein mainly through its thioredoxin-like catalytic domain a, forming a 1∶1 complex and preventing Tau misfolding. Our findings suggest that PDI could act as a physiological inhibitor of Tau

  4. Adsorption and Diffusion of Lithium and Sodium on Defective Rhenium Disulfide: A First Principles Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sankha; Banwait, Avinav; Grixti, Sean; Koratkar, Nikhil; Singh, Chandra Veer

    2018-02-14

    Single-layer rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) is a unique material with distinctive, anisotropic electronic, mechanical, and optical properties and has the potential to be used as an anode in alkali-metal-ion batteries. In this work, first principles calculations were performed to systematically evaluate the potential of monolayer pristine and defective ReS 2 as anodes in lithium (Li)- and sodium (Na)-ion batteries. Our calculations suggest that there are several potential adsorption sites for Li and Na on pristine ReS 2 , owing to its low-symmetry structure. Additionally, the adsorption of Li and Na over pristine ReS 2 is very strong with adsorption energies of -2.28 and -1.71 eV, respectively. Interestingly, the presence of point defects causes significantly stronger binding of the alkali-metal atoms with adsorption energies in the range -2.98 to -3.17 eV for Li and -2.66 to -2.92 eV for Na. Re single vacancy was found to be the strongest binding defect for Li adsorption, whereas S single vacancy was found to be the strongest for Na. The diffusion of these two alkali atoms over pristine ReS 2 is anisotropic, with an energy barrier of 0.33 eV for Li and 0.16 eV for Na. The energy barriers associated with escaping a double vacancy and single vacancy for Li atoms are significantly large at 0.60 eV for the double-vacancy case and 0.51 eV for the single-vacancy case. Similarly, for Na, they are 0.59 and 0.47 eV, respectively, which indicates slower migration and sluggish charging/discharging. However, the diffusion energy barrier over a Re single vacancy is found to be merely 0.42 eV for a Li atom and 0.28 eV for Na. Overall, S single and double vacancies can reduce the diffusion rate by 10 3 -10 5 times for Li and Na ions, respectively. These results suggest that monolayer ReS 2 with a Re single vacancy adsorbs Li and Na stronger than pristine ReS 2 , with negligible negotiation with the charging/discharging rate of the battery, and therefore they can be used as an anode

  5. Loss of metal ions, disulfide reduction and mutations related to familial ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates from superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep A Oztug Durer

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS. Fibrillar inclusions containing SOD1 and SOD1 inclusions that bind the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S have been found in neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1. Therefore, the formation of amyloid fibrils from human SOD1 was investigated. When agitated at acidic pH in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine or acetonitrile, metalated SOD1 formed fibrillar material which bound both thioflavin T and Congo red and had circular dichroism and infrared spectra characteristic of amyloid. While metalated SOD1 did not form amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH, either removing metals from SOD1 with its intramolecular disulfide bond intact or reducing the intramolecular disulfide bond of metalated SOD1 was sufficient to promote formation of these aggregates. SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates both with and without intermolecular disulfide bonds, depending on the incubation conditions, and a mutant SOD1 lacking free sulfhydryl groups (AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH under reducing conditions. ALS mutations enhanced the ability of disulfide-reduced SOD1 to form amyloid-like aggregates, and apo-AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at pH 7 only when an ALS mutation was also present. These results indicate that some mutations related to ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates by facilitating the loss of metals and/or by making the intramolecular disulfide bond more susceptible to reduction, thus allowing the conversion of SOD1 to a form that aggregates to form resembling amyloid. Furthermore, the occurrence of amyloid-like aggregates per se does not depend on forming intermolecular disulfide bonds, and multiple forms of such aggregates can be produced from SOD1.

  6. Loss of metal ions, disulfide reduction and mutations related to familial ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates from superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztug Durer, Zeynep A; Cohlberg, Jeffrey A; Dinh, Phong; Padua, Shelby; Ehrenclou, Krista; Downes, Sean; Tan, James K; Nakano, Yoko; Bowman, Christopher J; Hoskins, Jessica L; Kwon, Chuhee; Mason, Andrew Z; Rodriguez, Jorge A; Doucette, Peter A; Shaw, Bryan F; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Fibrillar inclusions containing SOD1 and SOD1 inclusions that bind the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S have been found in neurons of transgenic mice expressing mutant SOD1. Therefore, the formation of amyloid fibrils from human SOD1 was investigated. When agitated at acidic pH in the presence of low concentrations of guanidine or acetonitrile, metalated SOD1 formed fibrillar material which bound both thioflavin T and Congo red and had circular dichroism and infrared spectra characteristic of amyloid. While metalated SOD1 did not form amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH, either removing metals from SOD1 with its intramolecular disulfide bond intact or reducing the intramolecular disulfide bond of metalated SOD1 was sufficient to promote formation of these aggregates. SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates both with and without intermolecular disulfide bonds, depending on the incubation conditions, and a mutant SOD1 lacking free sulfhydryl groups (AS-SOD1) formed amyloid-like aggregates at neutral pH under reducing conditions. ALS mutations enhanced the ability of disulfide-reduced SOD1 to form amyloid-like aggregates, and apo-AS-SOD1 formed amyloid-like aggregates at pH 7 only when an ALS mutation was also present. These results indicate that some mutations related to ALS promote formation of amyloid-like aggregates by facilitating the loss of metals and/or by making the intramolecular disulfide bond more susceptible to reduction, thus allowing the conversion of SOD1 to a form that aggregates to form resembling amyloid. Furthermore, the occurrence of amyloid-like aggregates per se does not depend on forming intermolecular disulfide bonds, and multiple forms of such aggregates can be produced from SOD1.

  7. Accumulation of β-Conglycinin in Soybean Cotyledon through the Formation of Disulfide Bonds between α′- and α-Subunits1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadahama, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Kensuke; Matsusaki, Motonori; Nishizawa, Keito; Ishimoto, Masao; Arisaka, Fumio; Takagi, Kyoko; Urade, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    β-Conglycinin, one of the major soybean (Glycine max) seed storage proteins, is folded and assembled into trimers in the endoplasmic reticulum and accumulated into protein storage vacuoles. Prior experiments have used soybean β-conglycinin extracted using a reducing buffer containing a sulfhydryl reductant such as 2-mercaptoethanol, which reduces both intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the proteins. In this study, soybean proteins were extracted from the cotyledons of immature seeds or dry beans under nonreducing conditions to prevent the oxidation of thiol groups and the reduction or exchange of disulfide bonds. We found that approximately half of the α′- and α-subunits of β-conglycinin were disulfide linked, together or with P34, prior to amino-terminal propeptide processing. Sedimentation velocity experiments, size-exclusion chromatography, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis, with blue native PAGE followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, indicated that the β-conglycinin complexes containing the disulfide-linked α′/α-subunits were complexes of more than 720 kD. The α′- and α-subunits, when disulfide linked with P34, were mostly present in approximately 480-kD complexes (hexamers) at low ionic strength. Our results suggest that disulfide bonds are formed between α′/α-subunits residing in different β-conglycinin hexamers, but the binding of P34 to α′- and α-subunits reduces the linkage between β-conglycinin hexamers. Finally, a subset of glycinin was shown to exist as noncovalently associated complexes larger than hexamers when β-conglycinin was expressed under nonreducing conditions. PMID:22218927

  8. Disulfide bond assignment in human interleukin-7 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy and site-directed cysteine to serine mutational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, L; Sweeney, E; Murphy, J R

    1997-12-26

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a proteinaceous biological response modifier that has a bioactive tertiary structure dependent on disulfide bond formation. Disulfide bond assignments in human (h)IL-7 are based upon the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectroscopy and Cys to Ser mutational analyses. A gene encoding the hIL-7 was synthesized incorporating Escherichia coli codon usage bias and was used to express biologically active protein as determined by stimulation of precursor B-cell proliferation. MALDI mass spectroscopic analysis of trypsin-digested hIL-7 was performed and compared with the anticipated results of a simulated tryptic digestion. Many of the anticipated hIL-7 tryptic fragments were detected including one with a molecular mass equivalent to the sum of two polypeptides linked through a disulfide bond formed from Cys residues (Cys3 and Cys142). Subsequently, Cys to Ser substitution mutational analyses were performed. A hIL-7 variant with all six Cys substituted with Ser was found to be biologically inactive (EC50 > 1 x 10(-7) M). In contrast, a family of single disulfide bond-forming variants of hIL-7 were constructed by reintroducing Cys pairs (Cys3-Cys142, Cys35-Cys130, and Cys48-Cys93), and each could stimulate cell proliferation with an EC50 of 4 x 10(-9), 2 x 10(-8), and 2 x 10(-9) M, respectively. In single disulfide bond-forming mutants of hIL-7, the ability to stimulate cell proliferation was abolished in the presence of 2 mM dithiothreitol. The results presented strongly suggest that only a single disulfide bond is required for hIL-7 to form a tertiary structure capable of stimulating precursor B-cell proliferation.

  9. Efficient soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentations on chemically defined minimal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąciarz, Anna; Khatri, Narendar Kumar; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Saaranen, Mirva J; Uchida, Yuko; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2017-06-15

    The production of recombinant proteins containing disulfide bonds in Escherichia coli is challenging. In most cases the protein of interest needs to be either targeted to the oxidizing periplasm or expressed in the cytoplasm in the form of inclusion bodies, then solubilized and re-folded in vitro. Both of these approaches have limitations. Previously we showed that soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible at shake flask scale with a system, known as CyDisCo, which is based on co-expression of a protein of interest along with a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide bond isomerase. With CyDisCo it is possible to produce disulfide bonded proteins in the presence of intact reducing pathways in the cytoplasm. Here we scaled up production of four disulfide bonded proteins to stirred tank bioreactors and achieved high cell densities and protein yields in glucose fed-batch fermentations, using an E. coli strain (BW25113) with the cytoplasmic reducing pathways intact. Even without process optimization production of purified human single chain IgA 1 antibody fragment reached 139 mg/L and hen avidin 71 mg/L, while purified yields of human growth hormone 1 and interleukin 6 were around 1 g/L. Preliminary results show that human growth hormone 1 was also efficiently produced in fermentations of W3110 strain and when glucose was replaced with glycerol as the carbon source. Our results show for the first time that efficient production of high yields of soluble disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli with the reducing pathways intact is feasible to scale-up to bioreactor cultivations on chemically defined minimal media.

  10. The three-dimensional solution structure of mini-M conotoxin BtIIIA reveals a disconnection between disulfide connectivity and peptide fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, Muharrem; Cao, Ying; Chongxu, Fan; Craik, David J

    2013-06-15

    Conotoxins are bioactive peptides from the venoms of marine snails and have been divided into several superfamilies based on homologies in their precursor sequences. The M-superfamily conotoxins can be further divided into five branches based on the number of residues in the third loop of the peptide sequence. Recently two M-1 branch conotoxins (tx3a and mr3e) with a C1-C5, C2-C4, C3-C6 disulfide connectivity and one M-2 branch conotoxin (mr3a) with a C1-C6, C2-C4, C3-C5 disulfide connectivity were described. Here we report the disulfide connectivity, chemical synthesis and the three-dimensional NMR structure of the novel 14-residue conotoxin BtIIIA, extracted from the venom of Conus betulinus. It has the same disulfide connectivity as mr3a, which puts it in the M-2 branch conotoxins but has a distinctly different structure from other M-2 branch conotoxins. 105 NOE distance restraints and seven dihedral angle restraints were used for the structure calculations. The three-dimensional structure was determined with CYANA based on torsion angle dynamics and refinement in a water solvent box was carried out with CNS. Fifty structures were calculated and the 20 lowest energy structures superimposed with a RMSD of 0.49±0.16 Å. Even though it has the M-2 branch disulfide connectivity, BtIIIA was found to have a 'flying bird' backbone motif depiction that is found in the M-1 branch conotoxin mr3e. This study shows that conotoxins with the same cysteine framework can have different disulfide connectivities and different peptide folds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient export of human growth hormone, interferon α2b and antibody fragments to the periplasm by the Escherichia coli Tat pathway in the absence of prior disulfide bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Heli I; Walker, Kelly L; Lourdes Velez Suberbie, M; Matos, Cristina F R O; Bönisch, Sarah; Freedman, Robert B; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ruddock, Lloyd W; Robinson, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Numerous therapeutic proteins are expressed in Escherichia coli and targeted to the periplasm in order to facilitate purification and enable disulfide bond formation. Export is normally achieved by the Sec pathway, which transports proteins through the plasma membrane in a reduced, unfolded state. The Tat pathway is a promising alternative means of export, because it preferentially exports correctly folded proteins; however, the reducing cytoplasm of standard strains has been predicted to preclude export by Tat of proteins that contain disulfide bonds in the native state because, in the reduced state, they are sensed as misfolded and rejected. Here, we have tested a series of disulfide-bond containing biopharmaceuticals for export by the Tat pathway in CyDisCo strains that do enable disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm. We show that interferon α2b, human growth hormone (hGH) and two antibody fragments are exported with high efficiency; surprisingly, however, they are efficiently exported even in the absence of cytoplasmic disulfide formation. The exported proteins acquire disulfide bonds in the periplasm, indicating that the normal disulfide oxidation machinery is able to act on the proteins. Tat-dependent export of hGH proceeds even when the disulfide bonds are removed by substitution of the Cys residues involved, suggesting that these substrates adopt tertiary structures that are accepted as fully-folded by the Tat machinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. catena-Poly[[bis(thiocyanato-κNiron(II]-bis(μ-dipyrazin-2-yl disulfide-κ2N4:N4′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Wöhlert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe(NCS2(C8H6N4S22]n, the FeII cation is coordinated by two terminal N-bonded thiocyanate anions and four bridging N:N′-bridging dipyrazin-2-yl disulfide ligands in an octahedral geometry. The FeII cations are connected via bridging 4,4′-dipyrazine ligands into chains along the b-axis direction. The asymmetric unit consists of one FeII cation located on position with site symmetry 2/m, one thiocyanate anion located on a mirror plane and one disulfide ligand located on a twofold rotation axis.

  13. Role of Conserved Disulfide Bridges and Aromatic Residues in Extracellular Loop 2 of Chemokine Receptor CCR8 for Chemokine and Small Molecule Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, Line; Rummel, Pia C; Lückmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and aromatic residues in extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) for ligand binding and activation in the chemokine receptor CCR8. We used IP3 accumulation and radioligand binding experiments to determine the impact of receptor mutagenesis on both chemokine and small molecule agonist and antagonist binding and action...... in CCR8. We find that the 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor conserved disulfide bridge (7TM bridge) linking transmembrane helix (TM)III and ECL2 is crucial for chemokine and small molecule action, whereas the chemokine receptor conserved disulfide bridge between the N terminus and TMVII is needed only...

  14. Enhanced catalytic stability of lipase immobilized on oxidized and disulfide-rich eggshell membrane for esters hydrolysis and transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenyu; Cheng, Chuanchuan; Hao, Mei; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Ziying; Shen, Cai; Cheong, Ling-Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Eggshell membrane (ESM) is an industrial waste that is available in abundance from food industry. Present study investigated the physicochemical properties of oxidized ESM and compared the efficiency of ESM and oxidized ESM as carrier for Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL) used in esters hydrolysis and transesterification. Following oxidation treatment, FTIR analysis and Ellman's assay showed amino acid cysteine in ESM was oxidized to form disulfide bond-containing cystine. In addition, AFM analysis showed ESM which exhibited a highly porous filamentous structure appeared to be coalesce following oxidation treatment. Oxidized ESM also showed reduced porosity (38.67%) in comparison to native ESM (51.65%). BCL were successfully immobilized on oxidized ESM through carrier activation method (enzyme loading of 5.01mg protein/g oxidized ESM). These immobilized lipase demonstrated significantly (Ptransesterification (7.83±0.05) activity for at least 10 consecutive runs. Enhanced catalytic stability of BCL immobilized on oxidized ESM might be due to stabilization of the protein structure in oxidized ESM by disulfide bonds which helped formation of a stable bonding with BCL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of pharmaceutical potential endocrine disruptor compounds on protein disulfide isomerase reductase activity using di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Klett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bridges during folding of membrane and secreted proteins. As PDI is also known to bind various molecules including hormones such as estradiol and thyroxin, we considered the hypothesis that adverse effects of endocrine-disrupter compounds (EDC could be mediated through their interaction with PDI leading to defects in membrane or secreted proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Taking advantage of the recent description of the fluorescence self quenched substrate di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione (DiE-GSSG, we determined kinetically the effects of various potential pharmaceutical EDCs on the in-vitro reductase activity of bovine liver PDI by measuring the fluorescence of the reaction product (E-GSH. Our data show that estrogens (ethynylestradiol and bisphenol-A as well as indomethacin exert an inhibition whereas medroxyprogesteroneacetate and nortestosterone exert a potentiation of bovine PDI reductase activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that the tested EDCs could not only affect endocrine target cells through nuclear receptors as previously shown, but could also affect these and all other cells by positively or negatively affecting PDI activity. The substrate DiE-GSSG has been demonstrated to be a convenient substrate to measure PDI reductase activity in the presence of various potential EDCs. It will certainly be usefull for the screening of potential effect of all kinds of chemicals on PDI reductase activity.

  16. Revisiting the mechanistic basis of the French Paradox: Red wine inhibits the activity of protein disulfide isomerase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Christine N; Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Kennedy, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Although epidemiologic evidence points to cardioprotective activity of red wine, the mechanistic basis for antithrombotic activity has not been established. Quercetin and related flavonoids are present in high concentrations in red but not white wine. Quercetin-glycosides were recently shown to prevent thrombosis in animal models through the inhibition of extracellular protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). We evaluated whether red or white wine inhibited PDI activity in vitro. Quercetin levels in red and white wines were measured by HPLC analysis. Inhibition of PDI activity by red and white wines was assessed by an insulin reduction turbidity assay at various concentrations of wine. PDI inhibition was confirmed using a reduced peptide that contained a disulfide containing peptide as a substrate. The inhibition of PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57 was also assessed. We observed a dose-dependent decrease of PDI activity for a variety of red but not white wines. Red wine diluted to 3% final concentration resulted in over 80% inhibition of PDI activity by insulin reductase assay for all varieties tested. This inhibition was also observed in the peptide based assay. Red grape juice yielded similar results but ethanol alone did not affect PDI activity. Interestingly, red wine also inhibited the PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57, albeit to a lesser degree than PDI. PDI activity is inhibited by red wine and grape juice, identifying a potentially novel mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefits attributed to wine consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary crystallographic data of the three homologues of the thiol–disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA in Neisseria meningitidis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafaye, Céline [Laboratoire des Protéines Membranaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France); Iwena, Thomas; Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Cristallogénèse et Cristallisation des Protéines, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France); Kroll, J. Simon [Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG (United Kingdom); Griat, Mickael; Serre, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.serre@ibs.fr [Laboratoire des Protéines Membranaires, Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA/CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 01 (France)

    2008-02-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs. To throw light on the reason for this genetic multiplicity, the three enzymes have been purified and crystallized. Bacterial virulence depends on the correct folding of surface-exposed proteins, a process that is catalyzed by the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA, which facilitates the synthesis of disulfide bonds in Gram-negative bacteria. Uniquely among bacteria, the Neisseria meningitidis genome possesses three genes encoding active DsbAs: DsbA1, DsbA2 and DsbA3. DsbA1 and DsbA2 have been characterized as lipoproteins involved in natural competence and in host-interactive biology, while the function of DsbA3 remains unknown. In an attempt to shed light on the reason for this multiplicity of dsbA genes, the three enzymes from N. meningitidis have been purified and crystallized in the presence of high concentrations of ammonium sulfate. The best crystals were obtained using DsbA1 and DsbA3; they belong to the orthorhombic and tetragonal systems and diffract to 1.5 and 2.7 Å resolution, respectively.

  18. A Disulfide Bond in the Membrane Protein IgaA Is Essential for Repression of the RcsCDB System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graciela Pucciarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IgaA is an integral inner membrane protein that was discovered as repressor of the RcsCDB phosphorelay system in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The RcsCDB system, conserved in many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, regulates expression of varied processes including motility, biofilm formation, virulence and response to envelope stress. IgaA is an essential protein to which, in response to envelope perturbation, the outer membrane lipoprotein RcsF has been proposed to bind in order to activate the RcsCDB phosphorelay. Envelope stress has also been reported to be sensed by a surface exposed domain of RcsF. These observations support a tight control of the RcsCDB system by RcsF and IgaA via mechanisms that, however, remain unknown. Interestingly, RcsF and IgaA have four conserved cysteine residues in loops exposed to the periplasmic space. Two non-consecutive disulfide bonds were shown to be required for RcsF function. Here, we report mutagenesis studies supporting the presence of one disulfide bond (C404-C425 in the major periplasmic loop of IgaA that is essential for repression of the RcsCDB phosphorelay. Our data therefore suggest that the redox state of the periplasm may be critical for the control of the RcsCDB system by its two upstream regulators, RcsF and IgaA.

  19. Enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Mutze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI and type II (ATII cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2 and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker, exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC, whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair.

  20. Formation of an Intramolecular Periplasmic Disulfide Bond in TcpP Protects TcpP and TcpH from Degradation in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah J; French, Emily L; Thomson, Joshua J; Seaborn, Craig P; Shively, Christian A; Krukonis, Eric S

    2016-02-01

    TcpP and ToxR coordinately regulate transcription of toxT, the master regulator of numerous virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae. TcpP and ToxR are membrane-localized transcription factors, each with a periplasmic domain containing two cysteines. In ToxR, these cysteines form an intramolecular disulfide bond and a cysteine-to-serine substitution affects activity. We determined that the two periplasmic cysteines of TcpP also form an intramolecular disulfide bond. Disruption of this intramolecular disulfide bond by mutation of either cysteine resulted in formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. Furthermore, disruption of the intramolecular disulfide bond in TcpP decreased the stability of TcpP. While the decreased stability of TcpP-C207S resulted in a nearly complete loss of toxT activation and cholera toxin (CT) production, the second cysteine mutant, TcpP-C218S, was partially resistant to proteolytic degradation and maintained ∼50% toxT activation capacity. TcpP-C218S was also TcpH independent, since deletion of tcpH did not affect the stability of TcpP-C218S, whereas wild-type TcpP was degraded in the absence of TcpH. Finally, TcpH was also unstable when intramolecular disulfides could not be formed in TcpP, suggesting that the single periplasmic cysteine in TcpH may assist with disulfide bond formation in TcpP by interacting with the periplasmic cysteines of TcpP. Consistent with this finding, a TcpH-C114S mutant was unable to stabilize TcpP and was itself unstable. Our findings demonstrate a periplasmic disulfide bond in TcpP is critical for TcpP stability and virulence gene expression. The Vibrio cholerae transcription factor TcpP, in conjunction with ToxR, regulates transcription of toxT, the master regulator of numerous virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae. TcpP is a membrane-localized transcription factor with a periplasmic domain containing two cysteines. We determined that the two periplasmic cysteines of TcpP form an intramolecular disulfide bond

  1. Protein disulfide isomerase is required for platelet-derived growth factor-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration, Nox1 NADPH oxidase expression, and RhoGTPase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Luciana A; Bonatto, Diego; Forti, Fábio L; Sadok, Amine; Kovacic, Hervé; Laurindo, Francisco R M

    2012-08-24

    Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (VSMC) migration into vessel neointima is a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and postinjury restenosis. Nox1 NADPH oxidase-derived oxidants synergize with growth factors to support VSMC migration. We previously described the interaction between NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in many cell types. However, physiological implications, as well as mechanisms of such association, are yet unclear. We show here that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promoted subcellular redistribution of PDI concomitant to Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species production and that siRNA-mediated PDI silencing inhibited such reactive oxygen species production, while nearly totally suppressing the increase in Nox1 expression, with no change in Nox4. Furthermore, PDI silencing inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration assessed by distinct methods, whereas PDI overexpression increased spontaneous basal VSMC migration. To address possible mechanisms of PDI effects, we searched for PDI interactome by systems biology analysis of physical protein-protein interaction networks, which indicated convergence with small GTPases and their regulator RhoGDI. PDI silencing decreased PDGF-induced Rac1 and RhoA activities, without changing their expression. PDI co-immunoprecipitated with RhoGDI at base line, whereas such association was decreased after PDGF. Also, PDI co-immunoprecipitated with Rac1 and RhoA in a PDGF-independent way and displayed detectable spots of perinuclear co-localization with Rac1 and RhoGDI. Moreover, PDI silencing promoted strong cytoskeletal changes: disorganization of stress fibers, decreased number of focal adhesions, and reduced number of RhoGDI-containing vesicular recycling adhesion structures. Overall, these data suggest that PDI is required to support Nox1/redox and GTPase-dependent VSMC migration.

  2. An experimental and DFT study of a disulfide-linked Schiff base: Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of bis (3-methoxy-salicylidene-2-aminophenyl) disulfide in its anhydrous and monohydrate forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi-Curotto, Verónica; Echeverría, Gustavo A.; Piro, Oscar E.; Pis-Diez, Reinaldo; González-Baró, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed structural and spectroscopic study of the disulfide Schiff base obtained from condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and o-vanillin is reported. It includes the analyses of the anhydrous and monohydrate forms of the title compound. Structures of both solids were resolved by X-ray diffraction methods. A comparison between experimental and theoretical results is presented. The conformational space was searched and geometries were optimized both in gas phase and including solvent effects. Vibrational (IR and Raman) and electronic spectra were measured and assigned with the help of computational methods based on the Density Functional Theory. Calculated MEP-derived atomic charges were calculated to predict coordination sites for metal complexes formation.

  3. The multidrug resistance IncA/C transferable plasmid encodes a novel domain-swapped dimeric protein-disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Kurth, Fabian; Neyer, Simon; Schembri, Mark A; Martin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-31

    The multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C conjugative plasmids disseminate antibiotic resistance genes among clinically relevant enteric bacteria. A plasmid-encoded disulfide isomerase is associated with conjugation. Sequence analysis of several IncA/C plasmids and IncA/C-related integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) from commensal and pathogenic bacteria identified a conserved DsbC/DsbG homolog (DsbP). The crystal structure of DsbP reveals an N-terminal domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A DsbP homodimer is formed through domain swapping of two DsbP N-terminal domains. The catalytic domain incorporates a thioredoxin-fold with characteristic CXXC and cis-Pro motifs. Overall, the structure and redox properties of DsbP diverge from the Escherichia coli DsbC and DsbG disulfide isomerases. Specifically, the V-shaped dimer of DsbP is inverted compared with EcDsbC and EcDsbG. In addition, the redox potential of DsbP (-161 mV) is more reducing than EcDsbC (-130 mV) and EcDsbG (-126 mV). Other catalytic properties of DsbP more closely resemble those of EcDsbG than EcDsbC. These catalytic differences are in part a consequence of the unusual active site motif of DsbP (CAVC); substitution to the EcDsbC-like (CGYC) motif converts the catalytic properties to those of EcDsbC. Structural comparison of the 12 independent subunit structures of DsbP that we determined revealed that conformational changes in the linker region contribute to mobility of the catalytic domain, providing mechanistic insight into DsbP function. In summary, our data reveal that the conserved plasmid-encoded DsbP protein is a bona fide disulfide isomerase and suggest that a dedicated oxidative folding enzyme is important for conjugative plasmid transfer.

  4. Thiol and Disulfide Derivatives of Ephedra Alkaloids 2 : A Mechanistic Study of Their Effect on the Addition of Diethyl Zinc to Benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Hulst, Ron; Kellogg, Richard M.

    Thiol and disulfide derivatives of ephedrine have been shown previously to catalyse in high enantiomeric excess (ee) the reaction of diethyl zinc with benzaldehyde. We find that this reaction involves non-linear correlations between the ee of product and catalyst. Osmotic measurements indicate a

  5. Requirement of Signal Peptidase ComC and Thiol-Disulfide Oxidoreductase DsbA for Optimal Cell Surface Display of Pseudopilin ComGC in Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi-Pol, Magdalena M.; Reilman, Ewoud; Sibbald, Mark J. J. B.; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Buist, Girbe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important Gram-positive bacterial pathogen producing many secreted and cell surface-localized virulence factors. Here we report that the staphylococcal thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA is essential for stable biogenesis of the ComGC pseudopilin. The signal peptidase

  6. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  7. Mimicry of the regulatory role of urokinase in lamellipodia formation by introduction of a non-native interdomain disulfide bond in its receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Magnus; Jacobsen, Benedikte

    2011-01-01

    -natural interdomain disulfide bond (uPAR(H47C-N259C)). The corresponding soluble receptor has 1) a smaller hydrodynamic volume, 2) a higher content of secondary structure, and 3) unaltered binding kinetics towards uPA. Most importantly, the purified uPAR(H47C-N259C) also displays a gain in affinity...

  8. Structural analysis of an intact monoclonal antibody by online electrochemical reduction of disulfide bonds and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolardi, Simone; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2014-06-03

    Structural confirmation and quality control of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by top-down mass spectrometry is still challenging due to the size of the proteins, disulfide content, and post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. In this study we have applied electrochemistry (EC) to overcome disulfide bridge complexity in top-down analysis of mAbs. To this end, an electrochemical cell was coupled directly to an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer (MS) equipped with a 15 T magnet. By performing online EC-assisted reduction of interchain disulfide bonds in an intact mAb, the released light chains could be selected for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis without interference from heavy-chain fragments. Moreover, the acquisition of full MS scans under denaturing conditions allowed profiling of all abundant mAb glycoforms. Ultrahigh-resolution FTICR-MS measurements provided fully resolved isotopic distributions of intact mAb and enabled the identification of the most abundant adducts and other interfering species. Furthermore, it was found that reduction of interchain disulfide bonds occurs in the ESI source dependent on capillary voltage and solvent composition. This phenomenon was systematically evaluated and compared with the results obtained from reduction in the electrochemical cell.

  9. Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerková, R.; Hernychová, L.; Dobeš, P.; Vrba, J.; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Bartošík, M.; Vacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 830, JUN 2014 (2014), s. 23-32 ISSN 0003-2670 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Disulfide bond forming protein * Electrochemical sensing * Membrane proteins Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.513, year: 2014

  10. A pH and Redox Dual Responsive 4-Arm Poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(disulfide histamine Copolymer for Non-Viral Gene Transfection in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang An

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(disulfide histamine copolymer was synthesized by Michael addition reaction of poly(ethylene glycol (PEG vinyl sulfone and amine-capped poly(disulfide histamine oligomer, being denoted as 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS. This copolymer was able to condense DNA into nanoscale polyplexes (<200 nm in average diameter with almost neutral surface charge (+(5–10 mV. Besides, these polyplexes were colloidal stable within 4 h in HEPES buffer saline at pH 7.4 (physiological environment, but rapidly dissociated to liberate DNA in the presence of 10 mM glutathione (intracellular reducing environment. The polyplexes also revealed pH-responsive surface charges which markedly increased with reducing pH values from 7.4–6.3 (tumor microenvironment. In vitro transfection experiments showed that polyplexes of 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS were capable of exerting enhanced transfection efficacy in MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells under acidic conditions (pH 6.3–7.0. Moreover, intravenous administration of the polyplexes to nude mice bearing HepG2-tumor yielded high transgene expression largely in tumor rather other normal organs. Importantly, this copolymer and its polyplexes had low cytotoxicity against the cells in vitro and caused no death of the mice. The results of this study indicate that 4-arm PEG-SSPHIS has high potential as a dual responsive gene delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.

  11. A Generic Protocol for Purifying Disulfide-Bonded Domains and Random Protein Fragments Using Fusion Proteins with SUMO3 and Cleavage by SenP2 Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besir, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli is well established for a wide range of proteins, although in many cases, purifying soluble and properly folded proteins remains challenging (Sorensen and Mortensen, J Biotechnol 115:113-128, 2005; Correa and Oppezzo, Methods Mol Biol 1258:27-44, 2015). Proteins that contain disulfide bonds (e.g., cytokines, growth factors) are often particularly difficult to purify in soluble form and still need optimizing of protocols in almost every step of the process (Berkmen, Protein Expr Purif 82:240-251, 2012; de Marco, Microb Cell Fact 11:129, 2012). Expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the periplasm of E. coli is one approach that can help to obtain soluble protein with the correct disulfide bridges forming in the periplasm. This offers the appropriate conditions for disulfide formation although periplasmic expression can also result in low expression levels and incorrect folding of the target protein (Schlapschy and Skerra, Methods Mol Biol 705:211-224, 2011). Generation of specific antibodies often requires a specific antigenic sequence of a protein in order to get an efficient immune response and minimize cross-reactivity of antibodies. Larger proteins like GST (Glutathione-S-transferase) or MBP (maltose binding protein) as solubilizing fusion partners are frequently used to keep antigens soluble and immunize animals. This approach has the disadvantage that the immune response against the fusion partner leads to additional antibodies that need to be separated from the antigen-specific antibodies. For both classes of proteins mentioned above, a protocol has been developed and optimized using the human version of small ubiquitin-like modifier 3 (SUMO3) protein and its corresponding protease SenP2. This chapter describes the experimental steps for expression, purification, refolding, and cleavage that are applicable to both disulfide-bonded proteins with a defined structure and random protein fragments for

  12. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner

  13. Ultrashort pulse generation in mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with tungsten disulfide saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengli; Liu, Wenjun; Pang, Lihui; Teng, Hao; Fang, Shaobo; Wei, Zhiyi

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS2), as one of typical transition metal dichalcogenides with the characteristics of strong nonlinear polarization and wide bandgap, has been widely used in such fields as biology and optoelectronics. With the magnetron sputtering technique, the saturable absorber (SA) is prepared by depositing WS2 and Au film on the tapered fiber. The heat elimination and damage threshold can be improved for the WS2 SA with evanescent field interaction. Besides, the Au film is deposited on the surface of the WS2 film to improve their reliability and avoid being oxidized. The fabricated SA has a modulation depth of 14.79%. With this SA, we obtain a relatively stable mode-locked fiber laser with the pulse duration of 288 fs, the repetition rate of 41.4 MHz and the signal to noise ratio of 58 dB.

  14. Broad-spectrum enhanced absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells in metal-mirror microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Tao, Liu; Yun-Kai, Cao; Hong, Tong; Dai-Qiang, Wang; Zhen-Hua, Wu

    2018-04-01

    The optical absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells (GM-PVc) in wedge-shaped metal-mirror microcavities (w-MMCs) combined with a spectrum-splitting structure was studied. Results showed that the combination of spectrum-splitting structure and w-MMC can enable the light absorption of GM-PVcs to reach about 65% in the broad spectrum. The influence of processing errors on the absorption of GM-PVcs in w-MMCs was 3-14 times lower than that of GM-PVcs in wedge photonic crystal microcavities. The light absorption of GM-PVcs reached 60% in the broad spectrum, even with the processing errors. The proposed structure is easy to implement and may have potentially important applications in the development of ultra-thin and high-efficiency solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  15. High contact angle hysteresis of superhydrophobic surfaces: Hydrophobic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Ming; Hong, Siang-Jie; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2009-08-01

    A typical superhydrophobic surface is essentially nonadhesive and exhibits very low water contact angle (CA) hysteresis, so-called Lotus effect. However, leaves of some plants such as scallion and garlic with an advancing angle exceeding 150° show very serious CA hysteresis. Although surface roughness and epicuticular wax can explain the very high advancing CA, our analysis indicates that the unusual hydrophobic defect, diallyl disulfide, is the key element responsible for contact line pinning on allium leaves. After smearing diallyl disulfide on an extended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, which is originally absent of CA hysteresis, the surface remains superhydrophobic but becomes highly adhesive.

  16. The effect of oxidant and the non-oxidant alteration of cellular thiol concentration on the formation of protein mixed-disulfides in HEK 293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasen Lee Gilge

    Full Text Available Cellular molecules possess various mechanisms in responding to oxidant stress. In terms of protein responses, protein S-glutathionylation is a unique post-translational modification of protein reactive cysteines forming disulfides with glutathione molecules. This modification has been proposed to play roles in antioxidant, regulatory and signaling in cells under oxidant stress. Recently, the increased level of protein S-glutathionylation has been linked with the development of diseases. In this report, specific S-glutathionylated proteins were demonstrated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells treated with two different oxidative reagents: diamide and hydrogen peroxide. Diamide is a chemical oxidizing agent whereas hydrogen peroxide is a physiological oxidant. Under the experimental conditions, these two oxidants decreased glutathione concentration without toxicity. S-glutathionylated proteins were detected by immunoblotting and glutathione concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. We further show the effect of alteration of the cellular thiol pool on the amount of protein S-glutathionylation in oxidant-treated cells. Cellular thiol concentrations were altered either by a specific way using buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis or by a non-specific way, incubating cells in cystine-methionine deficient media. Cells only treated with either buthionine sulfoximine or cystine-methionine deficient media did not induce protein S-glutathionylation, even though both conditions decreased 65% of cellular glutathione. Moreover, the amount of protein S-glutathionylation under both conditions in the presence of oxidants was not altered when compared to the amount observed in regular media with oxidants present. Protein S-glutathionylation is a dynamic reaction which depends on the rate of adding and removing glutathione. Phenylarsine oxide, which specifically forms a covalent adduct with

  17. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-05-06

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M.; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. PMID:26961872

  19. Variation in the Subcellular Localization and Protein Folding Activity among Arabidopsis thaliana Homologs of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Y. L. Yuen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a′ and two non-catalytic domains (b, b′, in the order a-b-b′-a′. The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes 12 PDI-like proteins, six of which possess the classical PDI domain arrangement (AtPDI1 through AtPDI6. Three additional AtPDIs (AtPDI9, AtPDI10, AtPDI11 possess two thioredoxin domains, but without intervening b-b′ domains. C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusions to each of the nine dual-thioredoxin PDI homologs localized predominantly to the ER lumen when transiently expressed in protoplasts. Additionally, expression of AtPDI9:GFP-KDEL and AtPDI10: GFP-KDDL was associated with the formation of ER bodies. AtPDI9, AtPDI10, and AtPDI11 mediated the oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase when heterologously expressed in the Escherichia coli protein folding mutant, dsbA−. However, only three classical AtPDIs (AtPDI2, AtPDI5, AtPDI6 functionally complemented dsbA−. Interestingly, chemical inducers of the ER unfolded protein response were previously shown to upregulate most of the AtPDIs that complemented dsbA−. The results indicate that Arabidopsis PDIs differ in their localization and protein folding activities to fulfill distinct molecular functions in the ER.

  20. Dual-degradable disulfide-containing PEI–Pluronic/DNA polyplexes: transfection efficiency and balancing protection and DNA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifen Zhang,* Zhenzhen Chen,* Yanfeng LiState Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Polymeric gene-delivery vectors to achieve lack of toxicity and a balance between protection and DNA release remains a formidable challenge. Incorporating intracellular environment-responsive degradable bonds is an appreciable step toward developing safer transfection agents. In this study, novel, dual-degradable polycation copolymers (Pluronic-diacrylate [PA]–polyethyleneimine [PEI]–SS were synthesized through the addition of low molecular weight (800 Da PEI cross-linked with SS (PEI-SS to PA. Three PA-PEI-SS copolymers (PA-PEI-SS1, 2, and 3 with different PEI-SS to Pluronic molar ratios were investigated and found to strongly condense plasmid DNA into positively charged nanoparticles with an average particle size of approximately 200 nm and to possess higher stability against DNase I digestion and sodium heparin. Disulfide and ester bonds of the copolymers were susceptible to intracellular redox conditions. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the PA-PEI-SS copolymers had significantly lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency in both BGC-823 and 293T cell lines than the controls of degradable PEI-SS and nondegradable 25 kDa PEI. Transfection activity was influenced by the PEI-SS content in the polymers and PA-PEI-SS1 showed the highest efficiency of the three copolymers. These studies suggest that these dual-degradable copolymers could be used as potential biocompatible gene delivery carriers.Keywords: Pluronic, PEI, gene vector, dual-degradable, disulfide-containing linker

  1. Diallyl trisufide protects against oxygen glucose deprivation -induced apoptosis by scavenging free radicals via the PI3K/Akt -mediated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in B35 neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian Hua; Li, Gai Li; Wang, Bing Ang; Qin, Yang; Bai, Shu Rong; Rong, Jian; Deng, Tao; Li, Qiang

    2015-07-21

    Oxidative stress contributes to development of ischemic brain damage. Many antioxidants have been proven effective in ameliorating cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting oxidative stress. DATS, an organosulfuric component of garlic oil, exhibits antioxidative effects. In present study, we used OGD model to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DATS and the mechanisms related to these effects. B35 neural cells exposed to OGD caused a decrease in cell viability and increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells and the level of intracellular cleaved caspase-3, all of which were markedly attenuated by DATS. Further, DATS treatment significantly increased Nrf2 expression and nuclear translocation, upregulated downstream gene HO-1 and inhibited intracellular ROS and MDA generation, all of which were markedly attenuated in cells transfected with Nrf2-specific siRNA. In addition, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling by PI3K-specific siRNA not only decreased the expression level of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins, but also diminished the antioxidative and neuroprotective effect of DATS. Taken together, these results indicate that DATS protects B35 neural cells against OGD-induced cell injury by inhibiting ROS production via upregulating the PI3K/Akt-mediated Nrf2 pathway, which further activates HO-1. Based on our results, DATS may be a potential candidate for intervention in hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries such as stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 1.42 A crystal structure of mini-IGF-1(2): an analysis of the disulfide isomerization property and receptor binding property of IGF-1 based on the three-dimensional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Caihong; Tang Yuehua; Feng Youmin; An Xiaomin; Chang Wenrui; Liang Dongcai

    2004-01-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) share a homologous sequence, a similar three-dimensional structure and weakly overlapping biological activity, but IGF-1 folds into two thermodynamically stable disulfide isomers, while insulin folds into one unique stable tertiary structure. This is a very interesting phenomenon in which one amino acid sequence encodes two three-dimensional structures, and its molecular mechanism has remained unclear for a long time. In this study, the crystal structure of mini-IGF-1(2), a disulfide isomer of an artificial analog of IGF-1, was solved by the SAD/SIRAS method using our in-house X-ray source. Evidence was found in the structure showing that the intra-A-chain/domain disulfide bond of some molecules was broken; thus, it was proposed that disulfide isomerization begins with the breakdown of this disulfide bond. Furthermore, based on the structural comparison of IGF-1 and insulin, a new assumption was made that in insulin the several hydrogen bonds formed between the N-terminal region of the B-chain and the intra-A-chain disulfide region of the A-chain are the main reason for the stability of the intra-A-chain disulfide bond and for the prevention of disulfide isomerization, while Phe B1 and His B5 are very important for the formation of these hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the receptor binding property of IGF-1 was analyzed in detail based on the structural comparison of mini-IGF-1(2), native IGF-1, and small mini-IGF-1

  3. Crystal structure of the platelet activator convulxin, a disulfide-linked alpha4beta4 cyclic tetramer from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, M T; Zela, S P; Gava, L M; Michelan-Duarte, S; Cintra, A C O; Arni, R K

    2003-10-17

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin, isolated from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, causes cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances and is a potent platelet activator which binds to platelet glycoprotein GPVI. The structure of CVX has been solved at 2.4A resolution to a crystallographic residual of 18.6% (R(free)=26.4%). CVX is a disulfide linked heterodimer consisting of homologous alpha and beta chains. The heterodimers are additionally linked by disulfide bridges to form cyclic alpha(4)beta(4)heterotetramers. These domains exhibit significant homology to the carbohydrate-binding domains of C-type lectins, to the factor IX-binding protein (IX-bp), and to flavocetin-A (Fl-A) but sequence and structural differences are observed in both the domains in the putative Ca(2+)and carbohydrate binding regions.

  4. Evaluation of chromium oxide and molybdenum disulfide coatings in self-acting stops of an air-lubricated Rayleigh step thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1974-01-01

    Two coatings for a Rayleigh step thrust bearing were tested when coasting down and stopping under self-acting operation in air. The thrust bearing had an outside diameter of 8.9 cm (3.5 in.), an inside diameter of 5.4 cm (2.1 in.), and nine sectors. The load was 73 N (16.4 lbf). The load pressure was 19.1 kN/per square meter (2.77 lbf/per square inch) on the total thrust bearing area. The chromium oxide coating was good to 150 stops without bearing deterioration, and the molybdenum disulfide coating was good for only four stops before bearing deterioration. The molybdenum disulfide coated bearing failed after nine stops.

  5. Approach to Characterization of the Higher Order Structure of Disulfide-Containing Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange and Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guanbo; Kaltashov, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Top-down hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection has recently matured to become a potent biophysical tool capable of providing valuable information on higher order structure and conformational dynamics of proteins at an unprecedented level of structural detail. However, the scope of the proteins amenable to the analysis by top-down HDX MS still remains limited, with the protein size and the presence of disulfide bonds being the two most important limiting fact...

  6. Synthesis and pharmacology of novel analogues of oxytocin and deaminooxytocin: directed methods for the construction of disulfide and trisulfide bridges in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zoulíková, I; Slaninová, J; Barany, G

    1997-03-14

    Using as models the neurohypophyseal nonapeptide hormone oxytocin and its analogue deaminooxytocin, several directed routes to formation of sulfur-sulfur bridges have been developed and evaluated. The linear sequences (through common octapeptide-resin intermediates) were assembled smoothly on tris(alkoxy)benzylamide (PAL) poly(ethylene glycol)-polystyrene (PEG-PS) graft supports, using stepwise Fmoc solid-phase chemistry. Side-chain protection of beta-mercaptopropionic acid (Mpa) and/or cysteine (Cys) was provided by S-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzyl (Tmob), S-acetamidomethyl (Acm), and/or a series of sulfenyl thiocarbonate and carbamoylsulfenyl protecting/activating groups: S-(methoxycarbonyl)sulfenyl (Scm), S-(methoxycarbonyl)disulfanyl (Sscm), S-(N-methyl-N-phenylcarbamoyl)sulfenyl (Snm), and S-(N-methyl-N-phenylcarbamoyl)disulfanyl (Ssnm). Thiolytic displacement of S-Snm (preferred) or S-Scm provided intramolecular cyclized peptide disulfides, and homologation of the chemistry with S-Ssnm (again preferred) and S-Sscm provided the corresponding trisulfides along with smaller amounts of disulfides and tetrasulfides. These chemistries could be implemented both in solution and in solid-phase modes. Various parameters were studied systematically and optimized, and the novel trisulfides of oxytocin and deaminooxytocin were synthesized and purified to homogeneity. The trisulfide compounds were evaluated in three assays: uterotonic in vitro, uterotonic in vivo, and pressor tests, and they showed substantial potencies, ranging from 5% to 40% of the parent (disulfide) activities, as well as protracted actions. The affinities of the peptide trisulfides to uterine membrane receptors were only 3.3-3.6-fold lower than those of the parent disulfides. Possible explanations of the biological results are discussed.

  7. SOD1 aggregation in astrocytes following ischemia/reperfusion injury: a role of NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Guan, Teng; Li, Chen; Shang, Huifang; Cui, Liying; Li, Xin-Min; Kong, Jiming

    2012-10-12

    Ubiquitinated-protein aggregates are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The very presence of these ubiquitinated-protein aggregates is abnormal and seems to be disease-related. However, it is not clear what leads to aggregate formation and whether the aggregations represent a reaction to aggregate-mediated neurodegeneration. To study the nitrosative stress-induced protein aggregation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, we used primary astrocyte cultures as a cell model, and systematically examined their iNOS expression and consequent NO generation following oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) were also examined, and the biochemical interaction between PDI and SOD1 was determined by immunoprecipitation. In addition, the levels of S-nitrosylated PDI in cultured astrocytes after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion treatment were measured using the biotin-switch assay. The formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates was detected by immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining. Our data showed that the up-regulation of iNOS expression after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion treatment led to excessive NO generation. Up-regulation of PDI and SOD1 was also identified in cultured astrocytes following oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion, and these two proteins were found to bind to each other. Furthermore, the increased nitrosative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion injury was highly associated with NO-induced S-nitrosylation of PDI, and this S-nitrosylation of PDI was correlated with the formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates; the levels of S-nitrosylated PDI increased in parallel with the formation of aggregates. When NO generation was pharmacologically inhibited by iNOS specific inhibitor 1400W, S-nitrosylation of PDI was significantly blocked. In addition, the formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates in cultured

  8. SOD1 aggregation in astrocytes following ischemia/reperfusion injury: a role of NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xueping

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitinated-protein aggregates are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The very presence of these ubiquitinated-protein aggregates is abnormal and seems to be disease-related. However, it is not clear what leads to aggregate formation and whether the aggregations represent a reaction to aggregate-mediated neurodegeneration. Methods To study the nitrosative stress-induced protein aggregation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, we used primary astrocyte cultures as a cell model, and systematically examined their iNOS expression and consequent NO generation following oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion. The expression of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 were also examined, and the biochemical interaction between PDI and SOD1 was determined by immunoprecipitation. In addition, the levels of S-nitrosylated PDI in cultured astrocytes after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion treatment were measured using the biotin-switch assay. The formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates was detected by immunoblot and immunofluorescence staining. Results Our data showed that the up-regulation of iNOS expression after oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion treatment led to excessive NO generation. Up-regulation of PDI and SOD1 was also identified in cultured astrocytes following oxygen glucose deprivation and reperfusion, and these two proteins were found to bind to each other. Furthermore, the increased nitrosative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion injury was highly associated with NO-induced S-nitrosylation of PDI, and this S-nitrosylation of PDI was correlated with the formation of ubiquitinated-protein aggregates; the levels of S-nitrosylated PDI increased in parallel with the formation of aggregates. When NO generation was pharmacologically inhibited by iNOS specific inhibitor 1400W, S-nitrosylation of PDI was significantly blocked. In addition, the

  9. Structures of the Dimerization Domains of the 'Escherichia Coli' Disulfide-Bond Isomerase Enzymes Dsbc And Dsbg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, S.-M.; Koon, N.; Squire, C.; Metcalf, P.; /Auckland U.

    2007-07-12

    DsbC and DsbG are periplasmic disulfide-bond isomerases, enzymes that facilitate the folding of secreted proteins with multiple disulfide bonds by catalyzing disulfide-bond rearrangement. Both enzymes also have in vitro chaperone activity. The crystal structures of these molecules are similar and both are V-shaped homodimeric modular structures. Each dimeric molecule contains two separate C-terminal thioredoxin-fold domains, joined by hinged helical ''stalks'' to a single N-terminal dimerization domain formed from the N-terminal 67 residues of each monomer. In this work, the crystal structures of the separate DsbC and DsbG dimerization domains have been determined at resolutions of 2.0 and 1.9 angstroms, respectively. The two structures are both similar to the corresponding domains in the full-length molecules, showing that the dimerization domains fold independently of the catalytic portions of the full-length molecules. Localized structural differences between DsbC and DsbG were observed near the dimer interface and may be relevant to the different functions of the two enzymes.

  10. Combining reactive triblock copolymers with functional cross-linkers: A versatile pathway to disulfide stabilized-polyplex libraries and their application as pDNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Philipp; Hobernik, Dominika; Lächelt, Ulrich; Schinnerer, Meike; Weber, Benjamin; Schmidt, Manfred; Wagner, Ernst; Bros, Matthias; Barz, Matthias

    2017-07-28

    Therapeutic nucleic acids such as pDNA hold great promise for the treatment of multiple diseases. These therapeutic interventions are, however, compromised by the lack of efficient and safe non-viral delivery systems, which guarantee stability during blood circulation together with high transfection efficiency. To provide these desired properties within one system, we propose the use of reactive triblock copolypept(o)ides, which include a stealth-like block for efficient shielding, a hydrophobic block based on reactive disulfides for cross-linking and a cationic block for complexation of pDNA. After the complexation step, bifunctional cross-linkers can be employed to bio-reversibly stabilize derived polyplexes by disulfide bond formation and to introduce endosomolytic moieties at the same time. Cross-linked polyplexes show no aggregation in human blood serum. Upon cellular uptake and cleavage of disulfide bonds, the cross-linkers can interact with the endosomal membrane, leading to lysis and efficient endosomal translocation. In principal, the approach allows for the combination of one polymer with various different cross-linkers and thus enables the fast forward creation of a polyplex library. Here, we provide a first insight into the potential of this concept and use a screening strategy to identify a lead candidate, which is able to transfect dendritic cells with a model DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. [The disulfide bridges of the trypsin-kallikrein inhibitor K from snails (Helix pomatia). Thermal inactivation and proteolysis by thermolysin (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, T; Tschesche, H

    1976-02-01

    Isoinhibitor K is the main component of the complex mixture of isoinhibitors of broad specificity secreted into the mucus by the Roman snail (Helix pomatia). The disulfide pairing was determined after the amino acid sequence had been elucidated. Two cystine-containing peptides with the disulfide bridges Cys32-Cys53 and Cys32-Cys53 plus Cys7-Cys57 were obtained after thermolytic hydrolysis of the native inhibitor at 80 degrees C and chromatographic separation of the peptides using SE-Sephadex. The Cys16-Cys40 disulfide bridge could be reduced selectively by sodium borohydride with no loss in biological activity. This property and the covalent structure correspond to that of the intracellular inhibitor from bovine organs, which is largely homologous in its amino acid sequence to the secretory inhibitor from the snail. The complete covalent structure of isoinhibitor K will be presented. The snail inhibitor is less stable against proteolytic inactivation by thermolysin and against thermal denaturation at pH 8.0 than the inhibitor from bovine organs (Kunitz inhibitor).

  12. Crystal structures of the reduced, sulfenic acid, and mixed disulfide forms of SarZ, a redox active global regulator in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Catherine B; Chen, Peng R; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A; He, Chuan

    2009-08-28

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys(13), to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys(13) sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys(13) sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  13. Discovery of unsymmetrical aromatic disulfides as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV main protease: Chemical synthesis, biological evaluation, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Bao, Bo-Bo; Song, Guo-Qing; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Xu-Meng; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zefang; Cai, Yan; Li, Shuang; Fu, Sheng; Song, Fu-Hang; Yang, Haitao; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-08

    The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 had caused a high rate of mortality. Main protease (M pro ) of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is an important target to discover pharmaceutical compounds for the therapy of this life-threatening disease. During the course of screening new anti-SARS agents, we have identified that a series of unsymmetrical aromatic disulfides inhibited SARS-CoV M pro significantly for the first time. Herein, 40 novel unsymmetrical aromatic disulfides were synthesized chemically and their biological activities were evaluated in vitro against SARS-CoV M pro . These novel compounds displayed excellent IC 50 data in the range of 0.516-5.954 μM. Preliminary studies indicated that these disulfides are reversible and mpetitive inhibitors. A possible binding mode was generated via molecular docking simulation and a comparative field analysis (CoMFA) model was constructed to understand the structure-activity relationships. The present research therefore has provided some meaningful guidance to design and identify anti-SARS drugs with totally new chemical structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. An Internal Disulfide Locks a Misfolded Aggregation-prone Intermediate in Cataract-linked Mutants of Human γD-Crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, Eugene; Woodard, Jaie C; Adkar, Bharat V; Shabab, Mohammed; King, Jonathan A; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2016-09-02

    Considerable mechanistic insight has been gained into amyloid aggregation; however, a large number of non-amyloid protein aggregates are considered "amorphous," and in most cases, little is known about their mechanisms. Amorphous aggregation of γ-crystallins in the eye lens causes cataract, a widespread disease of aging. We combined simulations and experiments to study the mechanism of aggregation of two γD-crystallin mutants, W42R and W42Q: the former a congenital cataract mutation, and the latter a mimic of age-related oxidative damage. We found that formation of an internal disulfide was necessary and sufficient for aggregation under physiological conditions. Two-chain all-atom simulations predicted that one non-native disulfide in particular, between Cys(32) and Cys(41), was likely to stabilize an unfolding intermediate prone to intermolecular interactions. Mass spectrometry and mutagenesis experiments confirmed the presence of this bond in the aggregates and its necessity for oxidative aggregation under physiological conditions in vitro Mining the simulation data linked formation of this disulfide to extrusion of the N-terminal β-hairpin and rearrangement of the native β-sheet topology. Specific binding between the extruded hairpin and a distal β-sheet, in an intermolecular chain reaction similar to domain swapping, is the most probable mechanism of aggregate propagation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. An Internal Disulfide Locks a Misfolded Aggregation-prone Intermediate in Cataract-linked Mutants of Human γD-Crystallin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, Eugene; Woodard, Jaie C.; Adkar, Bharat V.; Shabab, Mohammed; King, Jonathan A.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable mechanistic insight has been gained into amyloid aggregation; however, a large number of non-amyloid protein aggregates are considered “amorphous,” and in most cases, little is known about their mechanisms. Amorphous aggregation of γ-crystallins in the eye lens causes cataract, a widespread disease of aging. We combined simulations and experiments to study the mechanism of aggregation of two γD-crystallin mutants, W42R and W42Q: the former a congenital cataract mutation, and the latter a mimic of age-related oxidative damage. We found that formation of an internal disulfide was necessary and sufficient for aggregation under physiological conditions. Two-chain all-atom simulations predicted that one non-native disulfide in particular, between Cys32 and Cys41, was likely to stabilize an unfolding intermediate prone to intermolecular interactions. Mass spectrometry and mutagenesis experiments confirmed the presence of this bond in the aggregates and its necessity for oxidative aggregation under physiological conditions in vitro. Mining the simulation data linked formation of this disulfide to extrusion of the N-terminal β-hairpin and rearrangement of the native β-sheet topology. Specific binding between the extruded hairpin and a distal β-sheet, in an intermolecular chain reaction similar to domain swapping, is the most probable mechanism of aggregate propagation. PMID:27417136

  16. Functional and structural studies of the disulfide isomerase DsbC from the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa reveals a redox-dependent oligomeric modulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Clelton A; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Trivella, Daniela B B; Beloti, Lilian L; Schneider, Dilaine R S; Saraiva, Antonio M; Crucello, Aline; Azzoni, Adriano R; Souza, Alessandra A; Aparicio, Ricardo; Souza, Anete P

    2012-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that grows as a biofilm inside the xylem vessels of susceptible plants and causes several economically relevant crop diseases. In the present study, we report the functional and low-resolution structural characterization of the X. fastidiosa disulfide isomerase DsbC (XfDsbC). DsbC is part of the disulfide bond reduction/isomerization pathway in the bacterial periplasm and plays an important role in oxidative protein folding. In the present study, we demonstrate the presence of XfDsbC during different stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm development. XfDsbC was not detected during X. fastidiosa planktonic growth; however, after administering a sublethal copper shock, we observed an overexpression of XfDsbC that also occurred during planktonic growth. These results suggest that X. fastidiosa can use XfDsbC in vivo under oxidative stress conditions similar to those induced by copper. In addition, using dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, we observed that the oligomeric state of XfDsbC in vitro may be dependent on the redox environment. Under reducing conditions, XfDsbC is present as a dimer, whereas a putative tetrameric form was observed under nonreducing conditions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the overexpression of XfDsbC during biofilm formation and provide the first structural model of a bacterial disulfide isomerase in solution. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  17. Atomic structure of the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin I at pH 8.0 reveals the large disulfide-rich region in domain II to be sensitive to a pH change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Tetsuya, E-mail: t2masuda@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ohta, Keisuke [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kitabatake, Naofumi [Department of Foods and Human Nutrition, Notre Dame Seishin University, Okayama 700-8516 (Japan); Tani, Fumito [Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Department of Natural Resources, Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a recombinant thaumatin at pH 8.0 determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantial fluctuations of a loop in domain II was found in the structure at pH 8.0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-factors for Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in mobility might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation. -- Abstract: Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although the sweetness remains when thaumatin is heated at 80 Degree-Sign C for 4 h under acid conditions, it rapidly declines when heating at a pH above 6.5. To clarify the structural difference at high pH, the atomic structure of a recombinant thaumatin I at pH 8.0 was determined at a resolution of 1.0 A. Comparison to the crystal structure of thaumatin at pH 7.3 and 7.0 revealed the root-mean square deviation value of a C{alpha} atom to be substantially greater in the large disulfide-rich region of domain II, especially residues 154-164, suggesting that a loop region in domain II to be affected by solvent conditions. Furthermore, B-factors of Lys137, Lys163, and Lys187 were significantly affected by pH change, suggesting that a striking increase in the mobility of these lysine residues, which could facilitate a reaction with a free sulfhydryl residue produced via the {beta}-elimination of disulfide bonds by heating at a pH above 7.0. The increase in mobility of lysine residues as well as a loop region in domain II might play an important role in the heat-induced aggregation of thaumatin above pH 7.0.

  18. Highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction using crystalline layered three-dimensional molybdenum disulfides grown on graphene film.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behranginia, Amirhossein; Asadi, Mohammad; Liu, Cong; Yasaei, Poya; Kumar, Bijandra; Phillips, Patrick; Foroozan, Tara; Waranius, Joseph C.; Kim, Kibum; Abiade, Jeremiah; Klie, Robert F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2016-01-26

    Electrochemistry is central to applications in the field of energy storage and generation. However, it has advanced far more slowly over the last two decades, mainly because of a lack of suitable and affordable catalysts. Here, we report the synthesis of highly crystalline layered three-dimensional (3D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) catalysts with bare Mo-edge atoms and demonstrate their remarkable performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We found that Mo-edge-terminated 3D MoS2 directly grown on graphene film exhibits a remarkable exchange current density (18.2 mu A cm(-2)) and turnover frequency (>4 S-1) for HER. The obtained exchange current density is 15.2 and 2.3 times higher than that of MoS2/graphene and MoS2/Au catalysts, respectively, both with sulfided Mo-edge atoms. An easily scalable and robust growth process on a wide variety of substrates, along with prolonged stability, suggests that this material is a promising catalyst in energy-related applications.

  19. Quality properties and expression profiling of protein disulfide isomerase genes during grain development of three spring wheat near isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three wheat glutenin near isogenic lines (NILs CB037A, CB037B and CB037C were used to investigate their quality properties and the transcriptional expression profiles of PDI gene family during grain development. Our purpose is to understand the relationships between the dynamic expression of different PDI genes and glutenin allelic compositions related to gluten quality. The results showed that glutenin allelic variations had no significant effects on main agronomic traits and yield performance, but resulted in clear gluten quality changes. CB037B with 5+10 subunits had higher glutenin macropolymer (GMP content and better breadmaking quality than CB037A with 2+12 while the lack of Glu-B3h encoding one abundant B-subunit in CB037C significantly reduced GMP content, dough strength and breadmaking quality. The dynamic expression patterns of eight protein disulfide isomerase (PDI genes during grain development detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR showed the close correlations between higher expression levels of PDI3-1, PDI5-1 and PDI8-1 and the presence of 5+10 subunits. Meanwhile, Glu-B3h silence resulted in significant decrease of expression levels of five PDI genes (PDI3-1, PDI5-1, PDI6-1, PDI7-2 and PDI8-1, suggesting the vital roles of certain PDI genes in glutenin and GMP synthesis and gluten quality formation.

  20. Synthesis of zinc sulfide by chemical vapor deposition using an organometallic precursor: Di-tertiary-butyl-disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasekar, Parag; Dhakal, Tara; Ganta, Lakshmikanth; Vanhart, Daniel; Desu, Seshu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide has gained popularity in the last few years as a cadmium-free heterojunction partner for thin film solar cells and is seen as a good replacement for cadmium sulfide due to better blue photon response and non-toxicity. In this work, zinc sulfide films are prepared using an organic sulfur source. We report a simple and repeatable process for development of zinc sulfide using a cost-effective and less hazardous organic sulfur source. The development of zinc sulfide has been studied on zinc oxide-coated glass where the zinc oxide is converted into zinc sulfide. Zinc oxide grown by atomic layer deposition as well as commercially available zinc oxide-coated glass was used. The zinc sulfide synthesis has been studied and the films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and a UV–VIS spectrophotometer. XRD, XPS and optical characterization confirm the zinc sulfide phase formation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of ZnS using a less-hazardous precursor, di-tertiary-butyl-disulfide. ► ZnS process optimized for two types of ZnO films. ► Preliminary results for a solar cell show an efficiency of 1.09%.

  1. All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kan; Guo, Chaoshi; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jianping

    2017-07-24

    All-optical phase shifters and switches play an important role for various all-optical applications including all-optical signal processing, sensing and communication. In this paper, we demonstrate a fiber all-optical phase shifter using few-layer 2D material tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ) deposited on a tapered fiber. WS 2 absorbs injected 980 nm pump (control light) and generates heat, which changes the refractive index of both WS 2 and tapered fiber due to thermo-optic effect and achieves a maximum phase shift of 6.1π near 1550 nm. The device has a loss of 3.7 dB. By constructing a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with WS 2 based phase shifter in one arm, an all-optical switch is also obtained with an extinction ratio of 15 dB and a rise time of 7.3 ms. This all fiber low-cost and compact optical phase shifter and switch demonstrates the potential of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides for all-optical signal processing devices.

  2. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition of large-area uniform two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide using sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Kim, Youngjun; Woo, Whang Je; Ko, Kyung Yong; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Changseung; Oh, Il-Kwon; Park, Jusang; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2017-11-01

    The effective synthesis of atomically thin molybdenum disulfides (MoS2) of high quality and uniformity over a large area is essential for their use in electronic and optical devices. In this work, we synthesize MoS2 that exhibit a high quality and large area uniformity using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with volatile S organic compound and NaCl catalysts. In the latter process, the NaCl enhances the growth rate (5 min for synthesis of monolayer MoS2) and purity of the synthesized MoS2. The optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that the NaCl-CVD MoS2 has a large grain size, clear Raman shift, strong photoluminescence, good stoichiometry, and 6-fold coordination symmetry. Moreover, we demonstrate that the electron mobility (10.4 cm2 V‑1 s‑1) and on/off current ratio (3 × 107) of monolayer MoS2 measured using a field-effect transistor are comparable to those of previously reported MoS2 synthesized using CVD.

  3. Interface passivation and trap reduction via hydrogen fluoride for molybdenum disulfide on silicon oxide back-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaoqiao; San Yip, Pak; Tang, Chak Wah; Lau, Kei May; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Layered semiconductor molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently emerged as a promising material for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices because of its finite bandgap and high degree of gate control. Here, we report a hydrogen fluoride (HF) passivation technique for improving the carrier mobility and interface quality of chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 on a SiO2/Si substrate. After passivation, the fabricated MoS2 back-gate transistors demonstrate a more than double improvement in average electron mobility, a reduced gate hysteresis gap of 3 V, and a low interface trapped charge density of ˜5.8 × 1011 cm-2. The improvements are attributed to the satisfied interface dangling bonds, thus a reduction of interface trap states and trapped charges. Surface x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and first-principles simulation were performed to verify the HF passivation effect. The results here highlight the necessity of a MoS2/dielectric passivation strategy and provides a viable route for enhancing the performance of MoS2 nano-electronic devices.

  4. A disulfide-stabilized conformer of methionine synthase reveals an unexpected role for the histidine ligand of the cobalamin cofactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Supratim; Koutmos, Markos; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Ludwig, Martha L.; Matthews, Rowena G. (Michigan)

    2008-07-08

    B{sub 12}-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli is a large modular protein that is alternately methylated by methyltetrahydrofolate to form methylcobalamin and demethylated by homocysteine to form cob(I)alamin. Major domain rearrangements are required to allow cobalamin to react with three different substrates: homocysteine, methyltetrahydrofolate, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). These same rearrangements appear to preclude crystallization of the wild-type enzyme. Disulfide cross-linking was used to lock a C-terminal fragment of the enzyme into a unique conformation. Cysteine point mutations were introduced at Ile-690 and Gly-743. These cysteine residues span the cap and the cobalamin-binding module and form a cross-link that reduces the conformational space accessed by the enzyme, facilitating protein crystallization. Here, we describe an x-ray structure of the mutant fragment in the reactivation conformation; this conformation enables the transfer of a methyl group from AdoMet to the cobalamin cofactor. In the structure, the axial ligand to the cobalamin, His-759, dissociates from the cobalamin and forms intermodular contacts with residues in the AdoMet-binding module. This unanticipated intermodular interaction is expected to play a major role in controlling the distribution of conformers required for the catalytic and the reactivation cycles of the enzyme.

  5. Three-dimensional Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Supported Molybdenum Disulfide Nanoparticles as an Advanced Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haifeng; Liu, Conghui; Ye, Haitao; Hu, Linping; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Dai, Wenhao; Cao, Yu; Qi, Xueqiang; Lu, Huiting; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-12-07

    An efficient three-dimensional (3D) hybrid material of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (N-RGO) supporting molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) nanoparticles with high-performance electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is fabricated by using a facile hydrothermal route. Comprehensive microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations confirm the resulting hybrid material possesses a 3D crumpled few-layered graphene network structure decorated with MoS(2) nanoparticles. Electrochemical characterization analysis reveals that the resulting hybrid material exhibits efficient electrocatalytic activity toward HER under acidic conditions with a low onset potential of 112 mV and a small Tafel slope of 44 mV per decade. The enhanced mechanism of electrocatalytic activity has been investigated in detail by controlling the elemental composition, electrical conductance and surface morphology of the 3D hybrid as well as Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. This demonstrates that the abundance of exposed active sulfur edge sites in the MoS(2) and nitrogen active functional moieties in N-RGO are synergistically responsible for the catalytic activity, whilst the distinguished and coherent interface in MoS(2)/N-RGO facilitates the electron transfer during electrocatalysis. Our study gives insights into the physical/chemical mechanism of enhanced HER performance in MoS(2)/N-RGO hybrids and illustrates how to design and construct a 3D hybrid to maximize the catalytic efficiency.

  6. Occurrence of protein disulfide bonds in different domains of life: a comparison of proteins from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošnjak, I; Bojović, V; Šegvić-Bubić, T; Bielen, A

    2014-03-01

    Disulfide bonds (SS bonds) are important post-translational modifications of proteins. They stabilize a three-dimensional (3D) structure (structural SS bonds) and also have the catalytic or regulatory functions (redox-active SS bonds). Although SS bonds are present in all groups of organisms, no comparative analyses of their frequency in proteins from different domains of life have been made to date. Using the Protein Data Bank, the number and subcellular locations of SS bonds in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya have been compared. Approximately three times higher frequency of proteins with SS bonds in eukaryotic secretory organelles (e.g. endoplasmic reticulum) than in bacterial periplasmic/secretory pathways was calculated. Protein length also affects the SS bond frequency: the average number of SS bonds is positively correlated with the length for longer proteins (>200 amino acids), while for the shorter and less stable proteins (proteins (250-350 amino acids) indicated a high number of SS bonds only in Archaea which could be explained by the need for additional protein stabilization in hyperthermophiles. The results emphasize higher capacity for the SS bond formation and isomerization in Eukarya when compared with Archaea and Bacteria.

  7. New ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing disulfide Schiff base ligands and their applications as catalyst for some organic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Govindan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2014-08-14

    Schiff base disulfide ligands (H2L(1-6)) were synthesized from the condensation of cystamine with salicylaldehyde(H2L(1)), 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde(H2L(2)), o-vanillin(H2L(3)), 2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L(4)), 3-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone(H2L(5)), and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde(H2L(6)). H2L(1-6) reacts with the ruthenium precursor complex [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in benzene giving rise to six new ruthenium(II) complexes of general formula [Ru(CO)L(1-6)]. Characterization of the new complexes was carried out by using elemental and spectral (IR, UV-Vis, NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and Mass) techniques. An octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The catalytic efficiency of the new complexes in aldehyde to amide conversion in the presence of NaHCO3, N-alkylation of aniline in the presence of t-BuOK, and transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of iPrOH/KOH reactions were studied. Furthermore, the effect of solvents and catalyst/substrate ratio on the catalytic aldehyde to amide conversion were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of lucifensin by native chemical ligation and characteristics of its isomer having different disulfide bridge pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchev, Stancho; Zawada, Zbigniew; Monincová, Lenka; Bednárová, Lucie; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Čeřovský, Václav

    2014-09-01

    The antimicrobial 40-amino-acid-peptide lucifensin was synthesized by native chemical ligation (NCL) using N-acylbenzimidazolinone (Nbz) as a linker group. NCL is a method in which a peptide bond between two discreet peptide chains is created. This method has been applied to the synthesis of long peptides and proteins when solid-phase synthesis is imcompatible. Two models of ligation were developed: [15+25] Ala-Cys and [19+21] His-Cys. The [19+21] His-Cys method gives lower yield because of the lower stability of 18-peptide-His-Nbz-CONH2 peptide, as suggested by density functional theory calculation. Acetamidomethyl-deprotection and subsequent oxidation of the ligated linear lucifensin gave a mixture of lucifensin isomers, which differed in the location of their disulfide bridges only. The dominant isomer showed unnatural pairing of cysteines [C1-6], [C3-5], and [C2-4], which limits its ability to form α-helical structure. The activity of isomeric lucifensin toward Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus was lower than that of the natural lucifensin. The desired product native lucifensin was prepared from this isomer using a one-pot reduction with dithiotreitol and subsequent air oxidation in slightly alkaline medium. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cysteine Specific Targeting of the Functionally Distinct Peroxiredoxin and Glutaredoxin Proteins by the Investigational Disulfide BNP7787

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulma R. Parker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxin (Grx, peroxiredoxin (Prx, and thioredoxin (Trx are redoxin family proteins that catalyze different types of chemical reactions that impact cell growth and survival through functionally distinct intracellular pathways. Much research is focused on understanding the roles of these redoxin proteins in the development and/or progression of human diseases. Grx and Prx are overexpressed in human cancers, including human lung cancers. BNP7787 is a novel investigational agent that has been evaluated in previous clinical studies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC studies. Herein, data from activity assays, mass spectrometry analyses, and X-ray crystallographic studies indicate that BNP7787 forms mixed disulfides with select cysteine residues on Grx and Prx and modulates their function. Studies of interactions between BNP7787 and Trx have been conducted and reported separately. Despite the fact that Trx, Grx, and Prx are functionally distinct proteins that impact oxidative stress, cell proliferation and disease processes through different intracellular pathways, BNP7787 can modify each protein and appears to modulate function through mechanisms that are unique to each target protein. Tumor cells are often genomically heterogeneous containing subpopulations of cancer cells that often express different tumor-promoting proteins or that have multiple dysregulated signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation and drug resistance. A multi-targeted agent that simultaneously modulates activity of proteins important in mediating cell proliferation by functionally distinct intracellular pathways could have many potentially useful therapeutic applications.

  10. The potato sucrose transporter StSUT1 interacts with a DRM-associated protein disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügel, Undine; He, Hong-Xia; Gier, Konstanze; Reins, Jana; Chincinska, Izabela; Grimm, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Kühn, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Organization of proteins into complexes is crucial for many cellular functions. Recently, the SUT1 protein was shown to form homodimeric complexes, to be associated with lipid raft-like microdomains in yeast as well as in plants and to undergo endocytosis in response to brefeldin A. We therefore aimed to identify SUT1-interacting proteins that might be involved in dimerization, endocytosis, or targeting of SUT1 to raft-like microdomains. Therefore, we identified potato membrane proteins, which are associated with the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fraction. Among the proteins identified, we clearly confirmed StSUT1 as part of DRM in potato source leaves. We used the yeast two-hybrid split ubiquitin system (SUS) to systematically screen for interaction between the sucrose transporter StSUT1 and other membrane-associated or soluble proteins in vivo. The SUS screen was followed by immunoprecipitation using affinity-purified StSUT1-specific peptide antibodies and mass spectrometric analysis of co-precipitated proteins. A large overlap was observed between the StSUT1-interacting proteins identified in the co-immunoprecipitation and the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. One of the SUT1-interacting proteins, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), interacts also with other sucrose transporter proteins. A potential role of the PDI as escort protein is discussed.

  11. A tissue homogenate method to prepare gram-scale Allium thiosulfinates and their disulfide conjugates with cysteine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Parkin, Kirk L

    2013-03-27

    The health benefits of Allium vegetables are widely attributed to the enzyme-derived organosulfur compounds called thiosulfinates (TS). However, the lack of a suitable method to prepare TS in good yields has hampered the evaluation of their biological activities. This paper describe a simple enzymatic method using Allium tissue homogenates as a reaction system to prepare gram-scale TS, including those enriched in 1-propenyl groups, which are particularly difficult to obtain. This method is simple, easy to scale up, and requires no column purification step, making it suitable for practical large-scale production of Allium TS. The prepared TS were further utilized to prepare the disulfide conjugates with cysteine and glutathione (CySSR and GSSR, R = methyl, ethyl, propyl, 1-propenyl, and allyl), which are the presumptive metabolites of TS. Among all of the Allium CySSR and GSSR conjugates, the newly prepared glutathione conjugate with 1-propenyl TS, GSSPe, showed the most potent effect to induce quinone reductase (QR, a representative phase II enzyme) in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa 1c1c7) and inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW 264.7).

  12. Electrospinning in Situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Porous Copper Indium Disulfide/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Highly Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianxin; Zhou, Mengjuan; Wang, Lidan; Zhao, Shuyuan; Wang, Qian; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P-GN@CuInS 2(*) /C nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis. • CuInS 2 nanocrystals were uniformly anchored in wrapped RGO to form nanofiber structure. • P-GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers exhibited porous and 3D superfine fiber morphology. • Graphene nanosheets led well-dispersed growth of CuInS 2 nanocrystals in nanofibers. • DSSC assembled using p-GN@CuInS 2 /C CE delivered a conversion efficiency of 7.23%. - Abstract: Porous graphene-doped copper indium disulfide/carbon (p-GN@CuInS 2 /C) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution containing graphene oxide nanosheets, copper dichloride (CuCl 2 ), indium trichloride (InCl 3 ), and thiourea (Tu.) in a mixed solvent of N,N-dimethylformamide/trichloromethane (DMF/CF) was used as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The resulting porous GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers were 107 ± 24 nm in diameter, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS 2 nanocrystals 7–12 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded in the carbon matrix, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C composite nanofibers was 795 m 2 /g, with a total pore volume of 0.71 cm 3 /g. These values were significantly larger than those of the sample without graphene and CuInS 2 /C nanofibers. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) assembled using the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers as the counter electrode (CE) delivered a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 7.23%, which was higher than the efficiencies of DSSCs assembled using the samples without graphene (6.48%) and with the CuInS 2 /C nanofibers (5.45%). It was also much higher than that of the DSSC with a Pt CE (6.34%). The excellent photoelectric performance of the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C CE was attributed to its special hierarchical porous structure, which facilitated permeation of the liquid

  13. Folic acid-targeted disulfide-based cross-linking micelle for enhanced drug encapsulation stability and site-specific drug delivery against tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yumin Zhang,1,* Junhui Zhou,2,* Cuihong Yang,1 Weiwei Wang,3 Liping Chu,1 Fan Huang,1 Qiang Liu,1 Liandong Deng,2 Deling Kong,3 Jianfeng Liu,1 Jinjian Liu1 1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 2Department of Polymer Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 3Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomaterial Research, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally in this work Abstract: Although the shortcomings of small molecular antitumor drugs were efficiently improved by being entrapped into nanosized vehicles, premature drug release and insufficient tumor targeting demand innovative approaches that boost the stability and tumor responsiveness of drug-loaded nanocarriers. Here, we show the use of the core cross-linking method to generate a micelle with enhanced drug encapsulation ability and sensitivity of drug release in tumor. This kind of micelle could increase curcumin (Cur delivery to HeLa cells in vitro and improve tumor accumulation in vivo. We designed and synthesized the core cross-linked micelle (CCM with polyethylene glycol and folic acid-polyethylene glycol as the hydrophilic units, pyridyldisulfide as the cross-linkable and hydrophobic unit, and disulfide bond as the cross-linker. CCM showed spherical shape with a diameter of 91.2 nm by the characterization of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Attributed to the core cross-linking, drug-loaded CCM displayed higher Nile Red or Cur-encapsulated stability and better sensitivity to glutathione than noncross-linked micelle (NCM. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor studies proved the enhanced endocytosis and better cytotoxicity of CCM-Cur against

  14. Protective role of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) on cell surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 1 week after receiving allicin (20 mg/kg body weight) orally, the buccal pouches of hamsters were painted daily with 0.5% 7 ... bearing hamsters were normalized after treated with allicin. Conclusion: The results suggest that allicin ..... and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

  15. Diallyl 5-[(4-hexyloxyphenyliminomethyl]-m-phenylene dicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Herrera-González

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C27H31NO7, an imine derivative bearing both carbonate and allyl functionalities, was synthesized in the hope of obtaining a mesogenic polymerizable material. The allylcarbonate arms are fully disordered over two sets of sites, reflecting a large degree of rotational freedom about σ bonds [occupancies: 0.665 (9/0.335 (9 for one substituent, 0.564 (9/0.436 (9 for the other]. In contrast, the hexyl chain is ordered, and presents the common all-trans extended conformation. The benzene rings connected via the imine group make a dihedral angle of 9.64 (11°. In the crystal, the Y-shaped molecules are weakly associated into centrosymmetric dimers through pairs of C—H...O(hexyl contacts. The resulting layers of dimers, approximately parallel to (2overline{2}5, are closely packed in the crystal, allowing π...π interactions between benzene rings of neighboring layers: the separation between the centroid of the benzene ring substituted by allylcarbonate and the centroid of the benzene ring bearing the hexyloxy group in the adjacent layer is 3.895 (1 Å.

  16. Piezoelectric effect in chemical vapour deposition-grown atomic-monolayer triangular molybdenum disulfide piezotronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Junjie

    2015-06-25

    High-performance piezoelectricity in monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides is highly desirable for the development of nanosensors, piezotronics and photo-piezotransistors. Here we report the experimental study of the theoretically predicted piezoelectric effect in triangle monolayer MoS2 devices under isotropic mechanical deformation. The experimental observation indicates that the conductivity of MoS2 devices can be actively modulated by the piezoelectric charge polarization-induced built-in electric field under strain variation. These polarization charges alter the Schottky barrier height on both contacts, resulting in a barrier height increase with increasing compressive strain and decrease with increasing tensile strain. The underlying mechanism of strain-induced in-plane charge polarization is proposed and discussed using energy band diagrams. In addition, a new type of MoS2 strain/force sensor built using a monolayer MoS2 triangle is also demonstrated. Our results provide evidence for strain-gating monolayer MoS2 piezotronics, a promising avenue for achieving augmented functionalities in next-generation electronic and mechanical–electronic nanodevices.

  17. Piezoelectric effect in chemical vapour deposition-grown atomic-monolayer triangular molybdenum disulfide piezotronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Lan, Yann-Wen; Stieg, Adam Z.; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-01-01

    High-performance piezoelectricity in monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides is highly desirable for the development of nanosensors, piezotronics and photo-piezotransistors. Here we report the experimental study of the theoretically predicted piezoelectric effect in triangle monolayer MoS2 devices under isotropic mechanical deformation. The experimental observation indicates that the conductivity of MoS2 devices can be actively modulated by the piezoelectric charge polarization-induced built-in electric field under strain variation. These polarization charges alter the Schottky barrier height on both contacts, resulting in a barrier height increase with increasing compressive strain and decrease with increasing tensile strain. The underlying mechanism of strain-induced in-plane charge polarization is proposed and discussed using energy band diagrams. In addition, a new type of MoS2 strain/force sensor built using a monolayer MoS2 triangle is also demonstrated. Our results provide evidence for strain-gating monolayer MoS2 piezotronics, a promising avenue for achieving augmented functionalities in next-generation electronic and mechanical–electronic nanodevices. PMID:26109177

  18. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  19. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  20. Calcium-activated potassium channels in insect pacemaker neurons as unexpected target site for the novel fumigant dimethyl disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Hélène; Auger, Jacques; Legros, Christian; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), a plant-derived insecticide, is a promising fumigant as a substitute for methyl bromide. To further understand the mode of action of DMDS, we examined its effect on cockroach octopaminergic neurosecretory cells, called dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, calcium imaging and antisense oligonucleotide strategy. At low concentration (1 microM), DMDS modified spontaneous regular spike discharge into clear bursting activity associated with a decrease of the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization. This effect led us to suspect alterations of calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) and [Ca(2+)](i) changes. We showed that DMDS reduced amplitudes of both peak transient and sustained components of the total potassium current. IKCa was confirmed as a target of DMDS by using iberiotoxin, cadmium chloride, and pSlo antisense oligonucleotide. In addition, we showed that DMDS induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise in Fura-2-loaded DUM neurons. Using calcium-free solution, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxy-phenyl)ethyl]-acetamide (LOE 908) [an inhibitor of transient receptor potential (TRP)gamma], we demonstrated that TRPgamma initiated calcium influx. By contrast, omega-conotoxin GVIA (an inhibitor of N-type high-voltage-activated calcium channels), did not affect the DMDS-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Finally, the participation of the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism was investigated using thapsigargin, caffeine, and ryanodine. Our study revealed that DMDS-induced elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) modulated IKCa in an unexpected bell-shaped manner via intracellular calcium. In conclusion, DMDS affects multiple targets, which could be an effective way to improve pest control efficacy of fumigation.

  1. Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten disulfide (WS2-x) films: Influence of deposition parameters on texture, microstructure, and stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, V.; Seeger, S.; Ellmer, K.; Mientus, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten disulfide (WS 2-x ) films (0.07≤x≤0.7) were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a tungsten target in rare gas/H 2 S atmospheres and at substrate temperatures up to 620 degree sign C. The nucleation and growth of the films were investigated by in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) and by ex situ techniques such as electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and x-ray reflectivity. From the EDXRD analysis it was found that the films always nucleate with the (001) planes, i.e., the van der Waals planes, parallel to the substrate surface. For high deposition rates and/or low substrate temperatures a texture crossover from the (001) to the (100) crystallite orientation occurs during the growth. High deposition rates, low substrate temperatures, or low sputtering pressures lead to a significant lattice expansion of the crystallites in the c direction (up to 3%). This is most probably caused by a disturbed or turbostratic film growth induced by the energetic bombardment during film deposition. Reflected and neutralized energetic ions (Ar 0 ,S 0 ) from the tungsten target and negative ions (S - ) accelerated in the cathode dark space constitute the main sources of the energetic bombardment leading to crystallographic defects. The energy of these particles can be tailored by (i) thermalization between target and substrate in the sputtering gas or (ii) by a reduction of the discharge or target voltage, respectively, by high frequency excitation of the plasma. Films deposited under favorable conditions with respect to low particle energies and at substrate temperatures higher than 200 degree sign C exhibit a significant sulfur deficiency of up to about 5 at. % compared to the stoichiometric composition of WS 2 . This is ascribed to an energetic particle bombardment-induced sulfur desorption from the growing films

  2. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by [sup 31]P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 [Angstrom] of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an [alpha]-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  3. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrs, Richard Wood [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by 31P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 Å of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an α-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  4. Reactivity of hydropersulfides toward the hydroxyl radical unraveled: disulfide bond cleavage, hydrogen atom transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Josep M; Crehuet, Ramon; Adhikari, Sarju; Francisco, Joseph S; Xia, Yu

    2018-02-14

    Hydropersulfides (RSSH) are highly reactive as nucleophiles and hydrogen atom transfer reagents. These chemical properties are believed to be key for them to act as antioxidants in cells. The reaction involving the radical species and the disulfide bond (S-S) in RSSH, a known redox-active group, however, has been scarcely studied, resulting in an incomplete understanding of the chemical nature of RSSH. We have performed a high-level theoretical investigation on the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (˙OH) toward a set of RSSH (R = -H, -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)OH, -CN, and -NO 2 ). The results show that S-S cleavage and H-atom abstraction are the two competing channels. The electron inductive effect of R induces selective ˙OH substitution at one sulfur atom upon S-S cleavage, forming RSOH and ˙SH for the electron donating groups (EDGs), whereas producing HSOH and ˙SR for the electron withdrawing groups (EWGs). The H-Atom abstraction by ˙OH follows a classical hydrogen atom transfer (hat) mechanism, producing RSS˙ and H 2 O. Surprisingly, a proton-coupled electron transfer (pcet) process also occurs for R being an EDG. Although for RSSH having EWGs hat is the leading channel, S-S cleavage can be competitive or even dominant for the EDGs. The overall reactivity of RSSH toward ˙OH attack is greatly enhanced with the presence of an EDG, with CH 3 SSH being the most reactive species found in this study (overall rate constant: 4.55 × 10 12 M -1 s -1 ). Our results highlight the complexity in RSSH reaction chemistry, the extent of which is closely modulated by the inductive effect of the substituents in the case of the oxidation by hydroxyl radicals.

  5. Disulfide-crosslinked nanomicelles confer cancer-specific drug delivery and improve efficacy of paclitaxel in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Amy; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Yuanpei; Lin, Tzu-yin; Wang, Fuli; Lee, Joyce; Cheng, Mingshan; Dall'Era, Marc; Li, Tianhong; deVere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-Xian; Lam, Kit S.

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy commonly used in the treatment of advanced bladder cancer is only moderately effective and associated with significant toxicity. There has been no appreciable improvement in overall survival over the last three decades. The goal of this project is to develop and characterize bladder cancer-specific nanometer-scale micelles loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX) and determine the anti-tumor activity and toxicity. Micelle-building-material telodendrimers were synthesized through the stepwise conjugation of eight cholic acid units at one terminus of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a bladder cancer-specific targeting peptide named PLZ4 at the other terminus. To synthesize disulfide-crosslinked PLZ4 nanomicelles (DC-PNM), cysteine was introduced between the cholic acid and PEG. DC-PNM-PTX was synthesized through the evaporation method by loading PTX in the core. The loading capacity of PTX in DC-PNM was 25% (W/W). The loading efficiency was over 99%. DC-PNM-PTX was spherical with the median size of 25 nm. The stability of DC-PNM-PTX was determined in a solution containing sodium docecyl sulfate (SDS). It was stable in a SDS solution, but dissolved within 5 min after the addition of glutathione at the physiological intracellular concentration of 10 mM. In vivo targeting and anti-tumor activity were determined in immunodeficient mice carrying patient-derived bladder cancer xenografts (PDXs). After intravenous administration, DC-PNM specifically targeted the bladder cancer PDXs, but very little to the lung cancer xenografts in the same mice (p bladder cancer xenografts in vivo, and improved the anti-cancer efficacy of PTX.

  6. Bioanalytical verification of V-type nerve agent exposure: simultaneous detection of phosphonylated tyrosines and cysteine-containing disulfide-adducts derived from human albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Küppers, Jim; Siegert, Markus; Gütschow, Michael; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Elsinghorst, Paul W; John, Harald

    2018-02-01

    Nerve agents still represent a serious threat to civilian and military personnel as demonstrated by the violent conflict in the Middle East. For verification of poisoning, covalent adducts with endogenous proteins (e.g., human serum albumin, HSA) are valuable long-term biomarkers. Accordingly, we developed a microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/high-resolution mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI MS/HR MS) method for simultaneous detection of HSA-adducts with the V-type nerve agents VX, Chinese VX (CVX), and Russian VX (RVX). Following Pronase-catalyzed proteolysis, novel disulfide-adducts were detected in addition to phosphonylated tyrosine residues. Dipeptide disulfide-adducts were formed between the thiol-containing leaving group of the V-type nerve agents (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET, for VX and 2-(diethylamino)ethanethiol, DEAET, for CVX and RVX) and the free thiol group of Cys 34 in HSA (DPAET-CysPro, DEAET-CysPro). We also identified tripeptide disulfide-adducts containing Cys 448 (MetProCys-DPAET, MetProCys-DEAET) and to a lesser extent Cys 514 (AspIleCys-DPAET, AspIleCys-DEAET). Synthetic tripeptide references were used for confirmation of the postulated structures by μLC-ESI MS/HR MS. Lower limits of detection were determined in human plasma, being nearly identical for the three V-type nerve agents, and corresponded to 1-6 μM nerve agent for tyrosine-adducts, 1-3 μM nerve agent for CysPro-adducts, and 6 μM nerve agent for MetProCys-adducts, thus covering concentrations of toxicological relevance. Characterization of proteolysis kinetics revealed stable plateaus for all adducts being reached between 60 and 90 min at 37 °C. Adduct formation kinetics were characterized by simultaneously monitoring the V-type nerve agent, its leaving group, and the corresponding disulfide dimer. Furthermore, adduct formation patterns were investigated as a function of the molar ratio of HSA to V-type nerve agent. Graphical abstract

  7. Structures of the Ets Protein DNA-binding Domains of Transcription Factors Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev: DETERMINANTS OF DNA BINDING AND REDOX REGULATION BY DISULFIDE BOND FORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Allerston, Charles K; Gileadi, Opher

    2015-05-29

    Ets transcription factors, which share the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain, number nearly 30 members in humans and are particularly involved in developmental processes. Their deregulation following changes in expression, transcriptional activity, or by chromosomal translocation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis. Ets DNA binding, selectivity, and regulation have been extensively studied; however, questions still arise regarding binding specificity outside the core GGA recognition sequence and the mode of action of Ets post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structures of Etv1, Etv4, Etv5, and Fev, alone and in complex with DNA. We identify previously unrecognized features of the protein-DNA interface. Interactions with the DNA backbone account for most of the binding affinity. We describe a highly coordinated network of water molecules acting in base selection upstream of the GGAA core and the structural features that may account for discrimination against methylated cytidine residues. Unexpectedly, all proteins crystallized as disulfide-linked dimers, exhibiting a novel interface (distant to the DNA recognition helix). Homodimers of Etv1, Etv4, and Etv5 could be reduced to monomers, leading to a 40-200-fold increase in DNA binding affinity. Hence, we present the first indication of a redox-dependent regulatory mechanism that may control the activity of this subset of oncogenic Ets transcription factors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Enhanced piezoelectric effect at the edges of stepped molybdenum disulfide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxue; Hui, Fei; Gilmore, Keith; Wang, Bingru; Jing, Guangyin; Fan, Zhongchao; Grustan-Gutierrez, Enric; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lombardi, Lucia; Hodge, Stephen A; Ferrari, Andrea C; Lanza, Mario

    2017-05-18

    The development of piezoelectric layered materials may be one of the key elements enabling expansion of nanotechnology, as they offer a solution for the construction of efficient transducers for a wide range of applications, including self-powered devices. Here, we investigate the piezoelectric effect in multilayer (ML) stepped MoS 2 flakes obtained by liquid-phase exfoliation, which is especially interesting because it may allow the scalable fabrication of electronic devices using large area deposition techniques (e.g. solution casting, spray coating, inkjet printing). By using a conductive atomic force microscope we map the piezoelectricity of the MoS 2 flakes at the nanoscale. Our experiments demonstrate the presence of electrical current densities above 100 A cm -2 when the flakes are strained in the absence of bias, and the current increases proportional to the bias. Simultaneously collected topographic and current maps demonstrate that the edges of stepped ML MoS 2 flakes promote the piezoelectric effect, where the largest currents are observed. Density functional theory calculations are consistent with the ring-like piezoelectric potential generated when the flakes are strained, as well as the enhanced piezoelectric effect at edges. Our results pave the way to the design of piezoelectric devices using layered materials.

  9. Pressure-dependent optical and vibrational properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Avinash P.

    2015-01-14

    Controlling the band gap by tuning the lattice structure through pressure engineering is a relatively new route for tailoring the optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we investigate the electronic structure and lattice vibrational dynamics of the distorted monolayer 1T-MoS2 (1T′) and the monolayer 2H-MoS2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The direct optical band gap of the monolayer 2H-MoS2 increases by 11.7% from 1.85 to 2.08 eV, which is the highest reported for a 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) material. DFT calculations reveal a subsequent decrease in the band gap with eventual metallization of the monolayer 2H-MoS2, an overall complex structure-property relation due to the rich band structure of MoS2. Remarkably, the metastable 1T′-MoS2 metallic state remains invariant with pressure, with the J2, A1g, and E2g modes becoming dominant at high pressures. This substantial reversible tunability of the electronic and vibrational properties of the MoS2 family can be extended to other 2D TMDs. These results present an important advance toward controlling the band structure and optoelectronic properties of monolayer MoS2 via pressure, which has vital implications for enhanced device applications.

  10. Approach to characterization of the higher order structure of disulfide-containing proteins using hydrogen/deuterium exchange and top-down mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanbo; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2014-08-05

    Top-down hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with mass spectrometric (MS) detection has recently matured to become a potent biophysical tool capable of providing valuable information on higher order structure and conformational dynamics of proteins at an unprecedented level of structural detail. However, the scope of the proteins amenable to the analysis by top-down HDX MS still remains limited, with the protein size and the presence of disulfide bonds being the two most important limiting factors. While the limitations imposed by the physical size of the proteins gradually become more relaxed as the sensitivity, resolution and dynamic range of modern MS instrumentation continue to improve at an ever accelerating pace, the presence of the disulfide linkages remains a much less forgiving limitation even for the proteins of relatively modest size. To circumvent this problem, we introduce an online chemical reduction step following completion and quenching of the HDX reactions and prior to the top-down MS measurements of deuterium occupancy of individual backbone amides. Application of the new methodology to the top-down HDX MS characterization of a small (99 residue long) disulfide-containing protein β2-microglobulin allowed the backbone amide protection to be probed with nearly a single-residue resolution across the entire sequence. The high-resolution backbone protection pattern deduced from the top-down HDX MS measurements carried out under native conditions is in excellent agreement with the crystal structure of the protein and high-resolution NMR data, suggesting that introduction of the chemical reduction step to the top-down routine does not trigger hydrogen scrambling either during the electrospray ionization process or in the gas phase prior to the protein ion dissociation.

  11. An Engineered Disulfide Bond Reversibly Traps the IgE-Fc3-4 in a Closed, Nonreceptor Binding Conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzburg, Beth A.; Kim, Beomkyu; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana S.; Eggel, Alexander; Vogel, Monique; Jardetzky, Theodore S. [Bern; (Stanford-MED)

    2013-08-02

    IgE antibodies interact with the high affinity IgE Fc receptor, FcϵRI, and activate inflammatory pathways associated with the allergic response. The IgE-Fc region, comprising the C-terminal domains of the IgE heavy chain, binds FcϵRI and can adopt different conformations ranging from a closed form incompatible with receptor binding to an open, receptor-bound state. A number of intermediate states are also observed in different IgE-Fc crystal forms. To further explore this apparent IgE-Fc conformational flexibility and to potentially trap a closed, inactive state, we generated a series of disulfide bond mutants. Here we describe the structure and biochemical properties of an IgE-Fc mutant that is trapped in the closed, non-receptor binding state via an engineered disulfide at residue 335 (Cys-335). Reduction of the disulfide at Cys-335 restores the ability of IgE-Fc to bind to its high affinity receptor, FcϵRIα. The structure of the Cys-335 mutant shows that its conformation is within the range of previously observed, closed form IgE-Fc structures and that it retains the hydrophobic pocket found in the hinge region of the closed conformation. Locking the IgE-Fc into the closed state with the Cys-335 mutation does not affect binding of two other IgE-Fc ligands, omalizumab and DARPin E2_79, demonstrating selective blocking of the high affinity receptor binding.

  12. Live-cell imaging of biothiols via thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the photoinduced electron transfer of gold-nanodot sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ching-Ping; Wu, Te-Haw; Liu, Chia-Yeh; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The ultrasmall size, PAMAM dendrimer-entrapped Au 8 -clusters were synthesized. • Thiol/disulfide exchange with biothiols to release 2-PyT resulted in quenching. • The sensing platform can detect both low and high molecular weight thiols. • Capable of imaging biothiols including protein thiols in living cells. - Abstract: Biothiols have been reported to involve in intracellular redox-homeostasis against oxidative stress. In this study, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for sensing biothiols is explored by using an ultrasmall gold nanodot (AuND), the dendrimer-entrapped Au 8 -cluster. This strategy relies upon a thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the fluorescence change through a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process between the Au 8 -cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) (as an electron acceptor) for sensing biothiols. When 2-PyT is released via the cleavage of disulfide bonds by biothiols, the PET process from the Au 8 -cluster to 2-PyT is initiated, resulting in fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity was found to decrease linearly with glutathione (GSH) concentration (0–1500 μM) at physiological relevant levels and the limit of detection for GSH was 15.4 μM. Compared to most nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes that are limited to detect low molecular weight thiols (LMWTs; i.e., GSH and cysteine), the ultrasmall Au 8 -cluster-based probe exhibited less steric hindrance and can be directly applied in selectively and sensitively detecting both LMWTs and high molecular weight thiols (HMWTs; i.e., protein thiols). Based on such sensing platform, the surface-functionalized Au 8 -cluster has significant promise for use as an efficient nanoprobe for intracellular fluorescence imaging of biothiols including protein thiols in living cells whereas other nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes cannot

  13. Identification of novel disulfide adducts between the thiol containing leaving group of the nerve agent VX and cysteine containing tripeptides derived from human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Küppers, Jim; Gütschow, Michael; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Elsinghorst, Paul W; John, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Chemical warfare agents represent a continuous and considerable threat to military personnel and the civilian population. Such compounds are prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, to which adherence by the member states is strictly controlled. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for verification of an alleged use of banned substances are required. Accordingly, current research focuses on long-term biomarkers derived from covalent adducts with biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, we have introduced a microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method allowing for the investigation of two different classes of adducts of the nerve agent VX with human serum albumin (HSA). Phosphonylated tyrosine residues and novel disulfide adducts at cysteine residues of HSA were produced by enzymatic cleavage with pronase and detected simultaneously. Notably, the thiol containing leaving group of VX (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET) formed disulfide adducts that were released as cysteine and proline containing dipeptides originating from at least two different sites of HSA. Aim of this study was to identify assumed and novel adducts of DPAET with HSA using synthetic peptide reference compounds. Two novel tripeptides were identified representing disulfide adducts with DPAET (Met-Pro-Cys-DPAET, MPC-DPAET and Asp-Ile-Cys-DPAET, DIC-DPAET). MPC-DPAET was shown to undergo partial in-source decay during electrospray ionization for MS detection thereby losing the N-terminal Met residue. This results in the more stable Pro-Cys-DPAET (PC-DPAET) dipeptide detectable as protonated ion. The limit of detection for MPC-DPAET was evaluated, revealing toxicologically relevant VX plasma concentrations. The results provide novel insights into the reactivity of VX and its endogenous targets. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Crystal structure of the crenarchaeal ExoIII AP endonuclease SisExoIII reveals a conserved disulfide bond endowing the protein with thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhou; Yuan, Zenglin; Ni, Jinfeng; Gu, Lichuan; Shen, Yulong

    2017-08-26

    AP endonuclease recognizes and cleaves apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and plays a critical role in base excision repair. Many ExoIII and EndoIV family AP endonucleases have been characterized both biochemically and structurally in Eukaryote and Bacteria. However, relatively fewer have been studied in Euryarchaeota and there is no such report on an AP endonuclease from Crenarchaeota. Here we report, for the first time, the crystal structure of a crenarchaeal ExoIII AP endonuclease, SisExoIII, from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. SisExoIII comprises a two-layer core formed by 10 β-sheets and a shell formed by 9 surrounding α-helices. A disulfide bond connecting β8 and β9 is formed by Cys142 and Cys215. This intra-molecular linkage is conserved among crenarchaeal ExoIII homologs and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that it endows the protein with thermostability, however, disruption of the disulfide bond only has a slight effect on the AP endonuclease activity. We also observed that several key residues within the catalytic center including conserved Glu35 and Asn9 show different conformation compared with known ExoIII proteins and form various intra-molecular salt bridges. The protein possesses three putative DNA binding loops with higher flexibility and hydrophobicity than those of ExoIIIs from other organisms. These features may result in low AP endonuclease activity and defect of exonuclease activity of SisExoIII. The study has deepened our understanding in the structural basis of crenarchaeal ExoIII catalysis and clarified a role of the disulfide bond in maintaining protein thermostability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Live-cell imaging of biothiols via thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the photoinduced electron transfer of gold-nanodot sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ching-Ping; Wu, Te-Haw; Liu, Chia-Yeh; Lin, Shu-Yi, E-mail: shuyi@nhri.org.tw

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • The ultrasmall size, PAMAM dendrimer-entrapped Au{sub 8}-clusters were synthesized. • Thiol/disulfide exchange with biothiols to release 2-PyT resulted in quenching. • The sensing platform can detect both low and high molecular weight thiols. • Capable of imaging biothiols including protein thiols in living cells. - Abstract: Biothiols have been reported to involve in intracellular redox-homeostasis against oxidative stress. In this study, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for sensing biothiols is explored by using an ultrasmall gold nanodot (AuND), the dendrimer-entrapped Au{sub 8}-cluster. This strategy relies upon a thiol/disulfide exchange to trigger the fluorescence change through a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process between the Au{sub 8}-cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) (as an electron acceptor) for sensing biothiols. When 2-PyT is released via the cleavage of disulfide bonds by biothiols, the PET process from the Au{sub 8}-cluster to 2-PyT is initiated, resulting in fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity was found to decrease linearly with glutathione (GSH) concentration (0–1500 μM) at physiological relevant levels and the limit of detection for GSH was 15.4 μM. Compared to most nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes that are limited to detect low molecular weight thiols (LMWTs; i.e., GSH and cysteine), the ultrasmall Au{sub 8}-cluster-based probe exhibited less steric hindrance and can be directly applied in selectively and sensitively detecting both LMWTs and high molecular weight thiols (HMWTs; i.e., protein thiols). Based on such sensing platform, the surface-functionalized Au{sub 8}-cluster has significant promise for use as an efficient nanoprobe for intracellular fluorescence imaging of biothiols including protein thiols in living cells whereas other nanoparticle-based fluorescent probes cannot.

  16. Sulfur dioxide induced aggregation of wine thaumatin-like proteins: Role of disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ricardo; Laia, César A T; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Ferreira, Luísa M

    2018-09-01

    Aggregation of heat unstable wine proteins is responsible for the economically and technologically detrimental problem called wine protein haze. This is caused by the aggregation of thermally unfolded proteins that can precipitate in bottled wine. To study the influence of SO 2 in this phenomenon, wine proteins were isolated and thaumatins were identified has the most prone to aggregate in the presence of this compound. Isolated wine thaumatins aggregation was followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Our experimental results demonstrate that protein thermal unfolding after exposure of the protein to 70 °C does not present differences whether SO 2 is present or not. Conversely, when the protein solution is cooled to 15 °C (after heat stress) significant analytical changes can be observed between samples with and without SO 2 . A remarkable change of circular dichroism spectra in the region 220-230 nm is observed (which can be related to S-S torsion angles), as well as an increase in tryptophan fluorescence intensity (absence of fluorescence quenching by S-S bonds). Formation of covalently-linked dimeric and tetrameric protein species were also detected by SEC. The ability to dissolve the aggregates with 8 M urea seems to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are prevalent in the formed aggregates. Also, the reduction of these aggregates with tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) to only monomeric species reveals the presence of intermolecular S-S bonds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of coaxial nano tubes intercalated of molybdenum disulfide with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza San German, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the study of some fundamental aspects in the growth of unidimensional systems of coaxial nano tubes from the mold method is approached. This method is an inclusion technique of a precursor reagent into oxide nano porous alumina film (mold), and later applying some processes of synthesis it is gotten to obtain the wished material. The synthesized structures are identified later because they take place by means of the initial formation of nano tubes of MoS 2 , enclosing to carbon nano tubes by the same method, with propylene flow which generates a graphitization process that 'copy' the mold through as it flows. Binary phase MoS 2 + C nano tubes were synthesized by propylene pyrolysis inside MoS 2 nano tubes prepared by template assisted technique. The large coaxial nano tubes constituted of graphite sheets inserted between the MoS 2 layers forming the outer part, and coaxial multi wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) intercalated with MoS 2 inside. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high angle annular dark field (HAADF), gatan image filter (GIF), nano beam electron diffraction patterns (NBEDP), along with molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanical calculations were used to characterize the samples. The one-dimensional structures exhibit diverse morphologies such as long straight and twisted nano tubes with several structural irregularities. The inter-planar spacing between MoS 2 layers was found to increase from 6.3 to 7.4 A due to intercalation with carbon. Simulated HREM images revealed the presence of these twisted nano structures, with mechanical stretch into intercalate carbon between MoS 2 layers. Our results open up the possibility of using MoS 2 nano tubes as templates for the synthesis of new one- dimensional binary phase systems. (Author)

  18. Optimized expanding of interlayer distance for molybdenum disulfide towards enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yong-Ming; Shang, Xiao; Hu, Wen-Hui; Dong, Bin; Liu, Zi-Zhang; Chi, Jing-Qi; Yan, Kai-Li; Gao, Wen-Kun; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Adjusting the hydrogen-binding free energy (ΔGH*) of two dimensional (2D) MoS2 by changing the interlayer distance has been an effective strategy to improve the intrinsic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, a facile solvothermal access via various ratio of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/H2O has been used to modulate interlayer distance of nanostructured MoS2. With increasing of DMF, the interlayer distance of MoS2 can be expanded to 9.4 Å with smaller sizes, which may be derived from intercalation effect of DMF. The certain ratio of DMF/H2O (volume ratio of 19/1, MoS2-D19H1) leads to the largest interlayer distances of 10.0 Å and the smallest size of nanospheres with less stacking than counterparts synthesized at other ratios of DMF/H2O. The expanded interlayer distance of MoS2-D19H1 may change electronic structure of active sites for HER, implying the improved ΔGH* and the intrinsic activity of MoS2. The smallest size also suggests the more exposure of active sites for HER. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that MoS2-D19H1 shows the best electrocatalytic performances than MoS2 samples synthesized at other ratio of DMF/H2O. This work may provide a promising strategy to tune the interlayer distance of 2D-layered transition metal dichalcogenide for efficient HER.

  19. High-quality molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with 3D structure for electrochemical sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Aiping, E-mail: aipingyin1964@163.com [Department of chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou, Shanxi (China); Wei, Xuehong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Cao, Yexia; Li, Huiqing [Department of chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou, Shanxi (China)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets are successfully synthesized via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template. Possessing hierarchical porous structure and large pore volume as well as good conductivity, MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets demonstrates significantly improved electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets are achieved via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template. • The sacrificial template (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) plays a significant role in this synthetic process, which brings ultrathin structure and three-dimensional porous network for MoS{sub 2} materials. • The MoS{sub 2} ultrathin nanosheets sample displays significantly improved electrocatalytic performance toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA, manifesting enlarged peak separation and increased peak current. • Meantime, simultaneous determination of these biomolecules is achieved in a wide concentration rang with high sensitivity, selectivity, stability and good reproducibility on modified electrode of the MoS{sub 2} nanosheets. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor has been developed for simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) based on pure MoS{sub 2} nanosheets modified electrode. The MoS{sub 2} nanosheets are achieved via a facile strategy, one-step pyrolysis of ammonium molybdate, thiourea and layered g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} template. Possessing hierarchical porous structure and large pore volume as well as good conductivity, MoS{sub 2} nanosheets demonstrates significantly improved electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of AA, DA, and UA. In the coexisting system, the peak separation of AA–DA, DA–UA and AA–UA is 208.3 mV, 128.0 mV and 336.3 mV, respectively, which is much larger than for other MoS{sub 2}-based catalyst

  20. On the Role of Protein Disulfide Isomerase in the Retrograde Cell Transport of Secreted Phospholipases A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Adrijana; Dolinar, Klemen; Pucer Janež, Anja; Križaj, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Following the finding that ammodytoxin (Atx), a neurotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) in snake venom, binds specifically to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in vitro we show that these proteins also interact in living rat PC12 cells that are able to internalize this group IIA (GIIA) sPLA2. Atx and PDI co-localize in both differentiated and non-differentiated PC12 cells, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Based on a model of the complex between Atx and yeast PDI (yPDI), a three-dimensional model of the complex between Atx and human PDI (hPDI) was constructed. The Atx binding site on hPDI is situated between domains b and b’. Atx interacts hPDI with an extensive area on its interfacial binding surface. The mammalian GIB, GIIA, GV and GX sPLA2s have the same fold as Atx. The first three sPLA2s have been detected intracellularly but not the last one. The models of their complexes with hPDI were constructed by replacement of Atx with the respective mammalian sPLA2 in the Atx—hPDI complex and molecular docking of the structures. According to the generated models, mammalian GIB, GIIA and GV sPLA2s form complexes with hPDI very similar to that with Atx. The contact area between GX sPLA2 and hPDI is however different from that of the other sPLA2s. Heterologous competition of Atx binding to hPDI with GV and GX sPLA2s confirmed the model-based expectation that GV sPLA2 was a more effective inhibitor than GX sPLA2, thus validating our model. The results suggest a role of hPDI in the (patho)physiology of some snake venom and mammalian sPLA2s by assisting the retrograde transport of these molecules from the cell surface. The sPLA2–hPDI model constitutes a valuable tool to facilitate further insights into this process and into the (patho)physiology of sPLA2s in relation to their action intracellularly. PMID:25763817

  1. On the role of protein disulfide isomerase in the retrograde cell transport of secreted phospholipases A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Oberčkal

    Full Text Available Following the finding that ammodytoxin (Atx, a neurotoxic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 in snake venom, binds specifically to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI in vitro we show that these proteins also interact in living rat PC12 cells that are able to internalize this group IIA (GIIA sPLA2. Atx and PDI co-localize in both differentiated and non-differentiated PC12 cells, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Based on a model of the complex between Atx and yeast PDI (yPDI, a three-dimensional model of the complex between Atx and human PDI (hPDI was constructed. The Atx binding site on hPDI is situated between domains b and b'. Atx interacts hPDI with an extensive area on its interfacial binding surface. The mammalian GIB, GIIA, GV and GX sPLA2s have the same fold as Atx. The first three sPLA2s have been detected intracellularly but not the last one. The models of their complexes with hPDI were constructed by replacement of Atx with the respective mammalian sPLA2 in the Atx-hPDI complex and molecular docking of the structures. According to the generated models, mammalian GIB, GIIA and GV sPLA2s form complexes with hPDI very similar to that with Atx. The contact area between GX sPLA2 and hPDI is however different from that of the other sPLA2s. Heterologous competition of Atx binding to hPDI with GV and GX sPLA2s confirmed the model-based expectation that GV sPLA2 was a more effective inhibitor than GX sPLA2, thus validating our model. The results suggest a role of hPDI in the (pathophysiology of some snake venom and mammalian sPLA2s by assisting the retrograde transport of these molecules from the cell surface. The sPLA2-hPDI model constitutes a valuable tool to facilitate further insights into this process and into the (pathophysiology of sPLA2s in relation to their action intracellularly.

  2. Investigation of protein FTT1103 electroactivity using carbon and mercury electrodes. Surface-inhibition approach for disulfide oxidoreductases using silver amalgam powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večerková, Renata; Hernychová, Lenka; Dobeš, Petr; Vrba, Jiří; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Bartošík, Martin; Vacek, Jan

    2014-06-09

    Recently, it was shown that electrochemical methods can be used for analysis of poorly water-soluble proteins and for study of their structural changes and intermolecular (protein-ligand) interactions. In this study, we focused on complex electrochemical investigation of recombinant protein FTT1103, a disulfide oxidoreductase with structural similarity to well described DsbA proteins. This thioredoxin-like periplasmic lipoprotein plays an important role in virulence of bacteria Francisella tularensis. For electrochemical analyses, adsorptive transfer (ex situ) square-wave voltammetry with pyrolytic graphite electrode, and alternating-current voltammetry and constant-current chronopotentiometric stripping analysis with mercury electrodes, including silver solid amalgam electrode (AgSAE) were used. AgSAE was used in poorly water-soluble protein analysis for the first time. In addition to basic redox, electrocatalytic and adsorption/desorption characterization of FTT1103, electrochemical methods were also used for sensitive determination of the protein at nanomolar level and study of its interaction with surface of AgSA microparticles. Proposed electrochemical protocol and AgSA surface-inhibition approach presented here could be used in future for biochemical studies focused on proteins associated with membranes as well as on those with disulfide oxidoreductase activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK): role in disulfide bond formation, redox homeostasis and production of Helicobacter cystein-rich protein HcpE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jeffrey; Kichler, Sari; Oickle, Brandon; Fairweather, Spencer; Oberc, Alexander; Chahal, Jaspreet; Ratnayake, Dinath; Creuzenet, Carole

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that colonizes ∼ 50% of the world's population. It can cause gastritis, gastric or duodenal ulcers and also gastric cancer. The numerous side effects of available treatments and the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains are severe concerns that justify further research into H. pylori's pathogenic mechanisms. H. pylori produces secreted proteins that may play a role in virulence, including the Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein HcpE (aka HP0235). We demonstrate herein that HcpE is secreted in the culture supernatant both as a soluble protein and in association with outer membrane vesicles. We show that the structure of HcpE comprises an organized array of disulfide bonds. We identify DsbK (aka HP0231) as a folding factor necessary for HcpE production and secretion in H. pylori and show that recombinant DsbK can interact with and refold unprocessed, reduced HcpE in vitro. These experiments highlight the first biologically relevant substrate for DsbK. Furthermore, we show that DsbK has disulfide bond (Dsb) forming activity on reduced lysozyme and demonstrate a DsbA-type of activity for DsbK upon expression in E. coli, despite its similarity with DsbG. Finally, we show a role of DsbK in maintaining redox homeostasis in H. pylori. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Copper(II)-Mediated Hydrogen Sulfide and Thiol Oxidation to Disulfides and Organic Polysulfanes and Their Reductive Cleavage in Wine: Mechanistic Elucidation and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitman, Gal Y; Danilewicz, John C; Jeffery, David W; Elias, Ryan J

    2017-03-29

    Fermentation-derived volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are undesirable in wine and are often remediated in a process known as copper fining. In the present study, the addition of Cu(II) to model and real wine systems containing hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and thiols provided evidence for the generation of disulfides (disulfanes) and organic polysulfanes. Cu(II) fining of a white wine spiked with glutathione, H 2 S, and methanethiol (MeSH) resulted in the generation of MeSH-glutathione disulfide and trisulfane. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying the interaction of H 2 S and thiols with Cu(II) is discussed, and a prospective diagnostic test for releasing volatile sulfur compounds from their nonvolatile forms in wine is investigated. This test utilized a combination of reducing agents, metal chelators, and low-oxygen conditions to promote the release of H 2 S and MeSH, at levels above their reported sensory thresholds, from red and white wines that were otherwise free of sulfidic off-odors at the time of addition.

  5. Electrostatic stabilization and general base catalysis in the active site of the human protein disulfide isomerase a domain monitored by hydrogen exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Griselda; Anderson, Janet S; LeMaster, David M

    2008-03-25

    The nucleophilic Cys36 thiol of the human protein disulfide isomerase a domain is positioned over the N terminus of the alpha(2) helix. Amides in the active site exhibit diffusion-limited, hydroxide-catalyzed exchange, indicating that the local positive electrostatic potential decreases the pK value for peptide anion formation by at least 2 units so as to equal or exceed the acidity of water. In stark contrast to the pH dependence of exchange for simple peptides, the His38 amide in the reduced enzyme exhibits a maximum rate of exchange at pH 5 due to efficient general base catalysis by the neutral imidazole of its own side chain and suppression of its exchange by the ionization of the Cys36 thiol. Ionization of this thiol and deprotonation of the His38 side chain suppress the Cys39 amide hydroxide-catalyzed exchange by a million-fold. The electrostatic potential within the active site monitored by these exchange experiments provides a means of stabilizing the two distinct transition states that lead to substrate reduction and oxidation. Molecular modeling offers a role for the conserved Arg103 in coordinating the oxidative transition-state complex, thus providing further support for mechanisms of disulfide isomerization that utilize enzymatic catalysis at each step of the overall reaction.

  6. Direct, simple derivatization of disulfide bonds in proteins with organic mercury in alkaline medium without any chemical pre-reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM- UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, Carlo [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, INO-UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); D’Ulivo, Alessandro [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM- UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bramanti, Emilia, E-mail: bramanti@pi.iccom.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM- UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-16

    Highlights: • A simple procedure for the derivatization of proteins disulfide bonds. • Cysteine groups in several proteins derivatised with pHMB in alkaline media. • 75–100% labelling of cysteines in proteins with pHMB. - Abstract: In this work we have studied the derivatization of protein disulfide bonds with p-Hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in strong alkaline medium without any preliminary reduction. The reaction has been followed by the determination of the protein–pHMB complex using size exclusion chromatography coupled to a microwave/UV mercury oxidation system for the on-line oxidation of free and protein-complexed pHMB and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SEC–CVG–AFS) detection. The reaction has been optimized by an experimental design using lysozyme as a model protein and applied to several thiolic proteins. The proposed method reports, for the first time, that it is possible to label 75–100% cysteines of proteins and, thus, to determine thiolic proteins without the need of any reducing step to obtain reduced -SH groups before mercury labelling. We obtained a detection limit of 100 nmol L{sup −1} based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for unbound and complexed pHMB, corresponding to a detection limit of proteins ranged between 3 and 360 nmol L{sup −1}, depending on the number of cysteines in the protein sequence.

  7. EFFECT OF CYTOKINE CEREBROPROTECITON ON THE STATE OF ANTIOXIDANT THIOL-DISULFIDE SYSTEM IN THE BRAIN TISSUE OF RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprun E.V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Agents, providing both for damaging effect and cell viability system in the ischemia/hypoxia area, include cytokines – intercellular communication transmitters in health and disease, which establish communication signal network between cells of the immune system and cells of other organs and tissues. According to present-day ideas, nature of immune response and peculiarities of development of the pathophysiological changes in ischemic/hypoxic tissue disorders depends on preemptive activation of the T-lymphocyte subpopulations, their synthesis of cytokines of various types and formation of "cytokine cascade", i.e. relation between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, application of cytokine preparations may become effective perspective link in the complex therapy of port-ischemic complications in DM. In case of ischemic dmaage to the brain tissue in DM model, TDS balance shifts due to decrease in its reduced intermediates on the background of oxidized forms, with considerable lowering of reduced glutathione level and GR and GP activity. Similar pathological biochemical changes cause significant functional changes in cells and are often irreversible. Changes on TDS activity and oxidation of thiol groups of a cystein-dependent protein region of the mitochondrial internal membranes cause depolarization and destabilization of the mitochondrial internal membranes, with so called non-selective PT-pore (permeability transition pore – PTP being formed . Opening of such channel in the internal membrane results in establishing ion balance in the matrix and mitochondrial intermembranous space, distributes hydrogen ion gradient (Н+ to the internal membrane and breaks respiratory chain. Also, this causes volume disregulation of mitochondria due to the matrix hyperosmolality, results in the increased matrix volume, breaks of the external membrane and growing destabilization of mitochondria and enzyme system, leads to development of

  8. Disulfide proteomics of rice cultured cells in response to OsRacl and probenazole-related immune signaling pathway in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Kazuko; Kimizu, Mayumi; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is an early event in the immune response of plants. ROS production affects the redox-based modification of cysteine residues in redox proteins, which contribute to protein functions such as enzymatic activity, protein-protein interactions, oligomerization, and intracellular localization. Thus, the sensitivity of cysteine residues to changes in the cellular redox status is critical to the immune response of plants. We used disulfide proteomics to identify immune response-related redox proteins. Total protein was extracted from rice cultured cells expressing constitutively active or dominant-negative OsRacl, which is a key regulator of the immune response in rice, and from rice cultured cells that were treated with probenazole, which is an activator of the plant immune response, in the presence of the thiol group-specific fluorescent probe monobromobimane (mBBr), which was a tag for reduced proteins in a differential display two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The mBBr fluorescence was detected by using a charge-coupled device system, and total protein spots were detected using Coomassie brilliant blue staining. Both of the protein spots were analyzed by gel image software and identified using MS spectrometry. The possible disulfide bonds were identified using the disulfide bond prediction software. Subcellular localization and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis were performed in one of the identified proteins: Oryza sativa cold shock protein 2 (OsCSP2). We identified seven proteins carrying potential redox-sensitive cysteine residues. Two proteins of them were oxidized in cultured cells expressing DN-OsRac1, which indicates that these two proteins would be inactivated through the inhibition of OsRac1 signaling pathway. One of the two oxidized proteins, OsCSP2, contains 197 amino acid residues and six cysteine residues. Site-directed mutagenesis of these cysteine residues revealed that a Cys 140 mutation causes

  9. Rv2969c, essential for optimal growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a DsbA-like enzyme that interacts with VKOR-derived peptides and has atypical features of DsbA-like disulfide oxidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Heras, Begoña; Duprez, Wilko; Walden, Patricia; Halili, Maria; Kurth, Fabian; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The gene product of M. tuberculosis Rv2969c is shown to be a disulfide oxidase enzyme that has a canonical DsbA-like fold with novel structural and functional characteristics. The bacterial disulfide machinery is an attractive molecular target for developing new antibacterials because it is required for the production of multiple virulence factors. The archetypal disulfide oxidase proteins in Escherichia coli (Ec) are DsbA and DsbB, which together form a functional unit: DsbA introduces disulfides into folding proteins and DsbB reoxidizes DsbA to maintain it in the active form. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), no DsbB homologue is encoded but a functionally similar but structurally divergent protein, MtbVKOR, has been identified. Here, the Mtb protein Rv2969c is investigated and it is shown that it is the DsbA-like partner protein of MtbVKOR. It is found that it has the characteristic redox features of a DsbA-like protein: a highly acidic catalytic cysteine, a highly oxidizing potential and a destabilizing active-site disulfide bond. Rv2969c also has peptide-oxidizing activity and recognizes peptide segments derived from the periplasmic loops of MtbVKOR. Unlike the archetypal EcDsbA enzyme, Rv2969c has little or no activity in disulfide-reducing and disulfide-isomerase assays. The crystal structure of Rv2969c reveals a canonical DsbA fold comprising a thioredoxin domain with an embedded helical domain. However, Rv2969c diverges considerably from other DsbAs, including having an additional C-terminal helix (H8) that may restrain the mobility of the catalytic helix H1. The enzyme is also characterized by a very shallow hydrophobic binding surface and a negative electrostatic surface potential surrounding the catalytic cysteine. The structure of Rv2969c was also used to model the structure of a paralogous DsbA-like domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknE. Together, these results show that Rv2969c is a DsbA-like protein with unique properties and a limited

  10. Secondary Structural Changes of Intact and Disulfide Bridges-Cleaved Human Serum Albumins in Thermal Denaturation up to 130°C - Additive Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yoshiko; Takeda, Kunio

    2017-05-01

    The secondary structural changes of human serum albumin with the intact 17 disulfide bridges (HSA) and the disulfide bridges-cleaved human serum albumin (RCM-HSA) in thermal denaturation were examined. Most of the helical structures of HSA, whose original helicity was 66%, were sharply disrupted between 50 and 100°C. However, 14% helicity remained even at 130°C. The temperature dependence of the degree of disrupted helical structures of HSA was discussed in connection with questions about a general protein denaturation model. When HSA lost the disulfide bridges, about two-thirds of the original helices were disrupted. Although the helices of RCM-HSA remaining after the cleavage of the disulfide bridges were relatively resistant against the heat treatment, the helicity changed from 22% at 25°C to 14% at 130℃. The helicity of RCM-HSA at 130°C agreed with the helicity of HSA at the same temperature, indicating that the same helical moieties of the polypeptides remained unaffected at this high temperature. The additive effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the structural changes of HSA and RCM-HSA in thermal denaturation were also examined. A slight amount of SDS protected the helical structures of HSA from thermal denaturation below 80°C. Upon cooling to 25°C after heat treatment at temperatures below 70°C with the coexistence of SDS of low concentrations, the helical structures of HSA were reformed to the original level at 25°C before heating. A similar tendency was also observed after heat treatment at 80°C. In contrast, the helical structures of the RCM-HSA complexes with SDS are completely recovered upon cooling to 25°C even after heat treatment up to 100°C. Similar investigations were also carried out on bovine serum albumins which had the intact 17 disulfide bridges and lost all of the bridges.

  11. Solar hydrogen generation by nanoscale p-n junction of p-type molybdenum disulfide/n-type nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Jiangtian; Cushing, Scott K; Zhi, Mingjia; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-07-17

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising candidate for solar hydrogen generation but it alone has negligible photocatalytic activity. In this work, 5-20 nm sized p-type MoS2 nanoplatelets are deposited on the n-type nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (n-rGO) nanosheets to form multiple nanoscale p-n junctions in each rGO nanosheet. The p-MoS2/n-rGO heterostructure shows significant photocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the wavelength range from the ultraviolet light through the near-infrared light. The photoelectrochemical measurement shows that the p-MoS2/n-rGO junction greatly enhances the charge generation and suppresses the charge recombination, which is responsible for enhancement of solar hydrogen generation. The p-MoS2/n-rGO is an earth-abundant and environmentally benign photocatalyst for solar hydrogen generation.

  12. Universal low-temperature MWCNT-COOH-based counter electrode and a new thiolate/disulfide electrolyte system for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdulla; Shoker, Tharallah A; Ghaddar, Tarek H

    2014-06-11

    A new thiolate/disulfide organic-based electrolyte system composed of the tetrabutylammonium salt of 2-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiol (S(-)) and its oxidized form 3,3'-dithiobis(2-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazole) (DS) has been formulated and used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrocatalytic activity of different counter electrodes (CEs) has been evaluated by means of measuring J-V curves, cyclic voltammetry, Tafel plots, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A stable and low-temperature CE based on acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) was investigated with our S(-)/DS, I(-)/I3(-), T(-)/T2, and Co(II/III)-based electrolyte systems. The proposed CE showed superb electrocatalytic activity toward the regeneration of the different electrolytes. In addition, good stability of solar cell devices based on the reported electrolyte and CE was shown.

  13. Strategy to improve the quantitative LC-MS analysis of molecular ions resistant to gas-phase collision induced dissociation: application to disulfide-rich cyclic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Eugene; Ranasinghe, Asoka; D'Arienzo, Celia; Xu, Carrie; Onorato, Joelle; Drexler, Dieter M; Josephs, Jonathan L; Poss, Michael; Olah, Timothy

    2014-12-02

    Due to observed collision induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation inefficiency, developing sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays for CID resistant compounds is especially challenging. As an alternative to traditional LC-MS/MS, we present here a methodology that preserves the intact analyte ion for quantification by selectively filtering ions while reducing chemical noise. Utilizing a quadrupole-Orbitrap MS, the target ion is selectively isolated while interfering matrix components undergo MS/MS fragmentation by CID, allowing noise-free detection of the analyte's surviving molecular ion. In this manner, CID affords additional selectivity during high resolution accurate mass analysis by elimination of isobaric interferences, a fundamentally different concept than the traditional approach of monitoring a target analyte's unique fragment following CID. This survivor-selected ion monitoring (survivor-SIM) approach has allowed sensitive and specific detection of disulfide-rich cyclic peptides extracted from plasma.

  14. Crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus gene product Aq1627: a putative phosphoglucosamine mutase reveals a unique C-terminal end-to-end disulfide linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Upasana; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2017-06-27

    The Aq1627 gene from Aquifex aeolicus, a hyperthermophilic bacterium has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified to homogeneity and its X-ray crystal structure was determined to 1.3 Å resolution using multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing. The structural and sequence analysis of Aq1627 is suggestive of a putative phosphoglucosamine mutase. The structural features of Aq1627 further indicate that it could belong to a new subclass of the phosphoglucosamine mutase family. Aq1627 structure contains a unique C-terminal end-to-end disulfide bond, which links two monomers and this structural information can be used in protein engineering to make proteins more stable in different applications.