Rafelski, Johann
2016-11-01
These remarks open the one-day session "50 years of Hagedorn's Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model". These developments set the path at CERN towards the discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma in the year 2000.
Hagedorn States and Thermalization
Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn
2010-01-01
In recent years Hagedorn states have been used to explain the physics close to the critical temperature within a hadron gas. Because of their large decay widths these massive resonances lower $\\eta/s$ to near the AdS/CFT limit within the hadron gas phase. A comparison of the Hagedorn model to recent lattice results is made and it is found that for both Tc =176 MeV and Tc=196 MeV, the hadrons can reach chemical equilibrium almost immediately, well before the chemical freeze-out temperatures found in thermal fits for a hadron gas without Hagedorn states. In this paper we also observe the effects of Hagedorn States on the $K^+/\\pi^+$ horn seen at AGS, SPS, and RHIC.
The phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density
Fukushima, Kenji
2013-01-01
We review theoretical approaches to explore the phase diagram of nuclear and quark matter at high baryon density. We first look over the basic properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and address how to describe various states of QCD matter. In our discussions on nuclear matter we cover the relativistic mean-field model, the chiral perturbation theory, and the approximation based on the large-Nc limit where Nc is the number of colors. We then explain the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous meson condensation in nuclear matter with emphasis put on the relevance to quark matter. We commence the next part focused on quark matter with the bootstrap model and the Hagedorn temperature. Then we turn to properties associated with chiral symmetry and exposit theoretical descriptions of the chiral phase transition. There emerge some quark-matter counterparts of phenomena seen in nuclear matter such as the liquid-gas phase transition and the inhomogeneous structure of the chiral condensate. The third reg...
2003-01-01
Rolf Hagedorn, who introduced the concept that hadronic matter has a melting point, died on March 9 2003. After studies in Göttingen he came to CERN in Geneva in 1954 as an accelerator theorist. He joined the CERN Theory Group after its transfer in 1957 from Copenhagen to Geneva and he was a senior physicist in the Division when he retired in 1984. He continued his research after retirement, and up to very recently he made pertinent contributions in developments in the field of relativistic heavy ion collisions. As an accelerator physicist he developed the theoretical predictions for the particle spectra initially observed when the CERN PS first began operation, which was important for the optimisation of secondary beams. He then developed the statistical theory of meson production in considerable detail up to very high energies. It was a consequence of these studies that he found that one should expect a limiting temperature in hadronic collisions, the Hagedorn temperature. This picture has had a major im...
The Hagedorn temmperature Revisited
Cleymans, J.
2011-01-01
The Hagedorn temperature, T_H is determined from the number of hadronic resonances including all mesons and baryons. This leads to a stable result T_H = 174 MeV consistent with the critical and the chemical freeze-out temperatures at zero chemical potential. We use this result to calculate the speed of sound and other thermodynamic quantities in the resonance hadron gas model for a wide range of baryon chemical potentials following the chemical freeze-out curve. We compare some of our results to those obtained previously in other papers.
Rafelski, Johann
2016-01-01
In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM) and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.
Phase Diagram of Vertically Shaken Granular Matter
Eshuis, P; Lohse, D; Van der Meer, D; Van der Weele, K; Bos, Robert; Eshuis, Peter; Lohse, Detlef; Meer, Devaraj van der; Weele, Ko van der
2006-01-01
A shallow, vertically shaken granular bed in a quasi 2-D container is studied experimentally yielding a wider variety of phenomena than in any previous study: (1) bouncing bed, (2) undulations, (3) granular Leidenfrost effect, (4) convection rolls, and (5) granular gas. These phenomena and the transitions between them are characterized by dimensionless control parameters and combined in a full experimental phase diagram.
Thermalization of Hadrons via Hagedorn States
Beitel, M; Greiner, C
2014-01-01
Hagedorn states are characterized by being very massive hadron-like resonances and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. To generate such a zoo of different Hagedorn states, a covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved by ensuring energy conservation and conservation of baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. The numerical solution of this equation provides Hagedorn spectra, which enable to obtain the decay width for Hagedorn states needed in cascading decay simulations. A single (heavy) Hagedorn state cascades by various two-body decay channels subsequently into final stable hadrons. All final hadronic observables like masses, spectral functions and decay branching ratios for hadronic feed down are taken from the hadronic transport model UrQMD. Strikingly, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons are exponential showing a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature.
Music and Science: Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn
Jacob, Maurice
2016-01-01
I present here Rolf Hagedorn as a man, and present his achievements as a physicist. He has made several very important contributions: to particle and nuclear fields of research: The Hagedorn Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model are concepts that are here to stay, and which have stimulated much further research. But Rolf Hagedorn is also a wonderful person and, saying that, does not require a specialist.
Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories
Harmark, T
2000-01-01
We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals.
Matrix Strings, Compactification Scales and Hagedorn Transition
Meana, M L; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente
1999-01-01
In this work we use the Matrix Model of Strings in order to extract some non-perturbative information on how the Hagedorn critical temperature arises from eleven-dimensional physics. We study the thermal behavior of M and Matrix theories on the compactification backgrounds that correspond to string models. We obtain some information that allows us to state that the Hagedorn temperature is not unique for all Matrix String models and we are also able to sketch how the $S$-duality transformation works in this framework.
The thermodynamics of the Hagedorn mass spectrum
Lavenda, B H
2006-01-01
No bootstrap assumption is needed to derive the exponential growth of the Hagedorn hadron mass spectrum: It is a consequence of the second law applied to a relativistic gas, and the relativistic equivalence between inertial mass and its heat content. The Hagedorn temperature occurs in the limit as the number of particles and their internal energy diverge such that their ratio remains constant. The divergences in the $N$ particle entropy, energy, and free energy result when this condition is imposed upon a mixture of ideal gases, one conserving particle number and the other not. The analogy with a droplet in the presence of vapor explains why the pressure of the droplet continues to increase as the temperature rises finally leading to its break up when the Hagedorn temperature is reached. The adiabatic condition relating the particle volume to the Hagedorn temperature is asymptotic. Since it is a limiting temperature, and not a critical one, there can be no phase transition of whatever kind, and the original d...
Bulk and shear viscosity in Hagedorn fluid
Tawfik, A.; Wahba, M. [Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), MTI University, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo (Egypt)
2010-11-15
Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses m <2 GeV obeys the first-order theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium of hadron resonances are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the in-medium thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosity and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo- and hydro-dynamics equations of state. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Bulk and Shear Viscosity in Hagedorn Fluid
Tawfik, A
2010-01-01
Assuming that the Hagedorn fluid composed of known particles and resonances with masses $m<2\\,$GeV obeys the {\\it first-order} theory (Eckart) of relativistic fluid, we discuss the transport properties of QCD confined phase. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, expressions for bulk and shear viscosity in thermal medium are derived. The relaxation time in the Hagedorn dynamical fluid exclusively takes into account the decay and eventually van der Waals processes. We comment on the {\\it in-medium} thermal effects on bulk and shear viscosities and averaged relaxation time with and without the excluded-volume approach. As an application of these results, we suggest the dynamics of heavy-ion collisions, non-equlibrium thermodynamics and the cosmological models, which require thermo and hydrodynamics equations of state.
Remarkable Features of Decaying Hagedorn States
Beitel, M; Greiner, C
2014-01-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition phase between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). Their abundance is believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature $T_H$ which in our understanding equals the critical temperature $T_c$. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. To generate a whole zoo of such new states we solve the covariantly formulated bootstrap equation by regarding energy conservation and conservation of the baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. To investigate their decay properties decay chain calculations of HS were conducted. One single (heavy) HS with certain quantum numbers decays by various two-body decay channels subsequently into final stable hadrons. Multiplicities of these stable hadrons, their ratios and their energy distributions are presented. Strikingly the final energy spectra of...
Phase diagram and thermal properties of strong-interaction matter
Gao, Fei; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yu-Xin; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Schmidt, Sebastian M.
2016-05-20
We introduce a novel method for computing the (μ, T)-dependent pressure in continuum QCD, from which we obtain a complex phase diagram and predictions for thermal properties of the dressed-quark component of the system, providing the in-medium behavior of the related trace anomaly, speed of sound, latent heat, and heat capacity.
Roger Beaver
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion among the afrotropical scolytine genera Hapalogenius Hagedorn, Hylesinopsis Eggers and Rhopalopselion Hagedorn, and their synonyms is discussed with especial reference to the catalogues of Wood and Bright (1992, and Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009. A key is given to separate the three genera recognised, and the species considered to be included in each genus are listed. Hylesinopsis is resurrected from synonymy with Hapalogenius, and shown not to be closely related to it. Chilodendron Schedl is considered to be a synonym of Hylesinopsis and not of Xylechinus Chapuis. The following new synonymy is proposed at specific level: Hapalogenius africanus (Eggers (= Hapalogenius lesnei Eggers, = Metahylesinus brincki Schedl; Hapalogenius fuscipennis (Chapuis (= Hapalogenius bimaculatus Eggers; Hapalogenius oblongus (Eggers (= Metahylesinus striatus Schedl; Hylesinopsis fasciata (Hagedorn (= Kissophagus punctatus Eggers; Phrixosoma niger Eggers (= Hapalogenius niger Schedl. The following species are returned to Hylesinopsis from Hapalogenius to which they were transferred by Alonso-Zarazaga and Lyal (2009: Hylesinopsis alluaudi (Lepesme, H. angolensis (Schedl, H. arabiae (Schedl, H. atra (Nunberg, H. confusa (Eggers, H. decellei (Nunberg, H. dubia Eggers, H. emarginata (Nunberg, H. fasciata (Hagedorn, H. ficus (Schedl, H. granulata (Lepesme, H. hirsuta (Schedl, H. joveri (Schedl, H. pauliani (Lepesme, H. punctata (Eggers, H. saudiarabiae (Schedl. The following new combination is given: Hylesinopsis leprosula (Browne from Cryphalus Erichson. New distributional records are given for some species.
Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model: Exact Results and Condensed Matter Precursors
Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad
2004-01-01
Recently the revised phase diagram of the (large N) Gross-Neveu model in 1+1 dimensions with discrete chiral symmetry has been determined numerically. It features three phases, a massless and a massive Fermi gas and a kink-antikink crystal. Here we investigate the phase diagram by analytical means, mapping the Dirac-Hartree-Fock equation onto the non-relativistic Schroedinger equation with the (single gap) Lame potential. It is pointed out that mathematically identical phase diagrams appeared in the condensed matter literature some time ago in the context of the Peierls-Froehlich model and ferromagnetic superconductors.
Constructing the phase diagram of finite neutral nuclear matter
Elliott, J. B.; Moretto, L. G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G. J.; Albergo, S.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F. P.; Caccia, Z.; Cebra, D. A.; Chacon, A. D.; Chance, J. L.; Choi, Y.; Costa, S.; Gilkes, M. L.; Hauger, J. A.; Hirsch, A. S.; Hjort, E. L.; Insolia, A.; Justice, M.; Keane, D.; Kintner, J. C.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lisa, M. A.; Matis, H. S.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Müller, W. F.; Olson, D. L.; Partlan, M. D.; Porile, N. T.; Potenza, R.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H. G.; Romanski, J.; Romero, J. L.; Russo, G. V.; Sann, H.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scott, A.; Shao, Y.; Srivastava, B. K.; Symons, T. J.; Tincknell, M.; Tuvé, C.; Wang, S.; Warren, P.; Wieman, H. H.; Wienold, T.; Wolf, K.
2003-02-01
The fragment yields from the multifragmentation of gold, lanthanum, and krypton nuclei obtained by the EOS Collaboration are examined in terms of Fisher’s droplet formalism modified to account for Coulomb energy. The critical exponents σ and τ and the surface energy coefficient c0 are obtained. Estimates are made of the pressure-temperature and temperature-density coexistence curve of finite neutral nuclear matter as well as the location of the critical point.
Towards the phase diagram of dense two-color matter
Cotter, Seamus; Hands, Simon; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2012-01-01
We study two-color QCD with two flavors of Wilson fermion as a function of quark chemical potential mu and temperature T. We find evidence of a superfluid phase at intermediate mu and low T where the quark number density and diquark condensate are both very well described by a Fermi sphere of nearly-free quarks disrupted by a BCS condensate. Our results suggest that the quark contribution to the energy density is negative (and balanced by a positive gauge contribution), although this result is highly sensitive to details of the energy renormalisation. We also find evidence that the chiral condensate in this region vanishes in the massless limit. This region gives way to a region of deconfined quark matter at higher T and mu, with the deconfinement temperature, determined from the renormalised Polyakov loop, decreasing only very slowly with increasing chemical potential. The quark number susceptibility chi_q does not exhibit any qualitative change at the deconfinement transition. We argue that this is because ...
Matching Hagedorn mass spectrum with Lattice QCD
Lo, Pok Man; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro
2015-01-01
Based on recent Lattice QCD (LQCD) results obtained at finite temperature, we discuss modeling of the hadronic phase of QCD in the framework of Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) with discrete and continuous mass spectra. We focus on fluctuations of conserved charges, and show how a common limiting temperature can be used to constrain the Hagedorn exponential mass spectrum in different sectors of quantum number, through a matching of HRG and LQCD. For strange baryons, the extracted spectra are found to be consistent with all known and expected states listed by the Particle Data Group (PDG). The strange-mesonic sector, however, requires additional states in the intermediate mass range beyond that embodied in the database.
Fast Dynamical Evolution of Hadron Resonance Gas via Hagedorn States
Beitel, M.; Gallmeister, K.; Greiner, C.
2017-01-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature TH which in our understanding equals the critical temperature Tc . A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number B, strangeness S and electric charge Q. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc. are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles as the Ξ0- and the Ω‑-baryon. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature TH . Box calculations including these Hagedorn states are performed. Indeed, the time scales leading to equilibration of the system are drastically reduced down to 2. . . 5 fm/c.
Equilibration of hadrons in HICs via Hagedorn States
Beitel, M.; Gallmeister, K.; Greiner, C.
2016-08-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature TH which in our understanding equals the critical temperature Tc. A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number B, strangeness S and electric charge Q. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc. are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature TH. Box calculations including these Hagedorn states are performed. Indeed, the time scales leading to equilibration of the system are drastically reduced down to 2... 5fm/c.
Phase diagram of dilute nuclear matter: Unconventional pairing and the BCS-BEC crossover
Stein, Martin; Sedrakian, Armen [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2013-07-01
We report on a comprehensive study of the phase structure of cold, dilute nuclear matter featuring a {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} condensate at non-zero isospin asymmetry, within wide ranges of temperatures and densities. We find a rich phase diagram comprising three superfluid phases, namely a LOFF phase, the ordinary BCS phase, and a heterogeneous, phase-separated BCS phase, with associated crossovers from the latter two phases to a homogeneous or phase-separated Bose-Einstein condensate of deuterons. The phase diagram contains two tri-critical points (one a Lifshitz point), which may degenerate into a single tetra-critical point for some degree of isospin asymmetry.
Meng, Qingyou; Varney, Christopher N.; Fangohr, Hans; Babaev, Egor
2017-01-01
It was recently proposed to use the stray magnetic fields of superconducting vortex lattices to trap ultracold atoms for building quantum emulators. This calls for new methods for engineering and manipulating of the vortex states. One of the possible routes utilizes type-1.5 superconducting layered systems with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions. In order to explore the possible vortex states that can be engineered, we present two phase diagrams of phenomenological vortex matter models with multi-scale inter-vortex interactions featuring several attractive and repulsive length scales. The phase diagrams exhibit a plethora of phases, including conventional 2D lattice phases, five stripe phases, dimer, trimer, and tetramer phases, void phases, and stable low-temperature disordered phases. The transitions between these states can be controlled by the value of an applied external field.
Equilibration of hadrons in HICs via Hagedorn States
Beitel, M; Greiner, C
2015-01-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature $T_H$ which in our understanding equals the critical temperature $T_c$. A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number $B$, strangeness $S$ and electric charge $Q$. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc.are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution ...
A note on the string spectrum at the Hagedorn temperature
Madrigal, J D
2009-01-01
We discuss semi-classical string configurations at finite temperature. We find that those soliton solution in the background describing type IIA strings disappear or become divergent when we approach the Hagedorn temperature in the strong coupling regime. These findings together with a semi-classical analysis for the Hawking radiation let us to think that Hawking radiation is mainly driven by the existence of highly excited states. As by side, we check that beside the thermodynamical instability the system is dynamical unstable before reaching the Hagedorn temperature.
Two-loop snail diagrams: relating neutrino masses to dark matter
Farzan, Yasaman
2014-01-01
Various mechanisms have been developed to explain the origin of Majorana neutrino masses. One of them is radiative mass generation. Two-loop mass generation is of particular interest because the masses and couplings of new particles propagating in the loop can be in the range testable by other experiments and observations. In order for the radiative mass suppression to be reliable, it should be guaranteed that lower loop contributions are suppressed. Based on loop topology and the form of electroweak presentation of the particles propagating in the loop, one can determine whether a lower---and therefore dominant---loop contribution is possible. We present a model based on these general considerations which leads to neutrino masses via a two-loop diagram which we dub as "snail-diagram". The model has two natural candidates for dark matter one of them being a neutral Dirac fermion which can satisfy the conditions of the thermal freeze-out scenario by annihilation to lepton pairs. We comment on the possibility o...
Effects of Density-Dependent Quark Mass on Phase Diagram of Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter
无
2006-01-01
Considering the density dependence of quark mass, we investigate the phase transition between the (unpaired) strange quark matter and the color-flavor-locked matter, which are supposed to be two candidates for the ground state of strongly interacting matter. We find that if the current mass of strange quark ms is small, the strange quark matter remains stable unless the baryon density is very high. If ms is large, the phase transition from the strange quark matter to the color-flavor-locked matter in particular to its gapless phase is found to be different from the results predicted by previous works. A complicated phase diagram of three-flavor quark matter is presented, in which the color-flavor-locked phase region is suppressed for moderate densities.
On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Size Matters
Störrle, Harald
2014-01-01
studying different factors like diagram type and expertise level, it became apparent that diagram size plays an important role, too. Since we lack an adequate understanding of this notion, in this paper, we define diagram size metrics and study their impact to modeler performance. We find...
Indications for a critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter.
Lacey, Roy A
2015-04-10
Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (R_{out}^{2}-R_{side}^{2}) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7-200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76 TeV) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T,μ_{B}) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates T^{cep}∼165 MeV and μ_{B}^{cep}∼95 MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν≈0.66 and γ≈1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class.
Two-loop snail diagrams: relating neutrino masses to dark matter
Farzan, Yasaman [Physics school, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-05-06
Various mechanisms have been developed to explain the origin of neutrino masses. One of them is radiative mass generation. Two-loop mass generation is of particular interest because the masses and couplings of new particles propagating in the loop can be in the range testable by other experiments and observations. In order for the radiative mass suppression to be reliable, it should be guaranteed that lower loop contributions are suppressed. Based on loop topology and the form of electroweak presentation of the particles propagating in the loop, one can determine whether a lower — and therefore dominant — loop contribution is possible. We present a model based on these general considerations which leads to neutrino masses via a two-loop diagram which we dub as “snail-diagram”. The model has two natural candidates for dark matter one of them being a neutral Dirac fermion which can satisfy the conditions of the thermal freeze-out scenario by annihilation to lepton pairs. We comment on the possibility of explaining the GeV gamma ray excess observed by Fermi-LAT from the region close to the Galaxy Center. We also discuss possible signals at the LHC and at experiments searching for lepton flavor violating rare decays.
Buisseret, F., E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umons.ac.be [Service de Physique Nucleaire et Subnucleaire, Universite de Mons-UMONS, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Haute Ecole Louvain en Hainaut (HELHa), Chaussee de Binche 159, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Lacroix, G., E-mail: gwendolyn.lacroix@umons.ac.be [Service de Physique Nucleaire et Subnucleaire, Universite de Mons-UMONS, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)
2011-11-17
We discuss the dependence of pure Yang-Mills equation of state on the choice of gauge algebra. In the confined phase, we generalize to an arbitrary simple gauge algebra Meyer's proposal of modeling the Yang-Mills matter by an ideal glueball gas in which the high-lying glueball spectrum is approximated by a Hagedorn spectrum of closed-bosonic-string type. Such a formalism is undefined above the Hagedorn temperature, corresponding to the phase transition toward a deconfined state of matter in which gluons are the relevant degrees of freedom. Under the assumption that the renormalization scale of the running coupling is gauge-algebra independent, we discuss about how the behavior of thermodynamical quantities such as the trace anomaly should depend on the gauge algebra in both the confined and deconfined phase. The obtained results compare favorably with recent and accurate lattice data in the su(3) case and support the idea that the more the gauge algebra has generators, the more the phase transition is of first-order type.
Low-momentum NN interactions and all-order summation of ring diagrams of symmetric nuclear matter
Siu, L.-W.; Holt, J. W.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Brown, G. E.
2009-05-01
We study the equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter using a ring-diagram approach in which the particle-particle hole-hole (pphh) ring diagrams within a momentum model space of decimation scale Λ are summed to all orders. The calculation is carried out using the renormalized low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction Vlow-k, which is obtained from a bare NN potential by integrating out the high-momentum components beyond Λ. The bare NN potentials of CD-Bonn, Nijmegen, and Idaho have been employed. The choice of Λ and its influence on the single particle spectrum are discussed. Ring-diagram correlations at intermediate momenta (k≃2fm-1) are found to be particularly important for nuclear saturation, suggesting the necessity of using a sufficiently large decimation scale so that the above momentum region is not integrated out. Using Vlow-k with Λ~3fm-1, we perform a ring-diagram computation with the above potentials, which all yield saturation energies E/A and Fermi momenta kF(0) considerably larger than the empirical values. On the other hand, similar computations with the medium-dependent Brown-Rho scaled NN potentials give satisfactory results of E/A≃-15 MeV and kF(0)≃1.4fm-1. The effect of this medium dependence is well reproduced by an empirical three-body force of the Skyrme type.
Andronic, A; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cleymans, J; Fukushima, K; McLerran, L D; Oeschler, H; Pisarski, R D; Redlich, K; Sasaki, C; Satz, H; Stachel, J
2009-01-01
We argue that features of hadron production in relativistic nuclear collisions, mainly at CERN-SPS energies, may be explained by the existence of three forms of matter: Hadronic Matter, Quarkyonic Matter, and a Quark-Gluon Plasma. We suggest that these meet at a triple point in the QCD phase diagram. Some of the features explained, both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, include the curve for the decoupling of chemical equilibrium, along with the non-monotonic behavior of strange particle multiplicity ratios at center of mass energies near 10 GeV. If the transition(s) between the three phases are merely crossover(s), the triple point is only approximate.
Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories from string corrections to NS5-branes
Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.
2000-01-01
We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string...... correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals....
Thies, M
2006-01-01
During the last few years, the phase diagram of the large N Gross-Neveu model in 1+1 dimensions at finite temperature and chemical potential has undergone a major revision. Here we present a streamlined account of this development, collecting the most important results. Quasi-one-dimensional condensed matter systems like conducting polymers provide real physical systems which can be approximately described by the Gross-Neveu model and have played some role in establishing its phase structure. The kink-antikink phase found at low temperatures is closely related to inhomogeneous superconductors in the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. With the complete phase diagram at hand, the Gross-Neveu model can now serve as a firm testing ground for new algorithms and theoretical ideas.
Deconfinement and the Hagedorn transition in string theory.
Chaudhuri, S
2001-03-05
We introduce a new definition of the thermal partition function in string theory. With this new definition, the thermal partition functions of all of the string theories obey thermal duality relations with self-dual Hagedorn temperature beta(2)(H) = 4pi(2)alpha('). A beta-->beta(2)(H)/beta transformation maps the type I theory into a new string theory (type I) with thermal D p-branes, spatial hypersurfaces supporting a p-dimensional finite temperature non-Abelian Higgs-gauge theory for p< or =9. We demonstrate a continuous phase transition in the behavior of the static heavy quark-antiquark potential for small separations r(2)(*)
Tensor modes from a primordial Hagedorn phase of string cosmology.
Brandenberger, Robert H; Nayeri, Ali; Patil, Subodh P; Vafa, Cumrun
2007-06-01
It has recently been shown that a Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology can provide a causal mechanism for generating a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar metric fluctuations, without the need for an intervening period of de Sitter expansion. In this Letter, we compute the spectrum of tensor metric fluctuations (gravitational waves) in this scenario and show that it is also nearly scale invariant. However, whereas the spectrum of scalar modes has a small red tilt, the spectrum of tensor modes has a small blue tilt, unlike what occurs in slow-roll inflation. This provides a possible observational way to distinguish between our cosmological scenario and conventional slow-roll inflation.
Matching the Hagedorn mass spectrum with lattice QCD results
Lo, Pok Man; Marczenko, Michał; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro
2015-11-01
Based on recent lattice QCD (LQCD) results obtained at finite temperature, we discuss the modeling of the hadronic phase of QCD in the framework of hadron resonance gas (HRG) with discrete and continuous mass spectra. We focus on fluctuations of conserved charges and show how a common limiting temperature can be used to constrain the Hagedorn exponential mass spectrum in different sectors of quantum number, through a matching of HRG and LQCD. For strange baryons, the extracted spectra are found to be consistent with all known and expected states listed by the Particle Data Group (PDG). The strange-mesonic sector, however, requires additional states in the intermediate mass range beyond that embodied in the database.
Mekjian, Aram [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2016-10-18
The main emphasis of the entire project is on issues having to do with medium energy and ultra-relativistic energy and heavy ion collisions. A major goal of both theory and experiment is to study properties of hot dense nuclear matter under various extreme conditions and to map out the phase diagram in density or chemical potential and temperature. My studies in medium energy nuclear collisions focused on the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster yields from such transitions. Here I developed both the statistical model of nuclear multi-fragmentation and also a mean field theory.
On the classical limit of Bohmian mechanics for Hagedorn wave packets
Dürr, Detlef
2010-01-01
We consider the classical limit of quantum mechanics in terms of Bohmian trajectories. For wave packets as defined by Hagedorn we show that the Bohmian trajectories converge to Newtonian trajectories in probability.
Producing a scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations in a Hagedorn phase of string cosmology.
Nayeri, Ali; Brandenberger, Robert H; Vafa, Cumrun
2006-07-14
We study the generation of cosmological perturbations during the Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology. Using tools of string thermodynamics we provide indications that it may be possible to obtain a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations on scales which are of cosmological interest today. In our cosmological scenario, the early Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology goes over smoothly into the radiation-dominated phase of standard cosmology, without having a period of cosmological inflation.
2015-01-01
This book shows how the study of multi-hadron production phenomena in the years after the founding of CERN culminated in Hagedorn's pioneering idea of limiting temperature, leading on to the discovery of the quark-gluon plasma - announced, in February 2000 at CERN. Following the foreword by Herwig Schopper -- the Director General (1981-1988) of CERN at the key historical juncture -- the first part is a tribute to Rolf Hagedorn (1919-2003) and includes contributions by contemporary friends and colleagues, and those who were most touched by Hagedorn: Tamás Biró, Igor Dremin, Torleif Ericson, Marek Gázdzicki, Mark Gorenstein, Hans Gutbrod, Maurice Jacob, István Montvay, Berndt Müller, Grazyna Odyniec, Emanuele Quercigh, Krzysztof Redlich, Helmut Satz, Luigi Sertorio, Ludwik Turko, and Gabriele Veneziano. The second and third parts retrace 20 years of developments that after discovery of the Hagedorn temperature in 1964 led to its recognition as the melting point of hadrons into boiling quarks, and t...
Diagramas de energía, fuerza y materia = Diagrams of energy, force and matter
Josep Maria Montaner
2013-10-01
Full Text Available ResumenEn este ensayo se va a tratar sobre arquitectura a partir de la definición de forma como “estructura esencial e interna, como construcción del espacio y de la materia”. Para ello, podemos establecer, como punto de partida, que el proceso de la arquitectura va de la energía, las fuerzas y la materia hacia la forma. Por tanto, teorizar sobre la forma en arquitectura nos lleva a reflexionar sobre tres fenómenos previos a su configuración: la energía, las fuerzas y la materia. Para seguir estos procesos físicos es útil remitirse al pensamiento postestructuralista de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari, especialmente a su texto Mil Mesetas. Capitalismo y esquizofrenia (1980 y a conceptos como “rizoma” y “agenciamiento” y, sobre todo, utilizar la herramienta interpretativa y creativa del “diagrama”.Palabras claveenergía, fuerza, materia, forma, Deleuze, GuattariAbstractThis essay will deal on architecture from the defi nition of form as "critical and internal structure as construction of space and matter." For that, we can establish, as a starting point, that the process of architecture goes from energy, forces and matter to form. Thus, theorizing about form in architecture leads us to refl ect on three prior phenomena to its confi guration: energy, forces and matter. To follow these physical processes is useful to refer the poststructuralist thought´s Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, especially his text A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980 and concepts such as "rhizome" and "assemblage" and, above all, to use the creative and interpretative tool of "diagramme".Key wordsenergy, force, matter, form, Deleuze, Guattari
Indications for a critical point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter
Lacey, Roy A.
2016-12-01
Two-pion interferometry measurements are studied for a broad range of collision centralities in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7- 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2.76 TeV) collisions. They indicate non-monotonic excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout -Rside), suggestive of reaction trajectories which spend a fair amount of time near a soft point in the equation of state (EOS) that coincides with the critical end point (CEP). A Finite-Size Scaling (FSS) analysis of these excitation functions, provides further validation tests for the CEP. It also indicates a second order phase transition at the CEP, and the values Tcep ∼ 165 MeV and μBcep ∼ 95 MeV for its location in the (T ,μB)-plane of the phase diagram. The static critical exponents (ν ≈ 0.66 and γ ≈ 1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis, place this CEP in the 3D Ising model (static) universality class. A Dynamic Finite-Size Scaling analysis of the excitation functions, gives the estimate z ∼ 0.87 for the dynamic critical exponent, suggesting that the associated critical expansion dynamics is dominated by the hydrodynamic sound mode.
Ayala, Alejandro
2016-01-01
In the past few years a wealth of high quality data has made possible to test current theoretical ideas about the properties of hadrons subject to extreme conditions of density and temperature. The relativistic heavy-ion program carried out at the CERN-SPS and under development at the BNL-RHIC and CERN-LHC has provided results that probe the evolution of collisions of hadronic matter at high energies from the initially large density to the late dilute stages. In addition, QCD on the lattice has produced results complementing these findings with first principles calculations for observables in a regime where perturbative techniques cannot describe the nature of strongly coupled systems. This work aims to review some recent developments that make use of field theoretical methods to describe the physics of hadrons at finite temperature and density. I concentrate on two of the main topics that have been explored in the last few years: (1) The search for the structure of the phase diagram and (2) analytical signal...
Ayala, Alejandro
2016-10-01
In the past few years a wealth of high quality data has made possible to test current theoretical ideas about the properties of hadrons subject to extreme conditions of density and temperature. The relativistic heavy-ion program carried out at the CERN-SPS and under development at the BNL-RHIC and CERN-LHC has provided results that probe the evolution of collisions of hadronic matter at high energies from the initially large density to the late dilute stages. In addition, QCD on the lattice has produced results complementing these findings with first principles calculations for observables in a regime where perturbative techniques cannot describe the nature of strongly coupled systems. This work aims to review some recent developments that make use of field theoretical methods to describe the physics of hadrons at finite temperature and density. I concentrate on two of the main topics that have been explored in the last few years: (1) The search for the structure of the phase diagram and (2) analytical signals linked to the chiral symmetry restoration/deconfinement.
Stoecker, Horst; Schramm, Stefan; Senzel, Florian; Greiner, Carsten; Beitel, Maxim; Gallmeister, Kai; Gorenstein, Mark; Mishustin, Igor; Vasak, David; Steinheimer, Jan; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Satarov, Leonid; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei; Csernai, Laszlo P; Sinha, Bikash; Raha, Sibaji; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Panero, Marco
2016-01-01
The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. We propose to observe this newly predicted class of events at LHC and RHIC.
Carenco, Sophie; Portehault, David; Boissière, Cédric; Mézailles, Nicolas; Sanchez, Clément
2014-01-22
The notions of nanoscale "phase speciation" and "phase diagram" are defined and discussed in terms of kinetic and thermodynamic controls, based on the case of metal phosphide nanoparticles. After an overview of the most successful synthetic routes for these exotic nanomaterials, the cases of InP, Ni2 P, Ni12 P5 and Pdx Py are discussed in detail to highlight the relationship between composition, structure, and size at the nanoscale. The influence of morphology is discussed next by comparing the behavior of Cu3 P nanophases with those of Nix Py , FeP/Fe2 P, and CoP/Co2 P. Perspectives provide the reader with methodological guidelines for further investigation of nanoscale "phase diagrams", and their use for optimized synthesis of new functional nanomaterials.
Doymus, Kemal
2007-01-01
This study aims to determine the effects of cooperative learning (using the jigsaw method) on students' achievement in a general chemistry course. The Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Phase Achievement Test (PAT) were used. The questions on the CAT relate to solids, liquids, gases, bonding, matter, and matter states. This test was given to…
Streched String with Self-Interaction at the Hagedorn Point: Spatial Sizes and Black Hole
Qian, Yachao
2015-01-01
We analyze the length, mass and spatial distribution of a discretized transverse string in $D_\\perp$ dimensions with fixed end-points near its Hagedorn temperature. We suggest that such a string may dominate the (holographic) Pomeron kinematics for dipole-dipole scattering at intermediate and small impact parameters. Attractive self-string interactions cause the transverse string size to contract away from its diffusive size, a mechanism reminiscent of the string-black-hole transmutation. The string shows sizable asymmetries in the transverse plane that translate to primordial azimuthal asymmetries in the stringy particle production in the Pomeron kinematics for current pp and pA collisions at collider energies.
On the Hagedorn Behaviour of Singular Scale-Invariant Plane Waves
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, M; Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; Loughlin, Martin O'
2005-01-01
As a step towards understanding the properties of string theory in time-dependent and singular spacetimes, we study the divergence of density operators for string ensembles in singular scale-invariant plane waves, i.e. those plane waves that arise as the Penrose limits of generic spacetime singularities. We show that the scale invariance implies that the Hagedorn behaviour of bosonic and supersymmetric strings in these backgrounds, even with the inclusion of RR or NS fields, is the same as that of strings in flat space. This is in marked contrast to the behaviour of strings in the BFHP plane wave which exhibit quantitatively and qualitatively different thermodynamic properties.
Hagedorn spectrum and thermodynamics of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories
Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco
2015-01-01
We present a high-precision lattice calculation of the equation of state in the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We show that the results are described very well by a gas of massive, non-interacting glueballs, provided one assumes an exponentially growing Hagedorn spectrum. The latter can be derived within an effective bosonic closed-string model, leading to a parameter-free theoretical prediction, which is in perfect agreement with our lattice results. Furthermore, when applied to SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, this effective model accurately describes the lattice results reported by Bors\\'anyi et al. in JHEP 07 (2012) 056.
Hagedorn spectrum and equation of state of Yang-Mills theories
Caselle, Michele; Panero, Marco
2015-01-01
We present a novel lattice calculation of the equation of state of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the confining phase. We show that a gas of massive, non-interacting glueballs describes remarkably well the results, provided that a bosonic closed-string model is used to derive an exponentially growing Hagedorn spectrum for the heavy glueball states with no free parameters. This effective model can be applied to SU(3) Yang-Mills theory and the theoretical prediction agrees nicely with the lattice results reported by Bors\\'anyi et al. in JHEP 07 (2012) 056.
Mishra, H
2001-01-01
We discuss in this note simultaneous existence of chiral symmetry breaking and color superconductivity at finite temperature and density in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type model. The methodology involves an explicit construction of a variational ground state and minimisation of the thermodynamic potential. There exist nontrivial solutions to the gap equations at finite densities with both quark-antiquark as well as diquark condensates for the 'ground' state. However, such a phase is thermodynamically unstable with the pressure being negative in this region. We also compute the equation of state, and obtain the structure of the phase diagram in the model.
The Hagedorn structure of the non-perturbative gluon pressure within the mass gap approach to
Gogokhia, V; Vasuth, M
2016-01-01
We have shown in detail that the low-temperature expansion for the non-perturbative gluon pressure has the Hagedorn-type structure. Its exponential spectrum of all the effective gluonic excitations are expressed in terms of the mass gap. It is this which is responsible for the large-scale dynamical structure of the QCD ground state. The gluon pressure properly scaled has a maximum at some characteristic temperature $T=T_c = 266.5 \\ \\MeV$, separating the low- and high temperature regions. The gluon pressure is exponentially suppressed in the $T \\rightarrow 0$ limit. In the $T \\rightarrow T_c$ limit it demonstrates an exponential rise in the number of dynamical degrees of freedom. This makes it possible to identify $T_c$ with the Hagedorn transition temperature $T_h$, i.e., to put $T_h=T_c$. The gluon pressure has a complicated dependence on the mass gap and temperature near $T_c$ and up to approximately $(4-5)T_c$. In the limit of very high temperatures $T \\rightarrow \\infty$ its polynomial character is confir...
Engineering holographic phase diagrams
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long
2016-10-01
By introducing interacting scalar fields, we tried to engineer physically motivated holographic phase diagrams which may be interesting in the context of various known condensed matter systems. We introduce an additional scalar field in the bulk which provides a tunable parameter in the boundary theory. By exploiting the way the tuning parameter changes the effective masses of the bulk interacting scalar fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered for the boundary order parameters dual to those scalar fields. We give a few examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries which are strikingly similar to the known quantum phases at low temperature such as the superconducting phases. However, the important difference is that all the phases we have discussed are characterized by neutral order parameters. At the end, we discuss if there exists any emerging scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the dome in this phase diagram.
Properties of hadronic matter near the phase transition
Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn
2010-12-08
According to Hagedorn, hadrons should follow an exponential mass spectrum, which the known hadrons follow only up to masses of M{approx}2 GeV. Beyond this point the mass spectrum is flat, which indicates that there are ''missing'' hadrons, that could potentially contribute significantly to experimental observables. In this thesis I investigate the influence of these ''missing'' Hagedorn states on various experimental signatures of QGP. Strangeness enhancement is considered a signal for QGP because hadronic interactions (even including multi-mesonic reactions) underpredict the hadronic yields (especially for strange particles) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. We show here that the missing Hagedorn states provide extra degrees of freedom that can contribute to fast chemical equilibration times for a hadron gas. We develop a dynamical scheme in which possible Hagedorn states contribute to fast chemical equilibration times of X anti X pairs (where X=p, K, {lambda}, or {omega}) inside a hadron gas and just below the critical temperature. Within this scheme, we use master equations and derive various analytical estimates for the chemical equilibration times. Applying a Bjorken picture to the expanding fireball, the hadrons can, indeed, quickly chemically equilibrate for both an initial overpopulation or underpopulation of Hagedorn resonances. Our hadron resonance gas model, including the additional Hagedorn states, is used to obtain an upper bound on the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, {eta}/s, of hadronic matter near T{sub c} that is close to 1/(4/{pi}). We show how the measured particle ratios can be used to provide non-trivial information about T{sub c} of the QCD phase transition. This is obtained by including the effects of highly massive Hagedorn resonances on statistical models, which are generally used to describe hadronic yields. The inclusion of the ''missing'' Hagedorn states
Rafelski Johann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available These remarks open the one-day session “50 years of Hagedorn’s Temperature and the Statistical Bootstrap Model”. These developments set the path at CERN towards the discovery of Quark-Gluon Plasma in the year 2000.
Colwell, Morris A
1976-01-01
Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin
The hot Hagedorn Universe. Presented at the ICFNP2015 meeting, August 2015
Rafelski Johann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.
Hagedorn spectrum and thermodynamics of SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theories
Caselle, Michele; Nada, Alessandro; Panero, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Turin & INFN,Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin (Italy)
2015-07-27
We present a high-precision lattice calculation of the equation of state in the confining phase of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. We show that the results are described very well by a gas of massive, non-interacting glueballs, provided one assumes an exponentially growing Hagedorn spectrum. The latter can be derived within an effective bosonic closed-string model, leading to a parameter-free theoretical prediction, which is in perfect agreement with our lattice results. Furthermore, when applied to SU(3) Yang-Mills theory, this effective model accurately describes the lattice results reported by Borsányi et al. in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2012)056.
The hot Hagedorn Universe. Presented at the ICFNP2015 meeting, August 2015
Rafelski, Johann; Birrell, Jeremiah
2016-11-01
In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM) and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.
Rose, Matthew
2004-01-01
Matthew Rose worked at the Naval Postgraduate School as a graphic designer from February 2002-November 2011. His work for NPS included logos, brochures, business packs, movies/presentations, posters, the CyberSiege video game and many other projects. This material was organized and provided by the artist, for inclusion in the NPS Archive, Calhoun. Includes these files: Plan_ver.ai; powerline.jpg; SCADA diagram.ai; SCADA diagram.pdf; SCADA diagramsmall.pdf; SCADA2.pdf
Oostrom, V. van
2008-01-01
We introduce the unifying notion of delimiting diagram. Hitherto unrelated results such as: Minimality of the internal needed strategy for orthogonal first-order term rewriting systems, maximality of the limit strategy for orthogonal higher-order pattern rewrite systems (with maximality of the strat
Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...
From State Diagram to Class Diagram
Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz
2009-01-01
UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...
Herzog, Franz; Ueda, Takahiro; Vermaseren, J A M; Vogt, Andreas
2016-01-01
We discuss a number of FORM features that are essential in the automatic processing of very large numbers of diagrams as used in the Forcer program for 4-loop massless propagator diagrams. Most of these features are new.
Extrinsic Curvature Embedding Diagrams
Lu, J L
2003-01-01
Embedding diagrams have been used extensively to visualize the properties of curved space in Relativity. We introduce a new kind of embedding diagram based on the {\\it extrinsic} curvature (instead of the intrinsic curvature). Such an extrinsic curvature embedding diagram, when used together with the usual kind of intrinsic curvature embedding diagram, carries the information of how a surface is {\\it embedded} in the higher dimensional curved space. Simple examples are given to illustrate the idea.
Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database
SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase) The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2007-01-01
are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... analysis with operational safety management....
LI Shichun
2004-01-01
Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.
Relation among C-curve characterization diagrams
无
2007-01-01
As three control points are fixed and the fourth control point varies, the planar cubic C-curve may take on a loop, a cusp, or zero to two inflection points, depending on the position of the moving point. The plane can, therefore, be partitioned into regions labelled according to the characterization of the curve when the fourth point is in each region. This partitioned plane is called a "characterization diagram". By moving one of the control points but fixing the rest, one can induce different characterization diagrams. In this paper, we investigate the relation among all different characterization diagrams of cubic C-curves based on the singularity conditions proposed by Yang and Wang (2004). We conclude that, no matter what the C-curve type is or which control point varies, the characterization diagrams can be obtained by cutting a common 3D characterization space with a corresponding plane.
Phase Diagrams of Strongly Interacting Theories
Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
We summarize the phase diagrams of SU, SO and Sp gauge theories as function of the number of flavors, colors, and matter representation as well as the ones of phenomenologically relevant chiral gauge theories such as the Bars-Yankielowicz and the generalized Georgi-Glashow models. We finally repo...
Duarte, Luis; Duarte, María
2015-01-01
La precisión en la predicción de la caída de presión esperada durante el flujo multifásico de fluido en la sarta de producción de un pozo es un problema ampliamente conocido en la industria petrolera. Son muchas las correlaciones y modelos mecanísticos que permiten estimar el gradiente de presión en pozos como las correlaciones de: Duns y Ros (2008); Orkiszewski (1967); Hagedorn y Brown (1965), Beggs y Brill (1973), Govier y col. (1999), entre otras. Cada una de ellas presentan condiciones de...
Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif;
1999-01-01
This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y......This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y...
Hockney, Roger
1987-01-01
Algorithmic phase diagrams are a neat and compact representation of the results of comparing the execution time of several algorithms for the solution of the same problem. As an example, the recent results are shown of Gannon and Van Rosendale on the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems of equations in the form of such diagrams. The act of preparing these diagrams has revealed an unexpectedly complex relationship between the best algorithm and the number and size of the tridiagonal systems, which was not evident from the algebraic formulae in the original paper. Even so, for a particular computer, one diagram suffices to predict the best algorithm for all problems that are likely to be encountered the prediction being read directly from the diagram without complex calculation.
Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta
Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre
2016-03-01
In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.
Inductively generating Euler diagrams.
Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi
2011-01-01
Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.
Feynman Diagrams for Beginners
Kumericki, Kresimir
2016-01-01
We give a short introduction to Feynman diagrams, with many exercises. Text is targeted at students who had little or no prior exposure to quantum field theory. We present condensed description of single-particle Dirac equation, free quantum fields and construction of Feynman amplitude using Feynman diagrams. As an example, we give a detailed calculation of cross-section for annihilation of electron and positron into a muon pair. We also show how such calculations are done with the aid of computer.
Equational binary decision diagrams
Groote, J.F.; Pol, J.C. van de
2000-01-01
We incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tautology checkin
Lindenbergh, R.C.
2002-01-01
The classic Voronoi diagram of a configuration of distinct points in the plane associates to each point that part of the plane that is closer to the point than to any other point in the configuration. In this thesis we no longer require all points to be distinct. After the introduction in
Equational binary decision diagrams
J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)
2000-01-01
textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Kneupper, Charles W.
1978-01-01
Responds to Charles Willard's recommendations (in an article in "Communication Monographs," November 1976) that argument be viewed as an attempt to establish formal relationships among symbolic structures. Demonstrates flaws in this redefinition and shows argument diagrams to be theoretically and practically justifiable. (JMF)
Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams
Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter
2008-01-01
The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...
Equational binary decision diagrams
J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)
2000-01-01
textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and tauto
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik
2002-01-01
This paper presents a new data structure called boolean expression diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space. Two algorithms are described for transforming...... a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One is a generalized version of the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. This ability is demonstrated by verifying that two different circuit implementations of a 16-bit multiplier implement the same...... Boolean function. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved efficiently, while using standard BDD techniques this problem is infeasible. Generally, BEDs are useful in applications, for example tautology checking, where the end-result as a reduced ordered BDD is small. Moreover, using operators...
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik
1997-01-01
This paper presents a new data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) which can represent any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable...... properties of BDDs. Two algorithms are described for transforming a BED into a reduced ordered BDD. One closely mimics the BDD apply-operator while the other can exploit the structural information of the Boolean expression. The efficacy of the BED representation is demonstrated by verifying...... that the redundant and non-redundant versions of the ISCAS 85 benchmark circuits are identical. In particular, it is verified that the two 16-bit multiplication circuits (c6288 and c6288nr) implement the same Boolean functions. Using BEDs, this verification problem is solved in less than a second, while using...
Øhrstrøm, Peter
2011-01-01
Some very good arguments can be given in favor of the Augustinean wisdom, according to which it is impossible to provide a satisfactory definition of the concept of time. However, even in the absence of a proper definition, it is possible to deal with conceptual problems regarding time. It can...... be done in terms of analogies and metaphors. In particular, it is attractive to make use of Peirce's diagrams by means of which various kinds of conceptual experimentation can be carried out. This paper investigates how Peircean diagrams can be used within the study of time. In particular, we discuss 1......) the topological properties of time, 2) the implicative structure in tense logic, 3) the notions of open future and branching time models, and finally 4) tenselogical alternatives to branching time models....
Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.
Rudin, M.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas NV (United States); O`Brien, M.C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1995-04-01
A planning and management tool was developed that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems to technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. Although the Technology Logic Diagram has been widely used within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, it can be modified for use during the planning of any waste management and environmental cleanup effort.
The Massive Thermal Basketball Diagram
Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-01-01
The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.
Feynman diagram drawing made easy
Baillargeon, Marc; Nogueira, P.
1997-02-01
We present a drawing package optimised for Feynman diagrams. These can be constructed interactively with a mouse-driven graphical interface or from a script file, more suitable to work with a diagram generator. It provides most features encountered in Feynman diagrams and allows to modify every part of a diagram after its creation. Special attention has been paid to obtain a high quality printout as easily as possible. This package is written in Tcl/Tk and in C.
Voronoi diagrams on the sphere
Na, H.-S.; Lee, C.-N.; Cheong, O.
2001-01-01
Given a set of compact sites on a sphere, we show that their spherical Voronoi diagram can be computed by computing two planar Voronoi diagrams of suitably transformed sites in the plane. We also show that a planar furthest-site Voronoi diagram can always be obtained as a portion of a
Knot probabilities in random diagrams
Cantarella, Jason; Chapman, Harrison; Mastin, Matt
2016-10-01
We consider a natural model of random knotting—choose a knot diagram at random from the finite set of diagrams with n crossings. We tabulate diagrams with 10 and fewer crossings and classify the diagrams by knot type, allowing us to compute exact probabilities for knots in this model. As expected, most diagrams with 10 and fewer crossings are unknots (about 78% of the roughly 1.6 billion 10 crossing diagrams). For these crossing numbers, the unknot fraction is mostly explained by the prevalence of ‘tree-like’ diagrams which are unknots for any assignment of over/under information at crossings. The data shows a roughly linear relationship between the log of knot type probability and the log of the frequency rank of the knot type, analogous to Zipf’s law for word frequency. The complete tabulation and all knot frequencies are included as supplementary data.
Collective neurodynamics: Phase diagram
Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Li, Wenyuan; Schwartz, Robert N.; Hudson, Andrew E.; Meier, Karlheinz; Wang, Kang L.
2016-01-01
Here, we conceptualize the phase diagram of collective short-term bio-chemo-electric component of neurodynamics (S-ND) on the parameter space of externally, e.g., pharmacologically, controllable single-neuron parameters such as the resting potential and/or firing threshold, repolarization time, etc. This concept may become a useful tool for the systematization of knowledge in anesthesiology and provide a fruitful venue for future studies of the high-level S-ND functionalities such as short-te...
Diagramming Complex Activities
Andersen, Peter Bøgh
2005-01-01
We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines. In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action as...... aspect. The paper suggests thematic roles as a semantics for actions, argues that a selection of well-known diagramming techniques can be defined within this theory, and uses the theory to discuss new issues related to process control and mobile technology....
Smolec, Radoslaw; Dziembowski, Wojciech; Moskalik, Pawel; Netzel, Henryka; Prudil, Zdenek; Skarka, Marek; Soszynski, Igor
2017-09-01
Over the recent years, the Petersen diagram for classical pulsators, Cepheids and RR Lyr stars, populated with a few hundreds of new multiperiodic variables. We review our analyses of the OGLE data, which resulted in a significant extension of the known, and in the discovery of a few new and distinct forms of multiperiodic pulsation. The showcase includes not only radial mode pulsators, but also radial-non-radial pulsators and stars with significant modulation observed on top of the beat pulsation. First theoretical models explaining the new forms of stellar variability are briefly discussed.
Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams
Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.
2006-01-01
A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.
Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams
Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie
2014-09-01
According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.
Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis
Carter, Jessica M H Grund
2010-01-01
The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis. In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups...
Modeling process flow using diagrams
Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.
2010-01-01
In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process
Modeling process flow using diagrams
Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.
2010-01-01
In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improv
Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.
Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico
2015-04-01
A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.
Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.
Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis
2016-02-01
Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.
The Genesis of Feynman Diagrams
Wuthrich, Adrian
2011-01-01
In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were concep
Farthest-Polygon Voronoi Diagrams
Cheong, Otfried; Glisse, Marc; Gudmundsson, Joachim; Hornus, Samuel; Lazard, Sylvain; Lee, Mira; Na, Hyeon-Suk
2010-01-01
Given a family of k disjoint connected polygonal sites in general position and of total complexity n, we consider the farthest-site Voronoi diagram of these sites, where the distance to a site is the distance to a closest point on it. We show that the complexity of this diagram is O(n), and give an O(n log^3 n) time algorithm to compute it. We also prove a number of structural properties of this diagram. In particular, a Voronoi region may consist of k-1 connected components, but if one component is bounded, then it is equal to the entire region.
Scattering equations and Feynman diagrams
Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.
2015-09-01
We show a direct matching between individual Feynman diagrams and integration measures in the scattering equation formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan. The connection is most easily explained in terms of triangular graphs associated with planar Feynman diagrams in φ 3-theory. We also discuss the generalization to general scalar field theories with φ p interactions, corresponding to polygonal graphs involving vertices of order p. Finally, we describe how the same graph-theoretic language can be used to provide the precise link between individual Feynman diagrams and string theory integrands.
Scattering Equations and Feynman Diagrams
Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H
2015-01-01
We show a direct matching between individual Feynman diagrams and integration measures in the scattering equation formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan. The connection is most easily explained in terms of triangular graphs associated with planar Feynman diagrams in $\\phi^3$-theory. We also discuss the generalization to general scalar field theories with $\\phi^p$ interactions, corresponding to polygonal graphs involving vertices of order $p$. Finally, we describe how the same graph-theoretic language can be used to provide the precise link between individual Feynman diagrams and string theory integrands.
Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That
Daniel, Michael
2006-01-01
Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.
Revised Phase Diagram of the Gross-Neveu Model
Thies, M; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad
2003-01-01
We confirm earlier hints that the conventional phase diagram of the discrete chiral Gross-Neveu model in the large N limit is deficient at non-zero chemical potential. We present the corrected phase diagram constructed in mean field theory. It has three different phases, including a kink-antikink crystal phase. All transitions are second order. The driving mechanism for the new structure of baryonic matter in the Gross-Neveu model is an Overhauser type instability with gap formation at the Fermi surface.
Causal diagrams for physical models
Kinsler, Paul
2015-01-01
I present a scheme of drawing causal diagrams based on physically motivated mathematical models expressed in terms of temporal differential equations. They provide a means of better understanding the processes and causal relationships contained within such systems.
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams
Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø
Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...
Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland
Kedwards, Dale
2014-01-01
This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....
Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.
1983-05-01
Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.
de las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias
2015-05-20
We give a full account of a recently proposed theory that explicitly relates the bulk phase diagram of a binary colloidal mixture to its phase stacking phenomenology under gravity (de las Heras and Schmidt 2013 Soft Matter 9 8636). As we demonstrate, the full set of possible phase stacking sequences in sedimentation-diffusion equilibrium originates from straight lines (sedimentation paths) in the chemical potential representation of the bulk phase diagram. From the analysis of various standard topologies of bulk phase diagrams, we conclude that the corresponding sedimentation stacking diagrams can be very rich, even more so when finite sample height is taken into account. We apply the theory to obtain the stacking diagram of a mixture of nonadsorbing polymers and colloids. We also present a catalog of generic phase diagrams in the plane of chemical potentials in order to facilitate the practical application of our concept, which also generalizes to multi-component mixtures.
The Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram
Capozziello, S; Dainotti, M G; De Laurentis, M; Izzo, L; Perillo, M
2011-01-01
Thanks to their enormous energy release, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa). We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial LCDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa to calibrate the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs finding any significant dependence. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift to obtain any statistical improvement. Under this assumption, we then consider possible systematics effects on the HDs introduced by the calibration method, the averaging procedure and the homogeneity of the sample arguing against any significant bias.
Perfect orderings on Bratteli diagrams
Bezuglyi, Sergey; Yassawi, Reem
2012-01-01
Given a Bratteli diagram B, we study the set O(B) of all possible orderings w on a Bratteli diagram B and its subset P(B) consisting of `perfect' orderings that produce Bratteli-Vershik dynamical systems (Vershik maps). We give necessary and sufficient conditions for w to be perfect. On the other hand, a wide class of non-simple Bratteli diagrams that do not admit Vershik maps is explicitly described. In the case of finite rank Bratteli diagrams, we show that the existence of perfect orderings with a prescribed number of extreme paths affects significantly the values of the entries of the incidence matrices and the structure of the diagram B. Endowing the set O(B) with product measure, we prove that there is some j such that almost all orderings on B have j maximal and minimal paths, and that if j is strictly greater than the number of minimal components that B has, then almost all orderings are imperfect.
Improving modeling with layered UML diagrams
Störrle, Harald
2013-01-01
Layered diagrams are diagrams whose elements are organized into sets of layers. Layered diagrams are routinely used in many branches of engineering, except Software Engineering. In this paper, we propose to add layered diagrams to UML modeling tools, and elaborate the concept by exploring usage...
Nonabelian cut diagrams and their applications
Lam, C S
1996-01-01
A new kind of cut diagram is introduced to sum Feynman diagrams with nonabelian vertices. Unlike the Cutkosky diagrams which compute the discontinuity of single Feynman diagrams, the nonabelian cut diagrams represent a resummation of both the real and the imaginary parts of Feynman diagrams related by permutations. Several applications of the technique are reported, including a resolution of the apparent inconsistency of the baryon problem in large-N_c QCD, a simplified calculation of high-energy low-order QCD diagrams, and progress made with this technique on the unitarization of the BFKL equation.
Visualizing spacetimes via embedding diagrams
Hledik, Stanislav; Cipko, Alois
2016-01-01
It is hard to imagine curved spacetimes of General Relativity. A simple but powerful way how to achieve this is visualizing them via embedding diagrams of both ordinary geometry and optical reference geometry. They facilitate to gain an intuitive insight into the gravitational field rendered into a curved spacetime, and to assess the influence of parameters like electric charge and spin of a black hole, magnetic field or cosmological constant. Optical reference geometry and related inertial forces and their relationship to embedding diagrams are particularly useful for investigation of test particles motion. Embedding diagrams of static and spherically symmetric, or stationary and axially symmetric black-hole and naked-singularity spacetimes thus present a useful concept for intuitive understanding of these spacetimes' nature. We concentrate on general way of embedding into 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and give a set of illustrative examples.
Gershon, Tim
2007-01-01
"Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams
Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...
Electrical elementary diagrams and operators
Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: HumanFactors@netscape.ca
2005-07-01
After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)
The diagram for phyllotactic series
Joanna Szymanowska-Pułka
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Many authors studying phyllotaxis in various plant species have reported the occurrence of many different numbers of contact parastichy pairs that are members of different Fibonacci-like series. On the basis of these reports a diagram was constructed in which any theoretically possible series was represented by the two first members of a given series.
BIHOURLY DIAGRAMS OF FORBUSH DECREASES
Bihourly diagrams were made of Forbush decreases of cosmic ray intensity as observed at Uppsala from 31 Aug 56 to 31 Dec 59, at Kiruna from Nov 56 to 31 Dec 59, and at Murchison Bay from 26 Aug 57 to 30 Apr 59. (Author)
Phase diagram of Hertzian spheres
Pàmies, J.C.; Cacciuto, A.; Frenkel, D.
2009-01-01
We report the phase diagram of interpenetrating Hertzian spheres. The Hertz potential is purely repulsive, bounded at zero separation, and decreases monotonically as a power law with exponent 5/2, vanishing at the overlapping threshold. This simple functional describes the elastic interaction of wea
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams
Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø
Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...
Multi-currency Influence Diagrams
Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.
2007-01-01
When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption that the...
Multi-currency Influence Diagrams
Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner
2004-01-01
that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the Influence Diagram framework, which allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a conversion function between the currencies, discovers...
Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram
Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.
2012-06-01
The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.
Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams
Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui; Kyono, Hideki
2017-05-01
We revisit the so-called "Geodesic Witten Diagrams" (GWDs) [1], proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related "split representation" for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.
Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion
Kirshner, Robert P.
2003-01-01
Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...
Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion
Kirshner, Robert P.
2003-01-01
Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...
Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams
Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.
1975-01-01
Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.
Phase diagram of crushed powders
Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel
2016-12-01
Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.
Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams
Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.
2017-03-01
During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.
Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD
Bindslev, H.
2004-01-01
A Clemmov-Mullaly-Allis (CMA) type diagram, the ECW-CMA diagram, for representing the operational possibilities of electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECRH/ECCD) systems for fusion plasmas is presented. In this diagram, with normalized density and normalized magnetic field coordinates...
Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams
Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde
2013-01-01
This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…
Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams
Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde
2013-01-01
This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…
Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.
Rupp, Bernhard
2015-03-01
Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed.
Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes
Lucero, Andrés
2015-01-01
Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses...... our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...
Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams
Störrle, Harald
2016-01-01
, though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...
Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology
Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel
2009-01-01
We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel......–Smith symplectic link invariant coincides with the difference between the homological grading on Khovanov homology and the Jones grading on Khovanov homology. We give some evidence for the truth of the Seidel–Smith conjecture....
Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram
Thompson, M. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.
2003-05-01
Ground-based observations have detected solar-like oscillations on Sun-like stars, and diagnostics similar to those used in helioseismology are now being used to test and constrain the physics and evolutionary state of these stars. Multi-mode oscillations are being observed in an abundance of other stars, including slowly pulsating B stars (SPB stars), delta-Scuti stars, Ap stars and the pulsating white dwarfs. New classes of pulsators continue to be discovered across the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Yet the chances still to be faced to make asteroseismology across the HR diagram a reality are formidable. Observation, data analysis and theory all pose hard problems to be overcome. This book, reflecting the goal of the meeting, aims to facilitate a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches between fields covering different pulsators and with different areas of expertise. The book successfully covers most known types of pulsators, reflecting a highly productive and far reaching interchange of ideas which we believe is conveyed by the papers and posters published, making it a reference for researchers and postgraduate students working on stellar structure and evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1173-3
Gupta, H.; Morral, J. E.; Nowotny, H.
1986-01-01
A procedure is introduced which can be used to draw isothermal sections from a multicomponent phase diagram in a matter of minutes, regardless of the diagram complexity. In the proposed method, the zero phase fraction (ZPF) lines are drawn separately for all phases existing in the system; by overlapping these ZPF lines, the desired section is obtained. Two examples - with five components and eight components - are given to illustrate the method. Regarding the second example, it is noted that although the final diagram may be altered to create discontinuities in slope at intersection points, the diagram remains unchanged from a topological standpoint. Thus, the overlapping ZPF lines supply all the information needed to construct complex diagrams. Even if many more phases and components are involved, the final diagram can be drawn with equal facility.
Continuation of point clouds via persistence diagrams
Gameiro, Marcio; Hiraoka, Yasuaki; Obayashi, Ippei
2016-11-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical and algorithmic framework for the continuation of point clouds by persistence diagrams. A key property used in the method is that the persistence map, which assigns a persistence diagram to a point cloud, is differentiable. This allows us to apply the Newton-Raphson continuation method in this setting. Given an original point cloud P, its persistence diagram D, and a target persistence diagram D‧, we gradually move from D to D‧, by successively computing intermediate point clouds until we finally find a point cloud P‧ having D‧ as its persistence diagram. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of situations in topological data analysis where it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, from persistence diagrams to point cloud data.
Mathematical review on source-type diagrams
Aso, Naofumi; Ohta, Kazuaki; Ide, Satoshi
2016-03-01
A source-type diagram is a visualization tool used to display earthquake sources, including double-couples, compensated linear vector dipoles, and isotropic deformation. Together with recent observations of non-double-couple events in a variety of tectonic settings, it is important to be able to recognize the source type intuitively from a representative diagram. Since previous works have proposed diagrams created using a range of projections, we review these diagrams in the framework of the moment tensor eigenvalue space. For further applications, we also provide complete formulas for conversion between moment tensor representation and the coordinate system of each diagram style. Using both a global catalog and synthetic data, we discuss differences between types of diagrams and the relative effectiveness of each.
Retrospect and Prospect of the Influence Diagram
LiuYanqiong; ShenYongping; ChenYingwu
2005-01-01
The evaluation algorithm and the application of the influence diagram were surveyed, which argues that to construct an explicit,compact and objective influence diagram is of the most importance. There are two suggested ways for realization of the influence diagram: introducing the achievements of the modern psychology, cognitive science, behavior science, and so on to represent and solve uncertainty to build a well-constructed influence diagram; based on the observed data to build an influence diagram. Also, the limitations of the influence diagram were analyzed, such as that it cannot deal with asynunetric problems efficiently, cannot picture dynamic problems,cannot model the problems with a limitless horizon, and ther is no highly efficient algorithm. And some potential methods to overcome these limitations were pointed out.
Simple thermodynamic model for the hydrogen phase diagram
Magdǎu, Ioan B.; Marqués, Miriam; Borgulya, Balint; Ackland, Graeme J.
2017-03-01
We describe a classical thermodynamic model that reproduces the main features of the solid hydrogen phase diagram. In particular, we show how the general structure types, which are found by electronic structure calculations and the quantum nature of the protons, can also be understood from a classical viewpoint. The model provides a picture not only of crystal structure, but also for the anomalous melting curve and insights into isotope effects, liquid metallisation, and infrared activity. The existence of a classical picture for this most quantum of condensed matter systems provides a surprising extension of the correspondence principle of quantum mechanics, in particular the equivalent effects of classical and quantum uncertainty.
Rajagopal, K
1999-01-01
The QCD vacuum in which we live, which has the familiar hadrons as its excitations, is but one phase of QCD, and far from the simplest one at that. One way to better understand this phase and the nonperturbative dynamics of QCD more generally is to study other phases and the transitions between phases. We are engaged in a voyage of exploration, mapping the QCD phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon number chemical potential mu . Because of asymptotic freedom, the high temperature and high baryon density phases of QCD are more simply and more appropriately described in terms of quarks and gluons as degrees of freedom, rather than hadrons. The chiral symmetry breaking condensate which characterizes the vacuum phase melts away. At high densities, quarks form Cooper pairs and new condensates develop. The formation of such superconducting phases requires only weak attractive interactions; these phases may nevertheless break chiral symmetry and have excitations which are indistinguishable from thos...
Herrmann, Enrico
2016-01-01
We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only $\\dlog$-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for $\\N=8$ supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum, poles at infinity are present and loop amplitudes show special behavior on certain collinear cuts. We demonstrate on 1-loop and 2-loop examples that the behavior on collinear cuts is a highly non-trivial property which requires cancellations between all terms contributing to the amplitude.
Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)
2016-11-22
We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2015)202.
Solving Limited Memory Influence Diagrams
Mauá, Denis Deratani; Zaffalon, Marco
2011-01-01
We present a new algorithm for exactly solving decision making problems represented as influence diagrams. We do not require the usual assumptions of no forgetting and regularity; this allows us to solve problems with simultaneous decisions and limited information. The algorithm is empirically shown to outperform a state-of-the-art algorithm on randomly generated problems of up to 150 variables and $10^{64}$ solutions. We show that the problem is NP-hard even if the underlying graph structure of the problem has small treewidth and the variables take on a bounded number of states, but that a fully polynomial time approximation scheme exists for these cases. Moreover, we show that the bound on the number of states is a necessary condition for any efficient approximation scheme.
Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate
Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.
2014-05-01
Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.
Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams
Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn
2016-07-15
Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.
Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations
Venter, Jacobus
This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that they are beneficial to first responders performing searches and seizures, and they speed up investigations, including those conducted by experienced personnel.
The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
Langer, N
2014-01-01
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is an essential diagnostic diagram for stellar structure and evolution, which has now been in use for more than 100 years. Our spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell (sHR) diagram shows the inverse of the flux-mean gravity versus the effective temperature. Observed stars whose spectra have been quantitatively analyzed can be entered in this diagram without the knowledge of the stellar distance or absolute brightness. Observed stars can be as conveniently compared to stellar evolution calculations in the sHR diagram as in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. However, at the same time, our ordinate is proportional to the stellar mass-to-luminosity ratio, which can thus be directly determined. For intermediate- and low-mass star evolution at constant mass, we show that the shape of an evolutionary track in the sHR diagram is identical to that in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We also demonstrate that for hot stars, their stellar Eddington factor can be directly read off the sHR diagram. ...
Hofstadter Butterfly Diagram in Noncommutative Space
Takahashi, H; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Masanori
2006-01-01
We study an energy spectrum of electron moving under the constant magnetic field in two dimensional noncommutative space. It take place with the gauge invariant way. The Hofstadter butterfly diagram of the noncommutative space is calculated in terms of the lattice model which is derived by the Bopp's shift for space and by the Peierls substitution for external magnetic field. We also find the fractal structure in new diagram. Although the global features of the new diagram are similar to the diagram of the commutative space, the detail structure is different from it.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development
Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and
Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.
Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and
Electrodynamic metaphors: communicating particle physics with Feynman diagrams
Pietroni Massimo
2002-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this project is to communicate the basic laws of particle physics with Feynman diagrams - visual tools which represent elementary particle processes. They were originally developed as a code to be used by physicists and are still used today for calculations and elaborations of theoretical nature. The technical and mathematical rules of Feynman diagrams are obviously the exclusive concern of physicists, but on a pictorial level they can help to popularize many concepts, ranging from matter and the antimatter; the creation, destruction and transformation of particles; the role of ‘virtual’ particles in interactions; the conservation laws, symmetries, etc. Unlike the metaphors often used to describe the microcosm, these graphic representations provide an unequivocal translation of the physical content of the underlying quantum theory. As such they are perfect metaphors, not misleading constructions. A brief introduction on Feynman diagrams will be followed by the practical realization of this project, which will be carried out with the help of an experiment based on three-dimensional manipulable objects. The Feynman rules are expressed in terms of mechanical constraints on the possible conjuctions among the various elements of the experiment. The final part of the project will present the results of this experiment, which has been conducted among high-school students.
The phase diagram of the massive Gross-Neveu model, revisited
Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad
2005-01-01
The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The phase diagram features a kink-antikink crystal phase which was missed in previous works. Translated into the framework of condensed matter physics our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.
Lubrication modes and the IRG transition diagram
Schipper, D.J.; Gee, de A.W.J.
1995-01-01
The relationship between a Lubrication Mode Diagram (LMD) for concentrated contacts (LCC's) and the IRG transition diagram has been studied. In addition, scuffing results, obtained by the IRG (International Research Group) have been analysed, as well as the results of scuffing tests performed by dif
Comprehending process diagrams in biology education
Kragten, M.
2015-01-01
Students in secondary Science education seem to have difficulties with comprehending diagrams. Process diagrams are an important type of representation in Biology for explaining processes like protein synthesis, compound cycles, etc. In this thesis, we aimed at getting deeper insight into students’
Ferroelectric phase diagram of PVDF:PMMA
Li, M.; Stingelin, N.; Michels, J.J.; Spijkman, M.-J.; Asadi, K.; Feldman, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de
2012-01-01
We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of α- and β-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric β-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made b
Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF : PMMA
Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.
2012-01-01
We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films w
Automatically extracting class diagrams from spreadsheets
Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.
2010-01-01
The use of spreadsheets to capture information is widespread in industry. Spreadsheets can thus be a wealthy source of domain information. We propose to automatically extract this information and transform it into class diagrams. The resulting class diagram can be used by software engineers to under
Structural Controllability and Observability in Influence Diagrams
Chan, Brian Y.; Shachter, Ross D.
2013-01-01
Influence diagram is a graphical representation of belief networks with uncertainty. This article studies the structural properties of a probabilistic model in an influence diagram. In particular, structural controllability theorems and structural observability theorems are developed and algorithms are formulated. Controllability and observability are fundamental concepts in dynamic systems (Luenberger 1979). Controllability corresponds to the ability to control a system while observability a...
Automatic fitting procedure for the fundamental diagram
Knoop, V.L.; Daamen, W.
2014-01-01
The fundamental diagram of a road, including free flow capacity and queue discharge rate, is very important for traffic engineering purposes. In the real word, most traffic measurements come from stationary loop detectors. This paper proposes a method to fit Wu’s fundamental diagram to loop detector
Resummation of Cactus Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Panagopoulos, H
1998-01-01
We show how to perform a resummation, to all orders in perturbation theory, of a certain class of gauge invariant diagrams in Lattice QCD. These diagrams are often largely responsible for lattice artifacts. Our resummation leads to an improved perturbative expansion. Applied to a number of cases of interest, this expansion yields results remarkably close to corresponding nonperturbative estimates.
Persistence Diagrams and the Heat Equation Homotopy
Fasy, Brittany Terese
2010-01-01
Persistence homology is a tool used to measure topological features that are present in data sets and functions. Persistence pairs births and deaths of these features as we iterate through the sublevel sets of the data or function of interest. I am concerned with using persistence to characterize the difference between two functions f, g : M -> R, where M is a topological space. Furthermore, I formulate a homotopy from g to f by applying the heat equation to the difference function g-f. By stacking the persistence diagrams associated with this homotopy, we create a vineyard of curves that connect the points in the diagram for f with the points in the diagram for g. I look at the diagrams where M is a square, a sphere, a torus, and a Klein bottle. Looking at these four topologies, we notice trends (and differences) as the persistence diagrams change with respect to time.
Free-Body Diagrams: Necessary or Sufficient?
Rosengrant, David; Van Heuvelen, Alan; Etkina, Eugenia
2005-09-01
The Rutgers PAER group is working to help students develop various scientific abilities. One of the abilities is to create, understand and learn to use for qualitative reasoning and problem solving different representations of physical processes such as pictorial representations, motion diagrams, free-body diagrams, and energy bar charts. Physics education literature indicates that using multiple representations is beneficial for student understanding of physics ideas and for problem solving. We developed a special approach to construct and utilize free-body diagrams for representing physical phenomena and for problem solving. We will examine whether students draw free-body diagrams in solving problems when they know they will not receive credit for it; the consistency of their use in different conceptual areas; and if students who use free-body diagrams while solving problems in different areas of physics are more successful then those who do not.
Phase diagram of elastic spheres.
Athanasopoulou, L; Ziherl, P
2017-02-15
Experiments show that polymeric nanoparticles often self-assemble into several non-close-packed lattices in addition to the face-centered cubic lattice. Here, we explore theoretically the possibility that the observed phase sequences may be associated with the softness of the particles, which are modeled as elastic spheres interacting upon contact. The spheres are described by two finite-deformation theories of elasticity, the modified Saint-Venant-Kirchhoff model and the neo-Hookean model. We determine the range of indentations where the repulsion between the spheres is pairwise additive and agrees with the Hertz theory. By computing the elastic energies of nine trial crystal lattices at densities far beyond the Hertzian range, we construct the phase diagram and find the face- and body-centered cubic lattices as well as the A15 lattice and the simple hexagonal lattice, with the last two being stable at large densities where the spheres are completely faceted. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations, suggesting that deformability may indeed be viewed as a generic property that determines the phase behavior in nanocolloidal suspensions.
Faceting diagram for sticky steps
Noriko Akutsu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.
Breviz: Visualizing Spreadsheets using Dataflow Diagrams
Hermans, Felienne; van Deursen, Arie
2011-01-01
Spreadsheets are used extensively in industry, often for business critical purposes. In previous work we have analyzed the information needs of spreadsheet professionals and addressed their need for support with the transition of a spreadsheet to a colleague with the generation of data flow diagrams. In this paper we describe the application of these data flow diagrams for the purpose of understanding a spreadsheet with three example cases. We furthermore suggest an additional application of the data flow diagrams: the assessment of the quality of the spreadsheet's design.
Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram
Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng
2004-01-01
An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.
Dynamical Dark Matter from Strongly-Coupled Dark Sectors
Dienes, Keith R; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks
2016-01-01
Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles --- motivated primarily by KK towers in theories with extra dimensions --- in which the density of states scales roughly as a polynomial of mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadrons" associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally --- even with an ex...
Laszlo A. Marosi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.
Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams
Zoltan Bun
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact
Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching
Zhang, Zhengkang
2016-01-01
We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed "covariant diagrams." The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.
Revised Diagnostic Diagrams for Planetary Nebulae
Riesgo, H
2006-01-01
Diagnostic diagrams of electron density - excitation for a sample of 613 planetary nebulae are presented. The present extensive sample allows the definition of new statistical limits for the distribution of planetary nebulae in the log [Ha/[SII
Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching
Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-10-15
We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.
A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool
Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle
2008-01-01
The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.
Phase diagram to design passive nanostructures
Lee, Jeng Yi
2015-01-01
A phase diagram, defined by the amplitude square and phase of scattering coefficients for absorption cross-section in each individual channel, is introduced as a universal map on the electromagnetic properties for passive scatterers. General physical bounds are naturally revealed based on the intrinsic power conservation in a passive scattering system, entailing power competitions among scattering, absorption, and extinction. Exotic scattering and absorption phenomena, from resonant scattering, invisible cloaking, coherent perfect absorber, and subwavelength superscattering can all be illustrated in this phase diagram. With electrically small core-shell scatterers as an example, we demonstrate a systematic method to design field-controllable structures based on the allowed trajectories in the phase diagram. The proposed phase diagram not only provides a simple tool to design optical devices but also promotes a deep understanding on Mie's scattering theory.
Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams
Bashkin, Stanley
1975-01-01
Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
For decades the central theoretical tool for computing scattering amplitudes has been the Feynman diagram. However, Feynman diagrams are just too slow, even on fast computers, to be able to go beyond the leading order in QCD, for complicated events with many jets of hadrons in the final state. Such events are produced copiously at the LHC, and constitute formidable backgrounds to many searches for new physics. Over the past few years, alternative methods that go beyond ...
The application of diagrams in architectural design
Dulić Olivera
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Diagrams in architecture represent the visualization of the thinking process, or selective abstraction of concepts or ideas translated into the form of drawings. In addition, they provide insight into the way of thinking about and in architecture, thus creating a balance between the visual and the conceptual. The subject of research presented in this paper are diagrams as a specific kind of architectural representation, and possibilities and importance of their application in the design process. Diagrams are almost old as architecture itself, and they are an element of some of the most important studies of architecture during all periods of history - which results in a large number of different definitions of diagrams, but also very different conceptualizations of their features, functions and applications. The diagrams become part of contemporary architectural discourse during the eighties and nineties of the twentieth century, especially through the work of architects like Bernard Tschumi, Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas, SANAA and others. The use of diagrams in the design process allows unification of some of the essential aspects of the profession: architectural representation and design process, as well as the question of the concept of architectural and urban design at a time of rapid changes at all levels of contemporary society. The aim of the research is the analysis of the diagram as a specific medium for processing large amounts of information that the architect should consider and incorporate into the architectural work. On that basis, it is assumed that an architectural diagram allows the creator the identification and analysis of specific elements or ideas of physical form, thereby constantly maintaining concept of the integrity of the architectural work.
QCD Phase Diagram with Imaginary Chemical Potential
Nakamura Atsushi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We report our recent results on the QCD phase diagram obtained from the lattice QCD simulation. The location of the phase boundary between hadronic and QGP phases in the two-flavor QCD phase diagram is investigated. The imaginary chemical potential approach is employed, which is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the QCD with imaginary chemical potential and analytic continuation to the real chemical potential region.
ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams
Schmitz, Gregory V.
2001-01-01
The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.
An Introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams
Andersen, Henrik Reif
1996-01-01
This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996.......This note is a short introduction to Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). It provides some background knowledge and describes the core algorithms. It is used in the course "C4340 Advanced Algorithms" at the Technical University of Denmark, autumn 1996....
Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box
Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël
We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....
Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box
Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël
We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....
Belkacem, M; Bass, S A; Bleicher, M; Bravina, L V; Gorenstein, M I; Konopka, J; Neise, L; Spieles, C; Soff, S; Weber, H; Stöcker, H; Greiner, W
1998-01-01
Equilibrium properties of infinite relativistic hadron matter are investigated using the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The simulations are performed in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Equilibration times depend critically on energy and baryon densities. Energy spectra of various hadronic species are shown to be isotropic and consistent with a single temperature in equilibrium. The variation of energy density versus temperature shows a Hagedorn-like behavior with a limiting temperature of 130$\\pm$10 MeV. Comparison of abundances of different particle species to ideal hadron gas model predictions show good agreement only if detailed balance is implemented for all channels. At low energy densities, high mass resonances are not relevant; however, their importance raises with increasing energy density. The relevance of these different conceptual frameworks for any interpretation of experimental data is questioned.
Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts
Vigneresse, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jean-louis.vigneresse@univ-lorraine.fr
2014-10-31
Highlights: • Qualitative information from HSAB descriptors. • 2D–3D diagrams using chemical descriptors (χ, η, ω, α) and principles (MHP, mEP, mPP). • Estimate of the energy exchange during reaction paths. • Examples from complex systems (geochemistry). - Abstract: Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands.
Phase Diagram in Quantum Chromodynamics
Apostol, M
2013-01-01
It is suggested that the hadronization of the quark-gluon plasma is a first-order phase transition described by a critical curve in the temperature-(quark) density plane which terminates in a critical point. Such a critical curve is derived from the van der Waals equation and its parameters are estimated by using the theoretical approach given in M. Apostol, Roum. Reps. Phys. 59 249 (2007); Mod. Phys. Lett. B21 893 (2007). The main assumption is that quark-gluon plasma created by high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is a gas of ultrarelativistic quarks in equilibrium with gluons (vanishing chemical potential, indefinite number of quarks). This plasma expands, gets cool and dilute and hadronizes at a certain transition temperature and transition density. The transition density is very close to the saturation density of the nuclear matter and, it is suggested that both these points are very close to the critical point n~1fm^{-3} (quark density) and T~200MeV (temperature).
Einasto, Jaan
2013-01-01
I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic...
Ground-State Phase Diagram of S = 1 Diamond Chains
Hida, Kazuo; Takano, Ken'ichi
2017-03-01
We investigate the ground-state phase diagram of a spin-1 diamond chain. Owing to a series of conservation laws, any eigenstate of this system can be expressed using the eigenstates of finite odd-length chains or infinite chains with spins 1 and 2. The ground state undergoes quantum phase transitions with varying λ, a parameter that controls frustration. Exact upper and lower bounds for the phase boundaries between these phases are obtained. The phase boundaries are determined numerically in the region not explored in a previous work [Takano et al., https://doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/8/35/009" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 8, 6405 (1996)].
Full Phase Diagram of the Massive Gross-Neveu Model
Schnetz, O; Urlichs, K; Schnetz, Oliver; Thies, Michael; Urlichs, Konrad
2006-01-01
The massive Gross-Neveu model is solved in the large N limit at finite temperature and chemical potential. The scalar potential is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. It contains three parameters which are determined by transcendental equations. Self-consistency of the scalar potential is proved. The phase diagram for non-zero bare quark mass is found to contain a kink-antikink crystal phase as well as a massive fermion gas phase featuring a cross-over from light to heavy effective fermion mass. For zero bare quark mass we recover the three known phases kink-antikink crystal, massless fermion gas, and massive fermion gas. All phase transitions are shown to be of second order. Equations for the phase boundaries are given and solved numerically. Implications on condensed matter physics are indicated where our results generalize the bipolaron lattice in non-degenerate conducting polymers to finite temperature.
Pathway collages: personalized multi-pathway diagrams.
Paley, Suzanne; O'Maille, Paul E; Weaver, Daniel; Karp, Peter D
2016-12-13
Metabolic pathway diagrams are a classical way of visualizing a linked cascade of biochemical reactions. However, to understand some biochemical situations, viewing a single pathway is insufficient, whereas viewing the entire metabolic network results in information overload. How do we enable scientists to rapidly construct personalized multi-pathway diagrams that depict a desired collection of interacting pathways that emphasize particular pathway interactions? We define software for constructing personalized multi-pathway diagrams called pathway-collages using a combination of manual and automatic layouts. The user specifies a set of pathways of interest for the collage from a Pathway/Genome Database. Layouts for the individual pathways are generated by the Pathway Tools software, and are sent to a Javascript Pathway Collage application implemented using Cytoscape.js. That application allows the user to re-position pathways; define connections between pathways; change visual style parameters; and paint metabolomics, gene expression, and reaction flux data onto the collage to obtain a desired multi-pathway diagram. We demonstrate the use of pathway collages in two application areas: a metabolomics study of pathogen drug response, and an Escherichia coli metabolic model. Pathway collages enable facile construction of personalized multi-pathway diagrams.
The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning
Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.
2015-01-01
Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…
Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development
Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disea
Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.
Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disea
Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.
Van Buuren, S.; Ooms, J.C.L.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disea
Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy
Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James
2010-01-01
Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…
Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy
Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James
2010-01-01
Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…
Visualizing Metrics on Areas of Interest in Software Architecture Diagrams
Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Eades, P; Ertl, T; Shen, HW
2009-01-01
We present a new method for the combined visualization of software architecture diagrams, Such as UML class diagrams or component diagrams, and software metrics defined on groups of diagram elements. Our method extends an existing rendering technique for the so-called areas of interest in system arc
Facts at your fingertips introducing physics : matter, energy, and heat
Bateman, Graham
2011-01-01
This series explains and illustrates the science of physics and its everyday applications. Physics is concerned with matter - the stuff from which everything is made - and with energy in all its forms. Matter is everything that surrounds us and this book looks at the different states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) and how matter behaves under various conditions. Explanatory diagrams, key science words, and simple practical experiments to try at home help to provide a perfect introduction to this fascinating subject.
Phase diagram of a truncated tetrahedral model
Krcmar, Roman; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi
2016-08-01
Phase diagram of a discrete counterpart of the classical Heisenberg model, the truncated tetrahedral model, is analyzed on the square lattice, when the interaction is ferromagnetic. Each spin is represented by a unit vector that can point to one of the 12 vertices of the truncated tetrahedron, which is a continuous interpolation between the tetrahedron and the octahedron. Phase diagram of the model is determined by means of the statistical analog of the entanglement entropy, which is numerically calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. The obtained phase diagram consists of four different phases, which are separated by five transition lines. In the parameter region, where the octahedral anisotropy is dominant, a weak first-order phase transition is observed.
Functionality Semantics of Predicate Data Flow Diagram
高晓雷; 缪淮扣; 刘玲
2004-01-01
SOZL (structured methodology + object-oriented methodology + Z language) is a language that attempts to integrate structured method, object-oriented method and formal method. The core of this language is predicate data flow diagram (PDFD). In order to eliminate the ambiguity of predicate data flow diagrams and their associated textual specifications, a formalization of the syntax and semantics of predicate data flow diagrams is necessary. In this paper we use Z notation to define an abstract syntax and the related structural constraints for the PDFD notation, and provide it with an axiomatic semantics based on the concept of data availability and functionality of predicate operation. Finally, an example is given to establish functionality consistent decomposition on hierarchical PDFD (HPDFD).
Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire
Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique des Milieux Complexes (LCPMC), Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070 Metz (France)
2013-06-15
In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J{sub cs} exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given.
A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface
Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.
2011-01-01
To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.
The role of sample height in the stacking diagram of colloidal mixtures under gravity
Geigenfeind, Thomas; de las Heras, Daniel
2017-02-01
Bulk phase separation is responsible for the occurrence of stacks of different layers in sedimentation of colloidal mixtures. A recently proposed theory (de las Heras and Schmidt 2013 Soft Matter 9 8636) establishes a unique connection between the bulk phase behaviour and sedimentation-diffusion-equilibrium. The theory constructs a stacking diagram of all possible sequences of stacks under gravity in the limit of very high (infinite) sample heights. Here, we study the stacking diagrams of colloidal mixtures at finite sample height, h. We demonstrate that h plays a vital role in sedimentation-diffusion-equilibrium of colloidal mixtures. The region of the stacking diagram occupied by a given sequence of stacks depends on h. Hence, two samples with different heights but identical colloidal concentrations can develop different stacking sequences. In addition, the stacking diagrams for different heights can be qualitatively different since some stacking sequences occur only in a given interval of sample heights. We use the theory to investigate the stacking diagrams of both model bulk systems and mixtures of patchy particles that differ either by the number or by the types of patches.
MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework
Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen
2012-01-01
systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way...... checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems....
DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS FOR UML CLASS DIAGRAMS
Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong
2004-01-01
Though Unified Modeling Language (UML) has been widely used in software development, the major problems confronted lie in comprehension and testing. Dependence analysis is an important approach to analyze, understand, test and maintain programs. A new kind of dependence analysis method for UML class diagrams is developed. A set of dependence relations is definedcorresponding to the relations among classes. Thus, the dependence graph of UML class diagram can be constructed from these dependence relations. Based on this model, both slicing and measurement coupling are further given as its two applications.
Phase diagrams modified by interfacial penalties
Atanacković T.M.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The conventional forms of phase diagrams are constructed without consideration of interfacial energies and they represent an important tool for chemical engineers and metallurgists. If interfacial energies are taken into consideration, it is intuitively obvious that the regions of phase equilibria must become smaller, because there is a penalty on the formation of interfaces. We investigate this phenomenon qualitatively for a one-dimensional model, in which the phases occur as layers rather than droplets or bubbles. The modified phase diagrams are shown in Chapters 3 and 4.
Partial chord diagrams and matrix models
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fuji, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Masahide
spectrum. Furthermore, we consider the boundary length and point spectrum that unifies the last two types of spectra. We introduce matrix models that encode generating functions of partial chord diagrams filtered by each of these spectra. Using these matrix models, we derive partial differential equations......In this article, the enumeration of partial chord diagrams is discussed via matrix model techniques. In addition to the basic data such as the number of backbones and chords, we also consider the Euler characteristic, the backbone spectrum, the boundary point spectrum, and the boundary length...... – obtained independently by cut-and-join arguments in an earlier work – for the corresponding generating functions....
The Voronoi diagram of circles made easy
Anton, François; Mioc, Darka; Gold, Christopher
2007-01-01
Proximity queries among circles could be effectively answered if the Delaunay graph for sets of circles could be computed in an efficient and exact way. In this paper, we first show a necessary and sufficient condition of connectivity of the Voronoi diagram of circles. Then, we show how the Delau......Proximity queries among circles could be effectively answered if the Delaunay graph for sets of circles could be computed in an efficient and exact way. In this paper, we first show a necessary and sufficient condition of connectivity of the Voronoi diagram of circles. Then, we show how...
Matter and Interactions: a particle physics perspective
Organtini, Giovanni
2011-01-01
In classical mechanics matter and fields are completely separated. Matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case. Both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this paper we explain why particle physicists believe in such a picture, introducing the technique of Feynman diagrams starting from very basic and popular analogies with classical mechanics, making the physics of elementary particles comprehensible even to high school students, the only prerequisite being the knowledge of the conservation of mechanical energy.
A quarksonic matter at high isospin density
Cao, Gaoqing; Huang, Xu-Guang
2016-01-01
Analogous to the quarkyonic matter at high baryon density in which the quark Fermi seas and the baryonic excitations coexist, it is argued that a "quarksonic matter" phase appears at high isospin density where the quark (antiquark) Fermi seas and the mesonic excitations coexist. We explore this phase in detail in both large $N_c$ and asymptotically free limits: In large $N_c$ limit, we sketch a phase diagram for the quarksonic matter. In the asymptotically free limit, we study the pion superfluidity and thermodynamics of the quarksonic matter by using both perturbative calculations and effective model.
Phases of dense matter with holographic instantons
Preis, Florian
2016-01-01
We discuss nuclear matter and the transition to quark matter in the decompactified limit of the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Nuclear matter is included through instantons on the flavor branes of the model. Our approximation is based on the flat-space solution, but we allow for a dynamical instanton width and deformation and compute the energetically preferred number of instanton layers in the bulk as a function of the baryon chemical potential. We determine the regions in parameter space where the binding energy of nuclear matter is like in QCD, and compute the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential.
Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics
Welzbacher, Christian Andreas
2016-07-14
In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates
Sannino, Francesco
2008-01-01
We summarize basic features associated to dynamical breaking of the electroweak symmetry. The knowledge of the phase diagram of strongly coupled theories as function of the number of colors, flavors and matter representation plays a fundamental role when trying to construct viable extensions of the standard model (SM). Therefore we will report on the status of the phase diagram for SU(N) gauge theories with fermionic matter transforming according to arbitrary representations of the underlying gauge group. We will discuss how the phase diagram can be used to construct unparticle models. We will then review Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) and other extensions, such as partially gauged and split technicolor. MWT is a sufficiently general, symmetry wise, model to be considered as a benchmark for any model aiming at breaking the electroweak symmetry dynamically. The unification of the standard model gauge couplings will be revisited within technicolor extensions of the SM. A number of appendices are added to rev...
Modeling the phase diagram of carbon
Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Los, J.H.; Meijer, E.J.; Fasolino, A.; Frenkel, D.
2005-01-01
We determined the phase diagram involving diamond, graphite, and liquid carbon using a recently developed semiempirical potential. Using accurate free-energy calculations, we computed the solid-solid and solid-liquid phase boundaries for pressures and temperatures up to 400 GPa and 12 000 K, respect
Orphan-Free Anisotropic Voronoi Diagrams
Canas, Guillermo D
2011-01-01
We describe conditions under which an appropriately-defined anisotropic Voronoi diagram of a set of sites in Euclidean space is guaranteed to be composed of connected cells in any number of dimensions. These conditions are natural for problems in optimization and approximation, and algorithms already exist to produce sets of sites that satisfy them.
The BFKL Pomeron calculus: Summing enhanced diagrams
Levin, E., E-mail: leving@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Miller, J., E-mail: jeremy.miller@ist.utl.pt [Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2012-07-01
The goal of this paper is to sum over a class of enhanced diagrams, and derive a new Pomeron Green function. It is found that this sum gives the Pomeron contribution to the scattering amplitude that decreases with energy. In other words, we found that the total cross section of two colourless dipoles of small but equal sizes, falls down at high energies.
Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams
Davydychev, Andrei I.
2016-10-01
A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.
Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning
Friis-Hansen, Andreas
2000-01-01
Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...
The classification of diagrams in perturbation theory
Phillips, D.R.; Afnan, I.R. [School of Physical Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001 (Australia)
1995-06-01
The derivation of scattering equations connecting the amplitudes obtained from diagrammatic expansions is of interest in many branches of physics. One method for deriving such equations is the classification-of-diagrams technique of Taylor. However, as we shall explain in this paper, there are certain points of Taylor`s method which require clarification. First, it is not clear whether Taylor`s original method is equivlant to the simpler classification-of-diagrams scheme used by Thomas, Rinat, Afnan, and Blankleider (TRAB). Second, when the Taylor method is applied to certain problems in a time-dependent perturbation theory it leads to the over-counting of some diagrams. This paper first restates Taylor`s method, in the process uncovering reasons why certain diagrams might be double-counted in the Taylor method. In then explores how far Taylor`s method is equivalent to the simpler TRAB method. Finally, it examines precisely why the double-counting occurs in Taylor`s method and derives corrections which compensate for this double-counting. {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
The Classification of Diagrams in Perturbation Theory
Phillips, D. R.; Afnan, I. R.
1995-06-01
The derivation of scattering equations connecting the amplitudes obtained from diagrammatic expansions is of interest in many branches of physics. One method for deriving such equations is the classification-of-diagrams technique of Taylor. However, as we shall explain in this paper, there are certain points of Taylor's method which require clarification. Firstly, it is not clear whether Taylor's original method is equivalent to the simpler classification-of-diagrams scheme used by Thomas, Rinat, Afnan, and Blankleider (TRAB). Secondly, when the Taylor method is applied to certain problems in a time-dependent perturbation theory it leads to the over-counting of some diagrams. This paper first restates Taylor's method, in the process uncovering reasons why certain diagrams might be double-counted in the Taylor method. It then explores how far Taylor's method is equivalent to the simpler TRAB method. Finally, it examines precisely why the double-counting occurs in Taylor's method and derives corrections which compensate for this double-counting.
Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity
1991-01-01
This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.
Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning
Friis-Hansen, Andreas
2000-01-01
Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...
Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.
Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.
2010-01-01
Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and
Weight diagram construction of Lax operators
Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.
1991-10-01
We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.
Solution space diagram in conflict detection scenarios
Rahman, S.M.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.
2015-01-01
This research investigates the use of Solution Space Diagram (SSD) as a measure of sector complexity and also as a predictor of performance and workload, focusing on the scenarios regarding Air Traffic Controller (ATCO)’s ability to detect future conflicts. A human-in-the-loop experiment with varyin
Visualizing Multivariate Attributes on Software Diagrams
Byelas, Heorhiy; Telea, Alexandru; Winter, A; Knodel, J
2009-01-01
Software architecture diagrams and metrics are well-known and heavily used in many areas in software engineering. However they are rarely combined in one (visual) representation. Although there are some advances in this direction, there are also some limitations. In this research, we study how to ov
Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package
Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan
Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.
Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.
Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne
2002-01-01
Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)
Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.
Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.
2010-01-01
Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and theori
On traces of tensor representations of diagrams
A. Schrijver
2015-01-01
Let T be an (abstract) set of types, and let (unknown symbol), o : T -> Z(+). A T-diagram is a locally ordered directed graph G equipped with a function tau : V (G) -> T such that each vertex v of G has indegree (unknown symbol)(tau(v)) and outdegree o(tau(v)). (A directed graph is locally ordered i
Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams
Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie
2011-01-01
For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…
From ergodicity to extended phase diagrams.
Woodley, Scott M; Sokol, Alexey A
2012-04-16
Structure prediction of stable and metastable phases is put on equal footing for the first time, with a solid thermodynamical background. How to estimate the lifetime of metastable phases is demonstrated by recent groundbreaking work of Jansen, Pentin, and Schön. At the heart lies the exploration of the Gibbs free-energy landscapes and the extended phase diagrams for complex systems.
Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams
Vitz, Ed
2008-01-01
A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…
Students' different understandings of class diagrams
Boustedt, Jonas
2012-03-01
The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.
Einasto, J.
2011-01-01
I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.
Tarnopolski, Mariusz
2013-01-01
This paper presents bifurcation and generalized bifurcation diagrams for a rotational model of an oblate satellite. Special attention is paid to parameter values describing one of Saturn's moons, Hyperion. For various oblateness the largest Lyapunov Characteristic Exponent (LCE) is plotted. The largest LCE in the initial condition as well as in the mixed parameter-initial condition space exhibits a fractal structure, for which the fractal dimension was calculated. It results from the bifurcation diagrams of which most of the parameter values for preselected initial conditions lead to chaotic rotation. The First Recurrence Time (FRT) diagram provides an explanation of the birth of chaos and the existence of quasi-periodic windows occuring in the bifurcation diagrams.
A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.
Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos
2016-01-01
General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations.
STRUKTURISASI ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM DAN DATA FLOW DIAGRAM BERBASIS BUSINESS EVENT-DRIVEN
Suroto Adi; Desi Maya Kristin
2014-01-01
Entity relationship diagram (ERD) and data flow diagram (DFD) modeling are necessary parts in analysis and design of structured information systems in business. Definition of entities in the ERD, the process, and datastore in the DFD have well described in a lot of literatures. However, practically it is not easy to explain how to design ERD and DFD models so that the students well understand the modeling steps, especially in business applications. This study discussed step-by-step systematic...
ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT
Miroslav Grgec
2007-06-01
Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.
Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram
Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael
We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.
Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout
Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.
2016-03-01
Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.
Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams
Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur
2015-11-16
Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.
Mineev, V. P.
2017-03-01
The temperature-pressure phase diagram of ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe includes four phase transitions. They are between the paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic states with the subsequent transition in the superconducting ferromagnetic state and between the normal and the superconducting states after which the transition to the superconducting ferromagnetic state has to occur. Here we have developed the Landau theory description of the phase diagram and established the specific ordering arising at each type of transition. The phase transitions to the ferromagnetic superconducting state are inevitably accompanied by the emergence of screening currents. The corresponding magnetostatics considerations allow for establishing the significant difference between the transition from the ferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic superconducting state and the transition from the superconducting to the ferromagnetic superconducting state.
Flamelet Regime Diagram for Turbulent Combustion Simulations
Chan, Wai Lee; Ihme, Matthias; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline
2016-11-01
The flamelet model has been widely used in numerical combustion investigations, particularly for the closure of large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. In most cases, the simulation results demonstrated good agreements with their experimental counterparts. However, a systematic analysis of the flamelet model's applicability, as well as its potential limitations, is seldom conducted, and the model performance is usually based only on a-posteriori comparisons. The objective of this work is to derive a metric that can formally quantify the suitability of the flamelet model in different flame configurations. For this purpose, a flamelet regime diagram has been developed and studied in the context of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent lifted jet flame. The implementation of the regime diagram in LES has been investigated through explicit filtering of the DNS results.
Enriched model categories and diagram categories
Guillou, Bertrand
2011-01-01
We collect in one place a variety of known and folklore results in enriched model category theory and add a few new twists. One twist is a new perspective on equivariant model categories. A central theme is a general procedure for constructing a Quillen adjunction, often a Quillen equivalence, between a given V-model category and a category of diagrams in V, where V is any good enriching category. From this perspective, we rederive the result of Schwede and Shipley that reasonable stable model categories are Quillen equivalent to diagram categories of spectra (alias categories of module spectra). The general theory will be applied to G-spectra in a sequel, and for that we need quite a few technical improvements and modifications of general model categorical results. We collect those here. They are bound to have applications in a variety of other contexts.
Angelo, Joseph A
2011-01-01
Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S
Worldline Green functions for multiloop diagrams
Schmidt, M G
1994-01-01
We propose a multiloop generalization of the Bern-Kosower formalism, based on Strassler's approach of evaluating worldline path integrals by worldline Green functions. Those Green functions are explicitly constructed for the basic two-loop graph, and for a loop with an arbitrary number of propagator insertions. For scalar and abelian gauge theories, the resulting integral representations allow to combine whole classes of Feynman diagrams into compact expressions.
Disconnected diagrams with twisted-mass fermions
Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Constantinou, Martha; Finkenrath, Jacob; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis; Avilés-Casco, Alejandro Vaquero
2016-01-01
The latest results from the Twisted-Mass collaboration on disconnected diagrams at the physical value of the pion mass are presented. In particular, we focus on the sigma terms, the axial charges and the momentum fraction, all of them for the nucleon. A detailed error analysis for each observable follows, showing the strengths and weaknesses of the one-end trick. Alternatives are discussed.
Hydrodynamics of bacterial colonies: Phase diagrams
Lega, J.; Passot, T.
2004-09-01
We present numerical simulations of a recent hydrodynamic model describing the growth of bacterial colonies on agar plates. We show that this model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed phase diagrams, which relate a colony shape to the initial quantity of nutrients on the plate and the initial wetness of the agar. We also discuss the principal features resulting from the interplay between hydrodynamic motions and colony growth, as described by our model.
Phase Diagram Modelling: Nickel - Aluminum - Chromium System
1998-04-01
conducted by Kaufman and co-workers and their lattice stabilities have formed the basis of phase diagram calculations to the present day.1 In...mol ( 0.74827 Ni + 0.73305E-01 Cr + 0.83609E-02 Al ( 1200.00 C, 1.0000 <—s -.Molten alloy <—s <—s) atm, L- NiCrAl , a=0.82994 ) 0.00000
Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram
Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-11-30
The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).
Fluctuations and the QCD Phase Diagram
Koch, Volker
2016-01-01
In this contribution we will discuss how the study of various fluctuation observables may be used to explore the phase diagram of the strong interaction. We will briefly summarize the present study of experimental and theoretical research in this area. We will then discuss various corrections and issues which need to be understood and applied for a meaningful comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical predictions. This contribution is dedicated to Andrzej Bialas on the occasion of his $80^{\\mathrm{th}}$ birthday.
On-Shell Diagrams for N = 8 Supergravity Amplitudes
Heslop, Paul
2016-01-01
We define recursion relations for N = 8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N = 4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N = 4 and N = 8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N = 8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N = 8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.
Lectures on configuration space methods for sunrise-type diagrams
Groote, S
2003-01-01
In this lecture series I will give a fundamental insight into configuration space techniques which are of help to calculate a broad class of Feynman diagrams, the sunrise-type diagrams. Applications are shown along with basic concepts and techniques.
Efficient Analysis of Complex Diagrams using Constraint-Based Parsing
Futrelle, R P; Futrelle, Robert P.; Nikolakis, Nikos
1995-01-01
This paper describes substantial advances in the analysis (parsing) of diagrams using constraint grammars. The addition of set types to the grammar and spatial indexing of the data make it possible to efficiently parse real diagrams of substantial complexity. The system is probably the first to demonstrate efficient diagram parsing using grammars that easily be retargeted to other domains. The work assumes that the diagrams are available as a flat collection of graphics primitives: lines, polygons, circles, Bezier curves and text. This is appropriate for future electronic documents or for vectorized diagrams converted from scanned images. The classes of diagrams that we have analyzed include x,y data graphs and genetic diagrams drawn from the biological literature, as well as finite state automata diagrams (states and arcs). As an example, parsing a four-part data graph composed of 133 primitives required 35 sec using Macintosh Common Lisp on a Macintosh Quadra 700.
75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams
2010-10-05
... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...
Linearly recursive sequences and Dynkin diagrams
Reutenauer, Christophe
2012-01-01
Motivated by a construction in the theory of cluster algebras (Fomin and Zelevinsky), one associates to each acyclic directed graph a family of sequences of natural integers, one for each vertex; this construction is called a {\\em frieze}; these sequences are given by nonlinear recursions (with division), and the fact that they are integers is a consequence of the Laurent phenomenon of Fomin and Zelevinsky. If the sequences satisfy a linear recursion with constant coefficients, then the graph must be a Dynkin diagram or an extended Dynkin diagram, with an acyclic orientation. The converse also holds: the sequences of the frieze associated to an oriented Dynkin or Euclidean diagram satisfy linear recursions, and are even $\\mathbb N$-rational. One uses in the proof objects called $SL_2$-{\\em tilings of the plane}, which are fillings of the discrete plane such that each adjacent 2 by 2 minor is equal to 1. These objects, which have applications in the theory of cluster algebras, are interesting for themselves. S...
On diagram-chasing in double complexes
Bergman, George M
2011-01-01
Diagram-chasing arguments frequently lead to "magical" relations between distant points of diagrams: exactness implications, connecting morphisms, etc.. These long connections are usually composites of short "unmagical" connections, but the latter, and the objects they join, are not visible in the proofs. I try to remedy this situation. Given a double complex in an abelian category, we consider, for each object A of the complex, the familiar horizontal and vertical homology objects at A, and two other objects, which we name the "donor" A_{\\box} and and the "receptor" ^{\\box}A at A. For each arrow of the double complex, we prove the exactness of a 6-term sequence of these objects (the "Salamander Lemma"). Standard results such as the 3x3-Lemma, the Snake Lemma, and the long exact sequence of homology associated with a short exact sequence of complexes, are obtained as easy applications of this lemma. We then obtain some generalizations of the last of the above examples, getting various exact diagrams from doub...
Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors
Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.
2017-02-01
Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.
MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework
Zheng Wang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way to specify and analyze such systems. To capture the temporal properties of periodic control systems, we provide, along with mode diagram, a property specification language based on interval logic for the description of concrete temporal requirements the engineers are concerned with. The statistical model checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems.
Application of Artificial Neural Network in Indicator Diagram
WuXiaodong; JiangHua; HanGuoqing
2004-01-01
Indicator diagram plays an important role in identifying the production state of oil wells. With an ability to reflect any non-linear mapping relationship, the artificial neural network (ANN) can be used in shape identification. This paper illuminates ANN realization in identifying fault kinds of indicator diagrams, including a back-propagation algorithm, characteristics of the indicator diagram and some examples. It is concluded that the buildup of a neural network and the abstract of indicator diagrams are important to successful application.
Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2009-01-01
Safety-barrier diagrams and “bow-tie” diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis and safety management. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The latter's relation to other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian...... the management and maintenance of these systems. Safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....
Geometry Algorisms of Dynkin Diagrams in Lie Group Machine Learning
Huan Xu; Fanzhang Li
2006-01-01
This paper uses the geometric method to describe Lie group machine learning (LML)based on the theoretical framework of LML, which gives the geometric algorithms of Dynkin diagrams in LML. It includes the basic conceptions of Dynkin diagrams in LML ,the classification theorems of Dynkin diagrams in LML, the classification algorithm of Dynkin diagrams in LML and the verification of the classification algorithm with experimental results.
Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory
Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael
2000-08-01
The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.
The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams
van der Meij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, A.
2015-01-01
An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header ce
Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++
Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard
2008-01-01
In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...
The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams
van der Meij, Jan; Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo Allert
2015-01-01
An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header
The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams
van der Meij, Jan; van Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, A.
An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina
2011-01-01
About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....
... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters A A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...
An automatic layout system for OMT-based object diagram
Nakashima, Satoshi; Ali, Jauhar; Tanaka, Jiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)
1996-12-31
In this paper, we propose an automatic layout method for the object diagram, the event trace diagram and the state diagram based on OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methodology. In our automatic layout system, when the elements of model (classes, associations etc.) are entered, an arrangement for them is computed, and the object model automatically appears in the editor`s window. We adopted Messinger`s algorithm using the rule of divide-and-conquer for the layout algorithm of the object diagram. Furthermore, diagrams can be maintained easily with the capabilities of automatic modification and direct manipulation interface.
Dynamical Dark Matter from strongly-coupled dark sectors
Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks
2017-02-01
Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles—motivated primarily by Kaluza-Klein towers in theories with extra dimensions—in which the density of dark states scales roughly as a polynomial of the mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of dark states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally—even with an exponentially rising density of states. We also study the effective equations of state for such ensembles, and investigate some of the model-independent observational constraints on such ensembles that follow directly from these equations of state. In general, we find that such constraints tend to introduce correlations between various properties of these DDM ensembles such as their associated mass scales, lifetimes, and abundance distributions. For example, we find that these constraints allow DDM ensembles with energy scales ranging from the GeV scale all the way to the Planck scale, but that the total present-day cosmological abundance of the dark sector must be spread across an increasing number of different states in the ensemble as these energy scales are dialed from the Planck scale down to the GeV scale. Numerous other correlations and constraints are also discussed.
Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.
Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F
2016-11-25
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed.
Design and Realization of Numerical Control Ladder Diagram Edition Software
ZHAO Haixin; MO Yimin; PAN Yunping
2006-01-01
The thesis is directed by the idea of oriented- object. Considering the basic functions that NC system Ladder Diagram editor should provide, and through theoretical research and practice, the thesis developed a set of NC system Ladder Diagram editor which can form a Ladder Diagram editor based on vector plotting, intelligently compiling, simulation. This system uses the ladder diagram symbol to express operational order and use the chart symbol series-parallel connection and the position order to express the logical relations between the operational orders, divide the ladder diagram into four parts: the stave, the line, the row and the part, uses the standard order vessel list vessel of the standard template stack (STL) to save the data which involved in the design process. This system can write PLC program by ladder diagram language and is easy to use. The compilation and simulation for PLC diagram have been achieved. It greatly improves the work-efficiency.
State-transition diagrams for biologists.
Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique
2012-01-01
It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.
Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
2016-11-01
Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.
On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams
Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda
2016-11-01
In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov’s, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the O(n) model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in 4-ɛ dimensions up to O({ɛ }2). AS dedicates this work to the loving memory of his mother.
Magnetic phase diagram of Ho-Ag
Paul-Boncour, V [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, ICMPE, CNRS, 2 rue H Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Hoser, A; Stuesser, N [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109, Berlin (Germany); Hense, K; Gratz, E [Institute for Experimental Physics, Technical University Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 (Austria); Rotter, M [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringerstrasse 42, 1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: paulbon@glvt-cnrs.fr
2008-03-12
The magnetic phase diagram of Ho-Ag has been established using magnetoresistance, magnetostriction and neutron diffraction experiments versus applied field and temperature. Three different magnetic phases were observed: an incommensurate antiferromagnetic phase (IC) below T{sub N} = 33 K, a commensurate antiferromagnetic phase (C) above 5 T and below T{sub 1} (5-8 K) and a ferromagnetic component above 3 T. The IC phase undergoes spin reorientations around 5 T (IC') and 13 T (IC'')
On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams
Sen, Kallol
2015-01-01
In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov's, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the $O(n)$ model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in $4-\\epsilon$ dimensions up to $O(\\epsilon^2)$.
Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams
Sasao, Tsutomu
2014-01-01
A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show
Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD
Gambhir, Arjun Singh; Orginos, Kostas; Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Syritsyn, Sergey
2016-01-01
Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.
Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints
Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.
2011-01-01
The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).
Spectral Transforms Calculation through Decision Diagrams
Radomir S. Stanković
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, calculation of spectral transforms through Decision diagrams (DDs and relationship of this method with FFT-like algorithms is discussed. It is shown that in DDs methods the basic operations in FFT-like algorithms are performed not on vectors but instead on parts of DDs as a data structure. Such a data structure represents the input signals, the intermediate results obtained during the calculation as well as the final output results. It should be noticed that, unlike FFT-like algorithms, DDs methods permit to take advantages from both, the properties of the transform matrices and the particular properties of the processed signals.
High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams
Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng
2013-01-01
High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature
BLOCK DIAGRAM MODELS FOR CORRELATED STRUCTURES
Adrian Stere PARIS
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The copula function offers new opportunities for advanced engineering design and can model correlated structures between random variables in reliability; in other words the dependence can describe time varying and nonlinear features of statistical links of marginal distributions. The paper proposes the study of reliability block diagrams by the analysis of the bridge model with links like serial-parallel, parallel-serial, based on total probability formula. The proposed reliability model built by copula functions is a new possible variant for statistical approach in the quality practice.
Combinatorics of Link Diagrams and Volume
Giambrone, Adam
2013-01-01
We show that the volumes of certain hyperbolic A-adequate links can be bounded (above and) below in terms of two diagrammatic quantities: the twist number and the number of certain alternating tangles in an A-adequate diagram. We then restrict our attention to plat closures of certain braids, a rich family of links whose volumes can be bounded in terms of the twist number alone. Furthermore, in the absence of special tangles, our volume bounds can be expressed in terms of a single stable coef...
Phase diagram of one-patch colloids forming tubes and lamellae.
Preisler, Zdenek; Vissers, Teun; Smallenburg, Frank; Munaò, Gianmarco; Sciortino, Francesco
2013-08-15
We numerically calculate the equilibrium phase diagram of one-patch particles with 30% patch coverage. It has been previously shown that in the fluid phase these particles organize into extremely long tubelike aggregates (G. Munaò et al. Soft Matter 2013, 9, 2652). Here, we demonstrate by means of free-energy calculations that such a disordered tube phase, despite forming spontaneously from the fluid phase below a density-dependent temperature, is always metastable against a lamellar crystal. We also show that a crystal of infinitely long packed tubes is thermodynamically stable, but only at high pressure. The full phase diagram of the model, beside the fluid phase, displays four different stable crystals. A gas-liquid critical point, and hence a liquid phase, is not detected.
Properties of high-temperature phase diagram and critical point parameters in silica
Iosilevskiy, Igor; Solov'ev, Alexander
2013-01-01
Some uncertainties are discussed on the high-temperature phase boundaries and critical point parameters for gas-liquid phase transition in silica (SiO2). The thermal and caloric phase diagrams are compared and examined as being predicted by various theoretical approaches, such as the quasi-chemical representation, the wide-range semi-empirical equation of state and the ionic model under direct molecular dynamic simulation. The theoretical predictions are confronted with handbook recommendations and scanty experimental data on the equilibrium vapor composition over SiO2 boiling. Validity of conventional semi-empirical rules is tested for the theoretically predicted SiO2-phase diagrams. The non-congruence of gas-liquid phase transition in SiO2 is considered for this matter to be used as a modeling body to study the non-congruent evaporation in uranium dioxide and other uranium-bearing fuels at both existing and perspective nuclear reactors.
A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams
Björn Gottfried
2015-06-01
Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.
An Improved Logic Diagram of RCM with the Proactive Maintenance
SONG Wenyuan; KANG Jianshe; WEN Liang; HONG Qing
2006-01-01
For some repeatedly occurring failure with root cause, the reliability centered maintenance (RCM) can't deal with them effectively. So, the logic diagram of RCM was improved by combining it with proactive maintenance technology. First, root cause analysis is used to build a key result-cause chain of the repeatedly occur failure. Then, a reasonable link in the chain, which work station is suitable to be monitored and repaired, should be selected. Finally, the corresponding proactive maintenance measure should be adopted to prevent the matter occur on the chain and broken the key result-cause chain, and the repeatedly occur failure is to be prevent at a deeper level or from the root cause. By doing this, a system engineering method comes into being, not only it can determine the needs of preventive maintenance for equipment, but also determine the proactive maintenance needs for equipment. The analysis result of reliability centered maintenance and the analysis result considering proactive maintenance are combined to form a maintenance guideline containing proactive maintenance strategy.
Systematics in the Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram
Cardone, V F; Capozziello, S
2011-01-01
Thanks to their enormous energy release which allows to detect them up to very high redshift, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernoave (SNeIa). However, lacking a local GRBs sample, calibrating the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs is not an easy task because of the need to estimate the GRBs luminosity distance in a model independent way. We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial $\\Lambda$CDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa. We find that the calibration coefficients and the intrinsic scatter do not significantly depend on the adopted calibration procedure. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift finding no statistically motivated improvement in the likelihood so that the no evolution assumption is actually a well foun...
Kinematical Diagrams for Conical Relativistic Jets
Gopal-Krishna; Pronoy Sircar; Samir Dhurde
2007-03-01
We present diagrams depicting the expected inter-dependences of two key kinematical parameters of radio knots in the parsec-scale jets of blazars, deduced from VLBI observations. The two parameters are the apparent speed (app = capp) and the effective Doppler boosting factor (eff) of the relativistically moving radio knot. A novel aspect of these analytical computations of – diagrams is that they are made for parsecscale jets having a conical shape, with modest opening angles ( up to 10°), in accord with the VLBI observations of the nuclei of the nearest radio galaxies. Another motivating factor is the recent finding that consideration of a conical geometry can have important implications for the interpretation of a variety of radio observations of blazar jets. In addition to uniform jet flows (i.e., those having a uniform bulk Lorentz factor, ), computational results are also presented for stratified jets where an ultra-relativistic central spine along the jet axis is surrounded by a slower moving sheath, possibly arising from a velocity shear.
The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram
Gingerich, Owen
2013-01-01
The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shaple...
Phase diagram of twisted mass lattice QCD
Sharpe, Stephen R.; Wu, Jackson M.
2004-11-01
We use the effective chiral Lagrangian to analyze the phase diagram of two-flavor twisted mass lattice QCD as a function of the normal and twisted masses, generalizing previous work for the untwisted theory. We first determine the chiral Lagrangian including discretization effects up to next-to-leading order (NLO) in a combined expansion in which m2π/(4πfπ)2˜aΛ (a being the lattice spacing, and Λ=ΛQCD). We then focus on the region where m2π/(4πfπ)2˜(aΛ)2, in which case competition between leading and NLO terms can lead to phase transitions. As for untwisted Wilson fermions, we find two possible phase diagrams, depending on the sign of a coefficient in the chiral Lagrangian. For one sign, there is an Aoki phase for pure Wilson fermions, with flavor and parity broken, but this is washed out into a crossover if the twisted mass is nonvanishing. For the other sign, there is a first order transition for pure Wilson fermions, and we find that this transition extends into the twisted mass plane, ending with two symmetrical second order points at which the mass of the neutral pion vanishes. We provide graphs of the condensate and pion masses for both scenarios, and note a simple mathematical relation between them. These results may be of importance to numerical simulations.
Ab initio phase diagram of iridium
Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.
2016-09-01
The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.
Phase diagram of quantum square ice
Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso
2013-03-01
We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1 =J2 and J2 >J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1 =J2 , suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.
The magnetized effective QCD phase diagram
Ayala, Alejandro; Hernandez, L A; Loewe, M; Zamora, R
2015-01-01
The QCD phase diagram in the temperature versus quark chemical potential plane is studied in the presence of a magnetic field, using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. It is shown that the decrease of the couplings with increasing field strength obtained in this model leads to the critical temperature for the phase transition to decrease with increasing field intensity (inverse magnetic catalysis). This happens provided that plasma screening is properly accounted for. It is also found that with increasing field strength the location of the critical end point (CEP) in the phase diagram moves toward lower values of the critical quark chemical potential and larger values of the critical temperature. In addition, the CEP approaches the temperature axis for large values of the magnetic field. We argue that a similar behavior is to be expected in QCD, since the physical impact of the magnetic field, regardless of strength, is to produce a spatial dimension reduction, whereby virtual quark-antiquark pairs are...
Reliability block diagrams to model disease management.
Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M; Bauerfeind, P
1999-01-01
Studies of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in the management of any given disease tend to focus on one particular aspect of the disease and ignore the interaction between the multitude of factors that determine its final outcome. The present article introduces a mathematical model that accounts for the joint contribution of various medical and non-medical components to the overall disease outcome. A reliability block diagram is used to model patient compliance, endoscopic screening, and surgical therapy for dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. The overall probability of a patient with a Barrett's esophagus to comply with a screening program, be correctly diagnosed with dysplasia, and undergo successful therapy is 37%. The reduction in the overall success rate, despite the fact that the majority of components are assumed to function with reliability rates of 80% or more, is a reflection of the multitude of serial subsystems involved in disease management. Each serial component influences the overall success rate in a linear fashion. Building multiple parallel pathways into the screening program raises its overall success rate to 91%. Parallel arrangements render systems less sensitive to diagnostic or therapeutic failures. A reliability block diagram provides the means to model the contributions of many heterogeneous factors to disease outcome. Since no medical system functions perfectly, redundancy provided by parallel subsystems assures a greater overall reliability.
Phase Diagram of Spiking Neural Networks
Hamed eSeyed-Allaei
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probablilty of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations. but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution. I simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable by nature. Networks which are configured according to the common values, have the best dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is more robust in respect to synaptic weights. In fact, evolution has favored networks of best dynamic range. I present a phase diagram that shows the dynamic ranges of different networks of different parameteres. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters -- excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. It may serve as a guideline to decide about the values of parameters in a simulation of spiking neural network.
On the Impact of Layout Quality to Understanding UML Diagrams: Diagram Type and Expertise
Störrle, Harald
2012-01-01
Practical experience suggests that the use and understanding of UML diagrams is greatly affected by the quality of their layout. In previous work, we have presented evidence supporting this intuition. This contrasts with earlier experiments that yielded weak or inconclusive evidence only. In the ...
The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram
de Freitas, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…
Nuclear matter physics at NICA
Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-08-15
The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed. (orig.)
Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung
2015-02-01
We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.
Generalized Ellingham diagrams for utilization in solid oxide fuel cells
Kishimoto H.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Generalized Ellingham diagram for the P-O-H and the Ni-P-OH systems have been constructed to investigate thermodynamically the chemical stability of nickel anode against the gaseous impurities containing phosphorous compounds. In the same way as the original Ellingham diagram, the oxygen potential is used as the vertical axis, while the temperature is adopted as horizontal axis. For the P-O-H system which contains many gaseous species, the dominant areas of gaseous species are displayed with a parameter of their partial pressure in an analogous way to the aqueous species in the Pourbaix diagram. The multicomponent Ellingham diagram for the Ni-P-O-H system was constructed in a similar manner to the multicomponent Pourbaix diagram. The obtained diagrams have been discussed to examine the reactivity of nickel anodes with phosphorus compounds in SOFCs in terms of operational variables such as temperature, oxygen potential, overpotential under the anode polarization and so on.
Regularization dependence on phase diagram in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model
Inagaki, T; Kohyama, H
2015-01-01
We study the regularization dependence on meson properties and the phase diagram of quark matter by using the two flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We find that the meson properties and the phase structure do not show drastically difference depending the regularization procedures. We also find that the location or the existence of the critical end point highly depends on the regularization methods and the model parameters. Then we think that regularization and parameters are carefully considered when one investigates the QCD critical end point in the effective model studies.
Universal limiting pressure for a three-flavor color superconducting PNJL model phase diagram
Ayriyan, A; Blaschke, D; Lastowiecki, R
2016-01-01
The phase diagram of a three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is analyzed for the case of isospin symmetric matter with color superconducting phases. The coexistence of chiral symmetry breaking and two-flavor color superconductivity (2SC phase) and a thermodynamic instability due to the implementation of a color neutrality constraint is observed. It is suggested to use a universal hadronization pressure to estimate the phase border between hadronic and quark-gluon plasma phases. Trajectories of constant entropy per baryon are analyzed for conditions appropriate for heavy-ion collisions in the NICA-FAIR energy range.
Challenges in QCD matter physics - The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR
,
2016-01-01
Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram ...
Database design using entity-relationship diagrams
Bagui, Sikha
2011-01-01
Data, Databases, and the Software Engineering ProcessDataBuilding a DatabaseWhat is the Software Engineering Process?Entity Relationship Diagrams and the Software Engineering Life Cycle Phase 1: Get the Requirements for the Database Phase 2: Specify the Database Phase 3: Design the DatabaseData and Data ModelsFiles, Records, and Data ItemsMoving from 3 × 5 Cards to ComputersDatabase Models The Hierarchical ModelThe Network ModelThe Relational ModelThe Relational Model and Functional DependenciesFundamental Relational DatabaseRelational Database and SetsFunctional
Phase diagram of a Schelling segregation model
Gauvin, L.; Vannimenus, J.; Nadal, J.-P.
2009-07-01
The collective behavior in a variant of Schelling’s segregation model is characterized with methods borrowed from statistical physics, in a context where their relevance was not conspicuous. A measure of segregation based on cluster geometry is defined and several quantities analogous to those used to describe physical lattice models at equilibrium are introduced. This physical approach allows to distinguish quantitatively several regimes and to characterize the transitions between them, leading to the building of a phase diagram. Some of the transitions evoke empirical sudden ethnic turnovers. We also establish links with ‘spin-1’ models in physics. Our approach provides generic tools to analyze the dynamics of other socio-economic systems.
Phase Diagram of the Frustrated Hubbard Model
Zitzler, R.; Tong, N.-H.; Pruschke, Th.; Bulla, R.
2004-07-01
The Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the paramagnetic phase of the one-band Hubbard model has long been used to describe similar features in real materials like V2O3. In this Letter we investigate the antiferromagnetic phase of this model with frustration. At T=0 we find a first-order transition from a paramagnetic metal to an antiferromagnetic insulator. We show that even in the presence of strong magnetic frustration, the paramagnetic metal-insulator transition is hidden inside an extended antiferromagnetic region. This raises the question of whether the one-band Hubbard model with frustration is sufficient to describe the phase diagram of V2O3 or similar transition metal oxides even qualitatively.
QCD phase diagram with isospin chemical potential
Brandt, Bastian B
2016-01-01
In this contribution we investigate the phase diagram of QCD in the presence of an isospin chemical potential. To alleviate the infrared problems of the theory associated with pion condensation, we introduce the pionic source as an infrared regulator. We discuss various methods to extrapolate the results to vanishing pionic source, including a novel method based on the singular value spectrum of the massive Dirac operator, a leading-order reweighting and a spline Monte-Carlo fit. Our main results concern the phase transition boundary between the normal and the pion condensation phases and the chiral/deconfinement transition temperature as a function of the chemical potential. In addition, we perform a quantitative comparison between our direct results and a Taylor-expansion obtained at zero chemical potential to assess the applicability range of the latter.
Revised state diagram of Laponite dispersions.
Mongondry, Philippe; Tassin, Jean François; Nicolai, Taco
2005-03-15
We propose a state diagram of charged disk-like mineral particle (Laponite) dispersions as a function of the Laponite concentration (C) and the concentration of added salt (C(s)), based on simple observation and light-scattering measurements. At low C or high C(s) the dispersions separate into two domains due to sedimentation of Laponite aggregates, while at high C and low C(s) they form homogeneous gels that do not flow upon tube reversal. The aggregation rate and the structure factor of the Laponite dispersions is determined with light scattering as a function of C and C(s). We discuss in detail the controversy on the origin of gelation of Laponite dispersions in the absence of added salt. We argue that aggregation rather than glass formation causes gelation.
Cuts and coproducts of massive triangle diagrams
Abreu, Samuel [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy,The University of Edinburgh,Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Britto, Ruth [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); School of Mathematics, Trinity College,College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Hamilton Mathematical Institute, Trinity College,College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Grönqvist, Hanna [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2015-07-21
Relations between multiple unitarity cuts and coproducts of Feynman integrals are extended to allow for internal masses. These masses introduce new branch cuts, whose discontinuities can be derived by placing single propagators on shell and identified as particular entries of the coproduct. First entries of the coproduct are then seen to include mass invariants alone, as well as threshold corrections for external momentum channels. As in the massless case, the original integral can possibly be recovered from its cuts by starting with the known part of the coproduct and imposing integrability contraints. We formulate precise rules for cuts of diagrams, and we gather evidence for the relations to coproducts through a detailed study of one-loop triangle integrals with various combinations of external and internal masses.
Specification of Learning Content Using Feature Diagrams
Damaševičius, Robertas
The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.
Bianchi I meets the Hubble diagram
Schucker, Thomas; Valent, Galliano
2014-01-01
We improve existing fits of the Bianchi I metric to the Hubble diagram of supernovae and find an intriguing yet non-significant signal for anisotropy that should be verified or falsified in the near future by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Since the literature contains two different formulas for the apparent luminosity as a function of time of flight in Bianchi I metrics, we present an independent derivation confirming the result by Saunders (1969). The present fit differs from earlier ones by Koivisto & Mota and by Campanelli et al. in that we use Saunders' formula, a larger sample of supernovae, Union 2 and JLA, and we use the general Bianchi I metric with three distinct eigenvalues.
Bayesian Image Reconstruction Based on Voronoi Diagrams
Cabrera, G F; Hitschfeld, N
2007-01-01
We present a Bayesian Voronoi image reconstruction technique (VIR) for interferometric data. Bayesian analysis applied to the inverse problem allows us to derive the a-posteriori probability of a novel parameterization of interferometric images. We use a variable Voronoi diagram as our model in place of the usual fixed pixel grid. A quantization of the intensity field allows us to calculate the likelihood function and a-priori probabilities. The Voronoi image is optimized including the number of polygons as free parameters. We apply our algorithm to deconvolve simulated interferometric data. Residuals, restored images and chi^2 values are used to compare our reconstructions with fixed grid models. VIR has the advantage of modeling the image with few parameters, obtaining a better image from a Bayesian point of view.
Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.
Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly
2015-09-20
By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65 wt% and 75 wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Improving perturbation theory with cactus diagrams
Constantinou, M; Skouroupathis, A; Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos
2006-01-01
We study a systematic improvement of perturbation theory for gauge fields on the lattice [hep-lat/0606001]; the improvement entails resumming, to all orders in the coupling constant, a dominant subclass of tadpole diagrams. This method, originally proposed for the Wilson gluon action, is extended here to encompass all possible gluon actions made of closed Wilson loops; any fermion action can be employed as well. The effect of resummation is to replace various parameters in the action (coupling constant, Symanzik and clover coefficient) by ``dressed'' values; the latter are solutions to certain coupled integral equations, which are easy to solve numerically. Some positive features of this method are: a) It is gauge invariant, b) it can be systematically applied to improve (to all orders) results obtained at any given order in perturbation theory, c) it does indeed absorb in the dressed parameters the bulk of tadpole contributions. Two different applications are presented: The additive renormalization of fermio...
The Phase Diagram of Superionic Ice
Sun, Jiming; Clark, Bryan; Car, Roberto
2014-03-01
Using the variable cell Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics method, we study the phase diagram of superionic ice from 200GPa to 2.5TPa. We present evidence that at very high pressure the FCC structure of the oxygen sublattice may become unstable allowing for a new superionic ice phase, in which the oxygen sublattice takes the P21 structure found in zero-temperature total energy calculations. We also report on how the melting temperature of the hydrogen sublattice is affected by this new crystalline structure of the oxygen sublattice. This work was supported by the NSF under grant DMS-1065894(J.S. and R.C.) and PHY11-25915(B.C.).
The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances
Hsin-Hsiung Huang
2016-01-01
Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s), temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation,...
Duals of Orphan-Free Anisotropic Voronoi Diagrams are Triangulations
Canas, Guillermo D
2011-01-01
We show that, under mild conditions on the underlying metric, duals of appropriately defined anisotropic Voronoi diagrams are embedded triangulations. Furthermore, they always triangulate the convex hull of the vertices, and have other properties that parallel those of ordinary Delaunay triangulations. These results apply to the duals of anisotropic Voronoi diagrams of any set of vertices, so long as the diagram is orphan-free.
Zone diagrams in compact subsets of uniformly convex normed spaces
Kopecká, E. (Eva); Reem, D.; Reich, S.
2012-01-01
A zone diagram is a relatively new concept which has emerged in computational geometry and is related to Voronoi diagrams. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping, and neither its uniqueness nor its existence are obvious in advance. It has been studied by several authors, starting with T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama, who considered the Euclidean plane with singleton sites, and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we prove the exist...
Zone diagrams in compact subsets of uniformly convex normed spaces
2010-01-01
A zone diagram is a relatively new concept which has emerged in computational geometry and is related to Voronoi diagrams. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping, and neither its uniqueness nor its existence are obvious in advance. It has been studied by several authors, starting with T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama, who considered the Euclidean plane with singleton sites, and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we prove the exist...
Thermodynamic Equilibrium Diagrams of Sulphur-Chromium System
无
2001-01-01
The chemical and electrochemical equilibria in the presence of gaseous phase were investigated. Many substances, which consisted of sulphur and chromium, were considered. Various thermodynamic equilibria were calculated in different pressures. Calculation results were shown as log p―1/T and E―T diagrams. These diagrams may be used to study the corrosion of chromium in sulphur-containing circumstances. The diagrams are also used to thermodynami-cally determine the existence area of various substances and so on.
Solid-liquid phase diagram of disubstituted benzene systems
黑恩成; 刘国杰
1995-01-01
The cooling curves of different compositions of the systems of ortho-chlorotoluene/para-chlorotoluene and ortho-nitrochlorobenzene/para-nitrochlorobenzene are carefully determined by the thermal analysis method. The crystals obtained are also tested. The conclusion that both systems are of simple eutectic diagram but not the solid solution diagram with a minimum melting point is confirmed. The characteristics of the diagram are explained according to the physical and thermodynarmc properties of the components.
Phase Diagrams for Systems Containing Hyperbranched Polymers
Tim Zeiner
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Hyperbranched polymers show an outstanding potential for applications ranging from chemistry over nanotechnology to pharmacy. In order to take advantage of this potential, the underlying phase behaviour must be known. From the thermodynamic point of view, the modelling of these phase diagrams is quite challenging, because the thermodynamic properties depend on the architecture of the hyperbranched polymer as well as on the number and kind of present functional end groups. The influence of architecture can be taken into account via the lattice cluster theory (LCT as an extension of the well-known Flory–Huggins theory. Whereas the Flory–Huggins theory is limited to linear polymer chains, the LCT can be applied to an arbitrary chain architecture. The number and the kind of functional groups can be handled via the Wertheim perturbation theory, applicable for directed forces between the functional groups and the surrounding solvent molecules. The combination of the LCT and the Wertheim theory can be established for the modelling or even prediction of the liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE of polymer solutions in a single solvent or in a solvent mixture or polymer blends, where the polymer can have an arbitrary structure. The applied theory predicts large demixing regions for mixtures of linear polymers and hyperbranched polymers, as well as for mixtures made from two hyperbranched polymers. The introduction of empty lattice sites permits the theoretical investigation of pressure effects on phase behaviour. The calculated phase diagrams were compared with own experimental data or to experimental data taken from literature.
Diagrammatics lectures on selected problems in condensed matter theory
Sadovskii, Michael V
2006-01-01
The introduction of quantum field theory methods has led to a kind of "revolution" in condensed matter theory. This resulted in the increased importance of Feynman diagrams or diagram technique. It has now become imperative for professionals in condensed matter theory to have a thorough knowledge of this method.There are many good books that cover the general aspects of diagrammatic methods. At the same time, there has been a rising need for books that describe calculations and methodical "know how" of specific problems for beginners in graduate and postgraduate courses. This unique collection
Thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter from Lattice QCD
Ding, Heng-Tong; Mukherjee, Swagato
2015-01-01
We review results from lattice QCD calculations on the thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter with emphasis on input these calculations can provide to the exploration of the phase diagram and properties of hot and dense matter created in heavy ion experiments. This review is organized as follows: 1) Introduction, 2) QCD thermodynamics on the lattice, 3) QCD phase diagram at high temperature, 4) Bulk thermodynamics, 5) Fluctuations of conserved charges, 6) Transport properties, 7) Open heavy flavors and heavy quarkonia, 8) QCD in external magnetic fields, 9) Summary.
QCD phase diagram : heating or compressing ?
Maire, Antonin
2011-01-01
The sketch tries to address the question of the difference between heating and compressing the baryonic matter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, i.e. how one can reach in the laboratory "high" temperature at "low" net baryon density (baryon chemical potential) or "low" temperature at "high" net baryon density.
Computer recognition of slag property diagrams in ternary systems
Jinxiong Lu; Li Wang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang
2004-01-01
In order to take data information from the slag property diagram in a ternary system automatically and actually, a picture recognition and drawing software has been developed by Visual Basic 6.0 based on the image coding principle of computer system and the graphics programming method of VB. This software can transform the ternary system isopleth diagram from bitmap format to data file and establish a corresponding database which can be applied to rapidly retrieve a mass of data and make correlative thermodynamics or kinetics calculation. Besides, it still has the function of drawing the ternary system diagram which can draw different kinds of property parameters in the same diagram.
Wellformedness properties in Euler diagrams: which should be used?
Rodgers, Peter; Zhang, Leishi; Purchase, Helen
2012-07-01
Euler diagrams are often used to visualize intersecting data sets in applications such as criminology; genetics, medicine, and computer file systems. One interesting aspect of these diagrams is that some data sets cannot be drawn without breaking one or more "wellformedness properties," which are considered to reduce the user comprehension of the diagrams. However, it is possible to draw the same data with different diagrams, each of which breaks different wellformedness properties. Hence, some properties are "swappable," so motivating the study of which of the alternatives would be best to use. This paper reports on the two empirical studies to determine how wellformedness properties affect comprehension. One study was with abstract data, the other was with concrete data that visualized students' enrollment on university modules. We have results from both studies that imply that diagrams with concurrency or disconnected zones perform less well than other some other properties. Further, we have no results that imply that diagrams with brushing points adversely affect performance. Our data also indicate that nonsimple curves are preferred less than diagrams with other properties. These results will inform both human diagram designers and the developers of automated drawing systems on the best way to visualize data using Euler diagrams.
Visualization design and verification of Ada tasking using timing diagrams
Vidale, R. F.; Szulewski, P. A.; Weiss, J. B.
1986-01-01
The use of timing diagrams is recommended in the design and testing of multi-task Ada programs. By displaying the task states vs. time, timing diagrams can portray the simultaneous threads of data flow and control which characterize tasking programs. This description of the system's dynamic behavior from conception to testing is a necessary adjunct to other graphical techniques, such as structure charts, which essentially give a static view of the system. A series of steps is recommended which incorporates timing diagrams into the design process. Finally, a description is provided of a prototype Ada Execution Analyzer (AEA) which automates the production of timing diagrams from VAX/Ada debugger output.
Dolgov, A. D.
These lectures have been given to particle physicists, mostly experimentalists and very briefly and at a pedestrian level review the problems of dark matter. The content of the lectures is the following: 1. Introduction. 2. Cosmological background. 3. Luminous matter. 4. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the total amount of baryons. 5. Gravitating invisible matter. 6. Baryonic crisis. 7. Inflationary omega. 8. Intermediate summary. 9. Possible forms of dark matter. 10. Structure formation: basic assumptions. 11. Structure formations: basics of the theory. 12. Evolution of perturbations with different forms of dark matter. 13. Conclusion. The presentation and conclusion reflect personal view of the author that a considerable amount of invisible energy in the universe is in the form of vacuum energy (cosmological constant) and possibly in the form of a classical field which adjusts vacuum energy to the value permitted and requested by astronomical data.
Maries, Alexandru
2016-01-01
Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a give problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing a diagram facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who draw expert-like diagrams are more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of detai...
Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams
Fellows, R.L. [ed.
1993-02-26
The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.
OntoDiagram: Automatic Diagram Generation for Congenital Heart Defects in Pediatric Cardiology
Vishwanath, Kartik; Viswanath, Venkatesh; Drake, William; Lee, Yugyung
2005-01-01
In pediatric cardiology as well as many other medical specialties, the accurate portrayal of a large volume of patient information is crucial to providing good patient care. Our research aims at utilizing clinical and spatial ontologies representing the human heart, to automatically generate a Mullins-like diagram [6] based on a patient's information in the cardiology databases. Our ontology allows an intuitive way of modeling congenital defects with the structure of the hum...
ALLOYS, YTTERBIUM, TERBIUM, MANGANESE ALLOYS, MERCURY ALLOYS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, X RAY SPECTROSCOPY, DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS, PHASE DIAGRAMS , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, METALLOGRAPHY, AUSTRIA
Phase diagram for rotating compact stars with two high density phases
Blaschke, David B; Poghosyan, G
2002-01-01
For the classification of rotating compact stars with two high density phases a phase diagram in the angular velocity (Omega) - baryon number (N) plane is investigated. The dividing line N_crit(Omega) between configurations with one and two phases is correlated to a local maximum of the moment of inertia and can thus be subject to experimental verification by observation of the rotational behavior of accreting compact stars. Another characteristic line, which also can be measured is the transition line to black holes that of the maximum mass configurations. The positions and the shape of these lines are sensitive to changes in the equation of state (EoS) of stellar matter. A comparison of the regional structure of phase diagrams is performed for polytropic and relativistic mean field type EoS and correlations between the topology of the transition lines and the properties of two-phase EoS are obtained. Different scenarios of compact star evolution are discussed as trajectories in the phase diagram. It is show...
Dark energy in six nearby galaxy flows: Synthetic phase diagrams and self-similarity
Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Kanter, A. A.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.
2012-09-01
Outward flows of galaxies are observed around groups of galaxies on spatial scales of about 1 Mpc, and around galaxy clusters on scales of 10 Mpc. Using recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have constructed two synthetic velocity-distance phase diagrams: one for four flows on galaxy-group scales and the other for two flows on cluster scales. It has been shown that, in both cases, the antigravity produced by the cosmic dark-energy background is stronger than the gravity produced by the matter in the outflow volume. The antigravity accelerates the flows and introduces a phase attractor that is common to all scales, corresponding to a linear velocity-distance relation (the local Hubble law). As a result, the bundle of outflow trajectories mostly follow the trajectory of the attractor. A comparison of the two diagrams reveals the universal self-similar nature of the outflows: their gross phase structure in dimensionless variables is essentially independent of their physical spatial scales, which differ by approximately a factor of 10 in the two diagrams.
Le Minh, Tam; von Langermann, Jan; Lorenz, Heike; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas
2010-09-01
A systematic study of binary melting point and ternary solubility phase diagrams of the enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid (3-ClMA) system was performed under consideration of polymorphism. The melting point phase diagram was measured by means of thermal analysis, that is, using heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that 3-ClMA belongs to the racemic compound-forming systems. Polymorphism was found for both the enantiomer and the racemate as confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The ternary solubility phase diagram of 3-ClMA in water was determined between 5 and 50 degrees C by the classical isothermal technique. The solubilities of the pure enantiomers are extremely temperature-dependent. The solid-liquid equilibria of racemic 3-ClMA are not trivial due to the existence of polymorphism. The eutectic composition in the chiral system changes as a function of temperature. Further, solubility data in the alternative solvent toluene are also presented.
Fischer, Tobias; Klaehn, Thomas [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Hempel, Matthias [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland)
2016-08-15
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Klaehn and Fischer (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D χ SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium. (orig.)
Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Kl\\"ahn and Fischer (2015) (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D$\\chi$SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.
Simultaneous chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement - Consequences for the QCD phase diagram
Klahn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias
2016-01-01
For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios the thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Kl\\"ahn & Fischer (2015) we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant $B_{\\rm dc}$ from a given hadronic equation of state (EoS) in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction and the phase diagram.
Simultaneous Chiral Symmetry Restoration and Deconfinement Consequences for the QCD Phase Diagram
Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2017-02-01
For studies of quark matter in astrophysical scenarios, the thermodynamic bag model is commonly employed. Although successful, it does not account for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsions due to the vector interaction which is crucial to explain recent observations of massive, two solar mass neutron stars. In Klähn & Fischer we developed the novel vBag quark matter model which takes these effects into account. This article extends vBag to finite temperatures and isospin asymmetry. Another particular feature of vBag is the determination of the deconfinement bag constant {B}{dc} from a given hadronic equation of state in order to ensure that chiral and deconfinement transitions coincide. We discuss consequences of this novel approach for the phase transition construction, the phase diagram, and implications for protoneutron stars.
Fischer, Tobias; Klähn, Thomas; Hempel, Matthias
2016-08-01
The thermodynamic bag model (tdBag) has been applied widely to model quark matter properties in both heavy-ion and astrophysics communities. Several fundamental physics aspects are missing in tdBag, e.g., dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D χ SB) and repulsions due to the vector interaction are both included explicitly in the novel vBag quark matter model of Klähn and Fischer (Astrophys. J. 810, 134 (2015)). An important feature of vBag is the simultaneous D χ SB and deconfinement, where the latter links vBag to a given hadronic model for the construction of the phase transition. In this article we discuss the extension to finite temperatures and the resulting phase diagram for the isospin symmetric medium.
Angelo, Joseph A
2011-01-01
aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of
A Phase Space Diagram for Gravity
Xavier Hernandez
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In modified theories of gravity including a critical acceleration scale a_{0}, a critical length scale r_{M} = (GM/a_{0}^{1/2} will naturally arise with the transition from the Newtonian to the dark matter mimicking regime occurring for systems larger than r_{M}. This adds a second critical scale to gravity, in addition to the one introduced by the criterion v < c of the Schwarzschild radius, r_{S }= 2GM/c^{2}. The distinct dependencies of the two above length scales give rise to non-trivial phenomenology in the (mass, length plane for astrophysical structures, which we explore here. Surprisingly, extrapolation to atomic scales suggests gravity should be at the dark matter mimicking regime there.
On the Validity of Dark Matter Effective Theory
Bauer, Martin; Desai, Nishita; Gonzalez-Fraile, Juan; Plehn, Tilman
2016-01-01
An effective theory of dark matter offers an attractive framework for global analyses of dark matter. In the light of global fits we test the validity of the link between the non-relativistic dark matter annihilation, or the predicted relic density, and LHC signatures. Specifically, we study how well the effective theory describes the main features of simple models with s-channel and t-channel mediators coupling to the Standard Model at tree level or through one-loop diagrams. Our results indicate that global dark matter analyses in terms of effective Lagrangians are highly non-trivial to interpret in term of actual models.
Phase diagrams of exceptional and supersymmetric lattice gauge theories
Wellegehausen, Bjoern-Hendrik
2012-07-10
In this work different strongly-coupled gauge theories with and without fundamental matter have been studied on the lattice with an emphasis on the confinement problem and the QCD phase diagram at nonvanishing net baryon density as well as on possible supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. In gauge theories with a non-trivial centre symmetry, as for instance SU(3)-Yang-Mills theory, confinement is intimately related to the centre of the gauge group, and the Polyakov loop serves as an order parameter for confinement. In QCD, this centre symmetry is explicitly broken by quarks in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. But still quarks and gluons are confined in mesons, baryons and glueballs at low temperatures and small densities, suggesting that centre symmetry is not responsible for the phenomenon of confinement. Therefore it is interesting to study pure gauge theories without centre symmetry. In this work this has been done by replacing the gauge group SU(3) of the strong interaction with the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}, that has a trivial centre. To investigate G{sub 2} gauge theory on the lattice, a new and highly efficient update algorithm has been developed, based on a local HMC algorithm. Employing this algorithm, the proposed and already investigated first order phase transition from a confined to a deconfined phase has been confirmed, showing that indeed a first order phase transition without symmetry breaking or an order parameter is possible. In this context, also the deconfinement phase transition of the exceptional Lie groups F4 and E6 in three spacetime dimensions has been studied. It has been shown that both theories also possess a first order phase transition.
Exploring the QCD phase diagram through relativistic heavy ion collisions
Mohanty, Bedangadas
2013-01-01
We present a review of the studies related to establishing the QCD phase diagram through high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. We particularly focus on the experimental results related to the formation of a quark-gluon phase, crossover transition and search for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram.
Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.
Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter
2011-07-01
Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.
Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science
Chamizo, Jose A.
2012-01-01
The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…
RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl
Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E.
2013-01-01
There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10 3 bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments...
The Formal Semantics of an UML Activity Diagram
梁义芝; 王延章; 刘云飞
2004-01-01
Due to lack of strictly defined formal semantics, an UML activity diagram is unsuitable for the tasks of formal analysis, verification and assertion on the system it describes. In this paper, Petri net is used to define the formal semantics of an UML activity diagram containing object flow states, laying a foundation for the precise description and analysis of a workflow system.
Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science
Chamizo, Jose A.
2012-01-01
The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…
30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted...
Do students use and understand free-body diagrams?
David Rosengrant
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Physics education literature recommends using multiple representations to help students understand concepts and solve problems. However, there is little research concerning why students use the representations and whether those who use them are more successful. This study addresses these questions using free-body diagrams (diagrammatic representations used in problems involving forces as a type of representation. We conducted a two-year quantitative and qualitative study of students’ use of free-body diagrams while solving physics problems. We found that when students are in a course that consistently emphasizes the use of free-body diagrams, the majority of them do use diagrams on their own to help solve exam problems even when they receive no credit for drawing the diagrams. We also found that students who draw diagrams correctly are significantly more successful in obtaining the right answer for the problem. Lastly, we interviewed students to uncover their reasons for using free-body diagrams. We found that high achieving students used the diagrams to help solve the problems and as a tool to evaluate their work while low achieving students only used representations as aids in the problem-solving process.
An Introductory Idea for Teaching Two-Component Phase Diagrams
Peckham, Gavin D.; McNaught, Ian J.
2011-01-01
The teaching of two-component phase diagrams has attracted little attention in this "Journal," and it is hoped that this article will make a useful contribution. Current physical chemistry textbooks describe two-component phase diagrams adequately, but do so in a piecemeal fashion one section at a time; first solid-liquid equilibria, then…
The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning
McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne
2007-01-01
We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…
Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams
Janssen, C.R.
1959-01-01
It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram tell
Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.
Goodwin, Alan
2002-01-01
Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)
Phase Diagrams of Silicate Systems: Handbook; Third Issue; Ternary Systems
In the third issue of the handbook Phase Diagrams of Silicate Systems, information is included on the phase relationships in systems containing...radioelectronics, nuclear engineering, etc. Not only are equilibrium phase diagrams presented in the handbook, but the phases existing in the
Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance
Glasser, L.
2004-01-01
The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.
Pourbaix ("E"-pH-M) Diagrams in Three Dimensions
Pesterfield, Lester L.; Maddox, Jeremy B.; Crocker, Michael S.; Schweitzer, George K.
2012-01-01
"E"-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams provide an important graphical link between the thermodynamic calculations of potential, pH, equilibrium constant, concentration, and changes in Gibbs energy and the experimentally observed behavior of species in aqueous solutions. The utility of "E"-pH diagrams is extended with the introduction of an additional…
CERN
2016-01-01
This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
2017-01-01
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
Pairing Phase Transitions of Matter under Rotation
Jiang, Yin
2016-01-01
The phases and properties of matter under global rotation have attracted much interest recently. In this paper we investigate the pairing phenomena in a system of fermions under the presence of rotation. We find that there is a generic suppression effect on pairing states with zero angular momentum. We demonstrate this effect with the chiral condensation and the color superconductivity in hot dense QCD matter as explicit examples. In the case of chiral condensation, a new phase diagram in the temperature-rotation parameter space is found, with a nontrivial critical point.
Reconciling dark matter, solar and atmospheric neutrinos
Peltoniemi, J T
1993-01-01
We present models that can reconcile the solar and atmospheric neutrino data with the existence of a hot dark matter component in the universe. This dark matter is a quasi-Dirac neutrino whose mass $m_{DM}$ arises at the one-loop level. The solar neutrino deficit is explained via nonadiabatic conversions of electron neutrino to a sterile neutrino and the atmospheric neutrino data via maximal muon neutrino to tau neutrino oscillations generated by higher order loop diagrams. For $m_{DM} \\sim 30$ eV the radiative neutrino decay can lead to photons that can ionize interstellar hydrogen. In one of the models one can have observable $\
A comparison of two approaches for solving unconstrained influence diagrams
Ahlmann-Ohlsen, Kristian S.; Jensen, Finn V.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre
2009-01-01
Influence diagrams and decision trees represent the two most common frameworks for specifying and solving decision problems. As modeling languages, both of these frameworks require that the decision analyst specifies all possible sequences of observations and decisions (in influence diagrams......, this requirement corresponds to the constraint that the decisions should be temporarily linearly ordered). Recently, the unconstrained influence diagram was proposed to address this drawback. In this framework, we may have a partial ordering of the decisions, and a solution to the decision problem therefore...... consists not only of a decision policy for the various decisions, but also of a conditional specification of what to do next. Relative to the complexity of solving an influence diagram, finding a solution to an unconstrained influence diagram may be computationally very demanding w.r.t. both time and space...
Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools
Ņikiforova Oksana
2016-05-01
Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.
Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams
Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.
1991-01-01
Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.
Efficient computation of clipped Voronoi diagram for mesh generation
Yan, Dongming
2013-04-01
The Voronoi diagram is a fundamental geometric structure widely used in various fields, especially in computer graphics and geometry computing. For a set of points in a compact domain (i.e. a bounded and closed 2D region or a 3D volume), some Voronoi cells of their Voronoi diagram are infinite or partially outside of the domain, but in practice only the parts of the cells inside the domain are needed, as when computing the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Such a Voronoi diagram confined to a compact domain is called a clipped Voronoi diagram. We present an efficient algorithm to compute the clipped Voronoi diagram for a set of sites with respect to a compact 2D region or a 3D volume. We also apply the proposed method to optimal mesh generation based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation. Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The dysprosium-tin phase diagram
Eremenko, V.N.; Bulanova, M.V.; Martsenjuk, P.S. (I.N. Frantsevich Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Ukraine))
1992-12-07
The dysprosium-tin phase diagram was established by means of differential thermal, X-ray and microscopic analyses of 22 alloys. Seven intermetallic compounds were found to exist in the system. Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 3] melts congruently at 1870 degC, and undergoes a polymorphous transformation at 1823 [+-] 6 degC. The intermetallics Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 4], Dy[sub 11]Sn[sub 10], DySn, Dy[sub 4]Sn[sub 5], DySn[sub 2], DySn[sub 3] are formed peritectically at 1712 [+-]11, 1605 [+-]12, 1208 [+-]3, 1166 [+-]7, 1138 [+-]3 and 747 [+-]6 degC respectively. DySn[sub 3] exists in a narrow temperature range, in two polymorphous modifications. The transformation [beta]-DySn[sub 3] [yields] [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] occurs at 608 [+-] 12 degC, and at 499 [+-]2 degC [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] decomposes to DySn[sub 2] and the tin-rich melt. The dysprosium-rich eutectic crystallizes at 1204 [+-]10 degC and contains 13 at.% tin. The solid-state solubility of tin in dysprosium is about 3 at.%, and that of dysprosium in tin is negligible.
Phase diagram of colloid-rod system
Lai, S. K.; Xiao, Xuhui
2010-01-01
The semigrand ensemble theory [H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, W. C. K. Poon, P. N. Pusey, A. Stroobants, and P. B. Warren, Europhys. Lett. 20, 559 (1992)] in conjunction with the fundamental measure density functional theory [V. B. Warshavsky and X. Song, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061113 (2004)] are used to construct the Helmholtz free energy densities of a mixture of uncharged colloidal hard spheres and colloidal rods in its solid and liquid phases. Given these free energy density functions, we apply the free energy density minimization method [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the system's regions of phases in coexistence. The calculated results show that the triangular area bounded by gas-liquid, gas-solid, and liquid-solid coexisting two phases which has been called the coexistence region of gas-liquid-solid corresponds in fact to sets of two phases in coexistence. The phase boundaries which define our calculated coexistence domains compare very well with previous theoretical calculations. The relevance of the phase-diagram domains to three phases in coexistence will be discussed.
Cosmological test with the QSO Hubble diagram
Lopez-Corredoira, M; Lusso, E; Risaliti, G
2016-01-01
A Hubble diagram (HD) has recently been constructed in the redshift range 099% C.L. The Quasi-Steady State Model is excluded at >95% C.L. The remaining four models (Lambda-CDM/wCDM, the R_h=ct Universe, the Friedmann open universe and a Static universe with a linear Hubble law) all pass the test. However, only Lambda-CDM/wCDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ also pass the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test. The optimized parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM are Omega_m=0.20^{+0.24}_{-0.20} and w_{de}=-1.2^{+1.6}_{-infinity} (the dark-energy equation-of-state). Combined with the AP test, these values become Omega_m=0.38^{+0.20}_{-0.19} and w_{de}=-0.28^{+0.52}_{-0.40}. But whereas this optimization of parameters in Lambda-CDM/wCDM creates some tension with their concordance values, the $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ Universe has the advantage of fitting the QSO and AP data without any free parameters.
Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication
2002-01-01
Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.
Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication
2002-01-01
Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.
Cloning Voronoi Diagrams via Retroactive Data Structures
Dickerson, Matthew T; Goodrich, Michael T
2010-01-01
We address the problem of replicating a Voronoi diagram $V(S)$ of a planar point set $S$ by making proximity queries, which are of three possible (in decreasing order of information content): 1. the exact location of the nearest site(s) in $S$; 2. the distance to and label(s) of the nearest site(s) in $S$; 3. a unique label for every nearest site in $S$. We provide algorithms showing how queries of Type 1 and Type 2 allow an exact cloning of $V(S)$ with $O(n)$ queries and $O(n \\log^2 n)$ processing time. We also prove that queries of Type 3 can never exactly clone $V(S)$, but we show that with $O(n \\log\\frac{1}{\\epsilon})$ queries we can construct an $\\epsilon$-approximate cloning of $V(S)$. In addition to showing the limits of nearest-neighbor database security, our methods also provide one of the first natural algorithmic applications of retroactive data structures.
VennDiagramWeb: a web application for the generation of highly customizable Venn and Euler diagrams.
Lam, Felix; Lalansingh, Christopher M; Babaran, Holly E; Wang, Zhiyuan; Prokopec, Stephenie D; Fox, Natalie S; Boutros, Paul C
2016-10-03
Visualization of data generated by high-throughput, high-dimensionality experiments is rapidly becoming a rate-limiting step in computational biology. There is an ongoing need to quickly develop high-quality visualizations that can be easily customized or incorporated into automated pipelines. This often requires an interface for manual plot modification, rapid cycles of tweaking visualization parameters, and the generation of graphics code. To facilitate this process for the generation of highly-customizable, high-resolution Venn and Euler diagrams, we introduce VennDiagramWeb: a web application for the widely used VennDiagram R package. VennDiagramWeb is hosted at http://venndiagram.res.oicr.on.ca/ . VennDiagramWeb allows real-time modification of Venn and Euler diagrams, with parameter setting through a web interface and immediate visualization of results. It allows customization of essentially all aspects of figures, but also supports integration into computational pipelines via download of R code. Users can upload data and download figures in a range of formats, and there is exhaustive support documentation. VennDiagramWeb allows the easy creation of Venn and Euler diagrams for computational biologists, and indeed many other fields. Its ability to support real-time graphics changes that are linked to downloadable code that can be integrated into automated pipelines will greatly facilitate the improved visualization of complex datasets. For application support please contact Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca.
De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie
2015-05-01
To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.
Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, Hongfang; Chen, LuYao; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, Supriya; Das, Susovan; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Wendi; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, Sheng; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Xingming; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, Shengqin; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Han, Dong; Hartmann, H.; He, Shue; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, Dongdong; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, Di; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Qiyan; Li, Xin; Li, Yuanjing; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, Xiaofeng; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, Pengfei; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muñoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, Amitava; Roy, Ankhi; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, Shusu; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Guofeng; Song, Jihye; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, Aleksey; Voronin, Alexander; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Wei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yi; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, Gy.; Won, Sanguk; Wu, Ke-Jun; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Xu, Nu; Yang, Junfeng; Yang, Rongxing; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Jiajun; Zheng, Sheng; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.
2017-03-01
Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√{s_{NN}}= 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials ( μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.
The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances
Hsin-Hsiung Huang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such
1993-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1. and 2 focuses on D&D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. Remedial action is the focus of Vol. 2, Pt. B, which has been divided into the three necessary subelements of the RA: characterization, RA, and robotics and automation. Each of these sections address general ORNL problems, which are then broken down by problem area/constituents and linked to potential remedial technologies. The diagrams also contain summary information about a technology`s status, its science and technology needs, and its implementation needs.
Forest Dynamics at the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project viewed through stocking diagrams
David R. Larsen; John M. Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen
2017-01-01
Stocking diagrams come in two forms, the Gingrich diagram and the density management diagram. While they both present the same information about a forest stand, they each provide a different perspective on the data being displayed. Density management diagrams have been around since the 1930s and the Gingrich diagram has been around since the 1960s, but applications of...
Saccone, A.; Cardinale, A. M.; Delfino, S.; Ferro, R.
2003-03-01
The dysprosium-zinc phase diagram has been investigated over its entire composition range by using differential thermal analysis, (DTA) metallographic analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Seven intermetallic phases have been found and their structures confirmed. DyZn, DyZn2, Dy13Zn58, and Dy2Zn17 melt congruently at 1095 °C, 1050 °C, 930 °C, and 930 °C, respectively. DyZn3, Dy3Zn11, and DyZn12 form through peritectic reactions at 895 °C, about 900 °C and 685 °C, respectively. Four eutectic reactions occur at 850 °C and 30.0 at pct Zn (between (Dy) and DyZn), 990 °C and 60.0 at pct Zn (between DyZn and DyZn2), 885 °C and 76.0 at pct Zn (between DyZn3 and Dy3Zn11), and 875 °C and 85.0 at pct Zn (involving Dy13Zn58 and Dy2Zn17). The Dy-rich end presents a catatectic equilibrium; a degenerate invariant effect has been found in the Zn-rich region. The phase equilibria of the Dy-Zn alloys are discussed and compared with those of the other known RE-Zn systems (RE=rare earth metal) in view of the regular change in the relative stabilities of the phases across the lanthanide series
Classical Process diagrams and Service oriented Architecture
Milan Mišovič
2013-01-01
services communicate with each other. The communication can involve either simple data or it could two or more services coordinating some activity. From the above mentioned we can pronounce a brief description of SOA. “SOA is an architectural style for consistency of business process logic and service architecture of the target software.”It is a complex of means for solution of special analysis, design, and integration of enterprise applications based on the use of enterprise services. The service solutions of the classic business process logic are, of course, based on the application of at least seven key principles of SOA (free relations, service contract, autonomy, abstraction, reusing, composition, no states. Key attributes of SOA are verbally described in (Erl, 2006. They are so important that a separate article should be devoted to their nature and formalization. On the other hand, there is also clear that each service solution of business logic should respect the principles published in SOA Manifesto, 2009, which are essentially derived from the key principles of SOA.In many publications there are given the SOA reference models usually composed of several layers (presentation layer, business process layer, composite services layer, application layer giving a meta idea of SOA implementation. Perfect knowledge of the business process logic is a necessary condition for the development of a proper service solution. The different types of business processes should be described in the necessary details and contexts.Interestingly, the SOA paradigm does not provide its own method of finding and describing business processes by giving a layered transparent business process diagram. On the other hand, the methodology provides deep understanding of not only the characteristics of services, but also their functionality and implementation of the key principles of SOA (Erl, 2006.Let us assume that the required process diagrams can be achieved by using some of the advanced
Homotopy theory of modules over diagrams of rings
J. P. C. Greenlees
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Given a diagram of rings, one may consider the category of modules over them. We are interested in the homotopy theory of categories of this type: given a suitable diagram of model categories ℳ( (as runs through the diagram, we consider the category of diagrams where the object ( at comes from ℳ(. We develop model structures on such categories of diagrams and Quillen adjunctions that relate categories based on different diagram shapes. Under certain conditions, cellularizations (or right Bousfield localizations of these adjunctions induce Quillen equivalences. As an application we show that a cellularization of a category of modules over a diagram of ring spectra (or differential graded rings is Quillen equivalent to modules over the associated inverse limit of the rings. Another application of the general machinery here is given in work by the authors on algebraic models of rational equivariant spectra. Some of this material originally appeared in the preprint “An algebraic model for rational torus-equivariant stable homotopy theory”, arXiv:1101.2511, but has been generalized here.
Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter
Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna
2005-01-01
We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we...
Bifurcation diagrams in relation to synchronization in chaotic systems
Debabrata Dutta; Sagar Chakraborty
2010-06-01
We numerically study some of the three-dimensional dynamical systems which exhibit complete synchronization as well as generalized synchronization to show that these systems can be conveniently partitioned into equivalent classes facilitating the study of bifurcation diagrams within each class. We demonstrate how bifurcation diagrams may be helpful in predicting the nature of the driven system by knowing the bifurcation diagram of driving system and vice versa. The study is extended to include the possible generalized synchronization between elements of two different equivalent classes by taking the Rössler-driven-Lorenz-system as an example.
Thermodynamic equilibrium diagram of the chlorine-titanium system
DU Ailing; GUO Xiaofei; ZHANG Heming; LIU Jiang
2005-01-01
The chemical and electrochemical equilibria of the chlorine-titanium system in the presence of gaseous phase were investigated. Many species, which consisted of chlorine and titanium, were considered. Various thermodynamic equilibria were calculated in the different pressures at different temperatures. The calculated results were shown as log p-1/T and E-T diagrams. These diagrams may be used as important tools for corrosion study and titanium production. The diagrams are also used to thermodynamically determine the existence areas of various species and so on.
Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?
Schüssler, M
2004-01-01
We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnetic flux by a flow. These properties seem to be generic for an oscillatory and migratory field of dipole parity and thus do not permit an observational distinction between different dynamo approaches.
Linkage intensity learning approach with genetic algorithm for causality diagram
WANG Cheng-liang; CHEN Juan-juan
2007-01-01
The causality diagram theory, which adopts graphical expression of knowledge and direct intensity of causality, overcomes some shortages in belief network and has evolved into a mixed causality diagram methodology for discrete and continuous variable. But to give linkage intensity of causality diagram is difficult, particularly in many working conditions in which sampling data are limited or noisy. The classic learning algorithm is hard to be adopted. We used genetic algorithm to learn linkage intensity from limited data. The simulation results demonstrate that this algorithm is more suitable than the classic algorithm in the condition of sample shortage such as space shuttle's fault diagnoisis.
Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field
Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoka, Kotaro
2017-05-01
We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using a conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show that our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.
Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field
Nishida, Mitsuhiro
2016-01-01
We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.
Dynamic programming in in uence diagrams with decision circuits
Shachter, Ross D
2012-01-01
Decision circuits perform efficient evaluation of influence diagrams, building on the ad- vances in arithmetic circuits for belief net- work inference [Darwiche, 2003; Bhattachar- jya and Shachter, 2007]. We show how even more compact decision circuits can be con- structed for dynamic programming in influ- ence diagrams with separable value functions and conditionally independent subproblems. Once a decision circuit has been constructed based on the diagram's "global" graphical structure, it can be compiled to exploit "lo- cal" structure for efficient evaluation and sen- sitivity analysis.
A class of three-loop models with neutrino mass and dark matter
Chen, Chian-Shu, E-mail: chianshu@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); McDonald, Kristian L., E-mail: klmcd@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Nasri, Salah, E-mail: snasri@uaeu.ac.ae [Physics Department, UAE University, POB 17551, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, ES-SENIA University, DZ-31000 Oran (Algeria)
2014-06-27
We study a class of three-loop models for neutrino mass in which dark matter plays a key role in enabling the mass diagram. The simplest models in this class have Majorana dark matter and include the proposal of Krauss, Nasri and Trodden; we identify the remaining related models, including the viable colored variants. The next-to-simplest models use either more multiplets and/or a slight modification of the loop-diagram, and predict inert N-tuplet scalar dark matter.
2011-09-02
... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...
2011-01-18
... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...
Ferrian Ilmenites: Investigating the Magnetic Phase Diagram
Lagroix, F.
2007-12-01
The main objective of this study is to investigate the magnetic phase changes within the hematite-ilmenite solid solution, yFeTiO3·(1-y)·Fe2O3. Two sets of synthetic ferrian ilmenites of y-values equal to 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 were available for this study. As currently drawn, the magnetic phase diagram, proposed by Ishikawa et al. [1985, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. v.54, 312-325], predicts for increasing y values (0.5
Naima Fathima
2016-05-01
Results: Various quality improvement tools can be used in the clinical context. Among them, driver diagram is most widely used at the start of an improvement initiative. The driver diagram in this article shows its applicability in one of the clinical aspects of obstetrics, to reduce primary caesarean section rates. Conclusions: Driver diagram is an easy and a simple tool widely used in quality improvement activities. It is essential to use at the beginning of improvement initiatives. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1339-1342
Bubble diagram through the Symmetries of Feynman Integrals method
Kol, Barak
2016-01-01
The Symmetries of Feynman Integrals method (SFI) associates a natural Lie group with any diagram, depending only on its topology. The group acts on parameter space and the method determines the integral's dependence within group orbits. This paper analyzes the bubble diagram, namely the 1-loop propagator diagram, through the SFI method. This is the first diagram with external legs to be analyzed within SFI, and the method is generalized to include this case. The set of differential equation is obtained. In order to solve it the set is transformed into partial invariants variables. The equations are integrated to reproduce the integral's value. This value is interpreted in terms of triangle geometry partially inspired by earlier papers.
Alaska NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Outlines
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...
Alaska NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Outlines
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...
Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Alaska Region NAD 83
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...
Atlantic NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) in Adobe PDF format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree high. OPDs are...
Official Protraction Diagram and Leasing Map Boundaries - Direct Download
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows official protraction diagram (OPD) and leasing map boundaries covering areas of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) within Federal jurisdiction....
Pacific NAD 83 Supplemental Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Pacific Region. Each SOBD describes a...
Alaska NAD 83 Supplemental Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Alaska Region. Each SOBD describes a...
Pacific NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) in Adobe PDF format. Pacific Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree high. OPDs are...
Alaska NAD 83 Composite Block Diagram (CBD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Composite Block Diagram (CBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Alaska Region. Each CBD describes a single block within an...
Atlantic NAD 83 Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Supplemental Official OCS Block Diagram (SOBD) images in Adobe pdf format for areas within the BOEM Atlantic Region. Each SOBD describes a...
Alaska NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Images
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) in Adobe PDF format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree high. OPDs are...
Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science
Chamizo, José A.
2012-05-01
The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The left side originally related in Gowin's Vee with philosophies, theories, models, laws or regularities now agrees with Toulmin's concepts (language, models as representation techniques and application procedures). Mexican science teachers without experience in science education research used the heuristic diagram to learn about the history of chemistry considering also in the left side two different historical times: past and present. Through a semantic differential scale teachers' attitude to the heuristic diagram was evaluated and its usefulness was demonstrated.
The Compressibility of Checkerboard Surfaces of Link Diagrams
Zhi Qiang BAO
2007-01-01
Consider the checkerboard surfaces defined by some link diagrams. When they are notorientable, one considers the boundary surfaces of small regular neighborhoods of them. This articlestudies the compressibility problem of these kinds of surfaces in the link complements. The problemis solved by devising a normalization theory for the compressing discs, which brings up an algorithmto read out compressibility directly from the link diagrams. As an application of the algorithm, thecompressibility changes under Reidermeister moves are studied. Diagrams from the knot tables arealso studied, and surprisingly, some of them are shown to define completely compressible surfaces ofthis kind. Infinitely many examples of non-alternating knot diagrams with incompressible surfaces ofthis kind are also constructed.
Finite Rank Bratteli Diagrams and their Invariant Measures
Bezuglyi, Sergey; Medynets, Konstantin; Solomyak, Boris
2010-01-01
In this paper we study ergodic measures on non-simple Bratteli diagrams of finite rank that are invariant with respect to the cofinal equivalence relation. We describe the structure of finite rank diagrams and prove that every ergodic invariant measure (finite or infinite) is an extension of a finite ergodic measure defined on a simple subdiagram. We find some algebraic criteria in terms of entries of incidence matrices and their norms under which such an extension remains a finite measure. Furthermore, the support of every ergodic measure is explicitly determined. We also give an algebraic condition for a diagram to be uniquely ergodic. It is proved that Vershik maps (not necessarily continuous) on finite rank Bratteli diagrams cannot be strongly mixing and always have zero entropy with respect to any finite ergodic invariant measure. A number of examples illustrating the established results is included.
Geometrical approach to the evaluation of multileg Feynman diagrams
Davydychev, A.I. [Department of Physics, University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Delbourgo, R. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)
1998-10-01
A connection between one-loop N-point Feynman diagrams and certain geometrical quantities in non-Euclidean geometry is discussed. A geometrical way to calculate the corresponding Feynman integrals is considered. (author)
Lyapunov exponent diagrams of a 4-dimensional Chua system.
Stegemann, Cristiane; Albuquerque, Holokx A; Rubinger, Rero M; Rech, Paulo C
2011-09-01
We report numerical results on the existence of periodic structures embedded in chaotic and hyperchaotic regions on the Lyapunov exponent diagrams of a 4-dimensional Chua system. The model was obtained from the 3-dimensional Chua system by the introduction of a feedback controller. Both the largest and the second largest Lyapunov exponents were considered in our colorful Lyapunov exponent diagrams, and allowed us to characterize periodic structures and regions of chaos and hyperchaos. The shrimp-shaped periodic structures appear to be malformed on some of Lyapunov exponent diagrams, and they present two different bifurcation scenarios to chaos when passing the boundaries of itself, namely via period-doubling and crisis. Hyperchaos-chaos transition can also be observed on the Lyapunov exponent diagrams for the second largest exponent.
Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids.
Bier, Markus; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein
2010-09-28
Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of oppositely charged colloids are calculated theoretically. The proposed mean-field-like formalism interpolates between the limits of a hard-sphere system at high temperatures and the colloidal crystals which minimize Madelung-like energy sums at low temperatures. Comparison with computer simulations of an equimolar mixture of oppositely charged, equally sized spheres indicate semiquantitative accuracy of the proposed formalism. We calculate global phase diagrams of binary mixtures of equally sized spheres with opposite charges and equal charge magnitude in terms of temperature, pressure, and composition. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb interaction upon the topology of the phase diagram is discussed. Insight into the topology of the global phase diagram as a function of the system parameters leads to predictions on the preparation conditions for specific binary colloidal crystals.
Phase diagrams of binary crystalline-crystalline polymer blends.
Matkar, Rushikesh A; Kyu, Thein
2006-08-17
A thermodynamically self-consistent theory has been developed to establish binary phase diagrams for two-crystalline polymer blends by taking into consideration all interactions including amorphous-amorphous, crystal-amorphous, amorphous-crystal, and crystal-crystal interactions. The present theory basically involves combination of the Flory-Huggins free energy for amorphous-amorphous isotropic mixing and the Landau free energy of polymer solidification (e.g., crystallization) of the crystalline constituents. The self-consistent solution via minimization of the free energy of the mixture affords determination of eutectic, peritectic, and azeotrope phase diagrams involving various coexistence regions such as liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid coexistence regions bound by liquidus and solidus lines. To validate the present theory, the predicted eutectic phase diagrams have been compared with the reported experimental binary phase diagrams of blends such as polyethylene fractions as well as polycaprolactone/trioxane mixtures.
A dialogue about protein crystallization and phase diagrams.
Asherie, Neer
2012-07-01
A lighthearted researcher and a disheartened student discuss the challenges of protein crystallization and how phase diagrams can be used to address these challenges. The student feels a little better afterwards, but many proteins remain uncrystallized.
Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes
Wendel, Paul
2011-05-01
Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15
Partition functions of web diagrams with an O7$^-$-plane
Hayashi, Hirotaka
2016-01-01
We consider the computation of the topological string partition function for 5-brane web diagrams with an O7$^-$-plane. Since upon quantum resolution of the orientifold plane these diagrams become non-toric web diagrams without the orientifold we are able to apply the topological vertex to obtain the Nekrasov partition function of the corresponding 5d theory. We apply this procedure to the case of 5d $SU(N)$ theories with one hypermultiplet in the antisymmetric representation and to the case of 5d pure $USp(2N)$ theories. For these cases we discuss the dictionary between parameters and moduli of the 5d gauge theory and lengths of 5-branes in the web diagram and moreover we perform comparison of the results obtained via application of the topological vertex and the one obtained via localisation techniques, finding in all instances we consider perfect agreement.
Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Atlantic Region NAD 83
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. Atlantic Region OPDs are approximately 2 degrees wide by one degree...
Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System
XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong
2004-01-01
The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.
Computer Simulation of IT-diagrams of Steel
B. Smoljan
2004-01-01
Computer simulation of austenite decomposition has been investigated. The inversion method of prediction of phase portion in steel based on hardenability curve of Jominy-specimen has been established. The designed method of prediction austenite decomposition has been used in computer simulation of isothermal transformation (IT) diagram of low alloyed steel. IT-diagrams of low alloyed steel can be successfully predicted by proposed method of computer simulation.
Construction of Penrose Diagrams for Dynamic Black Holes
Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James
2008-01-01
A set of Penrose diagrams is constructed in order to examine the large-scale causal structure of black holes with dynamic horizons. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the event horizon and radial mass scale, are demonstrated on the diagrams. Unlike in static Schwarzschild geometries, the radial mass scale is clearly seen to differ from the horizon. Trajectories for photons near the horizon are briefly discussed.
Block diagrams for the study of some endocrine processes.
Derevenco, P; Vincze, J
1977-01-01
With the help of bibliographical data and contributions of the authors two block diagrams have been built. These block diagrams are scheming two processes connected with the exposure of the organism to a moderate physical exercise: (a) the control of the release and the effect of ACTH (b) the control of the release and effect of STH. Some practical conclusion can be drawn regarding the interpretation of the endocrine modifications during exercise including those during standard functional tests.
Ontological Modeling of Transformation in Heart Defect Diagrams
Viswanath, Venkatesh; Tong, Tuanjie; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Lee, Yugyung
2006-01-01
The accurate portrayal of a large volume data of variable heart defects is crucial to providing good patient care in pediatric cardiology. Our research aims to span the universe of congenital heart defects by generating illustrative diagrams that enhance data interpretation. To accommodate the range and severity of defects to be represented, we base our diagrams on transformation models applied to a normal heart rather than a static set of defects. These models are based on a domain-specific ...
Metastable Al-Sc phase diagram in aluminium rich region
Drits, M.E.; Toropova, L.S.; Bykov, Yu.G.; Gushchina, F.L.; Elagin, V.I.; Filatov, Yu.A.
1982-12-01
An aluminium rich part of binary metastable phase diagram Al-Sc for 100 deg/s alloy cooling rate under crystallization is studied. Eutectic horizontal in the metastable diagram is 4 deg lower as compared to the equilibrium one, scandium concentration in the eutectic point makes up approximately 0.8%, the maximum solubility is 0.6%. Maximum cast grain refining in aluminium under crystallization at the rate of 100 deg/s is attained at 0.6% scandium content.
Lobato, Joanne; Hohensee, Charles; Diamond, Jaime Marie
2014-09-01
Despite recent research interest in student-created diagrams, little research has systematically investigated students' diagram- construction processes, meaning the order and manner in which students create markings as they physically generate diagrams. In this study, we characterize the various processes students use to create diagrams that represent a quadratic motion situation involving increasing speed, and we explore how these diagram-construction processes are related to students' conceptions of speed as inferred from their explanations with their completed diagrams. Previous literature suggests contrasting predictions regarding whether or not students' diagram-construction processes are closely related (from our perspective as researchers) to students' inferred conceptions. We see the study as having value for research and practice by raising new questions related to diagram-construction processes, pointing to the potential formative assessment value of attending to diagram-construction processes, and demonstrating the need for the development of theory to explain the relationships identified by this study.
Kawamoto, N; Ohnishi, A; Ohnuma, T
2005-01-01
We study the phase diagram of quark matter at finite temperature (T) and finite chemical potential (mu) in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD for color SU(3). We derive an analytical expression of the effective free energy as a function of T and mu, including baryon effects. The finite temperature effects are evaluated by integrating over the temporal link variable exactly in the Polyakov gauge with anti-periodic boundary condition for fermions. The obtained phase diagram shows the first order phase transition at low temperatures and the second order phase transition at high temperatures separated by the tri-critical point in the chiral limit. Baryon has effects to reduce the effective free energy and to extend the hadron phase to a larger mu direction at low temperatures.
Inflationary models driven by adiabatic matter creation
Abramo, L R W
1996-01-01
The flat inflationary dust universe with matter creation proposed by Prigogine and coworkers is generalized and its dynamical properties are reexamined. It is shown that the starting point of these models depends critically on a dimensionless parameter \\Sigma, closely related to the matter creation rate \\psi. For \\Sigma bigger or smaller than unity flat universes can emerge, respectively, either like a Big-Bang FRW singularity or as a Minkowski space-time at t=-\\infty. The case \\Sigma=1 corresponds to a de Sitter-type solution, a fixed point in the phase diagram of the system, supported by the matter creation process. The curvature effects have also been investigated. The inflating de Sitter is a universal attractor for all expanding solutions regardless of the initial conditions as well as of the curvature parameter.
Towards a thermodynamics of active matter.
Takatori, S C; Brady, J F
2015-03-01
Self-propulsion allows living systems to display self-organization and unusual phase behavior. Unlike passive systems in thermal equilibrium, active matter systems are not constrained by conventional thermodynamic laws. A question arises, however, as to what extent, if any, can concepts from classical thermodynamics be applied to nonequilibrium systems like active matter. Here we use the new swim pressure perspective to develop a simple theory for predicting phase separation in active matter. Using purely mechanical arguments we generate a phase diagram with a spinodal and critical point, and define a nonequilibrium chemical potential to interpret the "binodal." We provide a generalization of thermodynamic concepts like the free energy and temperature for nonequilibrium active systems. Our theory agrees with existing simulation data both qualitatively and quantitatively and may provide a framework for understanding and predicting the behavior of nonequilibrium active systems.
Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid
Herminghaus, Stephan
2013-01-01
This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette
During 2011 national standardised testing within areas such as reading, mathematics, science etc. has been introduced in Danish compulsory school by the Educational Ministry as something new. The inspirations behind this initiative are both the international comparative educational studies such a...... the introduction of standardised testing meens to pupils perception of school matters, selfperception etc. In my analysis and discussion I will among others draw on Basil Bernsteins theoretical...
Infrared thermography method for fast estimation of phase diagrams
Palomo Del Barrio, Elena [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Cadoret, Régis [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Daranlot, Julien [Solvay, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Av du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Achchaq, Fouzia, E-mail: fouzia.achchaq@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France)
2016-02-10
Highlights: • Infrared thermography is proposed to determine phase diagrams in record time. • Phase boundaries are detected by means of emissivity changes during heating. • Transition lines are identified by using Singular Value Decomposition techniques. • Different binary systems have been used for validation purposes. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are widely used today in thermal energy storage applications. Pure PCMs are rarely used because of non adapted melting points. Instead of them, mixtures are preferred. The search of suitable mixtures, preferably eutectics, is often a tedious and time consuming task which requires the determination of phase diagrams. In order to accelerate this screening step, a new method for estimating phase diagrams in record time (1–3 h) has been established and validated. A sample composed by small droplets of mixtures with different compositions (as many as necessary to have a good coverage of the phase diagram) deposited on a flat substrate is first prepared and cooled down to ambient temperature so that all droplets crystallize. The plate is then heated at constant heating rate up to a sufficiently high temperature for melting all the small crystals. The heating process is imaged by using an infrared camera. An appropriate method based on singular values decomposition technique has been developed to analyze the recorded images and to determine the transition lines of the phase diagram. The method has been applied to determine several simple eutectic phase diagrams and the reached results have been validated by comparison with the phase diagrams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter measurements and by thermodynamic modelling.
General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons
Garcia-Cely, Camilo
2016-01-01
Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.
Magnetic Phase Diagram of Dense Holographic Multiquarks in the Quark-gluon Plasma
Burikham, Piyabut
2011-01-01
We study phase diagram of the dense holographic gauge matter in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the presence of the magnetic field above the deconfinement temperature. Even above the deconfinement, quarks could form colour bound states through the remaining strong interaction if the density is large. We demonstrate that in the presence of the magnetic field for a sufficiently large baryon density, the multiquark-pion gradient (MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$) phase is more thermodynamically preferred than the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma. The phase diagrams between the holographic multiquark and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phase are obtained at finite temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$ phase, the pion gradient induced by the external magnetic field is found to be a linear response for small and moderate field strengths. Its population ratio decreases as the density is raised and thus the multiquarks dominate the phase. Temperature dependence of the baryon chemical potential,...
Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio phase diagrams and quarkyonic phase from order parameters
Dutra, M; Delfino, A; Frederico, T; Malheiro, M
2013-01-01
We show that the magnitude of the order parameters in Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, given by the quark condensate and the Polyakov loop, can be used as a criterium to clearly identify, without ambiguities, phases and boundaries of the strongly interacting matter, namely, the broken/restored chiral symmetry, and confinement/deconfinement regions. This structure is represented by the projection of the order parameters in the temperature-chemical potential plane, which allows a clear identification of pattern changes in the phase diagram. Such a criterium also enables the emergence of a quarkyonic phase even in the two-flavor system. We still show that this new phase diminishes due to the influence of an additional vector-type interaction in the PNJL phase diagrams, and is quite sensitive to the effect of the change of the $T_0$ parameter in the Polyakov potential. Finally, we show that the phases and boundaries constructed by our method indicate that the order parameters should be more strongly corr...
The contribution of solid-state chemistry in the determination of multicomponent phase diagrams
Jean Claude Tedenac; Franck Gascoin; Didier Ravot
2006-01-01
For a long period of time, the determination of phase diagrams was only supported by experiments related to thermal effects or thermodynamic measurements: thermal analysis, calorimetric measurements, vapor pressures, and EMF measurements. As a matter of fact, solid-solid transformations were not so accurately determined and could not be taken into account in the system's analysis. First, X-ray diffraction methods were used as a support for the thermal analysis. Sec ond, the implementation of novel tools in structural analysis (for example, the Rietveld method) has permitted to increase the knowledge of phase stability. Finally, modeling the phases using a Calphad method needed increasingly more structural results to determine and better understand the phase diagrams. On the other hand, the Calphad method has been widely developed for metallic systems, for oxide systems, and in the past 10 years, for some semi-conductor systems, for example,gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, and lead telluride systems. In such applications, it is very important to bring point defects in the modeling of the phases to map the defects as a function of the chemical composition. Owing to its complexity,this characteristic, the knowledge of which is crucial for the understanding and the control of potential physical applications, was ignored in the previous assessment of semi-conductor systems.
Heating (Gapless) Color-Flavor Locked Quark Matter
Fukushima, K; Rajagopal, K; Fukushima, Kenji; Kouvaris, Chris; Rajagopal, Krishna
2004-01-01
We explore the phase diagram of neutral quark matter at high baryon density as a function of the temperature T and the strange quark mass Ms. At T=0, there is a sharp distinction between the insulating color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, which occurs where Ms^2/mu 0 and Delta_2->0) cross. Because we do not make any small-Ms approximation, if we choose a relatively strong coupling leading to large gap parameters, we are able to pursue the analysis of the phase diagram all the way up to such large values of Ms that there are no strange quarks present.
Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter
Lobanov, A. E.
2017-03-01
A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.
Penguin-like Diagrams from the Standard Model
Chia, Swee-Ping
2015-01-01
The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagra...
A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.
Steven Allender
Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.
A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.
Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin
2015-01-01
Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.
Confronting the Hubble diagram of gamma-ray bursts with Cardassian cosmology
Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J; Habib Dumet M; Furlanetto, Cristina, E-mail: hermanjc@cbpf.br, E-mail: hdumetm@cbpf.br, E-mail: crisf@cbpf.br [Instituto de Cosmologia, Relatividade e Astrofisica (ICRA-BR), Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Cep 22290-180, Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-15
We construct the Hubble diagram of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with redshifts reaching up to z{approx}6, by using five luminosity versus luminosity indicator relations calibrated with the Cardassian cosmology. This model has a major interesting feature: despite being matter dominated and flat, it can explain the present accelerated expansion of the universe. This is the first study of this class of models using high redshift GRBs. We have performed a {chi} squared statistical analysis of the GRBs calibrated with the Cardassian model, and also combined them with both the current cosmic microwave background and baryonic acoustic oscillation data. Our results show consistency between the current observational data and the model predictions; in particular, the best fit parameters obtained from that {chi}{sup 2} analysis are in agreement with those obtained from previous investigations. The influence of these best fit parameters on the redshift at which the universe would start to follow the Cardassian expansion, i.e., z{sub card}, and on both the redshift at which the universe supposedly had started to accelerate, i.e., z{sub acc}, and the age-redshift relation, H{sub 0}t{sub 0}, are also discussed. Our results also show that the universe, from the point of view of GRBs, had undergone a transition to acceleration at a redshift z Almost-Equal-To 0.2-0.7, which agrees with the type Ia supernovae results. One important point that we notice is that despite the statistical analysis being performed with a model that does not need any vacuum energy, we found that the results attained using this cosmological model are compatible with those obtained with the concordance cosmology ({Lambda}-CDM; CDM: cold dark matter), as far as GRBs are concerned. Hence, after confronting the Cardassian scenario with the GRB Hubble diagram, our main conclusion is that GRBs should indeed be considered a tool complementary to several other observational studies for doing precision cosmology.
Lascu, I.; Harrison, R. J.
2016-12-01
First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams are a powerful method to characterise the hysteresis properties of magnetic grain ensembles. Methods of processing, analysis and simulation of FORC diagrams have developed rapidly over the past few years, dramatically expanding their utility within rock magnetic research. Here we announce the latest release of FORCinel (Version 3.0), which integrates many of these developments into a unified, user-friendly package running within Igor Pro (www.wavemetrics.com). FORCinel v. 3.0 can be downloaded from https://wserv4.esc.cam.ac.uk/nanopaleomag/. The release will be accompanied by a series of video tutorials outlining each of the new features, including: i) improved work flow, with unified smoothing approach; ii) increased processing speed using multiple processors; iii) control of output resolution, enabling large datasets (> 500 FORCs) to be smoothed in a matter of seconds; iv) load, process, analyse and average multiple FORC diagrams; v) load and process non-gridded data and data acquired on non-PMC systems; vi) improved method for exploring optimal smoothing parameters; vii) interactive and un-doable data-pretreatments; viii) automated detection and removal of measurement outliers; ix) improved interactive method for the generation and optimisation of colour scales; x) full integration with FORCem1 - supervised quantitative unmixing of FORC diagrams using principle component analysis (PCA); xi) full integration with FORCulator2 - micromagnetic simulation of FORC diagrams; xiii) simulate TRM acquisition using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation algorithm of Shcherbakov3. 1. Lascu, I., Harrison, R.J., Li, Y., Muraszko, J.R., Channell, J.E.T., Piotrowski, A.M., Hodell, D.A., 2015. Magnetic unmixing of first-order reversal curve diagrams using principal component analysis. Geochemistry, Geophys. Geosystems 16, 2900-2915. 2. Harrison, R.J., Lascu, I., 2014. FORCulator: A micromagnetic tool for simulating first-order reversal
Coupled Cluster studies of infinite nuclear matter
Baardsen, G; Hagen, G; Hjorth-Jensen, M
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop the relevant formalism for performing Coupled Cluster calculations in nuclear matter and neutron star matter, including thereby important correlations to infinite order in the interaction and testing modern nuclear forces based on chiral effective field theory. Our formalism includes the exact treatment of the so-called Pauli operator in a partial wave expansion of the equation of state. Nuclear and neutron matter calculations are done using a coupled particle-particle and hole-hole ladder approximation. The coupled ladder equations are derived as an approximation of CC theory, leaving out particle-hole and non-linear diagrams from the CC doubles amplitude equation. This study is a first step toward CC calculations for nuclear and neutron matter. We present results for both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter employing state-of-the-art nucleon-nucleon interactions based on chiral effective field theory. We employ also the newly optimized chiral interaction [A. E...
In today’s globalized world, halal (meaning ‘permissible’ or ‘lawful’) is about more than food. Politics, power and ethics all play a role in the halal industry in setting new standards for production, trade, consumption and regulation. The question of how modern halal markets are constituted...... is illustrated by rich ethnographic case studies from a range of contexts, and consideration is given to both Muslim majority and minority societies. Halal Matters will be of interest to students and scholars working across the humanities and social sciences, including anthropology, sociology and religious...
Ramaswamy, Sriram
2017-05-01
The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.
UML activity diagrams in requirements specification of logic controllers
Grobelna, Iwona; Grobelny, Michał
2015-12-01
Logic controller specification can be prepared using various techniques. One of them is the wide understandable and user-friendly UML language and its activity diagrams. Using formal methods during the design phase increases the assurance that implemented system meets the project requirements. In the approach we use the model checking technique to formally verify a specification against user-defined behavioral requirements. The properties are usually defined as temporal logic formulas. In the paper we propose to use UML activity diagrams in requirements definition and then to formalize them as temporal logic formulas. As a result, UML activity diagrams can be used both for logic controller specification and for requirements definition, what simplifies the specification and verification process.
Adjustment Criteria in Causal Diagrams: An Algorithmic Perspective
Textor, Johannes
2012-01-01
Identifying and controlling bias is a key problem in empirical sciences. Causal diagram theory provides graphical criteria for deciding whether and how causal effects can be identified from observed (nonexperimental) data by covariate adjustment. Here we prove equivalences between existing as well as new criteria for adjustment and we provide a new simplified but still equivalent notion of d-separation. These lead to efficient algorithms for two important tasks in causal diagram analysis: (1) listing minimal covariate adjustments (with polynomial delay); and (2) identifying the subdiagram involved in biasing paths (in linear time). Our results improve upon existing exponential-time solutions for these problems, enabling users to assess the effects of covariate adjustment on diagrams with tens to hundreds of variables interactively in real time.
Phase diagram studies on the Na-Mo-O system
Gnanasekaran, T.; Mahendran, K. H.; Kutty, K. V. G.; Mathews, C. K.
1989-06-01
The phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O ternary system is of interest in interpreting the behaviour of structural materials in the sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors and sodium-filled heat pipes. Experiments involving heating of sodium oxide with molybdenum metal under vacuum, selective removal of oxygen from polymolybdates by reducing them under hydrogen and confirmation of the coexistence of various phase mixtures were conducted in the temperature range of 673 to 923 K. Phase fields involving molybdenum metal, dioxide of molybdenum and ternary compounds were derived from these results. The ternary phase diagram of the Na-Mo-O system was constructed and isothermal cross sections of the phase diagram are presented.
Sequential Voronoi diagram calculations using simple chemical reactions
Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andy
2012-01-01
In our recent paper [de Lacy Costello et al. 2010] we described the formation of complex tessellations of the plane arising from the various reactions of metal salts with potassium ferricyanide and ferrocyanide loaded gels. In addition to producing colourful tessellations these reactions are naturally computing generalised Voronoi diagrams of the plane. The reactions reported previously were capable of the calculation of three distinct Voronoi diagrams of the plane. As diffusion coupled with a chemical reaction is responsible for the calculation then this is achieved in parallel. Thus an increase in the complexity of the data input does not utilise additional computational resource. Additional benefits of these chemical reactions is that a permanent record of the Voronoi diagram calculation (in the form of precipitate free bisectors) is achieved, so there is no requirement for further processing to extract the calculation results. Previously it was assumed that the permanence of the results was also a potenti...
The limit shape problem for ensembles of Young diagrams
Hora, Akihito
2016-01-01
This book treats ensembles of Young diagrams originating from group-theoretical contexts and investigates what statistical properties are observed there in a large-scale limit. The focus is mainly on analyzing the interesting phenomenon that specific curves appear in the appropriate scaling limit for the profiles of Young diagrams. This problem is regarded as an important origin of recent vital studies on harmonic analysis of huge symmetry structures. As mathematics, an asymptotic theory of representations is developed of the symmetric groups of degree n as n goes to infinity. The framework of rigorous limit theorems (especially the law of large numbers) in probability theory is employed as well as combinatorial analysis of group characters of symmetric groups and applications of Voiculescu's free probability. The central destination here is a clear description of the asymptotic behavior of rescaled profiles of Young diagrams in the Plancherel ensemble from both static and dynamic points of view.
Anytime decision making based on unconstrained influence diagrams
Luque, Manuel; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner
2016-01-01
Unconstrained influence diagrams extend the language of influence diagrams to cope with decision problems in which the order of the decisions is unspecified. Thus, when solving an unconstrained influence diagram we not only look for an optimal policy for each decision, but also for a so-called step......-policy specifying the next decision given the observations made so far. However, due to the complexity of the problem, temporal constraints can force the decision maker to act before the solution algorithm has finished, and, in particular, before an optimal policy for the first decision has been computed....... This paper addresses this problem by proposing an anytime algorithm that at any time provides a qualified recommendation for the first decisions of the problem. The algorithm performs a heuristic-based search in a decision tree representation of the problem. We provide a framework for analyzing...
The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of Galactic massive stars
Castro, N; Langer, N; Simón-Díaz, S; Schneider, F R N; Izzard, R G
2014-01-01
The distribution of stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram narrates their evolutionary history and directly assesses their properties. Placing stars in this diagram however requires the knowledge of their distances and interstellar extinctions, which are often poorly known for Galactic stars. The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (sHRD) tells similar evolutionary tales, but is independent of distance and extinction measurements. Based on spectroscopically derived effective temperatures and gravities of almost 600 stars, we derive for the first time the observational distribution of Galactic massive stars in the sHRD. While biases and statistical limitations in the data prevent detailed quantitative conclusions at this time, we see several clear qualitative trends. By comparing the observational sHRD with different state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary predictions, we conclude that convective core overshooting may be mass-dependent and, at high mass ($\\geq 15\\,M_\\odot$), stronger than previously thou...
TOOL PATH PLANNING USING VORONOI DIAGRAM AND THREE STACKS
无
2001-01-01
Based on the object-oriented data structure of Vor onoi diagram, the algorithm of the trimmed offset generating and the optimal too l path planning of the pocket machining for multiply connected polygonal domains are studied. The intersection state transition rule is improved in this algorit hm. The intersection is between the trimmed offsets and Voronoi polygon. On this basis, the trimmed offset generating and the optimal tool path planning are mad e with three stacks(I-stack, C-stack and P-stack)in different monotonous pouc hes of Voronoi diagram. At the same time, a merging method of Voronoi diagram an d offsets generating for multiply connected polygonal domains is also presented. The above algorithms have been implemented in NC machining successfully, and th e efficiency is fully verified.
Monte-Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram
Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Nikolaev, A A
2016-01-01
In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within lattice Monte-Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in semimetal/insulator transition. Using numerical simulation we determined the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal/insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allowed us to draw tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na$_3$Bi and Cd$_3$As$_2$ known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals would lie deeply in the insulating region of the phase diagram. It probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.
Zone and double zone diagrams in abstract spaces
Reem, Daniel
2007-01-01
A zone diagram of order $n$ is a relatively new concept which was first defined and studied by T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama. It can be interpreted as a state of equilibrium between $n$ mutually hostile kingdoms. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping. These authors considered the Euclidean plane and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we generalize this concept in various ways. We consider $m$-spaces (a simple generalization of metric spaces) and prove some existence and (non)uniqueness results there. In contrast to previous works, our proofs are based on purely order theoretic arguments. Many explicit examples are given, and some of them illustrate new phenomena which occur in the general case. We also re-interpret zone diagrams as a stable configuration in a certain combinatorial game, and provide an algorithm for finding this configuration in a particular case.
Sequence Algebra, Sequence Decision Diagrams and Dynamic Fault Trees
Rauzy, Antoine B., E-mail: Antoine.Rauzy@lix.polytechnique.f [LIX-CNRS, Computer Science, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2011-07-15
A large attention has been focused on the Dynamic Fault Trees in the past few years. By adding new gates to static (regular) Fault Trees, Dynamic Fault Trees aim to take into account dependencies among events. Merle et al. proposed recently an algebraic framework to give a formal interpretation to these gates. In this article, we extend Merle et al.'s work by adopting a slightly different perspective. We introduce Sequence Algebras that can be seen as Algebras of Basic Events, representing failures of non-repairable components. We show how to interpret Dynamic Fault Trees within this framework. Finally, we propose a new data structure to encode sets of sequences of Basic Events: Sequence Decision Diagrams. Sequence Decision Diagrams are very much inspired from Minato's Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams. We show that all operations of Sequence Algebras can be performed on this data structure.
Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams
Rudin, M.J.
1992-10-01
This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.
Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams
Rudin, M.J.
1992-10-01
This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.
Monte Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram
Braguta, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. A.
2016-11-01
In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within a lattice Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in a semimetal-insulator transition. Using numerical simulation, we determine the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal-insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allows us to draw a tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na3Bi and Cd3As2 , known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals, would lie deep in the insulating region of the phase diagram. This result probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.
How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.
Zhu, X-Y
2014-07-03
Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.
Generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) using Feynman-like diagrams
Zuberi, M. A. H.
2014-05-19
Single scattering events recorded in surface seismic data do not fully illuminate the subsurface structure, especially if it is complicated. In such cases, multiple internal scatterings (internal multiples) can help improve the illumination. We devise a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) procedure that maps internal multiple energy to their true location with a relatively mild addition to the computational cost. GIMI theory relies heavily on seismic interferometry, which often involves cumbersome algebra, especially when one is dealing with high-order terms in the perturbation series. To make the derivations, and inference of the results easier, we introduce Feynman-like diagrams to represent different terms of the perturbation series (solution to the Lippman–Schwinger equation). The rules we define for the diagrams allow operations like convolution and cross-correlation in the series to be compressed in diagram form. The application of the theory to a double scattering example demonstrates the power of the method.
Phase diagram for a nano-yttria-stabilized zirconia system
Asadikiya, Mohammad; Sabarou, Hooman; Chen, Ming;
2016-01-01
Due to the attractive properties of nanoparticles because of their effective surface area, they have been studied widely. Nano-yttria-stabilized zirconia (n-YSZ) is a ceramic which has been scrutinized extensively in past years. Because of the different stability behavior of n-YSZ in comparison...... with bulk YSZ, a new phase diagram is needed for the n-YSZ system in order to identify stable phases under various conditions. In this study, a phase diagram for the n-YSZ system was provided to determine phase stability ranges at room temperature with respect to particle size and composition....... By applying the CALPHAD approach, a 3-D phase diagram for the n-YSZ system was established in which the stability range of each individual phase can be predicted based on the particle size, composition, and temperature....
Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction
Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.
1971-01-01
The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.
Influence Diagram Use With Respect to Technology Planning and Investment
Levack, Daniel J. H.; DeHoff, Bryan; Rhodes, Russel E.
2009-01-01
Influence diagrams are relatively simple, but powerful, tools for assessing the impact of choices or resource allocations on goals or requirements. They are very general and can be used on a wide range of problems. They can be used for any problem that has defined goals, a set of factors that influence the goals or the other factors, and a set of inputs. Influence diagrams show the relationship among a set of results and the attributes that influence them and the inputs that influence the attributes. If the results are goals or requirements of a program, then the influence diagram can be used to examine how the requirements are affected by changes to technology investment. This paper uses an example to show how to construct and interpret influence diagrams, how to assign weights to the inputs and attributes, how to assign weights to the transfer functions (influences), and how to calculate the resulting influences of the inputs on the results. A study is also presented as an example of how using influence diagrams can help in technology planning and investment. The Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) used this technique to examine the impact of R&D spending on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of a space transportation system. The question addressed was the effect on the recurring and the non-recurring portions of LCC of the proportion of R&D resources spent to impact technology objectives versus the proportion spent to impact operational dependability objectives. The goals, attributes, and the inputs were established. All of the linkages (influences) were determined. The weighting of each of the attributes and each of the linkages was determined. Finally the inputs were varied and the impacts on the LCC determined and are presented. The paper discusses how each of these was accomplished both for credibility and as an example for future studies using influence diagrams for technology planning and investment planning.
Petra Hroch
2013-11-01
resistance to neo-liberal diagrams--new cartographies--be understood in intensive, matter-mediated-modulated, non-oppositional, and non-binary modes?
CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) a comprehensive guide
Saunders, N
1998-01-01
This monograph acts as a benchmark to current achievements in the field of Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, often called CALPHAD which is an acronym for Computer CALculation of PHAse Diagrams. It also acts as a guide to both the basic background of the subject area and the cutting edge of the topic, combining comprehensive discussions of the underlying physical principles of the CALPHAD method with detailed descriptions of their application to real complex multi-component materials. Approaches which combine both thermodynamic and kinetic models to interpret non-equilibr
Combinational Logic-Level Verification using Boolean Expression Diagrams
Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif
1997-01-01
Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) is a new data structure for representing and manipulating Boolean functions. BEDs are a generalization of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) that are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and still maintain many of the desirable properties...... of BDDs. This paper demonstrates that BEDs are well suited for solving the combinational logic-level verification problem which is, given two combinational circuits, to determine whether they implement the same Boolean functions. Based on all combinational circuits in the ISCAS 85 and LGSynth 91...
Resistance of Feynman diagrams and the percolation backbone dimension.
Janssen, H K; Stenull, O; Oerding, K
1999-06-01
We present an alternative view of Feynman diagrams for the field theory of random resistor networks, in which the diagrams are interpreted as being resistor networks themselves. This simplifies the field theory considerably as we demonstrate by calculating the fractal dimension D(B) of the percolation backbone to three loop order. Using renormalization group methods we obtain D(B)=2+epsilon/21-172epsilon(2)/9261+2epsilon(3)[-74 639+22 680zeta(3)]/4 084 101, where epsilon=6-d with d being the spatial dimension and zeta(3)=1.202 057... .
Strain-Temperature-Transformation (STT) Diagram for Soft Solids
Li, Shoubo; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Xiaorong
Soft materials comprise a variety of physical states that are easily deformed by shear stains or thermal fluctuations. They include suspensions, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, liquid crystals, and a number of biological materials. In this contribution, a generalized strain-temperature-transformation (STT) diagram for many soft materials is presented in which the physical states encountered are related to the strain and temperature changes. The boundary defined for the solid-to-liquid transformation in the STT diagram displays a surprising Z-shaped curve. We discuss this feature with respect to the physical nature of materials.
An inverse method to interpret colour-magnitude diagrams
Vergely, J L; Egret, D; Bienaymé, O; Vergely, Jean-Luc; Koeppen, Joachim; Egret, Daniel; Bienayme, Olivier
2002-01-01
An inverse method is developed to determine the star formation history, the age-metallicity relation, and the IMF slope from a colour-magnitude diagram. The method is applied to the Hipparcos HR diagram. We found that the thin disk of our Galaxy shows a peak of stellar formation 1.6 Gyr ago. The stars close to the Sun have a solar metallicity and a mean IMF index equal to 3.2. However, the model and the evolutionary tracks do not correctly reproduce the horizontal giant branch.
Microsoft Visio 2013 business process diagramming and validation
Parker, David
2013-01-01
Microsoft Visio 2013 Business Process Diagramming and Validation provides a comprehensive and practical tutorial including example code and demonstrations for creating validation rules, writing ShapeSheet formulae, and much more.If you are a Microsoft Visio 2013 Professional Edition power user or developer who wants to get to grips with both the essential features of Visio 2013 and the validation rules in this edition, then this book is for you. A working knowledge of Microsoft Visio and optionally .NET for the add-on code is required, though previous knowledge of business process diagramming
A Note on Dual MHV Diagrams in N=4 SYM
Brandhuber, Andreas; Travaglini, Gabriele; Yang, Gang
2010-01-01
Recently a reformulation of the MHV diagram method in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in momentum twistor space was presented and was shown to be equivalent to the perturbative expansion of the expectation value of a supersymmetric Wilson loop in momentum twistor space. In this note we present related explicit Feynman rules in dual momentum space, which should have the interpretation of Wilson loop diagrams in dual momentum space. We show that these novel rules are completely equivalent to ordinary spacetime MHV rules and can be naturally viewed as their graph dual representation.
Path planning of the robot assembly based on Voronoi diagram
FU Zhuang; ZHAO Yan-zheng
2008-01-01
Based on the concepts of Voronoi diagram that describes geometry information of the robot assembly in C space, the position vector path parameter equation of the assembly movement between the step shaft and two-sided beating bracket was given. And the path planning strategy of the component initiative assembly was put forward as well. Theoretical analysis proves that using the Voronoi diagram to do the geometry reasoning on the assembly space can evaluate the feasibility of the component assembly, and can present the reference posi-tion vector path of the component movement from the initial configuration to the objective configuration, there-fore improves the flexibility of the robot initiative assembly.
Basic principles of Hasse diagram technique in chemistry.
Brüggemann, Rainer; Voigt, Kristina
2008-11-01
Principles of partial order applied to ranking are explained. The Hasse diagram technique (HDT) is the application of partial order theory based on a data matrix. In this paper, HDT is introduced in a stepwise procedure, and some elementary theorems are exemplified. The focus is to show how the multivariate character of a data matrix is realized by HDT and in which cases one should apply other mathematical or statistical methods. Many simple examples illustrate the basic theoretical ideas. Finally, it is shown that HDT is a useful alternative for the evaluation of antifouling agents, which was originally performed by amoeba diagrams.
GPU Based Detection of Topological Changes in Voronoi Diagrams
Bernaschi, Massimo; Sbragaglia, Mauro
2016-01-01
The Voronoi diagrams are an important tool having theoretical and practical applications in a large number of fields. We present a new procedure, implemented as a set of CUDA kernels, which detects, in a general and efficient way, topological changes in case of dynamic Voronoi diagrams whose generating points move in time. The solution that we provide has been originally developed to identify plastic events during simulations of soft-glassy materials based on a Lattice Boltzmann model with frustrated-short range attractive and mid/long-range repulsive-interactions. Along with the description of our approach, we present also some preliminary physics results.
GPU based detection of topological changes in Voronoi diagrams
Bernaschi, M.; Lulli, M.; Sbragaglia, M.
2017-04-01
The Voronoi diagrams are an important tool having theoretical and practical applications in a large number of fields. We present a new procedure, implemented as a set of CUDA kernels, which detects, in a general and efficient way, topological changes in case of dynamic Voronoi diagrams whose generating points move in time. The solution that we provide has been originally developed to identify plastic events during simulations of soft-glassy materials based on a lattice Boltzmann model with frustrated-short range attractive and mid/long-range repulsive-interactions. Along with the description of our approach, we present also some preliminary physics results.
Intelligent Drug Delivery System Using UML Diagrams Analysis
CUI Qi-feng; LIU Cheng-liang; ZHA Xuan F
2008-01-01
A novel intelligent drug delivery system potential for the more effective therapy of the diabeticswas proposed, and the composition of system was analyzed. Based on the design of micro-electro-mechanicalsystems (MEMS), an iterative modeling process was introduced. Unified modeling language (UML) was em-ployed to describe the function requirement, and different diagrams were built up to explore the static model,the dynamic model and the employment model. The mapping analysis of different diagrams can simply verifythe consistency and completeness of the system model.
UML activity diagram swimlanes in logic controller design
Grobelny, Michał; Grobelna, Iwona
2015-12-01
Logic controller behavior can be specified using various techniques, including UML activity diagrams and control Petri nets. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Application of both specification types in one project allows to take benefits from both of them. Additional elements of UML models make it possible to divide a specification into some parts, considered from other point of view (logic controller, user or system). The paper introduces an idea to use UML activity diagrams with swimlanes to increase the understandability of design models.
An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams
Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo
1998-01-01
A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...
Phase diagram of epidemic spreading - unimodal vs. bimodal probability distributions
Lancic, Alen; Sikic, Mile; Stefancic, Hrvoje
2009-01-01
The disease spreading on complex networks is studied in SIR model. Simulations on empirical complex networks reveal two specific regimes of disease spreading: local containment and epidemic outbreak. The variables measuring the extent of disease spreading are in general characterized by a bimodal probability distribution. Phase diagrams of disease spreading for empirical complex networks are introduced. A theoretical model of disease spreading on m-ary tree is investigated both analytically and in simulations. It is shown that the model reproduces qualitative features of phase diagrams of disease spreading observed in empirical complex networks. The role of tree-like structure of complex networks in disease spreading is discussed.