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Sample records for diagnosis oral

  1. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2017-11-01

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.

  2. Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.

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    Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.

  3. Oral Lesions: The Clue to Diagnosis of Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriachan, Diana; Suresh, Rakesh; Janardhanan, Mahija; Savithri, Vindhya

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus is a group of potentially fatal dermatoses with both cutaneous and oral manifestations. Characterized by the appearance of vesicle or bullae, their manifestations in the oral cavity often precede those on the skin by many months or may remain as the only symptoms of the disease. It is therefore important that the oral manifestations of the disease are recognized on time, to make a proper diagnosis and initiate timely treatment. Here we present a case of Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) that presented with oral lesions at multiple sites including tongue, to highlight the importance of timely recognition of the oral lesions during routine dental practice for the diagnosis and management of this disease.

  4. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

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    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  5. Diagnosis of Food Allergy Based on Oral Food Challenge Test

    OpenAIRE

    Komei Ito; Atsuo Urisu

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of food allergy should be based on the observation of allergic symptoms after intake of the suspected food. The oral food challenge test (OFC) is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergy. The OFC is also applied for the diagnosis of tolerance of food allergy. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009' in April 2009, to provide information on a sa...

  6. Integrating Preclinical and Clinical Oral Diagnosis and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, Nelson L.; Brand, John W.

    1988-01-01

    A program providing second-year dental students with early experience in direct patient contact in an oral diagnosis/oral radiology clinic was well received by both students and faculty and was found to develop desirable skills and qualities in the students participating. (MSE)

  7. Oral Lesions: The Clue to Diagnosis of Pemphigus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Kuriachan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is a group of potentially fatal dermatoses with both cutaneous and oral manifestations. Characterized by the appearance of vesicle or bullae, their manifestations in the oral cavity often precede those on the skin by many months or may remain as the only symptoms of the disease. It is therefore important that the oral manifestations of the disease are recognized on time, to make a proper diagnosis and initiate timely treatment. Here we present a case of Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV that presented with oral lesions at multiple sites including tongue, to highlight the importance of timely recognition of the oral lesions during routine dental practice for the diagnosis and management of this disease.

  8. Diagnosis of Food Allergy Based on Oral Food Challenge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of food allergy should be based on the observation of allergic symptoms after intake of the suspected food. The oral food challenge test (OFC is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergy. The OFC is also applied for the diagnosis of tolerance of food allergy. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009' in April 2009, to provide information on a safe and standardized method for administering the OFC. This review focuses on the clinical applications and procedure for the OFC, based on the Japanese OFC guideline.

  9. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

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    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  10. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  11. Oral squamocellular carcinoma with early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier de SouzaI, Leandro; Albuquerque de Brito, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The squamocellular carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm commonest in the buccal cavity. The more frequently involved anatomical sites are the lower lip, the tongue's lateral edges and the mouth floor. Its etiology is multifactor although it is closely related to smoking and alcoholism. Clinical picture is generally characterized by the presence of different types of white, erythematous, between erythematous and white plaques, ulcers with raised edges and exophytic masses. Treatment includes surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both. In present paper the case of a man aged 70 presenting with buccal squamous carcinoma describing the clinical, and the histopathologic findings and its corresponding treatment. The early and appropriate diagnosis allowed the cure of this case. (author)

  12. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for oral cancer diagnosis

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    Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Yang, Chin-Siang; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2017-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. To improve the cancer screening procedure, we developed a portable light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager that contains two wavelength LED excitation light sources and multiple filters to capture ex vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Compared with conventional means of oral cancer diagnosis, the LIAF imager is a handier, faster, and more highly reliable solution. The compact design with a tiny probe allows clinicians to easily observe autofluorescence images of hidden areas located in concave deep oral cavities. The ex vivo trials conducted in Taiwan present the design and prototype of the portable LIAF imager used for analyzing 31 patients with 221 measurement points. Using the normalized factor of normal tissues under the excitation source with 365 nm of the central wavelength and without the bandpass filter, the results revealed that the sensitivity was larger than 84%, the specificity was not smaller than over 76%, the accuracy was about 80%, and the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was achieved at about 87%, respectively. The fact shows the LIAF spectroscopy has the possibilities of ex vivo diagnosis and noninvasive examinations for oral cancer.

  13. Oral lichen planus: A look from diagnosis to treatment.

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    Pablo Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and it may affect the oral mucosa, skin and other mucous membranes. Diagnosis is based on clinic and histopathology; direct immunofluorescence techniques can also be of use. It affects about one to two percent of the population, mainly women between the fifth and sixth decades of life. In the mouth, the most affected area is the buccal mucosa, followed by the gums, tongue and/or palate. Its three most representative clinical forms are reticular, erythematous and erosive; evolution depends on the type it is. Lesion treatment is determined by the clinical form and, since no fully effective treatment has been found yet, it is directed towards controlling the disease. The treatment of choice involves topical or systemic corticosteroids, but other drugs may also be used.The aim of this paper is to gather current and relevant information about oral lichen planus: its pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and management.

  14. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

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    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  15. Classification and Differential Diagnosis of Oral and Maxillofacial Pain.

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    Scrivani, Steven J; Spierings, Egilius L H

    2016-08-01

    Pain in the orofacial region is a common presenting symptom. The majority of symptoms are related to dental disease and the cause can readily be established, the problem dealt with, and the pain eliminated. However, pain may persist and defy attempts at treatment. Intractable oral or facial pain can be diagnostically challenging. To make a definitive diagnosis and initiate proper treatment, a rigorous protocol for evaluation includes a thorough history and an appropriate comprehensive clinical examination and diagnostic testing, including chief complaint, history of present illness, medical history, physical examination, diagnostic studies, including imaging, and psychosocial evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis and management of common non-viral oral ulcerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerative disorders of the oral mucosa are discussed. These include ... as well as oral ulceration associated with cutaneous pathology. Introduction ... Drug reactions (may be preceded by vesicles) .... tobacco products, heavy use of alcohol, .... Skin lesions are pathognomic for EM. Oral lesions are seen in 30 to 60% of cases,.

  17. A novel Multiple-Marker Method for the Early Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Jutta Ries

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melanoma associated antigens-A (MAGE-A expression is highly specific to cancer cells. Thus, they can be the most suitable targets for the diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of multiple MAGE-A expression analysis for the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.

  18. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

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    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  19. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

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    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  20. Accuracy of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of oral amelanotic melanomas in dogs.

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    Przeździecki, Rafał; Czopowicz, Michał; Sapierzyński, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    Amelanotic melanomas are one of the most common oral malignancies. The cytologic and histopathologic differentiation between amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma is often difficult or even impossible. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanoma. Cytologic preparations from undifferentiated canine oral tumors were stained with Giemsa and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies. The final cytologic diagnosis (including ICC) was compared to the final diagnosis based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, and sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination were determined. Final cytologic diagnoses of 38 cases agreed well with the histopathologic/immunohistochemical diagnoses, thus both specificity and sensitivity of combined routine cytology and ICC were 100% (95% confidence interval 90.8-100%). Of 32 oral tumors, diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma was made using routine cytology and ICC. In 4 of 6 aspirates taken from lymph nodes, a preliminary diagnosis of metastatic amelanotic melanoma corresponded with the final diagnosis. Both sensitivity and specificity of routine cytology in diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas were considered moderate (66.7% and 85.7%, respectively). In conclusion, routine cytology is a reliable diagnostic method for canine oral amelanotic melanoma and metastatic amelanotic melanoma, and ICC, using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies, is an excellent supporting method for presurgical diagnosis of poorly differentiated oral malignancies in dogs. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. [Accuracy of three methods for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis].

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    Lyu, X; Zhao, C; Yan, Z M; Hua, H

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To explore a simple, rapid and efficient method for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Methods: Totally 124 consecutive patients with suspected oral candidiasis were enrolled from Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Exfoliated cells of oral mucosa and saliva or concentrated oral rinse) obtained from all participants were tested by three rapid smear methods(10% KOH smear, gram-stained smear, Congo red stained smear). The diagnostic efficacy(sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratio, consistency, predictive value and area under curve(AUC) of each of the above mentioned three methods was assessed by comparing the results with the gold standard(combination of clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and expert opinion). Results: Gram-stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) demonstrated highest sensitivity(82.3%). Test of 10%KOH smear of exfoliated cells showed highest specificity(93.5%). Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) displayed highest diagnostic efficacy(79.0% sensitivity, 80.6% specificity, 0.60 Youden's index, 4.08 positive likelihood ratio, 0.26 negative likelihood ratio, 80% consistency, 80.3% positive predictive value, 79.4% negative predictive value and 0.80 AUC). Conclusions: Test of Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) could be used as a point-of-care tool for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-DDD-16008118.

  2. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

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    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  3. Mathematical (diagnostic algorithms in the digitization of oral histopathology: The new frontier in histopathological diagnosis

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    Abhishek Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological progress in the digitalization of a complete histological glass slide has opened a new door in the tissue based diagnosis. Automated slide diagnosis can be made possible by the use of mathematical algorithms which are formulated by binary codes or values. These algorithms (diagnostic algorithms include both object based (object features, structures and pixel based (texture measures. The intra- and inter-observer errors inherent in the visual diagnosis of a histopathological slide are largely replaced by the use of diagnostic algorithms leading to a standardized and reproducible diagnosis. The present paper reviews the advances in digital histopathology especially related to the use of mathematical algorithms (diagnostic algorithms in the field of oral histopathology. The literature was reviewed for data relating to the use of algorithms utilized in the construction of computational software with special applications in oral histopathological diagnosis. The data were analyzed, and the types and end targets of the algorithms were tabulated. The advantages, specificities and reproducibility of the software, its shortcomings and its comparison with traditional methods of histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Algorithms help in automated slide diagnosis by creating software with possible reduced errors and bias with a high degree of specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Akin to the identification of thumbprints and faces, software for histopathological diagnosis will in the near future be an important part of the histopathological diagnosis.

  4. Oral Lichen Planus: An Update on Etiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Management

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    Gupta, Sonia; Jawanda, Manveen Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The mouth is a mirror of health or disease, a sentinel or early warning system. The oral cavity might well be thought as a window to the body because oral manifestations accompany many systemic diseases. In many instances, oral involvement precedes the appearance of other symptoms or lesions at other locations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder of stratified squamous epithelium of uncertain etiology that affects oral and genital mucous membranes, skin, nails, and scalp. LP is estimated to affect 0.5% to 2.0% of the general population. This disease has most often been reported in middle-aged patients with 30-60 years of age and is more common in females than in males. The disease seems to be mediated by an antigen-specific mechanism, activating cytotoxic T cells, and non-specific mechanisms like mast cell degranulation and matrix metalloproteinase activation. A proper understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis of the disease becomes important for providing the right treatment. This article discusses the prevalence, etiology, clinical features, oral manifestations, diagnosis, complications and treatment of oral LP. PMID:26120146

  5. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  6. Low reproducibility between oral radiologists and general dentists with regards to radiographic diagnosis of caries.

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    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Pakkala, Tuomas; Haukka, Jari; Siukosaari, Päivi

    2018-04-12

    Early clinical and radiological diagnosis of dental caries is one of the fundamental objectives of clinical dentistry because of the high frequency of the disease and severe complications if caries remains untreated, especially among the elderly and patients with immunodeficiency. Dental panoramic tomography (DPT) is a common radiographic method for evaluating dentition when indicated, especially in an adult population. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of diagnosis between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists with regards to caries lesions based on DPTs of adults. One-hundred DPTs taken from adult patients (average age 35) and then analyzed and reported on by 42 general dentists were then analyzed independently by two specialists in oral radiology with respect to caries lesions in the premolar and molar areas using radiographic criteria established for caries diagnosis. The general dentists versus oral radiologists were not calibrated before. Level of agreement between specialists and general dentists was measured using Cohen's kappa. Comparison between observations of general dentists and specialists in oral radiology showed that 61% of the caries lesions on proximal surfaces of premolars and molars observed by specialists went unobserved by general dentists. Cohen's kappa value for specialists was 0.85 (p < .001) and for each specialist and general dentists 0.48 (p < .001) and 0.44 (p < .001). The reproducibility between specialists in oral radiology and general dentists for detecting caries in DPTs was low.

  7. Hyperspectral microscopy and cluster analysis for oral cancer diagnosis

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    Jarman, Anneliese; Manickavasagam, Arunthathi; Hosny, Neveen; Festy, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer incidences have been increasing in recent years and late detection often leads to poor prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has been identified has a valuable diagnostic tool for cancer but its time consuming nature has prevented its clinical use. For Raman to become a realistic aid to histopathology, a rapid pre-screening technique is required to find small regions of interest on tissue sections [1]. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging in the visible spectral range as a fast imaging technique before Raman is performed. We have built a hyperspectral microscope which captures 300 focused and intensity corrected images with wavelength ranging from 450- 750 nm in around 30 minutes with sub-micron spatial resolution and around 10 nm spectral resolution. Hyperstacks of known absorbing samples, including fluorescent dyes and dried blood droplets, show excellent results with spectrally accurate transmission spectra and concentration-dependent intensity variations. We successfully showed the presence of different components from a non-absorbent saliva droplet sample. Data analysis is the greatest hurdle to the interpretation of more complex data such as unstained tissue sections.

  8. A CONTROVERSIAL ON THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHRONIC BULLOUS TYPE MUCOCUTANEOUS DISEASE INVOLVING ORAL MUCOSA (A CASE REPORT

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    Isadora Gracia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of chronic bullous type mucocutaneous disease involving oral mucosa was reported from a 56 years old man with never healing oral ulcers and wound on the perianal skin for three years. There were also red and black spots on the limb and back skin and a lesion on nail. Painful oral lesion consisted of mucous erosion, desquamative gingivitis, and sloughing area on palate and tongue. The patient is diabetic. The first perianal skin diagnosis was granulomatous candidasis with differential diagnosis pemphigus vegetates and acuminarum condiloma. However the histopathologic examination did not support these diagnosis. After several histopathologic examinations, the latest perianal skin diagnosis was lichen planus with differential diagnosis granulomatous vasculitis, bowenoid papulosis and pyodema gangrenosum. Other skin diagnosis was erythema multiforme. Oral diagnosis was mucous membrane pemphigoid with differential diagnosis lichen planus, Behçet's syndrome and erythema multiforme. Oral histopathologic examinations showed a sub-epithelial blister, which supported mucous membrane pemphigoid. A lip balm, prednisone 5 mg oral rinse and multivitamins were given but oral improvement started after blood sugar level was controlled. Conclusion: It is not yet known whether skin and oral mucous lesions are from the same disease or not.

  9. Factors affecting professional delay in diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelbeigi, Farhad; Hadji, Maryam; Harirchi, Iraj; Omranipour, Ramesh; vand Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignant tumor among head and neck cancers. Delay in diagnosis affects the treatment and prognosis of oral cancer. We measured the professional delay in the diagnosis and its attributes in the Cancer Institute of Iran, the largest referral center for oral cancer patients in the country.  We interviewed oral cancer patients to measure the delay and used case-control approach to study association of various prognostic factors with professional delay and tumor stage. Out of 206 patients, 71.4% were diagnosed at the advanced stage. The median of the patient, professional and total delays were 45, 86 and 140 day, receptively. In the univariate model, prescription of medicines like analgesics (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.2-12.9) and history of dental procedure (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.7-26.9) were associated with higher risk of delay compared to patient who were biopsied from the beginning. History of loose teeth increased risk of delay 4 times (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.8). Patients with primary education had 70% lower risk of delay compared to the illiterate patients (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and the risk was lower among patients who had diploma (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0-0.7) and college education (OR = 0.1, 95% CI 0-0.4). The delayed patients were diagnosed in more advanced stage compared to the patients without delay (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4). Development of a national guideline for follow-up of oral lesions, training and awareness of health care professionals about oral cancer diagnosis may decrease the delay and improve the oral cancer outcome in Iran.

  10. Diagnosis of food allergies: the impact of oral food challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Komei

    2013-01-01

    A diagnosis of food allergies should be made based on the observation of allergic symptoms following the intake of suspected foods and the presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. The oral food challenge (OFC) test is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergies. Specific IgE testing of allergen components as well as classical crude allergen extracts helps to make a more specific diagnosis of food allergies. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy 2012' to provide information regarding the standardized diagnosis and management of food allergies. This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis of food allergies, focusing on the use of specific IgE tests and the OFC procedure in accordance with the Japanese guidelines.

  11. Depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy for noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard Alan

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the world. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx account for more than 7,500 deaths each year in the United States alone. Major advances have been made in the management of oral cancer through the combined use of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, improving the quality of life for many patients; however, these advances have not led to a significant increase in survival rates, primarily because diagnosis often occurs at a late stage when treatment is more difficult and less successful. Accurate, objective, noninvasive methods for early diagnosis of oral neoplasia are needed. Here a method is presented to noninvasively evaluate oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy (DSOS). A ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe was developed to enable preferential targeting of different depth regions in the oral mucosa. Clinical studies of the diagnostic performance of DSOS in 157 subjects were carried out in collaboration with the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. An overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 89% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue relative to histopathology. Based on these results a compact, portable version of the clinical DSOS device with real-time automated diagnostic capability was developed. The portable device was tested in 47 subjects and a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 83% were obtained for nonkeratinized oral tissue. The diagnostic potential of multimodal platforms incorporating DSOS was explored through two pilot studies. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with widefield imaging was carried out in 29 oral cancer patients, resulting in a combined sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 69%. Widefield imaging and spectroscopy performed slightly better in combination than each method performed independently. A pilot study of DSOS in combination with the optical contrast agents 2-NBDG, EGF-Alexa 647, and proflavine was carried out in resected tissue

  12. Clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Irfan; Sefvan, Omer; Luqman, Uzair; Ibrahim, Waseem; Mehmood, Sana; Alamgir, Wajiha

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensures better prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. This retrospective study was carried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 to December 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings. OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liver function tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervical lymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131 (39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved site (32%). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in 39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III (24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Oral cancers are diagnosed late (Stage III and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention.

  13. Clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of initial diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Sefvan, O.; Luqman, Z.; Ibrahim, W.; Mehmood, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensures better prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 to December 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings, OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liver function tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervical lymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Results: Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131 (39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved site (32 %). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in 39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III(24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Conclusion: Oral cancers are diagnosed late (Stage III and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention. (author)

  14. Profiling of antioxidant superoxide dismutase in saliva of oral submucous fibrosis patients to categorize its diagnosis in varying stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirohi, Y.; Shetty, D.C.; Urs, A.B.; Rai, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is a pre malignant condition in Indian and South-East Asia. Role of oxidant-antioxidant in causation and progression of cancer and pre cancers is known. Reactive oxygen species are generated in the oral cavity during chewing areca nut, the major etiological agent in oral submucous fibrosis. Objectives: To see the alterations in the salivary superoxide dismutase levels in various clinical and histopathological grades of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated saliva was collected from 25 oral submucous fibrosis patients and age and gender matched controls. The saliva was assessed for superoxide dismutase value by spectrophotometric method using assay kit (Bio Vision Catalog number K335-100). The oral submucous fibrosis cases were grouped into clinical stages and histopathological grades and superoxide dismutase values were compared in different clinical stages and histopathological grades. Results: The superoxide dismutase levels were reduced in oral submucous fibrosis as compared to controls. A steady decline in the levels was seen as the clinical stage and histopathological grade of oral submucous fibrosis advanced. Conclusions: Salivary superoxide dismutase levels can be alternatively used as a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis. Policy message: Oral physicians should advise the pan chewers to regularly check their salivary superoxide dismutase levels so as to ease the early diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis. (author)

  15. ALA-based fluorescent diagnosis of malignant oral lesions in the presence of bacterial porphyrin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, P.; Berndt, A.; Zinner, K.; Zenk, W.; Dietel, W.; Pfister, W.

    2006-02-01

    The aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) -based fluorescence diagnosis has been found to be promising for an early detection and demarcation of superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). This method has previously demonstrated high sensitivity, however this clinical trial showed a specificity of approximately 62 %. This specificity was mainly restricted by tumor detection in the oral cavity in the presence of bacteria. After topical ALA application in the mouth of patients with previously diagnosed OSSC, red fluorescent areas were observed which did not correlate to confirm histological findings. Swabs and plaque samples were taken from 44 patients and cultivated microbiologically. Fluorescence was investigated (OMA-system) from 32 different bacteria strains found naturally in the oral cavity. After ALA incubation, 30 of 32 strains were found to synthesize fluorescent porphyrins, mainly Protoporphyrin IX. Also multiple fluorescent spectra were obtained having peak wavelengths of 636 nm and around 618 nm - 620 nm indicating synthesis of different porphyrins, such as the lipophylic Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and hydrophylic porphyrins (water soluble porphyrins, wsp). Of the 32 fluorescent bacterial strains, 18 produced wsp, often in combination with PpIX, and 5 produced solely wsp. These results clarify that ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis without consideration or suppression of bacteria fluorescence may lead to false-positive findings. It is necessary to suppress bacteria fluorescence with suitable antiseptics before starting the procedure. In this study, when specific antiseptic pre-treatment was performed bacterial associated fluorescence was significantly reduced.

  16. Insights on diagnosis of oral cavity pathologies by infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Elisabetta; Balercia, Paolo; Conti, Carla; Ferraris, Paolo; Sabbatini, Simona; Rubini, Corrado; Tosi, Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared microspectroscopy, a largely used spectroscopic technique in basic and industrial researches, offers the possibility to analyze the vibrational features of molecular groups within a variety of environments. In the bioclinical field, and, in particular, in the study of cells, tissues and biofluids, it could be considered a supporting objective technique able to characterize the biochemical processes involved in relevant pathologies, such as tumoral diseases, highlighting specific spectral markers associable with the principal biocomponents (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates). In this article, we review the applications of infrared spectroscopy to the study of tumoral diseases of oral cavity compartments with the aim to improve understanding of biological processes involved during the onset of these lesions and to afford to an early diagnosis. Spectral studies on mouth, salivary glands and oral cystic lesions, objectively discriminate normal from dysplastic and cancer states characterizing also the grading.

  17. Quantification of hemoglobin and its derivatives in oral cancer diagnosis by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyappan, Udayakumar; Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasarao; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is one of the most common threat to human beings and it increases at an alarming level around the globe. In recent years, due to the advancements in opto-electronic technology, various optical spectroscopy techniques have emerged to assess the photophysicochemical and morphological conditions of normal and malignant tissues in micro as well as in macroscopic scale. In this regard, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is considered to be the simplest, cost effective and rapid technique in diagnosis of cancerous tissues. In the present study, the hemoglobin concentration in normal and cancerous oral tissues was quantified and subsequent statistical analysis has been carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the technique.

  18. In vivo subsite classification and diagnosis of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Sahu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers suffer from poor disease-free survival rates due to delayed diagnosis. Noninvasive, rapid, objective approaches as adjuncts to visual inspection can help in better management of oral cancers. Raman spectroscopy (RS has shown potential in identification of oral premalignant and malignant conditions and also in the detection of early cancer changes like cancer-field-effects (CFE at buccal mucosa subsite. Anatomic differences between different oral subsites have also been reported using RS. In this study, anatomical differences between subsites and their possible influence on healthy vs pathological classification were evaluated on 85 oral cancer and 72 healthy subjects. Spectra were acquired from buccal mucosa, lip and tongue in healthy, contralateral (internal healthy control, premalignant and cancer conditions using fiber-optic Raman spectrometer. Mean spectra indicate predominance of lipids in healthy buccal mucosa, contribution of both lipids and proteins in lip while major dominance of protein in tongue spectra. From healthy to tumor, changes in protein secondary-structure, DNA and heme-related features were observed. Principal component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV was used for data analysis. Findings indicate buccal mucosa and tongue are distinct entities, while lip misclassifies with both these subsites. Additionally, the diagnostic algorithm for individual subsites gave improved classification efficiencies with respect to the pooled subsites model. However, as the pooled subsites model yielded 98% specificity and 100% sensitivity, this model may be more useful for preliminary screening applications. Large-scale validation studies are a pre-requisite before envisaging future clinical applications.

  19. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  20. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence imager with a probe of L shape for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Chiang, Hou-Chi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    The difference of spectral distribution between lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence is one of methods for the cancer diagnosis. In our previous work, we developed a portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and multiple filters to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Our portable system for detection of oral cancer has a probe in front of the lens for fixing the object distance. The shape of the probe is cone, and it is not convenient for doctor to capture the oral image under an appropriate view angle in front of the probe. Therefore, a probe of L shape containing a mirror is proposed for doctors to capture the images with the right angles, and the subjects do not need to open their mouse constrainedly. Besides, a glass plate is placed in probe to prevent the liquid entering in the body, but the light reflected from the glass plate directly causes the light spots inside the images. We set the glass plate in front of LED to avoiding the light spots. When the distance between the glasses plate and the LED model plane is less than the critical value, then we can prevent the light spots caused from the glasses plate. The experiments show that the image captured with the new probe that the glasses plate placed in the back-end of the probe has no light spots inside the image.

  1. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  2. Oral cancer calibration and diagnosis among professionals from the public health in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José Carlos; da Silva, Renato Pereira; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem responsible for 13% of deaths worldwide in 2008 and screening programs can be useful to detect individuals more vulnerable to the disease, improving its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oral cancer calibration (in lux and in vivo methodologies) and diagnosis processes performed by dental surgeons (DSs) of the public health system in São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-three oral cancer photographs were examined during in lux calibration, while 560 individuals were examined during in vivo calibration. Oral conditions were coded as "0 - sound tissues", "1 - buccal lesions without malignant potential" and "2 - buccal lesions with malignant potential". The final sample for oral cancer screening was composed of 336 individuals, age-range 40 years or older. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement were 0.67 and 0.45 for in lux and in vivo respectively. The accuracy of both methodologies was over 80%. Oral cancer screening revealed 48 healthy individuals, 273 oral lesions coded as "1" and 12 oral lesions coded as "2". In spite of the low reproducibility, the validity of the visual examination in oral cancer screening was satisfactory, showing its importance as part of preventive oral cancer programs and public health system campaigns.

  3. High prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral mucosal lesions of patients at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Goveia Melo RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial as detection rates of the virus in oral cavity reported in the literature varies greatly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Material and Methods We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Results Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3, five carcinomas (5/6, one hyperplasia (1/1 and nine dysplasia cases (9/11. Conclusion Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions.

  4. Clinical, histological and pathological diagnosis of carcinoma in situ of the oral mucous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Pereira, Gladys Aída; Márquez Filiu, Maricel; González Heredia, Eugenia; Ruth Ramón Jiménez; Domínguez Pacheco, Rubén Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 25 patients, with tobacco addition and carcinoma in situ of the oral mucous, assisted in the stomatological department of the Specialties Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora Torres' Teaching Provincial Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from April, 2008 to same period of the 2013, in order to evaluate the results of the clinical, histological and pathological diagnosis of this neoplasia. By means of the classic technique of inclusion in paraffin the existence of cellular changes was confirmed. The male sex and the absence of subjective symptoms prevailed in the leucoplasic form in the case material. The most susceptible anatomical site corresponded to the lateral border of the tongue. Among the most common tissue alterations there were: nuclear hyperchromatism, intact basal membrane, loss of the polarity, as well as nuclear and cellular pleomorphism. (author)

  5. One-week Oral Challenge with Penicillin in Diagnosis of Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortlund, Janni; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2012-01-01

    Many patients experience reactions during penicillin treatment. The diagnosis may be difficult and is mainly based on short-term tests. The European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) guidelines proposed for diagnosing penicillin allergy do not include long-term challenge. In this study a total of 405...... patients were evaluated. The ENDA guidelines were extended, to include a 7-day oral treatment (p.o.7) with penicillin for all patients who were negative in the ENDA programme. Among the 405 patients; 85 had an immediate reaction to penicillin, and a further 13 reacted during p.o.7. Among the 307 patients...... with a negative outcome, 88 had a case history of reaction to other β-lactam antibiotics and were subsequently tested with the culprit drug. Thirteen patients had a positive outcome: 3 on single-dose challenge and 10 during p.o.7. The extended penicillin diagnostic work-up was positive in 111 patients, 30...

  6. A Review of Salivary Biomarker: A Tool for Early Oral Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Saxena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common epithelial malignancies with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent observations indicate that the clinical and histological appearance of oral mucosa may not truly depict the damage occurring at the genetic level. This phenotypic and genotypic disparity may account in part for the failure to establish effective screening and surveillance protocols, based on the traditional clinical and microscopic examination. The tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management. These laboratory-based tests are potentially useful in screening for early malignancy, aiding in cancer diagnosis, determining prognosis, surveillance following curative surgery for cancer, up-front predicting drug response or resistance, and monitoring therapy in advanced disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed based on the English titles listed in the PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, Science Direct, ISI web Science, and SciELO databases using the keywords. Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed. This article may help to identify the potential biomarkers for screening and the molecular pathology analysis in the high-risk patients with the OSCC.

  7. Correlation of serum biomarkers (TSA & LSA) and epithelial dysplasia in early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Hemant; Kumar, C Anand

    Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, which is usually preceded by oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditions. Altered glycosylation of glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, fucose, etc. are amongst the important molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate usefulness of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and serum Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as markers of oral precancerous lesions and histopathologically correlating them with grades of epithelial dysplasia. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with oral precancer (Leukoplakia & OSMF), 25 patients with untreated oral cancer and 25 healthy subjects. Serum sialic acid (total and lipid bound) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Tissue samples from all the patients were evaluated for dysplasia. Serum levels of total and lipid bound sialic acid were significantly elevated in patients with oral precancer and cancer when compared with healthy subjects. Analysis of variance test documented that there is progressive rise in serum levels of sialic acid with the degree of dysplastic changes in oral precancer patients. We observed positive correlation between serum levels of the markers and the extent of malignant disease (TNM Clinical staging) as well as histopathological grades. The results suggested that serum levels of TSA and LSA progressively increases with grades of dysplasia in precancerous groups and cancer group, when compared with healthy controls. These glycoconjugates, especially LSA has the clinical utility in indicating a premalignant change.

  8. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Use of the clinical microbiology laboratory for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases related to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Sukrama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of infections relative to the oral cavity is rapidly expanding, similar to our overall understanding of how infectious diseases impact our daily lives. The complexity of the flora within the oral cavity is quite unique and often makes diagnosis difficult; however, it is becoming more apparent that accurate diagnostic testing is important from the standpoint of focusing appropriate therapy on pathogens within this crucial body site, and avoiding overuse of antimicrobial agents in settings of infection where they have no demonstrated benefit.Infections of the oral mucosa, teeth (caries and root canal infections and their supporting structures (periodontitis, dento-alveolar abscess are polymicrobial, although usually associated with a characteristic microbiota linked to the site of infection. However, identification of the relevant oral pathogens is not commonly undertaken in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories due to lack of expertise in handling fastidious oral microbes and interpretation of the findings. When specimens from oral diseases are processed, they are frequently reported as ‘mixed oral flora’. This type of reporting is unhelpful both to clinicians and to epidemiologists collating data for disease and anti-microbial susceptibility trends. This probably reflects the lack of input by experts in oral microbiology into general guidelines for processing and reporting samples from the oral cavity. Although there is a general consensus within the dental and maxillo-facial surgery community on the role of the major pathogens for many types of infection, there is controversy on the role of some species, first line anti-microbial agents and their associated breakpoints. Furthermore, there is poor uptake and understanding of microbiology diagnostic services by the dental profession, inappropriate specimens and misinterpretation of culture results.

  10. Role of Brush Biopsy and DNA Cytometry for Prevention, Diagnosis, Therapy, and Followup Care of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Böcking

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Late diagnosis resulting in late treatment and locoregional failure after surgery are the main causes of death in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs. Actually, exfoliative cytology is increasingly used for early detection of oral cancer and has been the subject of intense research over the last five years. Significant advances have been made both in relation to screening and evaluation of precursor lesions. As this noninvasive procedure is well tolerated by patients, more lesions may be screened and thus more oral cancers may be found in early, curable stages. Moreover, the additional use of DNA image cytometry is a reasonable tool for the assessment of the resection margins of SCC. DNA image cytometry could help to find the appropriate treatment option for the patients. Finally, diagnostic DNA image cytometry is an accurate method and has internationally been standardized. In conclusion, DNA image cytometry has increasing impact on the prevention, diagnostic, and therapeutical considerations in head and neck SCC.

  11. The influence of systemic diseases on the diagnosis of oral diseases: a problem-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockhart, P.B.; Hong, C.H.L.; van Diermen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    lthough all dentists are taught about the importance of oral health to general health and that systemic disease can manifest in the oral cavity, the 4-year dental school curriculum does not allow time to gain competency in these relationships. Nevertheless, all dentists must have skills in taking a

  12. In-vivo autofluorescence diagnosis of the cancer of oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, S.K.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S.K.; Gupta, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    The results of an in-vivo study carried out on 25 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity are reported. Spectra from different sites of the oral cavity were recorded using a N 2 laser based portable fluorimeter developed in-house. The spectral data acquisition was computer controlled. On an average, 5 spectra from the SCC tissue sites and 4 spectra from the visually normal tissue sites were recorded.The autofluorescence spectra was recorded from different cancerous and normal sites of the oral cavity of a patient

  13. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    herds. Oral fluid was collected by providing 1 cotton rope in each selected pen for 30 minutes. Blood samples from 5 systematic randomly selected pigs in each pen were taken and the separated serum was pooled penwise. Different purification methods were tested in order to decrease the content of PCR...... inhibitors in the RNA extract of oral fluid. QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN) was selected for purification of RNA from oral fluid and serum. Purified RNA was tested for PRRSV by real-time RT-PCR by a modified previously published assay1. Overall agreement, diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity...

  14. Líquen plano oral (LPO: diagnóstico clínico e complementar Oral lichen planus (OLP: clinical and complementary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Motta do Canto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O líquen plano é uma desordem comum do epitélio escamoso estratificado que acomete as mucosas oral e genital, a pele, as unhas e o couro cabeludo. O líquen plano oral (LPO afeta mulheres de meiaidade e apresenta padrões e distribuição característicos, como estriações brancas, pápulas ou placas brancas, eritema, erosões e bolhas, que podem estar associadas a medicações e/ou materiais dentários no paciente. O diagnóstico clínico somente poderá ser feito se a doença apresentar padrões clássicos, como lesões concomitantes na mucosa oral e na pele. O diagnóstico laboratorial por meio do exame histopatológico se caracteriza pela presença de projeções do epitélio em forma de dentes de serra e corpos de Civatte, e possibilita excluir condições de displasia e malignidade. A imunofluorescência direta é utilizada em suspeita de outras doenças, como pênfigo e penfigoide. O LPO é tratado com agentes anti-inflamatórios, principalmente, corticosteroides tópicos, e novos agentes e técnicas têm-se demonstrado eficazes. A transformação maligna do LPO e sua incidência exata permanecem controversas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar, com base na revisão da literatura, a etiopatogenia, o diagnóstico clínico, exames complementares e complicações do LPO.Lichen planus is a common disorder of the stratified squamous epithelium that affects oral and genital mucous membranes, skin, nails, and scalp. Oral Lichen Planus (OLP affects middle-aged women and shows distribution patterns and characteristics such as white striations, white plaques or papules, erythema, blisters and erosions, and may be associated with medication and/or dental materials used by the patient. The clinical diagnosis can only be made if the disease presents classical patterns such as concomitant lesions in the oral mucosa and skin. The laboratory diagnosis is histopathologically characterized by the presence of projections of the epithelium in the

  15. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic and objective oral cancer diagnosis by Raman spectroscopic detection of keratin with multivariate curve resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Hsiung; Shimada, Rintaro; Yabumoto, Sohshi; Okajima, Hajime; Ando, Masahiro; Chang, Chiou-Tzu; Lee, Li-Tzu; Wong, Yong-Kie; Chiou, Arthur; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an automatic and objective method for detecting human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues with Raman microspectroscopy. We measure 196 independent Raman spectra from 196 different points of one oral tissue sample and globally analyze these spectra using a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) analysis. Discrimination of OSCC tissues is automatically and objectively made by spectral matching comparison of the MCR decomposed Raman spectra and the standard Raman spectrum of keratin, a well-established molecular marker of OSCC. We use a total of 24 tissue samples, 10 OSCC and 10 normal tissues from the same 10 patients, 3 OSCC and 1 normal tissues from different patients. Following the newly developed protocol presented here, we have been able to detect OSCC tissues with 77 to 92% sensitivity (depending on how to define positivity) and 100% specificity. The present approach lends itself to a reliable clinical diagnosis of OSCC substantiated by the “molecular fingerprint” of keratin.

  17. Diagnosis of Cognitive Impairment Compatible with Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease. A Bayesian Network Model based on the Analysis of Oral Definitions of Semantic Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J M; Martínez-Tomás, R; Rincón, M; Peraita, H

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the principal focuses of research in medicine, particularly when the disease is incipient or even prodromic, because treatments are more effective in these stages. Lexical-semantic-conceptual deficit (LSCD) in the oral definitions of semantic categories for basic objects is an important early indicator in the evaluation of the cognitive state of patients. The objective of this research is to define an economic procedure for cognitive impairment (CI) diagnosis, which may be associated with early stages of AD, by analysing cognitive alterations affecting declarative semantic memory. Because of its low cost, it could be used for routine clinical evaluations or screenings, leading to more expensive and selective tests that confirm or rule out the disease accurately. It should necessarily be an explanatory procedure, which would allow us to study the evolution of the disease in relation to CI, the irregularities in different semantic categories, and other neurodegenerative diseases. On the basis of these requirements, we hypothesise that Bayesian networks (BNs) are the most appropriate tool for this purpose. We have developed a BN for CI diagnosis in mild and moderate AD patients by analysing the oral production of semantic features. The BN causal model represents LSCD in certain semantic categories, both of living things (dog, pine, and apple) and non-living things (chair, car, and trousers), as symptoms of CI. The model structure, the qualitative part of the model, uses domain knowledge obtained from psychology experts and epidemiological studies. Further, the model parameters, the quantitative part of the model, are learnt automatically from epidemiological studies and Peraita and Grasso's linguistic corpus of oral definitions. This corpus was prepared with an incidental sampling and included the analysis of the oral linguistic production of 81 participants (42 cognitively healthy elderly people and 39

  18. Diagnosis of cancer of the tongue and oral floor using plain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariji, Eiichiro; Kanda, Shigenobu

    1988-01-01

    CT images of 18 patients, diagnosed squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue or oral floor, were analyzed to assess the clinical importance of plain CT for primary sites. All cases were scanned on Somatom DR (Siemens) at the Department of Dental Radiology, Kyushu University Dental Hospital from 1985 to 1988. Results were as follows : 1, As descriptions of primary tumors mainly depended on their size in soft tissue, plain CT was useful only for advanced cases (T3, T4). 2, For cancer of the oral floor and advanced cases of cancer of the tongue, plain CT was useful to evaluate the bone invasion, especially in cases of lingual cortex of the anterior mandible. (author)

  19. Comparison between two positive and one negative oral contrast medium for abdominal CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, M.; Gmelin, E.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective randomised study three groups of 30 patients each were subjected to CT of the entire abdomen. The oral intestinal contrast media used were iodine solution (2%), barium suspension (1.5%) and paraffin emulsion (25%). The results were evaluated according to imaging, artifacts, assessability of the intestinal wall, taste and side effects. All three contrast media are suitable for marking the gastrointestinal tract; paraffin shows advantages in the upper part of the tract and is the only medium that enables assessment of the wall, while causing the lowest rate of artifacts. Barium has a high acceptance and the best tolerance of all contrast agents. (orig.) [de

  20. Oral pathology diagnosis by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy on biopsies and blood serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, F.; Lepore, M.; Perna, G.; Carmone, P.; Delfino, I.; Gaeta, G. M.; Capozzi, V.

    2007-02-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with a potentially fatal outcome. In this case micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) can provide a powerful tool for a not invasive analysis of biological tissue for biopsy and in vivo investigation. Based on the evaluation of molecular vibration frequencies, the μ-RS is able to detect the main molecular bonds of protein constituents, as the C-H and C-C ones. Changes in frequency or in the relative intensity of the vibration modes revealed by μ-RS can be related to changes of chemical bond and of protein structure induced by pathology. Quantitative information on the intensity variation of specific Raman lines can be extracted by Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis. μ-RS was performed on some samples of oral tissue and blood serum from informed patients affected by pemphigus vulgaris (an oral pathology) at different pathology stages. The spectra were measured by means of a Raman confocal microspectrometer apparatus using the 633 nm line of a He- Ne laser source. The main protein bonds are clearly detectable in the considered samples giving important information on the integrity and on the state of tissue and blood serum components (lipids and proteins), and consequently on the occurrence of pathology.

  1. Oral health considerations in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 1. Symptomatology and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders have captured the attention of medical and dental professionals as well as the public for decades and continue to raise concern today. The literature devoted to anorexia and bulimia highlights myriad psychological, systemic, and dental health complications. Dental practitioners are in a unique position to discover early manifestations of these disorders. The present article reviews anorexia and bulimia, summarizing telltale behavioral traits, systemic manifestations, and dental features to facilitate recognition and enable accurate diagnosis.

  2. Oral motor functions, speech and communication before a definitive diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Assessment of the quality of life of elderly with diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma submitted to combined modality therapy

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    Erasmo Bernardo Marinho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluating the quality of life allows a more accurate clinical control as well as the provision of prognostic information for specific groups. This study was designed to evaluate the quality of life of elderly diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma submitted to combined modality therapy. Methods: This is a retrospective and observational study, with cross-sectional quantitative character. A total of 206 records of patients with head and neck cancer treated between April 2013 and October 2014 were analyzed. Eleven patients over six months of treatment completion were included in the study. The questionnaire of quality of life of the University of Washington (UW-QOL was applied. The data were collected regarding the social-demographic, clinical-pathological and therapeutic profiles, and the non-stimulated salivary flow was measured. Statistical analysis of quantitative data was performed by the Spearman nonlinear correlation, considering a confidence of 95%. Results: Chewing, saliva and speech showed the lowest scores (31.8; 42.3; 60.6, respectively. Statistically significant correlation was found between: shoulder and mood (r=0.787; swallowing and chewing (r=0.761; completion time of radiotherapy and recreation (r=0.659; activity and recreation (r=0.653; pain and swallowing (r=0.626; chewing and speech (r=0.607; age and speech (r=-0.617. Conclusions: Elderly with oral squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis sunmitted to combined modality therapy presented the areas related to chewing, saliva and speech as the most committed ones. Older individuals have greater impairment of speech, as well as those with longer completion of radiotherapy have better results related to the recreation area.

  4. Carcinoma escamocelular bucal diagnosticado precozmente Oral squamocellular carcinoma with early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Napier de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma escamocelular es la neoplasia maligna más común en la cavidad bucal. Los sitios anatómicos más frecuentemente afectados son el labio inferior, los bordes laterales de lengua y el suelo de la boca. Su etiología es multifactorial, aunque está íntimamente relacionada con factores ambientales como el tabaquismo y el alcoholismo. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza generalmente por la presencia de placas blancas, placas eritematosas, placas entre eritematosas y blancas, úlceras de bordes levantados y masas exofíticas. El tratamiento consiste en la extirpación quirúrgica, la radioterapia, quimioterapia o ambos tratamientos. Este artículo presenta un caso de carcinoma escamocelular bucal en un paciente del sexo masculino, de 70 años de edad. En el mismo se describen los hallazgos clínicos, histopatológicos y el tratamiento correspondiente del caso. El diagnóstico precoz y correcto posibilitó la cura en este caso.The squamocellular carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm commonest in the buccal cavity. The more frequently involved anatomical sites are the lower lip, the tongue's lateral edges and the mouth floor. Its etiology is multifactor although it is closely related to smoking and alcoholism. Clinical picture is generally characterized by the presence of different types of white, erythematous, between erythematous and white plaques, ulcers with raised edges and exophytic masses. Treatment includes surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both. In present paper the case of a man aged 70 presenting with buccal squamous carcinoma describing the clinical, and the histopathologic findings and its corresponding treatment. The early and appropriate diagnosis allowed the cure of this case.

  5. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Childhood: Review, Symptoms in the Oral Cavity, Differential Diagnosis and Report of One Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shooriabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease in which monoclonal migration and proliferation of specific dendritic cells is seen. The disease primarily affects the bones and skin, but there is a possibility that involves other organs or appears as a multi-systemic disease. Case Report In oral examination of a nine-month girl, two deep wounds with a yellow membrane with approximate size of 1 × 1 cm on both sides of mandibular alveolar ridge were seen. The edges of the wounds were swollen and proliferated and redder than the surrounding mucosa. At the touch the edges of the wound were not indurated. The wound were created from the third-month and the size of wounds had become slightly larger within 6 months. According to the chronic wound and being non-responsive to various systemic and local treatments, incisional biopsy was taken from the wounds. Langerhans cell histiocytosis was confirmedhistologically and immune histochemically. Conclusion Mouth ulcers may be the only symptoms of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Therefore, the role of dentist could be important in diagnosis of this disease.

  6. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  7. Evaluation of a commercial rubella IgM assay for use on oral fluid samples for diagnosis and surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome and postnatal rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaylakshmi, P; Muthukkaruppan, V R; Rajasundari, A; Korukluoglu, G; Nigatu, W; L A Warrener; Samuel, D; Brown, D W G

    2006-12-01

    Clinical diagnosis (surveillance) of rubella is unreliable and laboratory confirmation is essential. Detection of virus specific IgM in serum is the most commonly used method. However, the use of serum necessitates the drawing of blood, either through venipuncture or finger/heel prick, which can be difficult in young babies. Oral fluid samples have proved useful as an alternative, less invasive sample for virus specific IgM detection however until recently no commercial rubella IgM tests were available, restricting the usefulness of this approach. To evaluate the performance of the Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA using oral fluid samples from outbreaks as well as in cases of suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Paired serum and oral fluids were collected from cases during a rubella outbreak in three provinces in Turkey. Matched serum and oral fluid samples were collected from children with suspected CRS in an active surveillance programme at the Aravind Eye Hospital in South India. Serum samples were collected as part of the measles surveillance programme in Ethiopia. On serum samples the sensitivity and specificity of the Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA compared to Behring Enzygnost rubella IgM test was 96.9% (62/64; 95% CI 94.2-100%) and 100% (53/53; 95% CI 93.2-100%). On oral fluids compared to matched Behring results on serum the sensitivity was 95.5% (42/44; 95% CI 84.5-99.4%). The sensitivity and specificity of Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA on oral fluids from suspected CRS cases compared to serum results using Behring Enzygnost IgM assay was 100% (95% CI 84.5-100%) and 100% (95% CI 95.8-100.0%) respectively. Microimmune Rubella IgM capture EIA has adequate performance for diagnosis and surveillance of rubella in outbreak using either serum or oral fluid specimens.

  8. Avaliação do exame citopatológico como método para diagnosticar a paracoccidioidomicose crônica oral Evaluation of cytopathologic exam for diagnosis of oral chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sivieri de Araújo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o exame citológico esfoliativo no diagnóstico das lesões orais da paracoccidioidomicose, foram estudados oito portadores desta doença. Em todos os casos, demonstrou-se o fungo através de esfregaços citológicos corados com impregnação pela prata Gomori-Grocott. Conclui-se que a citologia esfoliativa oral é um método diagnóstico útil e válido na paracoccidioidomicose, podendo auxiliar no controle terapêutico das formas orais desta micose.With the aim of evaluating exfoliative cytology for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis oral lesions, eight patients that presented the disease were studied. The presence of fungi was demonstrated in all these cases. It was concluded that the oral exfoliative cytology exam can be effectively used in the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and contribute to the therapeutic control of oral forms of this mycosis.

  9. [Organization of public oral health services for early diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotti, Elisete; Monteiro, Ana Beatriz Fonseca; Castro Filho, Evelyn Lima de; Santos, Manuella Pires Dos

    2016-05-01

    This is a study of the organization of public health services in the state of Rio de Janeiro concerning the diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders. Secondary data from the database of the first phase of the Program for Enhancement for Access to and Quality of Primary Care were used. The implementation of actions at different levels for cancer prevention, the availability of diagnostic support services and the organization of the care network were assessed. The results show that only 58.8% of oral health teams record and monitor suspect cases; that only 47.1% reported having preferential channels for referring patients and there is great variation in waiting times to confirm the diagnosis. Local managerial and regional support actions can improve the organization of the care network for oral cancer prevention in the state.

  10. Evaluation of capability of ultrasound with elastometry and elastography for diagnosis of subclinical regional metastases of cancer of the oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Alymov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of ultrasound capabilities for diagnosis of subclinical regional metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa.Introduction. Incidence of oral cancer in Russia is 3.86 per 100,000 population, and it’s increasing with the mean annual rate of 1.88 %. Head and neck cancer is characterized by high risk of metastases in regional lymph nodes which varies from 40 to 80 %. Lymph nodes status affects the treatment plan and appears to be the main predictive factor. Therefore, evaluation of the pathways of regional lymphatic outflow in oral mucosa cancer is of prime importance for disease prognosis and treatment selection. Ultrasound investigation (USI is one of the main instrumental methods of regional lymph node investigation in oral mucosa cancer patients. Nevertheless, effectiveness of B-mode USI, elastometry and elastography for diagnosis of occult metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa has not been investigated. There is no consensus on the threshold values of S-wave velocity and elastographic parameters in diagnosis of occult metastases.Materials and methods. Patients with oral mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (stage cT1–3N0M0 were included in the study. All patients had morphologically verified diagnosis. At the first stage (outpatient before inclusion into the study, all patients were evaluated by palpation and B-mode USI. If during USI metastases were suspected, FNAB was performed. Patients with cytologically confirmed metastases were not eligible for the study. During the clinical trial, 102 (82.3 % patients underwent B-mode USI, and 22 (17.7 % patients underwent USI with elastometry and elastography. USI results were compared with results of histological examination of cervical lymph nodes. Statistical evaluation of USI in different modes was performed.Results. B-mode USI was characterized by 88.2 % specificity, 0 % sensitivity, 80.4 % accuracy, and 44.1 % efficacy. Positive

  11. HMB-45 may be a more sensitive maker than S-100 or Melan-A for immunohistochemical diagnosis of primary oral and nasal mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chen, Huang-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Ming; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Wang, Jeng-Tzung; Wang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Bu-Yuan; Sun, Andy; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2005-10-01

    Primary mucosal melanomas (MMs) of the head and neck are a rare entity. Melanomas with characteristic melanin-pigmented tumor cells are easy to diagnose, but those without melanin-pigmented tumor cells, amelanotic melanomas, are difficult to identify and need immunohistochemistry (IHC) to confirm the final diagnosis. In this study, we examined the expression of three melanocytic differentiation markers, HMB-45, S-100, and Melan-A in primary oral and nasal MMs. We tried to evaluate whether HMB-45, S-100, and Melan-A were useful for diagnosis of primary oral and nasal MMs and to find out which marker was the best of the three. This study used IHC to examine the expression of HMB-45, S-100, and Melan-A in 17 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of primary oral and nasal MMs. The staining intensities (SIs) and labeling indices (LIs) of HMB-45, S-100, and Melan-A in 17 MMs were calculated and compared between any two markers. Immunostaining results showed that the positive rate was 94% (16 of 17) for HMB-45, 88% (15 of 17) for S-100, and 71% (12 of 17) for Melan-A in 17 MMs. The SI of HMB-45 was significantly higher than that of S-100 (P = 0.0011) or of Melan-A (P = 0.0034). In addition, the mean LI of Melan-A (59 +/- 43%) was significantly lower than that of HMB-45 (83 +/- 28%, P = 0.0065) or of S-100 (79 +/- 33%, P = 0.0237). Our results indicate that both HMB-45 and S-100 show a high positive rate and LI in MMs and therefore may be good markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of primary oral and nasal MMs. In addition, HMB-45 may be a more sensitive marker than S-100 because HMB-45 shows a significantly higher SI than S-100 in this study.

  12. Biomarker MicroRNAs for Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Identified Based on Gene Expression Data and MicroRNA-mRNA Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Tangxin; Zheng, Linqing

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most malignant tumors with high mortality rate worldwide. Biomarker discovery is critical for early diagnosis and precision treatment of this disease. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules which often regulate essential biological processes and are good candidates for biomarkers. By integrative analysis of both the cancer-associated gene expression data and microRNA-mRNA network, miR-148b-3p, miR-629-3p, miR-27a-3p, and miR-142-3p were screened as novel diagnostic biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma based on their unique regulatory abilities in the network structure of the conditional microRNA-mRNA network and their important functions. These findings were confirmed by literature verification and functional enrichment analysis. Future experimental validation is expected for the further investigation of their molecular mechanisms. PMID:29098014

  13. Non-invasive diagnosis of isolated chylopericardium using precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131I-triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiseki, Yoshiki; Katsura, Tadahiko; Goto, Masakatsu; Kawanishi, Katsuyuki

    1982-01-01

    Chylopericardium is a rare disease and affects both sexes equally from neonate to adult. Usually, there are abnormal connections between the pericardial cavity and thoracic lymphatic systems. These connections are detected by (1) recovery of orally administered Sudan III from pericardial fluid, (2) evidence of radioactivity in the pericardial fluid by paracentesis after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein, and (3) lymphangiography. However, these method are technically difficult and invasive, thus sometimes dangerous for children. We employed precordial pericardial imaging after oral administration of 131 I-labeled triolein on a 9-year-old Japanese girl wth isolated chylopericardium before and after surgery. Abnormal connections and the back-ward flow to the pulmonary lymphatics were demonstrated by this method. This is an easy, non-invasive, reliable and safe method for detecting the abnormal connections of pericardial and lymphatic systems in children with chylopericardium. (author)

  14. Diagnosis of oral fungal infection in patients undergoing head and neck cancer radiation. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulacio, L.; Paz, M.; Ramadan, S.; Ramos, L.; Marozzi, M.L.; Sortino, M.; Escovich, L.; Lopez, C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy adverse effects are very common, they contribute to development of opportunistic infections. Genus Candida is often associated with oral diseases in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to study the presence of yeast in oral lesions, in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Swabs of oral mucosal lesions of 76 patients were studied. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated, with ATB Fungus-3 method, which tests 5-fluorcitosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC); and allows the estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Yeasts were isolated in 74% of samples, being Candida albicans, most frequent specie (53%), followed by C.tropicalis (24%), C.parapsilosis (14%), C.krusei (5%), C.dubliniensis (2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2%). All strains were susceptible to VRC. For other antifungals, there were resistant or dose-dependent-susceptible strains. Only C.krusei was resistant to the FCA. About AMB, 2 isolates of C. tropicalis presented a value of 2 mg/l MIC, dose with high incidence of adverse effects. These studies are important to establish early and suitable therapy, wich contribute to achieve lowers rates of disseminated forms of candidiasis, and to reduce the difficulties in food intake that carries the presence of oral lesions. (authors)

  15. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus from analysis of saliva samples using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Titarenko, Maria A.; Baydik, Olga D.; Shapovalov, Alexander V.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to diagnose oral lichen planus (OLP) based on saliva analysis using THz time-domain spectroscopy and chemometrics is discussed. The study involved 30 patients (2 male and 28 female) with OLP. This group consisted of two subgroups with the erosive form of OLP (n = 15) and with the reticular and papular forms of OLP (n = 15). The control group consisted of six healthy volunteers (one male and five females) without inflammation in the mucous membrane in the oral cavity and without periodontitis. Principal component analysis was used to reveal informative features in the experimental data. The one-versus-one multiclass classifier using support vector machine binary classifiers was used. The two-stage classification approach using several absorption spectra scans for an individual saliva sample provided 100% accuracy of differential classification between OLP subgroups and control group.

  16. Understanding discontinuation of oral adjuvant endocrine therapy by women with hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer nearly 4 years from diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin J; Fradkin, Pamela; Schwarz, Max; Davis, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of discontinuation of oral adjuvant endocrine therapy (OAET) in women nearly 4 years from the diagnosis of their first episode of invasive breast cancer and the reasons for such discontinuation. We used a large, prospective cohort study of women who had been diagnosed with their first episode of invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2006, recruited through a state-based cancer registry. All participants completed an enrollment questionnaire (EQ) within 12 months of diagnosis and annual follow-up questionnaires (FQs) thereafter. The data in this report were obtained from the EQ and the first three FQs. A total of 1,370 women with hormone receptor-positive disease completed the EQ. At the completion of the third FQ nearly 4 years from diagnosis, 1,193 women remained in the study. Use of OAET peaked by 2 years postdiagnosis. At nearly 4 years from diagnosis, 18% of the 1,193 women remaining in the study were not taking OAET. Of these women, just more than half had ceased therapy mainly owing to a range of adverse effects, predominantly estrogen deficiency symptoms, but the remainder (8% of women remaining in the study) had never used OAET. Our study confirms that early discontinuation of OAET due to estrogen deficiency symptoms remains an important issue despite calls for strategies to address this problem. The number of women potentially suitable for OAET but not receiving it was almost as great as the number of those who have discontinued therapy.

  17. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  18. Oral lichen planus versus epithelial dysplasia: difficulties in diagnosis Líquen plano bucal versus displasia epitelial: dificuldades diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus is not easy since some cases of epithelial dysplasia may present traits which are very similar to those from lichen planus. AIM: to compare cell alterations which suggest malignancy present in oral lichen planus with those from epithelial dysplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and dysplasia, dyed by hematoxylin-eosin, were analyzed by means of light microscopy. RESULTS: variance analysis (alpha=5% revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in the lichen planus (5.83±1.61 and epithelial dysplasia (4.46±1.26. The chi-squared test did not show statistically significant differences between oral lichen planus and epithelial dysplasia in relation to the following cell alterations: increase in nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, nuclear hyperchromatism, irregular chromatin distribution and enlarged nuclei (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Some cell alterations which suggest malignancy present in the oral lichen planus may also be found in epithelial dysplasia, impairing its diagnosis and, consequently, stressing the importance of following these patients in the long run.O diagnóstico histopatológico do líquen plano bucal não é fácil, pois alguns casos de displasia epitelial podem apresentar características bastante semelhantes às do líquen plano. OBJETIVO: Comparar as alterações celulares sugestivas de malignidade presentes no líquen plano bucal com as da displasia epitelial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Cortes histológicos de líquen plano bucal e displasia, corados com hematoxilina-eosina, foram analisados por meio da microscopia de luz. RESULTADOS: A análise de variância (alfa=5% revelou haver diferença estatisticamente significante entre o número médio de alterações celulares no líquen plano bucal (5,83±1,61 e na displasia epitelial (4,46±1,26. O teste de qui-quadrado não mostrou diferença estatisticamente

  19. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  1. Value of the dual phase 18F-FDG PET/CT with oral diuretic in the diagnosis of bladder cancer before therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongsheng; Wu Hubing; Wang Qiaoyu; Han Yanjiang; Wang Quanshi

    2014-01-01

    Background: PET with 18 F-FDG has been considered of limited value for the detection of bladder cancer because of the urinary excretion of the tracer. Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of dual phase 18 F-FDG PET/CT with oral diuretic in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Methods: 107 patients with suspected bladder cancer were enrolled in the present study from May, 2003 to May, 2012. Each patient underwent the whole body 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans routinely. After that, all patients received the forced diuresis by orally administration of furosemide (40 mg) and drinking a lot of water. Two hours later, after several times of urination, the patients underwent an additional delayed pelvic PET/CT scans. The intravesical radioactivity was compared between the routine and delayed the scans and the visualization of the tumor was evaluated. The diagnostic efficacy was determined based on the pathological examinations and the clinical following-up. Results: With the forced diuresis, intravesical 18 F-FDG activity decreased significantly in 96.3% of the patients. The lesions on the wall of urinary bladder were visualized clearly in the delayed PET images, which weren't seen in the rout/ne PET images. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 75 patients who all then received the operation. 69 patients were diagnosed pathologically to have the bladder cancer and 6 patients to have benign diseases. 18 F-FDG PET/CT was negative in another 32 patients. Four patients of them were then diagnosed to be bladder cancer. Another 28 patients were clinically followed up more than 6 months and none of them was found to have bladder cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the dual phase PET/CT imaging for diagnosing the bladder cancer were 94.5%(69/73), 82.4%(28/34) and 90.7%(97/107), respectively. Conclusion: The forced diuresis using oral furosemide can significantly reduce the intravesical radioactivity and improve the detectability of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for the bladder cancer

  2. Early diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency using a high-throughput screening method and a trial of oral S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a treatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Werkhoven, Michiel A; Duley, John A; McGown, Ivan; Munce, Teresa; Freeman, Jeremy L; Pitt, James J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput urine screening technique for adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency and to evaluate S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) as a potential treatment for this disorder. Testing for succinyladenosine (S-Ado), a marker of ADSL deficiency, was incorporated into a screening panel for urine biomarkers for inborn errors of metabolism using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to confirm and monitor the response of metabolites to oral SAMe treatment. Increased levels of S-Ado were detected in a 3-month-old male infant with hypotonia and seizures. ADSL gene sequencing revealed a previously described c.-49T>C mutation and a novel c.889_891dupAAT mutation, which was likely to disrupt enzyme function. After 9 months of SAMe treatment, there was no clear response evidenced in urine metabolite levels or clinical parameters. These results demonstrate proof of the principle for the high-throughput urine screening technique, allowing earlier diagnosis of patients with ADSL deficiency. However, early treatment with SAMe does not appear to be effective in ADSL deficiency. It is suggested that although SAMe treatment may ameliorate purine nucleotide deficiency, it cannot correct metabolic syndromes in which a toxic nucleotide is present, in this case presumed to be succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Differential diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma from non-neoplastic oral mucosal lesions: New cytopathologic evaluation method dependent on keratinization-related parameters but not nuclear atypism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hitoshi; Misawa, Tsuneo; Ishii, Eri; Nakagawa, Miki; Koshiishi, Saki; Amemiya, Kenji; Oyama, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazuya; Cheng, Jun; Tanaka, Akio; Saku, Takashi

    2017-05-01

    The cytology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is challenging because oral SCC cells tend to be well differentiated and lack nuclear atypia, often resulting in a false negative diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to establish practical cytological parameters specific to oral SCCs. We reviewed 123 cases of malignancy and 53 of non-neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa, which had been diagnosed using both cytology and histopathology specimens. From those, we selected 12 SCC and 4 CIS cases that had initially been categorized as NILM to ASC-H with the Bethesda system, as well as 4 non-neoplastic samples categorized as LSIL or ASC-H as controls, and compared their characteristic findings. After careful examinations, we highlighted five cytological parameters, as described in Results. Those 20 cytology samples were then reevaluated by 4 independent examiners using the Bethesda system as well as the 5 parameters. Five cytological features, (i) concentric arrangement of orangeophilic cells (indicating keratin pearls), (ii) large number of orangeophilic cells, (iii) bizarre-shaped orangeophilic cells without nuclear atypia, (iv) keratoglobules, and (v) uneven filamentous cytoplasm, were found to be significant parameters. All malignant cases contained at least one of those parameters, while none were observed in the four non-neoplastic cases with nuclear atypia. In reevaluations, the Bethesda system did not help the screeners distinguish oral SCCs from non-neoplastic lesions, while use of the five parameters enabled them to make a diagnosis of SCC. Recognition of the present five parameters is useful for oral SCC cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:406-417. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Diagnosis and indications for low-intensity laser therapy of the pathology of the oral cavity mucosa of patients with hematologic and gastroenteric diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, Anatoly A.; Minakov, E. V.; Sutscenko, A. V.; Vornovsky, V. A.; Dunaeva, S. V.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.

    1996-11-01

    In the recent years low intensity laser irradiation is made use of in stomatology with the view of treating numerous diseases of the oral cavity mucosa and parodontium. The oral cavity mucosa lesions caused by the internal organs diseases, especially those of blood and the gastroenteric tract, constitute a particular group. Such diseases are usually manifested by an inflammation, erosions, ulcers, hemorrhages. An abundant microflora of the oral cavity and diminished immunity of the patients contribute to the possibility of septicaemia development. Laser therapy of the oral cavity mucosa lesions according to strictly defined indications promotes rapid healing of ulcers, arresting the oral cavity mucosa inflammation, providing a reduction in bleeding and presents a safe prophylactic means of stomatogenic sepsis.

  5. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  6. Oral Biopsy: A Dental Gawk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir,. Dermatologists are often confronted with neoplasms and diseases of the oral cavity. Although many may be reluctant to perform oral surgical procedures, a biopsy is often needed to establish a definitive diagnosis, and biopsy of the oral cavity is a safe and useful technique that can be easily employed by dermatologists.

  7. Periodontal abscess as a possible oral clinical sign in the diagnosis of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus of elderly in a dental clinic set up - a 7-year cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagl, Adel S

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the periodontal abscess as a possible oral clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the elderly. In this clinical outpatient department, cross-sectional study of 84 months, 143 212 subjects between the ages of 40 and 84 years were screened for the presence of periodontal abscess. Relevant medical and dental histories were recorded using a questionnaire. The subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, presence of periodontal abscess, and absence of other systemic disease were referred for laboratory diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (HbA1c). The subjects tested positive for the diabetes were noted, statistical evaluation was undertaken to correlate between undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and periodontal abscess. It was found out that 0.05% undiagnosed diabetes was noted among the 143 212 patients. Among the 143 212 subjects, 1352 met the inclusion criteria having periodontal abscess. Mean age of the participants was 57 ± 14.2 years. Among the 1352 subjects with periodontal abscess: 793 (58.65%) subjects had increased HbA1c (≥6.5% or 47.5 mmol/mol or 7.8 mmol/L); 559 (41.35%) individuals reported to have normal HbA1c (≤6.5% or 47.5 mmol/mol or 7.8 mmol/L). The difference was found to be statistically significant. Periodontal abscess can be considered as possible oral clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Elderly individuals visiting dental clinics need to be given due attention to find out the possibility of having this systemic condition. Medical fraternities are advised to consider oral health parameters in the evaluation of the medical status of elderly individuals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Oral Lichen Planus in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children.

  9. Cytological study of DNA content and nuclear morphometric analysis for aid in the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia within oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Xiao, Xuan; Wu, Wenyan; Shen, Xuemin; Zhou, Zengtong; Liu, Wei; Shi, Linjun

    2017-09-01

    To quantitatively examine the DNA content and nuclear morphometric status of oral leukoplakia (OL) and investigate its association with the degree of dysplasia in a cytologic study. Oral cytobrush biopsy was carried out to obtain exfoliative epithelial cells from lesions before scalpel biopsy at the same location in a blinded series of 70 patients with OL. Analysis of nuclear morphometry and DNA content status using image cytometry was performed with oral smears stained with the Feulgen-thionin method. Nuclear morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in DNA content amount, DNA index, nuclear area, nuclear radius, nuclear intensity, sphericity, entropy, and fractal dimension (all P content analysis identified 34 patients with OL (48.6%) with DNA content abnormality. Nonhomogeneous lesion (P = .018) and high-grade dysplasia (P = .008) were significantly associated with abnormal DNA content. Importantly, the positive correlation between the degree of oral dysplasia and DNA content status was significant (P = .004, correlation coefficient = 0.342). Cytology analysis of DNA content and nuclear morphometric status using image cytometry may support their use as a screening and monitoring tool for OL progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral manifestations of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, S; O'Shea, F; Galvin, S; Wynne, B

    2018-02-01

    Mucosal involvement is commonly seen in patients with lupus; however, oral examination is often forgotten. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within oral lupoid plaques has been described, emphasizing the importance of identifying and treating oral lupus. We undertook a retrospective single-centre study looking at oral findings in patients attending our multidisciplinary lupus clinic between January 2015 and April 2016. A total of 42 patients were included. The majority of patients were female (88%) and had a diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (62%). Half of the patients had positive oral findings, 26% had no oral examination documented, and 24% had documented normal oral examinations. Our findings suggest that oral pathology is common in this cohort of patients. Regular oral examination is warranted to identify oral lupus and provide treatment. Associated diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome may also be identified. Patients should be encouraged to see their general dental practitioners on a regular basis for mucosal review. Any persistent ulcer that fails to respond to treatment or hard lump needs urgent histopathological evaluation to exclude malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  12. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect imm...

  13. A critical ethnography of communication processes involving the management of oral chemotherapeutic agents by patients with a primary diagnosis of colorectal cancer: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Porter, Sam; Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    To describe the protocol used to examine the processes of communication between health professionals, patients and informal carers during the management of oral chemotherapeutic medicines to identify factors that promote or inhibit medicine concordance. Ideally communication practices about oral medicines should incorporate shared decision-making, two-way dialogue and an equality of role between practitioner and patient. While there is evidence that healthcare professionals are adopting these concordant elements in general practice there are still some patients who have a passive role during consultations. Considering oral chemotherapeutic medications, there is a paucity of research about communication practices which is surprising given the high risk of toxicity associated with chemotherapy. A critical ethnographic design will be used, incorporating non-participant observations, individual semi-structured and focus-group interviews as several collecting methods. Observations will be carried out on the interactions between healthcare professionals (physicians, nurses and pharmacists) and patients in the outpatient departments where prescriptions are explained and supplied and on follow-up consultations where treatment regimens are monitored. Interviews will be conducted with patients and their informal carers. Focus-groups will be carried out with healthcare professionals at the conclusion of the study. These several will be analysed using thematic analysis. This research is funded by the Department for Employment and Learning in Northern Ireland (Awarded February 2012). Dissemination of these findings will contribute to the understanding of issues involved when communicating with people about oral chemotherapy. It is anticipated that findings will inform education, practice and policy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  15. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  16. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  17. Sarcoidosis: Oral and extra-oral manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease, which is usually associated with the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues and organs. It is mostly present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltration, ocular, and cutaneous lesions. Oral manifestations of this disease are relatively rare. The present case report shows a 40-year-old male with lesions in the soft tissue of oral cavity (buccal mucosa, gingiva, and palate and a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established following hematological, biochemical and pulmonary function tests, chest radiograph, and histopathological investigation.

  18. Biopsy Diagnosis of Oral Carcinoma by the Combination of Morphological and Spectral Methods Based on Embedded Relay Lens Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Mang; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    Cytopathological examination through biopsy is very important for carcinoma detection. The embedded relay lens microscopic hyperspectral imaging system (ERL-MHIS) provides a morphological image of a biopsy sample and the spectrum of each pixel in the image simultaneously. Based on the ERL-MHIS, this work develops morphological and spectral methods to diagnose oral carcinoma biopsy. In morphological discrimination, the fractal dimension method is applied to differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues. In spectral identification, normal and cancerous cells are distinguished using five methods. However, the spectra of normal and cancerous cells vary with patient. The diagnostic performances of the five methods are thus not ideal. Hence, the proposed cocktail approach is used to determine the effectiveness of the spectral methods in correlating with the sampling conditions. And then we use a combination of effective spectral methods according to the sample conditions for diagnosing a sample. A total of 68 biopsies from 34 patients are analyzed using the ERL-MHIS. The results demonstrate a sensitivity of 90 ± 4.53 % and a specificity of 87.8 ± 5.21 %. Furthermore, in our survey, this system is the first time utilized to study oral carcinoma biopsies.

  19. In-vivo fluorescence detection and imaging of porphyrin-producing bacteria in the human skin and in the oral cavity for diagnosis of acne vulgaris, caries, and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Schneckenburger, Herbert; Hemmer, Joerg; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Steiner, Rudolf W.

    1994-05-01

    Certain bacteria are able to synthesize metal-free fluorescent porphyrins and can therefore be detected by sensitive autofluorescence measurements in the red spectral region. The porphyrin-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, which is involved in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, was localized in human skin. Spectrally resolved fluorescence images of bacteria distribution in the face were obtained by a slow-scan CCD camera combined with a tunable liquid crystal filter. The structured autofluorescence of dental caries and dental plaque in the red is caused by oral bacteria, like Bacteroides or Actinomyces odontolyticus. `Caries images' were created by time-gated imaging in the ns-region after ultrashort laser excitation. Time-gated measurements allow the suppression of backscattered light and non-porphyrin autofluorescence. Biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma exhibited red autofluorescence in necrotic regions and high concentrations of the porphyrin-producing bacterium Pseudomonas aerigunosa. These studies suggest that the temporal and spectral characteristics of bacterial autofluorescence can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases.

  20. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J

    2012-01-01

    as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral......In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...

  1. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  2. Case Report: Diagnosis of hypogeusia after oral exposure to commercial cleaning agent and considerations for clinical taste testing [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jetté

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few reports in the literature document acute taste disturbance following exposure to toxic chemicals. We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with primary complaint of tongue numbness and persistent problems with taste 1.5 years following oral exposure to a commercial cleaning agent. A test of olfaction revealed normosmia for age and gender. Lingual tactile two-point discrimination testing showed reduced somatosensation. Taste threshold testing using a 3-drop method demonstrated severe hypogeusia, though the patient was able to discriminate tastants at lower concentrations with a whole mouth swish and spit test. We conclude that clinical evaluation of dysgeusia can be performed using a number of previously published testing methods, however, determining causative factors may be confounded by duration since exposure, lack of knowledge of baseline taste function, and medications. Although many testing options exist, basic taste testing can be performed with minimal expertise or specialized equipment, depending on the patient history and goals of evaluation.

  3. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  4. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  5. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  6. Respiração oral na criança: repercussões diferentes de acordo com o diagnóstico Mouth breathing in children: different repercussions according to the diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Di Francesco

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A respiração oral é um sintoma freqüente na infância. A síndrome do respirador oral caracteriza-se por cansaço freqüente, sonolência diurna, adinamia, baixo apetite, enurese noturna e até déficit de aprendizado e atenção. Entretanto este sintoma apresenta diversas causas. Faz-se necessário, portanto, esclarecer detalhes sobre estes aspectos clínicos de acordo com suas causas. OBJETIVO: Comparar os achados de sonolência diurna, cefaléia, agitação noturna, enurese, problemas escolares e bruxismo em indivíduos com respiração oral; de acordo com os seguintes diagnósticos: rinite alérgica, hiperplasia adenoideana, hiperplasia adenoamigdaliana. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo de coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 142 pacientes de 2 a 16 anos, classificados em três grupos: rinite alérgica, hiperplasia adenoideana isolada e hiperplasia adenoamigdaliana. Os responsáveis dos pacientes responderam a questionário padronizado sobre os sintomas noturnos para caracterização da presença de apnéia do sono e sobre os aspectos estudados: cefaléia matinal, desempenho escolar e atenção, sonolência diurna, agitação noturna, enurese, bruxismo. RESULTADOS: A respiração oral é mais freqüente em meninos. Crianças com hiperplasia adenoamigdaliana são mais jovens. Este grupo apresenta maior freqüência de roncos e apnéia do sono, assim como mau desempenho escolar, bruxismo, enurese e agitação noturna, sendo estes sintomas relacionados com a apnéia, diferenciando-se do grupo com rinite alérgica. Não se observou sonolência diurna e cefaléia matinal significante nos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: Bruxismo, enurese, agitação noturna e cefaléia estão relacionados com a apnéia do sono, sendo mais freqüente na hiperplasia adenoamigdaliana. Assim, a investigação de apnéia do sono na criança com respiração oral é fundamental e assim como a determinação da causa da respiração oral

  7. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  8. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jimson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient.

  9. Oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehalić Meliha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 29 - year Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune skin disease, that is often manifested, except on the skin, in the oral cavity in a variety of clinical forms. The prevalence of the disease in the general population is about 1-2%. Etiopathogenesis is not still well understood. Histopathology, in addition to the basic methods, anamnesis and physical examination, is vital for proper diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP. Very diverse and loaded histological findings are common for all forms of oral lichen planus. We reported the case of oral lichen planus in a 49 years old male patient, who presented to the Dentistry clinic of Medical faculty of Priština with burning and itching symptoms and changes in the buccal mucosa. Histopathological analysis of biopsy tissue conformed clinical diagnosis of lichen planus. Due to the possibility for malignant transformation of lesions, the long-term follow-up of patients with this disease is of great importance.

  10. Could the erythrocyte indices or serum ferritin predict the therapeutic response to a trial with oral iron during pregnancy? Results from the Accuracy study for Maternal Anaemia diagnosis (AMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresani Salvi, Cristiane Campello; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Figueirôa, José Natal; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2016-08-12

    Treatment of maternal iron-deficiency anaemia can reduce risks of prematurity and low birth weight; hence a reliable diagnosis of maternal iron needs is critical. However, erythrocyte indices and serum ferritin have shown a weak correlation with iron status during pregnancy. This study verified the accuracy of those tests to predict the responsiveness to a therapeutic test with oral iron as reference standard for iron deficiency in pregnant women. A prospective diagnostic study phase 3 was conducted in a single prenatal care center in Northeast Brazil. Between August 2011 and October 2012 a consecutive sampling included 187 women in their 2(nd)-3(rd) trimesters of low-risk pregnancy and having anaemia (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL). Until December 2012, 139 women completed a trial with daily pills of ferrous sulfate (40 mg of iron), during 23 to 125 days. Haemoglobin (Hb), other erythrocyte indices and ferritin (index-tests) were assessed pre-treatment by automated analyzers. Hb was performed also post-treatment to assess the therapeutic response by its post-pretreatment differences. We estimated sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values (PV), likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic Odds Ratio (OR), area under Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy ratio and agreement coefficient of the index-tests against an increase of at least 0.55 Hb Z-score (reference standard test). We calculated the Z-scores according to the reference population from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hb had a mean increase of 0.24 Z-score after 30 iron pills (p 0.013). All index-tests demonstrated PV- above 70 %, PV+ around 40 %, LR around 1.0, and AUC of 0.5 to 0.6. Hb and haematocrit had Se of 50 % (95 % CI 40 to 70); and Sp of 59 % (95 % CI 43 to 74) and 47 % (95 % CI 38 to 57), respectively. Ferritin, Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration and Red blood cell Distribution Width had Se below 40

  11. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p oral intake groups, respectively ( p oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  12. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  14. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  15. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  16. Leukemic Oral Manifestations and their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Carolina Favaro; Caldas, Rogerio Jardim; Oliveira Martins, Lazara Joyce; Fischer Rubira, Cassia Maria; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common neoplastic disease of the white blood cells which is important as a pediatric malignancy. Oral manifestations occur frequently in leukemic patients and may present as initial evidence of the disease or its relapse. The symptoms include gingival enlargement and bleeding, oral ulceration, petechia, mucosal pallor, noma, trismus and oral infections. Oral lesions arise in both acute and chronic forms of all types of leukemia. These oral manifestations either may be the result of direct infiltration of leukemic cells (primary) or secondary to underlying thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or impaired granulocyte function. Despite the fact that leukemia has long been known to be associated with oral lesions, the available literature on this topic consists mostly of case reports, without data summarizing the main oral changes for each type of leukemia. Therefore, the present review aimed at describing oral manifestations of all leukemia types and their dental management. This might be useful in early diagnosis, improving patient outcomes.

  17. Oral food challenge outcomes in a pediatric tertiary care center

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Elissa M.; Becker, Allan B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. Methods A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. Results 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge...

  18. What Makes Oral Candidiasis Recurrent Infection? A Clinical View

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi M. G. Darwazeh; Tamer A. Darwazeh

    2014-01-01

    Clinical oral Candida infection (candidiasis) is one of the common oral mucosal infections, and its management is usually frustrating due to either treatment failure or recurrence. Historically, oral candidiasis has been branded as disease of diseased. The unsuccessful management of oral candidiasis can due to either incorrect diagnosis, failure to identify (or correct) the underlying predisposing factor(s), or inaccurate prescription of antifungal agents. Failure to properly treat oral ca...

  19. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  20. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  1. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  2. Radiography of oral cavity disorders [dentistry, stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic examination in odonto-stomatology can he made easier by using intra-oral dental films and a dental X-ray machine. Parallel and bissecting angle techniques allow X-ray pictures to be taken with intra-and extra-oral films. Radiography provides information for diagnosis but it also allows the evaluation of dental treatments

  3. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  4. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  5. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A. C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjanen, S.; Soland, T. M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J. E.; Warfvinge, G.

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  6. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A.C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjänen, S.; Søland, T.M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J.E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  7. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  8. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  9. Laboratory Diagnosis of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders. Diagnosis Algorithm in Hyperglycemic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the laboratory diagnosis of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Presents criteria for diagnosis of diabetes, an algorithm for oral glucose tolerance test, determine type of diabetes based on clinical and laboratory data. The article also raised the issues of diagnosis of gestational diabetes and a diagnostic algorithm of hyperglycemia conditions during pregnancy.

  10. Oral lichenoid reaction to tobacco | Panta | Pan African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A differential diagnosis of lichen planus, oral lichenoid reaction and discoid lupus erythematosis were considered. On microscopic examination, there was focal perivascular infiltrate and plasma cells in the connective tissue. After correlating clinically, a diagnosis of "lichenoid reaction" was confirmed. Oral lichenoid ...

  11. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  12. The role of general dental practitioner in oral health | Nwoku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other diseases that affect the oral cavity include, but not limited to caries, infections of the gum and jaws, malformations, benign and malignant tumours, as well as diabetes. The general dental practitioner therefore has very important duties. These include early recognition and diagnosis of oral health problems, oral health ...

  13. Dentalmaterialer kan udløse orale allergiske reaktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental...

  14. Dentalmaterialer kan udløse orale allergiske reaktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental...... materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical...

  15. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  17. Oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    lichen planus to oral lichenoid mucositis and increase in number of degranulated mast cells as well as capillaries subepithelially in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus can be used as reliable criteria for histologic distinction between these two lesions. The increase of eosinophils in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus could be used as adjunct histologic criterion in the diagnosis of oral lichenoid mucositis.

  19. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  20. A importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Pontes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral (TTGO no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose (IG e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM-2 em mulheres com SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram incluídas 247 pacientes portadoras de SOP, selecionadas de forma aleatória. O diagnóstico de IG foi obtido por meio do TTGO de duas horas com 75 gramas de glicose de acordo com os critérios do World Health Organization (WHO (IG: glicemia plasmática aos 120 minutos >140 mg/dL e 200 mg/dL quanto pela glicemia de jejum segundo os critérios da American Diabetes Association (glicemia de jejum alterada: glicemia plasmática >100 e 126 mg/dL. Para comparar o TTGO com a glicemia de jejum foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para medidas repetidas. Para a análise das características clínicas e bioquímicas das pacientes com e sem IG e/ou DM-2 foi utilizada a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. O valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 in women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body

  1. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  2. Oral foregut cyst in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2013-11-01

    Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up.

  3. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Jagadish; Dhoom Singh Mehta; P Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient's informed consent, relevant medical history, oral mani...

  4. Research Progress on the Relationship Between Oral Microbial Community and Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shujun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress was observed in studies of the relationship between oral Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer and tumors. Based on three distinct and close relationships, namely, the relationship between oral H. pylori and gastric cancer, between oral microbial communities and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and between oral microbial communities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and tumors, this work reviews the relationship between oral microbial communities and tumors. This research also provides reference for further analysis of the relationship between oral microorganisms and tumors to realize early diagnosis of tumor patients through detecting oral microorganisms under adjuvant therapy.

  5. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  6. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take ...

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ... Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft ...

  8. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes with fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and A1C level: A1C based screening may be a better diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    , Mehmet Ozgur Niflioglu, Mithat Bahceci,; Bahceci, Mithat; Aslan, Sakine Leyla; Shawcross, James S.; Tutuncuoglu, Aliye Pelin; Harman, Ece

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people around the world have diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has proposed hemoglobin A1C 6.5% (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes, and 5.7-6.4% as a risk factor for progression to diabetes. This new criterions accuracy is controversial and has not yet been adopted internationally. We aimed to clarify the power of A1C in diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes.

  9. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes with fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and A1C level: A1C based screening may be a better diagnostic tool for diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    , Mehmet Ozgur Niflioglu, Mithat Bahceci,

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people around the world have diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has proposed hemoglobin A1C 6.5% (HbA1c) for the diagnosis of diabetes, and 5.7-6.4% as a risk factor for progression to diabetes. This new criterions accuracy is controversial and has not yet been adopted internationally. We aimed to clarify the power of A1C in diagnosis of diabetes and pre-diabetes.

  10. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  11. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  12. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebabcıoğlu, Özge; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among dentists who attended 101st FDI World Dental Congress, İstanbul, Turkey. Among 170 dentists who agreed to participate, there were 13 oral surgeons, 6 restorative dentists, 4 endodontists, 4 orthodontists, 6 periodontists, 5 pedodontists, and 14 prosthodontists. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentists' attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 170 participant dentists, there were 69 (40.6%) male dentists and 101 (59.4%) female dentists. Largest number of them identified tobacco (98.8%) and alcohol usage (91.2%), prior oral cancer lesions (95.3%), viral infections (90.0%), UV exposure (86.5%), and betel quid chewing (80.6%), and lower numbers reported older age (56.5%) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (52.4%). Oral medicine specialists scored marginally higher in indicating erythroplakia and leukoplakia most likely to be precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p ral cancer detection and prevention.

  13. Assessing Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Gaye; Pekiner, Filiz Namdar

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this study was to assess oral cancer awareness among undergraduate dental students in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. A validated questionnaire which tested oral cancer awareness was given to third- and fifth-year students of the dental faculty of Marmara University. A total of 198 students participated in this survey. Knowledge of oral cancer risk factors and diagnosis procedures, dentistry student's attitude towards oral cancers, management practice regarding oral cancer, and oral cancer information sources were assessed using 25 questions. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 program. Among 198 participant dentistry students, there were 99 (50%) third-grade and 99 (50%) fifth-grade students. The largest number of the third- and last-grade students identified tobacco (98%) and alcohol usage (87.4%), prior oral cancer lesions (94.9%), viral infections (91.9%), UV exposure (94.4%), betel quid chewing (84.8%), older age (62.1%), and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (85.4%). Both groups showed higher scores in indicating squamous cell carcinoma as the most common form of oral cancer (p oral cancer detection and prevention.

  14. Glial heterotopia of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhames E. Lizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of a glial heterotopia arising from the oral cavity of an African neonate. The patient presented with an external pedunculated oral mass which was connected to the anterior hard palate by a firm, rubbery stalk of mucosal tissue. While the mass appeared painless, it interfered with the infant's feeding and was disturbing to the parents. After a computed tomography scan excluded an intracranial connection, the mass was excised at its base and sent for biopsy. Histopathology examination confirmed glial heterotopia. Glial heterotopias should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital masses in the oral region.

  15. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  16. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  17. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  18. Manifestaciones orales de la sífilis. Caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Navazo-eguía, Ana Isabel; Rioja-peñaranda, Elena; Echevarria-iturbe, Celina; Terán-muñoz, Danilo; Cordero-civantos, Cristina; Ibañez-muñoz, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Oral manifestations of syphilis are not frequent but may occur in all stages simulating other diseases, delaying diagnosis and treatment. We describe the case of a patient with oral lesions as a manifestation of secondary syphilis. Discussion: oral manifestations of syphilis may mimic other more common oral mucosa lesions, going undiagnosed and with no proper treatment. Although oral lesions m...

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  20. Oral cavity eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  1. SARS - Diagnosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS - Diagnosis. Mainly by exclusion of known causes of atypical pneumonia; * X ray Chest; * PCR on body fluids- primers defined by WHO centres available from website.-ve result does not exclude SARS. * Sequencing of amplicons; * Viral Cultures – demanding; * Antibody tests.

  2. Oral purpura as the first manifestation of primary systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Robert Stuart; Sloan, Philip; Farr, David; Carrozzo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Oral blood blisters and purpura are rare features of primary systemic amyloidosis (amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis). We report a case in which these unusual presentations led to a diagnosis of amyloidosis, which enabled effective treatment before organ failure. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral Candidiasis amongst cancer patients at Qods Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For all patients, the clinical diagnosis had to be confirmed microbiologically by the presence of yeasts and / or hyphae or pseudohyphae on potassium hydroxide–treated smears of oral swabs. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CHROMagar. Results: 25 out of the 60 patients ...

  4. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  5. Problems associated with basic oral surgical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatkin, A.S.; Marretta, S.M.; Schloss, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The veterinarian must be able to diagnose several types of dental problems. History, physical examination, clinical pathology, and radiography are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Basic oral surgery includes various extraction techniques and management of their associated complications. Knowledge of dental anatomy and proper surgical technique can make an extraction curative rather than a frustrating procedure with multiple complications

  6. Drug induced neutropenia manifesting as oral ulcerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Kaul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As dental practitioners, we often come across oral ulcerations of varied etiology. Among all the causes of oral ulcers, those due to neutropenia are significant. Neutropenia can occur in many systemic conditions and also in patients on long-term therapy of certain drugs like phenytoin. The diagnosis of neutropenia in time leads to early recognition of the cause of this fatal condition. Here, we report a case of a 50-year-old female patient who developed oral ulcerations secondary to phenytoin-induced neutropenia. Early diagnosis of the condition led to discontinuation of the offending drug and significant improvement in her blood picture and also prevented her from falling prey to many other systemic infections that neutropenia can cause.

  7. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Coculescu, B I

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis.

  8. The Oral Microbiome of Children: Development, Disease, and Implications Beyond Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age and discuss how oral microbiomes-at the community level-could provide improved assessment in individuals and populations at risk.

  9. Oral Syphilis: A Reemerging Infection Prompting Clinicians’ Alertness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Dybeck Udd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a rare but increasing disease. Due to changing sexual habits, presentation of oral manifestations may rise. Since syphilis may mimic other oral manifestations, diagnoses can be difficult. Clinicians need to be aware that ambiguous oral manifestations may in fact be caused by oral syphilis. Here, we present a case of extended diagnostic delay highlighting the importance of consulting an expert in infectious diseases in case of obscure oral lesions not responding to standard treatment. Despite seven visits to six different medical doctors, a patient who presented with oral syphilis was continuously misdiagnosed. After 6 months of increasing complaints and deteriorating severity of disease, the patient was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon where the correct diagnosis was determined and proper treatment initiated.

  10. Oral pathology in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Tomac-Stojmenović, Marija; Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Brankica

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - has been increasing on a global scale, and progressively, more gastroenterologists will be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Although IBD primarily affects the intestinal tract, extraintestinal manifestations of the disease are often apparent, including in the oral cavity, especially in CD. Specific oral manifestations in patients with CD are as follows: indurate mucosal tags, cobblestoning and mucogingivitis, deep linear ulcerations and lip swelling with vertical fissures. The most common non-specific manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis and angular cheilitis, occur in both diseases, while pyostomatitis vegetans is more pronounced in patients with UC. Non-specific lesions in the oral cavity can also be the result of malnutrition and drugs. Malnutrition, followed by anemia and mineral and vitamin deficiency, affects the oral cavity and teeth. Furthermore, all of the drug classes that are applied to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases can lead to alterations in the oral cavity due to the direct toxic effects of the drugs on oral tissues, as well as indirect immunosuppressive effects with a risk of developing opportunistic infections or bone marrow suppression. There is a higher occurrence of malignant diseases in patients with IBD, which is related to the disease itself and to the IBD-related therapy with a possible oral pathology. Treatment of oral lesions includes treatment of the alterations in the oral cavity according to the etiology together with treatment of the primary intestinal disease, which requires adequate knowledge and a strong cooperation between gastroenterologists and specialists in oral medicine. PMID:27433081

  11. Amiloidosis bucal Oral amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    , confirmado con la coloración del espécimen con el reactivo rojo congo. Los depósitos de amiloide fueron encontrados en el tejido conjuntivo, que con la luz polarizada presentó birrefringencia. Tal hallazgo fue preocupante, ya que la amiloidosis afecta diversos tejidos, lo que puede provocar complicaciones sistémicas. Por esa razón la paciente fue orientada a buscar atención médica. Sin embargo, abandonó el tratamiento y falleció 6 meses después del diagnóstico de la enfermedad. Lesiones bucales aparentemente simples pueden revelar enfermedades raras y de difícil tratamiento. El diagnóstico preciso y la supervisión médica son fundamentales para la sobrevida del paciente.Amyloidosis is an uncommon complicated disease of a difficult diagnosis occurring due to the amyloid substance depot in the extracellular medium. Being diagnosed in the oral cavity, the patient must to be supervised to assess the potential systemic complications of disease. The aim of present paper was to present a case of oral amyloidosis in a female patient ages 72 presenting with traumatic fibroma. After performance of a biopsy and the histopathological examination, the diagnosis was the presence of amyloidosis, confirmed with the help of the sample using Congo red reactant. Amyloid depots were found in the conjunctive tissue which under the polarized light showed birefringence. This finding was worrying since the amyloidosis involves different tissues leading to systemic complications. Thus, the patient was oriented to search medical care; however she abandons treatment dying 6 months after diagnosis of the disease. The apparently single oral injuries may to reveal uncommon diseases and of difficult treatment. The precise treatment and the medical supervision are essential in the patient's survival.

  12. Diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: comparison of clinical and microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esim Buyukbayrak, Esra; Kars, Bulent; Karsidag, Ayse Yasemin Karageyim; Karadeniz, Bernan Ilkay; Kaymaz, Ozge; Gencer, Serap; Pirimoglu, Zehra Meltem; Unal, Orhan; Turan, Mehmet Cem

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the current diagnostic clinical and laboratory approaches to women with vulvovaginal discharge complaint. The secondary outcomes were to determine the prevalence of infections in our setting and to look for the relation between vulvovaginal infections and predisposing factors if present. Premenopausal women applying to our gynecology outpatient clinic with vaginal discharge complaint were enrolled prospectively into the study. Each patient evaluated clinically with direct observation of vaginal secretions, wet mount examination, whiff test, vaginal pH testing and chlamydia rapid antigen test. Each patient also evaluated microbiologically with vaginal discharge culture and gram staining. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the microbiological diagnosis (the gold standard). Diagnostic accuracy was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv). 460 patients were included in the study. 89.8% of patients received a clinical diagnosis whereas only 36% of them had microbiological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv of clinical diagnosis over microbiological culture results were 95, 13, 38, 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered microorganisms by culture were Candida species (17.4%) and Gardnerella vaginalis (10.2%). Clinically, the most commonly made diagnoses were mixed infection (34.1%), bacterial vaginosis (32.4%) and fungal infection (14.1%). Symptoms did not predict laboratory results. Predisposing factors (DM, vaginal douching practice, presence of IUD and usage of oral contraceptive pills) were not found to be statistically important influencing factors for vaginal infections. Clinical diagnosis based on combining symptoms with office-based testing improves diagnostic accuracy but is insufficient. The most effective approach also incorporates laboratory testing as an adjunct when a diagnosis is in question or treatment is failing.

  13. Recurrent oral angioleiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Mahima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioleiomyomas are vascular variant of leiomyomas which are benign tumors of smooth muscle. They are exceedingly rare in the oral cavity. Malignant transformation of these tumors has also been reported occasionally which warrants knowledge of this soft tissue tumor. A 57 year old male patient reported with a 15 day history of an asymptomatic growth that had started insidiously in his lower left back tooth region. Clinical examination revealed a solitary, oval, sessile growth in the mandibular left retro molar region. Excisional biopsy was suggestive of Angioleiomyoma. A recurrence of the same was noted two months later which was also histopathologically reported as Angioleiomyoma. The same was confirmed using special stains. This case reports an unusual presentation of Angioleiomyoma with regards to both recurrence as well as rapid growth. It is important to be well aware of this uncommon entity as these tumors often can mimic or transform into malignancy. Precise clinicopathological examinations are therefore invaluable in establishing an accurate diagnosis and delivering suitable treatment.

  14. Issues related to diagnosing oral lichen planus among oral pathologists in South India: A pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanketh, D Sharathkumar; Srinivasan, Samuel Raj; Patil, Shankargouda; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, we simulated clinical scenarios by explicitly describing the history and clinical and histological features of hypothetical patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion, and epithelial dysplasia in a self-designed questionnaire. By doing so, we aimed to elicit a diagnosis from oral pathologists and trainees, analyze their responses, appraise issues, and propose solutions regarding the diagnosis of OLP. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 oral pathologists and trainees in South India. Six questions were designed to assess awareness of the diagnostic aspects of OLP. Ten questions were hypothetical clinical scenarios (HCS) devised to evaluate respondents' knowledge of diagnostic guidelines and the criteria used by the respondents to render a diagnosis. There were 60 of 100 responses to the questionnaire. More than half the respondents were aware of the World Health Organization and modified guidelines of OLP. We observed considerable variations in diagnoses for the HCS. Our study illustrates the ambiguity in rendering an accurate diagnosis, despite adequate guidelines. Based on the responses for the HCS, we hypothesized that changes in the distribution (unilateral or bilateral) and clinical characteristic of OLP, and habits of patients, have a significant bearing on the clinical and final diagnoses of the lesion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Oral food challenges in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yung Yum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.

  16. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    B. Akshaya Srikanth; V. Manisree

    2013-01-01

    Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

  17. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  18. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  19. Hypothyroidism: etiology, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, Jaime P; Gharib, Hossein

    2012-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is the result of inadequate production of thyroid hormone or inadequate action of thyroid hormone in target tissues. Primary hypothyroidism is the principal manifestation of hypothyroidism, but other causes include central deficiency of thyrotropin-releasing hormone or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or consumptive hypothyroidism from excessive inactivation of thyroid hormone. Subclinical hypothyroidism is present when there is elevated TSH but a normal free thyroxine level. Treatment involves oral administration of exogenous synthetic thyroid hormone. This review presents an update on the etiology and types of hypothyroidism, including subclinical disease; drugs and thyroid function; and diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinico-pathological study to evaluate oral lichen planus for the establishment of clinical and histopathological diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Santhosh; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions affecting the oral cavity show similar clinico-pathological features creating a diagnostic dilemma. Hence, the aim of the present study was to establish a clinical and histopathological correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus, based on the modified WHO diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions proposed by Van der Meij and Van der Waal in 2003. In the present study, 100 cases of oral lichen planus were clinically and histopathologically analyzed. Out of the 100 cases, 50 were prospective and 50 were retrospective cases. Prospective cases were collected based on the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. Retrospective cases were collected based on the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus. Both the clinical and histopathological analyses were performed based on a proposal for a set of modified diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. A final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was made only after the correlation of the clinical diagnosis with the histopathological diagnosis. The interobserver agreement among three observers for both prospective and retrospective cases in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was found to be "good" to "very good" indicating high reproducibility. However, the final diagnoses of true oral lichen planus after clinico-pathological correlation in prospective and retrospective study groups appeared to be 38.0% and 54.0% respectively. The results of the present study revealed mild to moderate clinico-pathological correlation in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus for the prospective and retrospective study groups respectively.

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer ... oral cancer self-exam each month. An oral examination is performed using a bright light and a ...

  2. ETIOLOGY CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT NEEDS (TN FOR ORAL MALODOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Raharjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral malodor, a generic descriptor term for foul smells emanating from the mouth can be classified as either pathological or physiological halitosis. Some problems are often confounded by the clinician's mismanagement. Objective: This paper reviews the etiology of classification and determination of treatment needs (TN for oral malodor. Literature review and discussion: In the majority of cases the problem has been shown to originate in the oral cavity. Although oral malodor cases are often related to physiological aspects, sometimes they can be related to extra oral sources and psychological aspects. Classification methods of oral malodor with corresponding treatment needs (TN have already been established. Although PTC & tongue brushing and appropriate mouthrinses are both important and basic treatment measures for halitosis, other dental treatments are sometimes required. Conclusion: Accurate screening and diagnosis of halitosis followed by appropriate TN may give better results and consequently reduce the risk of mismanagement.

  3. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  4. Differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Adra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding may be acute or chronic accounting for up to 30% of outpatient visits to gynecologists. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders associated with ovulatory dysfunction that results in menstrual irregularities. Prior to initiating treatment, the various causes (physiologic, pathologic, pharmacologic, or idiopathic of hyperprolactinemia must be elucidated. Prolactin is a stress hormone that increases in response to stressful conditions; therefore, while collecting samples it is necessary to reduce venipuncture stress. A thorough patient history and physical examination will help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. Imaging results must always be assessed along with a patient’s clinical history and biochemical parameters when a pituitary tumor is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the diagnosis of microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas in both initial assessment and follow-up. Several drugs may cause a significant increase in serum prolactin concentration. If clinically feasible, the drug should be discontinued; if this is not possible, it should be substituted with a drug of similar action that does not cause hyperprolactinemia. Prolactinomas are the most common cause of pituitary adenomas affecting women of fertile age leading to significant elevations in prolactin that warrant treatment. Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia may be observed in the presence of elevated serum prolactin levels and in the absence of any other recognized cause of increased prolactin secretion. Dopamine agonists are the mainstay of therapy in prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia because they normalize serum prolactin, effectively shrink prolactinomas and normalize gonadal function (i.e. menstruation.

  5. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Rekha; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Jagadish, P

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient's informed consent, relevant medical history, oral manifestations including periodontal findings and oral hygiene index simplified index were recorded. In these patients, oral changes included restricted mouth opening and, resorption of the mandible. The periodontal changes observed were gingival recession, absence or minimal gingival bleeding on probing, and widened periodontal ligament space, radiographically. Patients with systemic sclerosis often show wide range of oral manifestations, which is of major concern for the dentist.

  6. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient′s informed consent, relevant medical history, oral manifestations including periodontal findings and oral hygiene index simplified index were recorded. In these patients, oral changes included restricted mouth opening and, resorption of the mandible. The periodontal changes observed were gingival recession, absence or minimal gingival bleeding on probing, and widened periodontal ligament space, radiographically. Patients with systemic sclerosis often show wide range of oral manifestations, which is of major concern for the dentist.

  7. CT Diagnosis of Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Libby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 19-year-old male with no previous medical history presented with 7/10 non-radiating, constant, sharp, periumbilical pain associated with nausea, and four episodes of vomiting. He was seen at urgent care where his labs showed a WBC of 16,000/mcL. He was subsequently sent to the emergency department (ED for concern of appendicitis. Of note, his pain worsened with bumps during the drive to the ED. After arriving to the ED the pain migrated to the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography (CT revealed acute appendicitis and the patient was admitted to the surgery service and taken to the operating room (OR for an appendectomy. Significant findings: The CT abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast shows a dilated appendix (see red outline with thickened, hyperenhancing wall (see blue outline best visualized in the axial and coronal planes. Discussion: Appendicitis is a common diagnosis in the emergency department in patients presenting with abdominal pain, occurring most frequently in young adults with a peak incidence in those aged 10-19.1 Failure to quickly diagnose acute appendicitis can result in perforation rates as high as 80 percent.2 While the diagnosis of appendicitis can be made clinically, CT is a non-invasive modality that improves the detection of appendicitis with sensitivities of 88–100%, specificities of 91–99%, positive predictive values of 92–98%, negative predictive values of 95–100%, and accuracies of 94–98%.3-8 The major advantage of CT over both clinical exam and ultrasound is the ability of the radiologist to exclude acute appendicitis if the appendix appears normal. However, CT carries the risks associated with ionizing radiation. While previously there was some debate on the best choice for type of CT scan and use of IV and oral contrast, recent studies have shown that CT abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast alone is sufficient for diagnosis of appendicitis.9, 10

  8. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in mouth rinse samples as biomarkers for oral dysplasia and oral cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chang, Chi-Feng; Ko, Hui-Hsin; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Wang, Huei-Jen; Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2018-02-01

    Effective biomarkers for oral cancer screening are important for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. Oral epithelial cell samples collected by mouth rinse were obtained from 65 normal control subjects, 108 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders, and 94 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation levels of zinc-finger protein 582 (ZNF582) and paired-box 1 (PAX1) genes were quantified by real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction after bisulfite conversion. An abrupt increase in methylated ZNF582 (ZNF582 m ) and PAX1 (PAX1 m ) levels and positive rates from mild dysplasia to moderate/severe dysplasia, indicating that both ZNF582 m and PAX1 m are effective biomarkers for differentiating moderate dysplasia or worse (MODY+) oral lesions. When ZNF582 m /PAX1 m tests were used for identifying MODY+ oral lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio (OR) were 0.65/0.64, 0.75/0.82, and 5.6/8.0, respectively. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in oral epithelial cells collected by mouth rinse are effective biomarkers for the detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Asthma: diagnosis and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the 'Prevention and Treatment Guidelines for. Primary Health Care ... both conditions. This may be combined with oral ... be taken orally or as eye drops. The problem in ... delivery devices such as dry powder inhalers, or auto delivery ...

  10. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  11. Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), oral dysplasia, and oral cancer: retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casparis, S; Borm, J M; Tektas, S; Kamarachev, J; Locher, M C; Damerau, G; Grätz, K W; Stadlinger, B

    2015-06-01

    This 10-year retrospective study analyzed the incidence of malignant transformation of oral lichen planus (OLP). The study also included dysplasia and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) in the initial biopsy as a potential differential diagnosis. A total of 692 scalpel biopsies were taken from 542 patients (207 [38.2%] men and 335 [61.8%] women). Clinical and histopathological parameters were analyzed. The parameters gender (p = 0.022) and smoking behavior (p oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and joint disease appeared to be significant risk factors. Treatment with tretinoin in different concentrations (0.005-0.02%) significantly improved diagnosis. Twelve patients (8 female, 4 male) showed malignant transformation to OSCC within an average period of 1.58 years. The malignant transformation rate (MTR) was higher for OLL (4.4%) than OLP (1.2%). If the first biopsy showed intraepithelial neoplasia, the risk of developing OSCC increased (by 3.5% for squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) II and by 6.7% for SIN III). Although we cannot rule out that OLP is a premalignant oral condition, we can confirm that OLP had the lowest MTR of all diagnoses.

  12. Textural pattern classification for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, T Y; Mahanta, L B; Chakraborty, C; DAS, A K; Sarma, J D

    2018-01-01

    Despite being an area of cancer with highest worldwide incidence, oral cancer yet remains to be widely researched. Studies on computer-aided analysis of pathological slides of oral cancer contribute a lot to the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Some researches in this direction have been carried out on oral submucous fibrosis. In this work an approach for analysing abnormality based on textural features present in squamous cell carcinoma histological slides have been considered. Histogram and grey-level co-occurrence matrix approaches for extraction of textural features from biopsy images with normal and malignant cells are used here. Further, we have used linear support vector machine classifier for automated diagnosis of the oral cancer, which gives 100% accuracy. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  14. Preditores para o câncer oral no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO, Isabella Lima Arrais; NÓBREGA, Johnys Berton Medeiros da; VALENÇA, Ana Maria Gondim; CASTRO, Ricardo Dias de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  15. Oral microbiota and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  16. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  18. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  19. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  20. Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2014-09-01

    Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, γδ T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Quantifying oral inflammatory load: oral neutrophil counts in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzberg, M; Doering, H; Aboodi, G M; Tenenbaum, H C; Glogauer, M

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that are recruited to fight the initial phases of microbial infections. While healthy norms have been determined for circulating blood neutrophil counts in order to identify patients with suspected systemic infections, the levels of oral neutrophils (oPMNs) in oral health and in the presence of periodontal diseases have not been described. It is important to address this deficiency in our knowledge as neutrophils are the primary immune cell present in the crevicular fluid and oral environment and previous work has suggested that they may be good indicators of overall oral inflammation and periodontal disease severity. The objective of this study was to measure oPMN counts obtained in a standardized oral rinse from healthy patients and from those with chronic periodontal disease in order to determine if oPMN levels have clinical relevance as markers of periodontal inflammation. A parallel goal of this investigation was to introduce the concept of 'oral inflammatory load', which constitutes the inflammatory burden experienced by the body as a consequence of oral inflammatory disease. Periodontal examinations of patients with a healthy periodontium and chronic periodontal disease were performed (n = 124). Two standardized consecutive saline rinses of 30 s each were collected before patient examination and instrumentation. Neutrophils were quantified in the rinse samples and correlated with the clinical parameters and periodontal diagnosis. Average oPMN counts were determined for healthy patients and for those with mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontal diseases. A statistically significant correlation was found between oPMN counts and deep periodontal probing, sites with bleeding on probing and overall severity of periodontal disease. oPMN counts obtained through a 30-s oral rinse are a good marker of oral inflammatory load and correlate with measures of periodontal disease severity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A

  2. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  3. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia.

  4. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  5. Oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadalagere Lakshmana Girish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood. It is the most common childhood cancer in India. Advances in the treatment regimens have greatly increased the chances of survival. Both the disease and its treatment change the oral environment. In some cases, oral manifestations are the presenting feature of the disease and it will be the dentist′s responsibility to identify the underlying disorder and guide the diagnosis of the patient. Hence, the aim of present article is to review the literature concerning the oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.

  6. Photodynamic therapy in treatment of severe oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O F; Rabinovich, I M; Guseva, A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elaborate the rationale for the application of photodynamic therapy in complex treatment of patient with severe oral lichen planus. Complex clinical and laboratory examination and treatment was performed in 54 patients divided on 3 groups. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. Group 1 received standard treatment, in the second group photodynamic therapy was conducted in addition to conventional treatment, patients in the third group received only photodynamic therapy. The study results proved photodynamic therapy to be useful tool in complex treatment of severe oral lichen planus.

  7. Oral lichen planus: a literature review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Mohammad S; Cirillo, Nicola; McCullough, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common chronic inflammatory condition that can affect skin and mucous membranes, including the oral mucosa. Because of the anatomic, physiologic and functional peculiarities of the oral cavity, the oral variant of LP (OLP) requires specific evaluations in terms of diagnosis and management. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the current developments in the understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical-pathologic presentation, and treatment of OLP, and provide follow-up recommendations informed by recent data on the malignant potential of the disease as well as health economics evaluations.

  8. Changing Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Patthi, Basavaraj; Goud, Venkatesh; Reddy, Somanath; Garg, Anshul; Singla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the highly prevalent cancers worldwide and a leading cause of mortality in certain regions like South-Central Asia. It is a major public health problem. Late diagnosis, high mortality rates and morbidity are characteristics of the disease worldwide. For control of oral cancer an idea of the coverage of the same in the various regions is necessary. The estimated incidence, mortality and 5-year survival due to lip, oral cavity cancer in world is 3, 00, 373(2.1%), 1, 45, 328(1.8%) and 7, 02, 149(2.2%) respectively according to data of GLOBOCAN 2012. A changing trend in incidence and prevalence of oral cancer has been observed with more women and youngsters being affected by oral cancer. PMID:28804673

  9. Photoletter to the editor: Oral ulceration in pyoderma gangrenosum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Verma, Saroj

    2012-02-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with widespread necrotising cutaneous ulceration and oral involvement. Past history included rheumatoid arthritis, and a left nephrectomy.Examination revealed multiple violaceous undermined ulcers. Blood investigations showed an acute inflammatory response. Skin histopathology showed epidermal ulceration with acute and chronic inflammation. Direct immunofluorescence was negative. A diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum with oral involvement was made. Mycophenolate mofetil therapy resulted in complete resolution of her pyoderma gangrenosum. Her treatment was complicated by a left proteus mirabilis psoas abscess. This resolved following four weeks of antibiotics.Pyoderma gangrenosum with oral involvement is rare but has been linked with inflammatory bowel disease and hematological disorders. Oral pyoderma gangrenosum has not previously been described in rheumatoid arthritis. Primary psoas abscess is rare but can develop in immunocompromised patients. Proteus mirabilis has been reported in patients years after nephrectomy. This is a rare case of pyoderma gangrenosum with oral involvement.

  10. Exuberant oral myiasis caused by Musca domestica (Housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar N Parwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissues of oral cavity, when invaded by the parasitic larvae of houseflies, the condition is called as oral myiasis. It is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with conditions leading to persistent mouth opening along with poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions, severe halitosis and maxillofacial trauma. A case of exuberant oral myiasis in a 42-year-old female patient is described here. She reported with swelling, pain, mobility of teeth and foul odor. Diagnosis was based primarily on history and clinical features. Management included use of turpentine oil, mechanical removal of larvae followed by extraction of mobile teeth and curettage along with supportive antibiotic and analgesic therapy. Supportive nutritional supplements and timely institution of treatment encompassing removal of the offending larvae and carious teeth with proper education and motivation of the patient including oral hygiene instructions led to the resolution of these lesions.

  11. Oral mucositis: recent perspectives on prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a result of toxicity and one of the most common side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer treatment and in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinically these changes are characterized by epithelial atrophy, edema, erythema and the appearance of ulcerations that can affect the entire oral mucosa, causing pain and discomfort, impairing speech, and swallowing food. In addition to the major symptoms, the ulcers increase the risk of local and systemic infection, compromising function and interfering with oral antineoplastic treatment and may lead to it being discontinued. The diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic strategies in providing support in cases of oral mucositis are the dentist’s responsibility. Through critical analysis of literature, the aim of this article is to present oral mucositis, its pathogenesis, clinical features and treatments offered today to address or control the condition, highlighting the importance of dentists’ role in its management.

  12. Diagnosis of Oral Lesions associated with HIV/AIDS | Hamza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV has a lipid envelope that has specific glycoproteins that attach to CD4 protein on cell surface. Cells which express CD4 protein are at risk of infection with HIV including CD4 lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, microglial cells, and langerhan's cells in skin. Disturbances in number and function of CD4 cells lead to ...

  13. Peripheral Exophytic Oral Lesions: A Clinical Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mortazavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of peripheral oral exophytic lesions might be quite challenging. This review article aimed to introduce a decision tree for oral exophytic lesions according to their clinical features. General search engines and specialized databases including PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Plus, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Embase, and authenticated textbooks were used to find relevant topics by means of keywords such as “oral soft tissue lesion,” “oral tumor like lesion,” “oral mucosal enlargement,” and “oral exophytic lesion.” Related English-language articles published since 1988 to 2016 in both medical and dental journals were appraised. Upon compilation of data, peripheral oral exophytic lesions were categorized into two major groups according to their surface texture: smooth (mesenchymal or nonsquamous epithelium-originated and rough (squamous epithelium-originated. Lesions with smooth surface were also categorized into three subgroups according to their general frequency: reactive hyperplastic lesions/inflammatory hyperplasia, salivary gland lesions (nonneoplastic and neoplastic, and mesenchymal lesions (benign and malignant neoplasms. In addition, lesions with rough surface were summarized in six more common lesions. In total, 29 entities were organized in the form of a decision tree in order to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by a stepwise progression method.

  14. A retrospective evaluation of 56 patients with oral burning and limited clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald S; Farquharson, Andre A; Sam, Frances E; Reid, Errol

    2006-01-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated the charts of 56 patients who had been referred to an oral medicine clinic between 1995 and 2004 with oral burning and limited clinical findings. Of the 56 patients, 35 had a final diagnosis of essential burning mouth disorder (EBMD). Five patients with EBMD had a family history of diabetes and two had been diagnosed with late-onset diabetes. Other oral burning diagnoses included sialoadenitis (burning lips syndrome), irritation or allergic reactions to triclosan, diabetic neuropathy, subclinical oral candidiasis, nutritional deficiency/neuropathy, and a drug reaction to an ACE inhibitor (scalded mouth syndrome) that resulted in oral burning.

  15. Oral cavity and jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solntsev, A.M.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

  16. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  17. Brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Ajimu, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Shintarou; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Ikenaga, Kouji; Sakamoto, Ichirou.

    1988-01-01

    13 cases with oral cancer were treated using brachytherapy at the Department of Radiology, Nagasaki University Hospital from September 1985 to February 1988. Among 11 cases of tongue cancer, T1 and T2 cases were well controlled by radiation therapy using 226 Ra needles. Cancer of oral floor and buccal mucosa were controlled by the use of 192 Au grains. (author)

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  19. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...

  20. What Is an Oral Piercing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? print full article print this chapter email this article Oral piercing can cause pain, swelling, infection, drooling, taste loss, ...

  1. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  2. Onychomycosis: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. Dermatophytes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents, particularly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, followed by Candida species and non dermatophytic molds (NDMs. Several clinical variants have been recognized. Candida onychomycosis affects fingernails more often and is accompanied by paronychia. NDM molds should be suspected in patients with history of trauma and associated periungual inflammation. Diagnosis is primarily based upon KOH examination, culture and histopathological examinations of nail clippings and nail biopsy. Adequate and appropriate sample collection is vital to pinpoint the exact etiological fungus. Various improvisations have been adopted to improve the fungal isolation. Culture is the gold standard, while histopathology is often performed to diagnose and differentiate onychomycosis from other nail disorders such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Though rarely used, DNA-based methods are effective for identifying mixed infections and quantification of fungal load. Various treatment modalities including topical, systemic and surgical have been used.Topically, drugs (ciclopirox and amorolfine nail lacquers are delivered through specialized transungual drug delivery systems ensuring high concentration and prolonged contact. Commonly used oral therapeutic agents include terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. Terbinafine and itraconazole are given as continuous as well as intermittent regimes. Continuous terbinafine appears to be the most effective regime for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Despite good therapeutic response to newer modalities, long-term outcome is unsatisfactory due to therapeutic failure, relapse

  3. Ultrasonography - A diagnostic modality for oral and maxillofacial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Shirish Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many diseases present themselves in oral and maxillofacial regions and various modalities may be applied for their diagnosis, including intraoral and panoramic radiography, ultrasonography (USG, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine methods such as positron emission tomography. Of these modalities, USG is easy to-use for the detection of non-invasive and soft tissue related diseases in oral and maxillofacial regions. USG plays an important role in analyzing normal and abnormal structures. In particular, in oral and maxillofacial regions, the USG may be clinically applied to evaluate lymph nodes, subcutaneous, and oral cavity-related diseases. Aims: The aim was to correlate the findings of USG and histopathology for the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial pathology and to evaluate whether USG can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 clinically diagnosed patients with intraoral cancerous growths, swellings in maxillary and neck region were included in this study. Incision biopsy was obtained for confirming provisional clinical diagnosis. The selected cases were advised USG. All patients were then posted either for hemi-glossectomy, hemi-mandibulectomy, and partial maxillectomy with or without radical neck dissection. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and coefficient of correlation was used to statistically analyze significant relationship of both the methods. Result: In all 10 cases, USG correlated well with histopathology findings, it could also delineate tumor extent and measure tumor thickness. Conclusion: USG is an excellent method for the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions and can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology.

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth ... involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  5. Serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajul Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to estimate and compare the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides in patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, oral cancer and normal subjects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 60 patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, 60 patients with oral cancer and a control group of 60 healthy individuals. The diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions/conditions and oral cancer was confirmed histopathologically. Under aseptic condition 5 ml venous blood of overnight fasting patient was withdrawn from each individual. Serum was separated by centrifugation and plasma levels of TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides were estimated. Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Analysis of variance has been used to find the significance of study parameters between three or more groups of patients, Post-hoc test as Tukey has been used to find the pair wise significance. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: Statistically significant decrease in levels of plasma TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides was observed in the precancerous and cancerous groups as compared to the control group. On comparison between precancerous and cancerous groups, significant decrease was observed in cancerous group. Conclusion: The change in lipid levels may have an early diagnostic or prognostic role in the oral premalignant lesions/conditions and oral cancer. The presence of decreased plasma lipid profile should increase the suspicion of these lesions to be investigated further.

  6. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  7. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  8. STRATEGIES OF COMPLETE ORAL REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS WITH DISFUNCTIONAL SYNDROM OF THE STOMATOGNATE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile BURLUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete oral and dental rehabilitation (ROC or (CODR requires an advanced understanding level, based on the capacity to prepare and successfully fix the complete strategy for the complex oral rehabilitation had in view.The method applied was to subject a representative group of patients to the algorithm of diagnosis and clinical solution. The strategies of complete oral rehabilitation applied included surgical-periodontal, implanto-surgical, implanto-prosthetic rehabilitation techniques.

  9. VEGFR-3 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari Saravi, Zahra; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Bijani, Ali; Mozaffari, Fatemeh; Aminishakib, Pouyan

    2017-02-01

    Background and objective: Given the postulated the role of inflammation and possible contribution of lymphangiogenesis in oral lichen planus, this study aimed to assess any associated presence of VEGFR-3. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 52 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded blocks of oral lichen planus (pathological diagnosis based on Modified WHO criteria), comprising 25 of erosive and 27 of reticular type, along with 60 samples of normal mucosa (with minimal inflammation from clinical and histopathological aspects) obtained at crown lengthening surgery. Four micron sections were cut from paraffin blocks and stained with H and E for confirmation of diagnosis and by immunohistochemistry with primary antibodies against VEGFR-3. Negative controls were provided by omission of primary antibody and placenta was considered as a positive control. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-wallis tests and P lichen planus specimens and 5% of those from normal mucosa (poral lichen planus than in normal mucosa (poral lichen planus (p=0.262) and the average number of stained vessels (p=0.092) demonstrated no significant difference according to the type. Conclusion: It appears that VEGFR-3 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of the oral lichen planus through increasing lymphatic vessels and lymphangiogenesis. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Disease outcome for children who present with oral manifestations of Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussey, S

    2011-06-01

    To describe the outcome for children with oral Crohn\\'s disease (OCD) at diagnosis, and to determine if there was a difference in the Paediatric Crohn\\'s Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) scores between those with and those without oral lesions at follow-up.

  11. Diagnosis and Change or Change and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammann, Cortlandt

    Organizational consultation is often viewed as a four-stage process: entry, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation. A fifth stage, preparation of organizations to conduct diagnosis and change, is frequently neglected. In the preparation stage, organizational consultants must deal with resistance by creating conditions for the consideration of the…

  12. Clinical diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmond A

    2013-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis remains controversial. ACOG criteria are based on the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. ADA recently suggested diagnosing GDM with 1 elevated value on an oral glucose tolerance test based on a 1.75-fold risk of large-for-gestational age infants resulting in a 17.8% rate of GDM. Given the lack of neonatal-based outcomes for the traditional position and problems of reproducibility and benefit/harm balance of the ADA approach, an alternative is presented herein based on a 2-fold risk of a large-for-gestational age baby, requiring 2 separate abnormalities to reduce false positives giving a more balanced benefit/harm ratio (10% GDM rate).

  13. Two Unusual Cases of Oral Lichen Planus Arising After Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Can Oral Cancer Trigger Autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Davide Bartolomeo; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system fails to recognize self-antigens expressed on the body's own cells and attacks them. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease of the oral cavity characterized by white/red lesions. Considered a potentially malignant disorder, OLP evolution into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still a matter of debate. While chronic autoimmune inflammation is considered a potential risk factor for malignant transformation in many solid tumors, the opposite idea that cancer may trigger autoimmune responses remains controversial. We describe 2 patients who developed lesions clinically suggestive of OLP with histological evidence of lichenoid infiltration some time after OSCC removal, even in areas far from the neoplastic site. Neither patient had OLP before the diagnosis of OSCC, or reported exposure to OLP-associated etiologic factors, and neither. experienced tumor recurrence during follow-up. Our findings suggest that oral cancer remission may be linked to OLP development, but further studies are necessary to unveil the underlying mechanisms and possible prognostic implications.

  14. Oral food challenge outcomes in a pediatric tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elissa M; Becker, Allan B

    2017-01-01

    Oral food challenges are the clinical standard for diagnosis of food allergy. Little data exist on predictors of oral challenge failure and reaction severity. A retrospective chart review was done on all pediatric patients who had oral food challenges in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic from 2008 to 2010. 313 oral challenges were performed, of which the majority were to peanut (105), egg (71), milk (41) and tree nuts (29). There were 104 (33%) oral challenge failures. Children were more likely to fail an oral challenge if they were older (P = .04), had asthma (P = .001) or had atopic dermatitis (P = .03). Risk of challenge failure was significantly different between food allergens, with more failures noted for peanut than for tree nuts, milk or egg (P = .001). Among challenge failures, 19% met criteria for anaphylaxis. Significantly more tree nut and peanut challenges met criteria for anaphylaxis than milk or egg (P Skin test size and specific IgE level were significantly higher in those who failed oral challenges (P < .001). The highest rate of challenge failure and severity of failure was to cashew, with 63% of cashew challenges reacting, of which 80% met clinical criteria for anaphylaxis. The risk of challenge failure differed with type of food studied, with peanut and tree nut having a higher risk of challenge failure and anaphylaxis. Cashew in particular carried a high risk and caution must be exercised when performing these types of oral challenges in children.

  15. Reduced Oral Microbial Diversity in Individuals Harbor Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteria colonize a variety of surfaces of the hu-man body. The bacterial diversity in the oral cavity is estimated to be more than 700 different species. The oral cavity is home to microbial communities, with important implications for human health and disease. Oral microbial flora is responsible for two major human infectious diseases of the oral cavity, dental caries and periodontal diseases. From the clinical samples, previously, using polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE technique, we found a significantly greater diversity of oral microbes in caries-free individuals compared with caries-active individuals. The hypothesis: We hypothesize that a greater diversity of indigenous bacteria inhabits a healthy oral environment, and that a sig-nificant proportion of oral biota may be absent, suppressed, or replaced in a periodontal diseases environment. Evaluation of the hypothesis: The microbiota undergoes a transition from a commensal to a pathogenic relationship with the host due to factors that trigger a shift in the proportions of resident microorganisms. If our hypothesis is true, many techniques which were used to detect the oral bacterial diversity can be used in diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal diseases.

  16. Awareness of Undergraduate Dental and Medical Students Towards Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ashish; Marla, Vinay; Shrestha, Sushmita; Agrawal, Diksha

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a common malignancy in Nepal and many other South East Asian countries, which is predisposed by a variety of potentially malignant oral diseases. Considering the importance of knowledge of health professionals and their role in early diagnosis and reduction of cancer statistics, this study aims to evaluate the awareness of undergraduate dental and medical students towards oral cancer. The study involved undergraduate dental and medical students of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. A self-administered questionnaire adapted from Carter to Ogden was distributed. One hundred forty-three dental and 311 medical students responded to the questionnaire. Significantly more dental (80.4 %) than medical students (36.0 %) were found to routinely examine the oral mucosa. Tobacco smoking and chewing were the most commonly recognized risk factors by both medical and dental students. Most of the students found ulcer as the common change associated with oral cancer. Only 30 out of the total students felt very well informed about oral cancer. This study has demonstrated a lack of awareness in some aspects of oral cancer among medical and dental students which highlights the need to frame new teaching methodologies. Similar studies from other health institutions would provide an insight regarding the same and could be a base for formulating a uniform curriculum in the implementation of knowledge regarding oral cancer.

  17. Oral Cancer: Awareness and Knowledge Among Dental Patients in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Dhaifullah, Esam; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Tarakji, Bassel

    2017-06-01

    More than 50 % of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Public knowledge about oral cancer can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 1410 randomly selected patients attending dental departments within public hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P oral cancer. Some 68.2 and 56.5 %, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. More than two thirds of subjects had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Participants with lower than university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. The knowledge regarding oral cancer among Saudi dental patients is alarmingly low. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.

  18. The oral-systemic disease connection: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K; Kullman, Leif; Sharma, Prem N

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed at determining the association between oral disease and systemic health based on panoramic radiographs and general health of patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Center. The objective was to determine whether individuals exhibiting good oral health have lower propensity to systemic diseases. A total of 1000 adult patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Center were randomly selected from the patient's records. The general health of patients was assessed from the medical history of each patient recorded during their visit to the clinic. The number of reported diseases and serious symptoms were used to develop a medical index. The oral health of these patients was assessed from panoramic radiographs to create an oral index by evaluating such parameters as caries, periodontitis, periapical lesions, pericoronitis, and tooth loss. In a total of 887 patients, 43.8 % had an oral index between 3 and 8, of which significantly higher (62.1 %) patients were with medical conditions compared to those without (33.2 %; p relationship when the diagnosis of oral disease was based primarily on radiographic findings. Future research needs to include prospective clinical and interventional studies. The significance of the oral-systemic disease connection highlights the importance of preventing and treating oral disease which have profound medical implications on general health.

  19. Prevention of gingival trauma : Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderdos, N.L.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining healthy teeth and soft oral tissues for life is important. Oral hygiene devices and oral piercings can damage the soft oral tissues. This thesis investigates the safety of manual toothbrushes, interdental brushes and rubber bristles interdental cleaners by analysing the gingival abrasion

  20. Diagnostic approaches in unsuspected oral lesions of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C S; Saturno, J L; de Sousa, S C O M; da Silveira, F R X

    2014-12-01

    Awareness of the increased prevalence of syphilis is essential for early diagnosis and treatment, and to prevent the spread of the disease. Although serological studies are the primary tool used to confirm the diagnosis of secondary syphilis, biopsy of unsuspected oral lesions is not uncommon in the routine oral pathology laboratory. In these cases, histopathological characteristics are likely to indicate the possibility of syphilis, and an immunohistochemical reaction can confirm it. The aim of the present study was to highlight the histological features and test the efficacy of immunohistochemistry in the detection of Treponema pallidum in oral lesions biopsied with the assumption of a non-syphilitic disease. Thirty-nine tissue samples from patients for whom the possibility of syphilis was suggested on the basis of histopathological findings, were retrieved from the surgical oral pathology service files and submitted to immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Eighteen of the tissue samples were positive for T. pallidum. Following this, the contributing clinicians were contacted to check whether they had asked for serological examinations when the diagnostic report was received; for all 18 positive cases, the clinicians confirmed that the patients had tested positive at that time. This study shows the importance of clinical-pathological correlation and the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of unsuspected syphilis. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Cromolyn oral inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Your doctor will prescribe ...

  2. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  3. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs

  4. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  5. Expression of Podoplanin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The expression of podoplanin is up‑regulated in a number of different human cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and its relationship with tumor invasion raises the possibility that podoplanin expression could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Aim: The aim of the ...

  6. Concordance between clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of oral mucosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kush J; De Silva, Harsha L; Tong, Darryl C; Love, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    To study the epidemiology of oral soft tissue lesions in New Zealand from 2002 to 2006 and to determine the concordance between the clinical diagnosis and the definitive histopathologic diagnosis achieved by general dental practitioners and by specialists. The details from biopsy referrals and the corresponding histopathologic reports of oral soft tissue lesions were recorded into a statistical software package, and the concordance between the clinical diagnosis and histopathologic diagnosis was determined for all the lesions. Most biopsies were benign lesions, and both clinician groups achieved a high diagnostic concordance for these lesions. However, when considering all lesion types, the overall concordance for both groups was a moderate 50.6%, with little difference between specialists and general dental practitioners, although specialists were more accurate in diagnosing a malignant or premalignant lesion. The clinical and histopathologic concordance achieved by oral health practitioners in New Zealand appears to be moderate. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  8. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  9. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  10. Oral melanoacanthoma and oral melanotic macule: a report of 8 cases, review of the literature, and immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Bregni, Román; Contreras, Elisa; Netto, Ana Carolina; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Jorge, Jacks; León, Jorge Esquiche; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2007-09-01

    Oral melanoacanthoma (MA) is a rare, benign pigmented lesion, similar to cutaneous MA, characterized by hyperplasia of spinous keratinocytes and dendritic melanocytes. The pathogenesis of oral MA remains uncertain, although its clinical behavior is suggestive of a reactive origin. The most common intraoral sites are the buccal mucosa, lip, palate and gingiva. The average age of presentation is 28 years, mainly in blacks, with a strong female predilection. The oral melanotic macule (MM) is a small, well-circumscribed brown-to-black macule that occurs on the lips and mucous membranes. The etiology is not clear and it may represent a physiologic or reactive process. The average age of presentation is 43 years, with a female predilection. A biopsy is recommended to distinguish these lesions from each other and from other oral melanocytic lesions. We depict four cases each of oral MA and MM, affecting Caucasian and Latin American mestizo patients. The clinicopathological features of these cases reflect its ample spectrum, and to the best of our knowledge, it is the first example of oral MA affecting a Caucasian boy reported in the English literature. Therefore oral MA and MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions in the oral mucosa in these populations.

  11. Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 partici...

  12. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

  13. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  14. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  17. Oral candidiasis in patients with psoriasis: correlation of oral examination and cytopathological evaluation with psoriasis disease severity and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Michalski-Santos, Bruna; Carneiro, Sueli; Sampaio, Ana Luisa; Avelleira, Joao Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Pinto, Jane Marcy Neffa; Dias, Eliane Pedra

    2013-06-01

    Infections are known to trigger and exacerbate psoriasis. Although oral candidiasis is often clinically diagnosed, it is not always confirmed by laboratory tests such as oral cytopathology. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients with psoriasis through clinical and cytopathological diagnosis and to investigate the association between oral candidiasis and psoriasis with regards to the severity of the clinical presentation and the type of treatment for psoriasis. A total of 140 patients with psoriasis and 140 healthy control subjects received an oral examination. Scrapings of the tongue were also obtained for a cytopathological examination. The oral examination and the results of the cytopathological smear revealed 37 (26%) cases of candidiasis in the patients with psoriasis and no cases of candidiasis in the healthy control subjects. There was no correlation between the type of psoriasis treatment and the presence of oral candidiasis (P = .616). There was a statistically significant association (P = .033) between the clinical severity of psoriasis and the presence of Candida. This study was limited by the small number of subjects and the lack of follow-up to determine the development of psoriasis after treatment for oral candidiasis. The presence of oral candidiasis is higher in patients with psoriasis and it is associated with disease severity. This increased presence of oral candidiasis was apparent despite any type of treatment for the psoriasis. Cytopathology to rule out oral candidiasis should be used in the routine medical workup of patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  19. Quantitative prediction of oral cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yicheng; Fu, Yue; Liu, Tong; Liu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Xinyan; Fu, Jie; Guan, Xiaobing; Chen, Tong; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2017-07-11

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We have developed an oral cancer risk index using DNA index value to quantitatively assess cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia, but with limited success. In order to improve the performance of the risk index, we collected exfoliative cytology, histopathology, and clinical follow-up data from two independent cohorts of normal, leukoplakia and cancer subjects (training set and validation set). Peaks were defined on the basis of first derivatives with positives, and modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Random forest was found to be the best model with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99.2%). Using the Peaks-Random Forest model, we constructed an index (OCRI2) as a quantitative measurement of cancer risk. Among 11 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 over 0.5, 4 (36.4%) developed cancer during follow-up (23 ± 20 months), whereas 3 (5.3%) of 57 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 less than 0.5 developed cancer (32 ± 31 months). OCRI2 is better than other methods in predicting oral squamous cell carcinoma during follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed an exfoliative cytology-based method for quantitative prediction of cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

  20. The nexus between periodontics and oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alison M; Seo, Benedict; Parachuru, Venkata; Hussaini, Haizal M

    2017-06-01

    A wide variety of lesions may arise from the oral mucosa, fibrous connective tissue, bone and cementum of the periodontium. The commonest pathology occurs as a result of bacterial infection and is very well known to dentists and periodontists, but rarer conditions present as gingival pathology. The pathogenesis of these conditions ranges from genetic to traumatic to immunological to neoplastic, and includes benign, malignant and metastatic lesions. This paper outlines some of these conditions and describes how the periodontist and oral pathologist can work together using a framework, and how with careful consideration of the clinical features and the use of appropriate special tests, including obtaining an adequate tissue specimen, a timely and accurate diagnosis can be obtained. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF EROSIVE ORAL LICHEN PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chumaeroh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is a relatively common inflammatory disorder which may have cutaneous and or mucosal manifestation. The malignant potential of oral lichen planus is still debatable. Some authors are sceptical about the premalignant nature of the disease, while other investigators have reported that malignant transformations occur in 1-10% of the cases. The aim of this study is to report a case of erosive lichen plans which shows malignant transformation of histopathologic examination. A man of 39 years old visited the Dental Department or Kajradi's Hospital with pain symptoms of the palate, buccal and gingival mucosa on both sides for 6 months. The physical examination shows the white lesion with striae configuration and pain, red erosive area inside the palate extends to the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa. The suspect diagnosis is erosive lichen planus, but the histopathologic examination shows epidermoid carcinoma. It is concluded that erosive oral lichen planus has the potential to transform into epidermoid carcinoma.

  2. Strengthening of oral health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work......Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...

  3. Oral manifestations of hospitalized cirrhotics at shaikh zayed hospital, lahore: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, S.; Ijaz, T.Q.; Butt, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    In Pakistan cirrhosis has reached alarming proportions due to spread of HCV and HBV viruses. Some of the oral manifestations of cirrhosis have been found to exhibit geographically variability. There is no research available on the oral health of these patients in Pakistan and their specific oral problems are not known. This study examined a cohort of cirrhotic patients admitted at Shaikh Zayed hospital Lahore to assess their oral health status and needs. Materials and methods: Thirty consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of cirrhosis were examined for oral health status. Extra oral examination included any visible lesions or abnormalities on the face, head or neck region, lymph node enlargement and TMJ dysfunction. Intra oral examination included measurement of caries (DMFT) and periodontal disease level (CPITN), oral mucosal lesions, prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the patients. All findings were recorded on the standard WHO oral health survey form. The oral health of this cohort was poor compared to the general population. Xerostomia (20%), papillary atrophy (100%), oral Melanosis (90%), petechieal hemorrhages (26%) and glossitis (53%) were found prevalent in the sample. Two females had oral lichen planus and one of the patients had oral ulceration. DMFT score (Mean=5.7) was not different from national average (Mean=8.02). Periodontal disease was more severe than general population. Less than 21% of the sample wore prostheses and over 50% needed one. TMJ dysfunction was common but fewer patient complained of the condition that the number of patients with clinical signs. Conclusions: Oral health of cirrhotic population is worse than general population and they have significant oral health needs. Further research is required to investigate this relationship. Effective oral health education of patients and physicians is required to reduce the burden of oral disease thus improving quality of life for these patients. (author)

  4. In vivo confocal microscopy for the oral cavity: Current state of the field and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, N G; Collgros, H; Uribe, P; Ch'ng, S; Rajadhyaksha, M; Guitera, P

    2016-03-01

    Confocal microscopy (CM) has been shown to correlate with oral mucosal histopathology in vivo. The purposes of this review are to summarize what we know so far about in vivo CM applications for oral mucosal pathologies, to highlight some current developments with CM devices relevant for oral applications, and to formulate where in vivo CM could hold further application for oral mucosal diagnosis and management. Ovid Medline® and/or Google® searches were performed using the terms 'microscopy, confocal', 'mouth neoplasms', 'mouth mucosa', 'leukoplakia, oral', 'oral lichen planus', 'gingiva', 'cheilitis', 'taste', 'inflammatory oral confocal', 'mucosal confocal' and 'confocal squamous cell oral'. In summary, inclusion criteria were in vivo use of any type of CM for the human oral mucosa and studies on normal or pathological oral mucosa. Experimental studies attempting to identify proteins of interest and microorganisms were excluded. In total 25 relevant articles were found, covering 8 main topics, including normal oral mucosal features (n=15), oral dysplasia or neoplasia (n=7), inflamed oral mucosa (n=3), taste impairment (n=3), oral autoimmune conditions (n=2), pigmented oral pathology/melanoma (n=1), delayed type hypersensitivity (n=1), and cheilitis glandularis (n=1). The evidence for using in vivo CM in these conditions is poor, as it is limited to mainly small descriptive studies. Current device developments for oral CM include improved probe design. The authors propose that future applications for in vivo oral CM may include burning mouth syndrome, intra-operative mapping for cancer surgery, and monitoring and targeted biopsies within field cancerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, S; Ben Slama, L; Gruffaz, F; Goudot, P; Bertolus, C

    2013-11-01

    Many authors have reported the possible malignant transformation of oral lichen. The incidence of this event remains controversial. Many authors make a distinction between the "true" oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (LL) according to the WHO clinical and histological classification. For these authors an increased risk of development of oral cancer could occur only on LL. Our aim was to check this hypothesis on a cohort followed for 10 years. We included patients who were referred to our team for the first time between 1995 and 1997, still followed in 2010, with a histological diagnosis of buccal lichen planus. We classified lesions as OLP or LL according to the WHO clinical and histological classification: the two clinical criteria for OLP were a reticulated aspect and bilateral and symmetric lesions. Three histological criteria were necessary for the diagnosis: dense inflammatory infiltrate in the upper lamina propria, liquefaction degeneration of basal keratinocytes, and no signs of dysplasia. The final diagnosis was OLP, when all clinical ad histological criteria were met otherwise it was LL. We studied the patient's outcome between their first consultations and May 2010. Thirty-two patients, whose data was available, met inclusion criteria. Eight were diagnosed with OLP and 24 with LL. The mean follow-up was 164 months [154-183]. No oral cancer was observed in the OLP group. Two patients in the LL group presented with oral cancer after 45 and 143 months of follow-up. Malignant transformations were observed only in the LL group. Our results correlate with those of Van Der Meij et al. published in 2006. The strict use of the WHO diagnostic criteria seems to allow identifying patients at risk of developing oral cancer (LL) and others with only a benign course of this chronic oral mucosal disease. These results need to be confirmed by prospective multicentric studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. A prospective pilot study on the effect of sucralfate mouth-swishing in reducing stomatitis during radiotherapy of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.; Hansen, O.; Madsen, E.L.; May, O.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapy in sufficient dose involving the oral cavity always causes stomatitis, the severity of which is dependent on primary diagnosis, age, oral status and whether concomitant chemotherapy is given or not. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess whether mouth-swishing with sucralfate suspension might reduce oral radiation mucositis without disturbing side effects. (orig./MG)

  8. A prospective pilot study on the effect of sucralfate mouth-swishing in reducing stomatitis during radiotherapy of the oral cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, P.; Hansen, O.; Madsen, E.L.; May, O. (Odense Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Oncology)

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapy in sufficient dose involving the oral cavity always causes stomatitis, the severity of which is dependent on primary diagnosis, age, oral status and whether concomitant chemotherapy is given or not. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess whether mouth-swishing with sucralfate suspension might reduce oral radiation mucositis without disturbing side effects. (orig./MG).

  9. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  10. [Oral health in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Duska; Brkanić, Tatjana; Stojić, Sinisa

    2002-01-01

    Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums). Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.

  11. The Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.

  12. Oral health during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

    2008-04-15

    Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.

  13. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  14. Oral Nodular Lesions in Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome: Unusual Oral Implications of a Systemic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Juliana Barchelli; Tirapelli, Camila; Silva, Claudia Helena Lovato da; Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Petean, Flávio Calil; Louzada Junior, Paulo; León, Jorge Esquiche; Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso

    2017-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands. SS may manifest as primary SS (pSS) or secondary SS (sSS), the latter occurring in the context of another autoimmune disorder. In both cases, the dry eyes and mouth affect the patient's quality of life. Late complications may include blindness, dental tissue destruction, oral candidiasis and lymphoma. This paper reports two cases of SS, each of them presenting unusual oral nodular lesion diagnosed as relapsed MALT lymphoma and mucocele. The importance of the diagnosis, treatment and management of the oral lesions by a dentist during the care of SS patients is emphasized, as the oral manifestations of SS may compromise the patient's quality of life.

  15. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  16. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  17. Oral cancer in the UAE: a multicenter, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Raeefa; Gaballah, Kamis

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of various malignant oral lesions in the UAE and correlate cases of squamous cell carcinomas with age, gender, site, grade, clinical presentations at the time of diagnosis, and the prevalence of neck metastasis. Materials and methods A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted at four major hospitals in the UAE. The study was based on histopathology reports of biopsies of oral tissues. Results Of the 992 oral biopsy reports retrieved, 147 cases of malignant tumors were found which accounted for 14.9% of the total biopsies. Fifteen different types of malignant lesions were diagnosed, of which oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most prevalent and made up 11.4% of the overall oral biopsies retrieved. The commonest presentation of cancer was ulceration (31.17%), followed by lumps and white lesions. The most common site where the lesions were diagnosed was the tongue (51.9%), followed by the cheeks and lips. OSCC accounted for 77% of all malignancies reported. Neck dissections were conducted in only 20.8% of all OSCC cases diagnosed at Mafraq and Tawam hospitals, of which 43.75% showed evidence of neck metastasis. Conclusion Oral cancer is not an uncommon disease in the UAE. This may mandate more awareness campaigning, including screening procedures for early detection of cancerous lesions and other potentially malignant oral diseases. Elective neck dissections to detect lymph node metastasis should be more routinely performed, in particular for tongue carcinomas because of the early neck involvement potential. PMID:23985381

  18. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  19. Otorhinolaryngology manifestations secondary to oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, Claudia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo

    Over the last few years, oral and pharyngeal signs and symptoms due to oral sex have increased significantly. However, no review articles related to this subject have been found in the medical literature. The objective of our study was to identify otorhinolaryngological manifestations associated with orogenital/oroanal contact, both in adults and children, in the context of consensual sex or sexual abuse. We performed a review of the medical literature on otorhinolaryngological pathology associated with oral sex published in the last 20 years in the PubMed database. Otorhinolaryngological manifestations secondary to oral sex practice in adults can be infectious, tumoral or secondary to trauma. The more common signs and symptoms found in the literature were human papillomavirus infection (above all, condyloma acuminata and papilloma/condyloma), oral or pharyngeal syphilis, gonococcal pharyngitis, herpes simplex virus infection and pharyngitis from Chlamydia trachomatis. The incidence of human papillomavirus -induced oropharyngeal carcinoma has dramatically increased. In children past the neonatal period, the presence of condyloma acuminatus, syphilis, gonorrhoea or palatal ecchymosis (the last one, unless justified by other causes) should make us suspect sexual abuse. Sexual habits have changed in the last decades, resulting in the appearance of otorhinolaryngological pathology that was rarely seen previously. For this reason, it is important for primary care physicians to have knowledge about the subject to perform correct diagnosis and posterior treatment. Some sexual abuse cases in children may also be suspected based on the knowledge of the characteristic oropharyngeal manifestations secondary to them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral pregnancy tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh M Gondivkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manifesting as small, red erythematous growth on a pedunculated or sometimes sessile base, which is usually hemorrhagic. Although excisional surgery is the treatment of choice , some other treatment protocols such as the use of Nd:YAG laser, flash lamp pulsed dye laser, cryosurgery, intralesional injection of ethanol or corticosteroids, and sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerotherapy have been proposed. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman with large oral pyogenic granuloma.

  1. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...... ressourceanvendelse er muligt at skabe en betydeligt forbedret mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre Key words: Geriatric dentistry, nursing home, community health services, prevention, situated learning...

  2. Oral lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Katpar, S.; Ali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous dermatological disorder, with intraoral manifestation. Skin lesions prevail with oral mucosal lesions. Prevalence of lichen planus, as an oral pre-malignant lesion, is 1-2 % population. Lateral border, dorsal tongue, gingiva, hard palate and vermilion border are common sites and lesions appear as reticular, plaque-like and papular intraoral types. Skin presents with pururitic, polygonal papules. Atrophic and erosive are the known intraoral pre-malignant types. A case report is presented, which responded well to steroid therapy. (author)

  3. Cochliomyia Homnivorax in an advanced stage in the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Gomes

    Full Text Available Myiasis is characterized by the invasion of body or cavity tissues of live animals by larva. It is most frequently observed in underdeveloped and tropical countries, but there are cases described worldwide. Conventional treatment consists of mechanical removal of the larvae, one by one, which is a painful, embarrassing and repugnant process, both for the professional and patient. Although it is not considered rare, it has been observed that the dental professional has little knowledge for the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. For this reason, this study reports a case of oral myiasis at an advanced stage, which affected a nine-year-old patient, treated at a medical-dental clinic. Diagnosis was based on the visual presence of Cochliomyia homnivorax larvae, diptera of the Calliphoridae family, which were between the second and third stages of development. Predisposing factors, such as the lack of information, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, preexistenceof oral lesions and severe halitosis have a decisive influence in the appearance and progression of oral myiasis. A brief literaturereview was also conducted, in which this pathology was discussed, including the importance of early clinical diagnosis, its etiology, possible associations with other pathologies, and different types of treatment.

  4. Clinicopathologic Correlation of White, Non scrapable Oral Mucosal Surface Lesions: A Study of 100 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Raghunath, Vandana; Karpe, Tanveer; Akifuddin, Syed; Imran, Shahid; Dhurjati, Venkata Naga Nalini; Aleem, Mohammed Ahtesham; Khatoon, Farheen

    2016-02-01

    White, non scrapable lesions are commonly seen in the oral cavity. Based on their history and clinical appearance, most of these lesions can be easily diagnosed, but sometimes diagnosis may go wrong. In order to arrive to a confirmative diagnosis, histopathological assessment is needed in many cases, if not all. 1) To find out the prevalence of clinically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 2) To find out the prevalence of histopathologically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 3) To correlate the clinical and histopathological diagnosis in the above lesions. A total of 100 cases of oral white, non scrapable lesions were included in the study. Based on their history and clinical presentation, clinical provisional diagnosis was made. Then biopsy was done and confirmatory histopathological diagnosis was given and both were correlated. In order to correlate clinical and histopathological diagnosis Discrepancy Index (DI) was calculated for all the cases. Based on clinical diagnosis, there were 59 cases (59%) of leukoplakia, 29 cases (29%) of lichen planus and six cases (6%) of lichenoid reaction; whereas, based on histopathological diagnosis, there were 66 cases (66%) of leukoplakia epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis (leukoplakia) and 30 cases (30%) of lichen planus. Seventy eight clinically diagnosed cases (78%) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis and 22 cases (22%) did not correlate. The total discrepancy index was 22%. A clinician needs to be aware of oral white, non scrapable lesions. Due to the overlapping of many clinical features in some of these lesions and also due to their malignant potential, a histopathological confirmative diagnosis is recommended.

  5. Inequalities in oral health and oral health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the problem of inequalities in oral health and discusses strategies for disease prevention and oral health promotion. It shows that oral health is not merely a result of individual biological, psychological, and behavioral factors; rather, it is the sum of collective social conditions created when people interact with the social environment. Oral health status is directly related to socioeconomic position across the socioeconomic gradient in almost all...

  6. Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya

    2012-09-01

    Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.

  7. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Martinez Alejandro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46 non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72% of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23% versus palate/gum (16%. Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression.

  8. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vargas, Luis O; Díaz-Hernández, Cecilia; Martinez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2010-12-04

    Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression.

  9. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORAL HEALTH BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN FOR THEIR ORAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Ivana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caries or tooth decay regardless of the good knowledge of the nature of the disease and the possibility of its effective prevention is still the most widespread disease in our population. It also very often threatens the functions of organs and even the entire organism. Health culture is an integral part of general culture and health education plays an important role in maintaining health of individuals. Aim. The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of oral health behaviour of schoolchildren aged 12 to 14 on their oral health. The schoolchildren attended the seventh and eight grade at Drago Milovic Elementary School in Tivat. Method. The survey was conducted during the period from the end of January to April 2015 at Drago Milovic Elementary School in Tivat. It comprised all seventh and eight-graders that were at school those days. The survey instrument was a questionnaire specially designed for this study and it consisted of 36 closed-ended questions. Clinical examination of oral health in children was used as an additional research instrument. Assessment of oral health was carried out under natural light with dental mirror and probe according to WHO recommendations. The parameter used to assess the state of oral health was DMFT index — the number of carious, extracted and filled teeth. In addition, the assessment of oral hygiene was conducted using soft debris index according to Green-Vermillion which determines absence or presence, quantity and distribution of dental plaque and other soft deposits. Results. The majority of students stated that they lack knowledge regarding the effectiveness of fluoride toothpaste (69.4%. It was found that the lowest incidence of caries occurred among those students who think that teeth should be brushed after every meal, and the highest incidence of this diagnosis occurred in respondents who think that teeth should be brushed once a day. Half of the surveyed students

  11. Celiac Disease: Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Greg; Feighery, Conleth F

    2015-01-01

    Historically the diagnosis of celiac disease has relied upon clinical, serological, and histological evidence. In recent years the use of sensitive serological methods has meant an increase in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The heterogeneous nature of the disorder presents a challenge in the study and diagnosis of the disease with patients varying from subclinical or latent disease to patients with overt symptoms. Furthermore the related gluten-sensitive disease dermatitis herpetiformis, while distinct in some respects, shares clinical and serological features with celiac disease. Here we summarize current best practice for the diagnosis of celiac disease and briefly discuss newer approaches. The advent of next-generation assays for diagnosis and newer clinical protocols may result in more sensitive screening and ultimately the possible replacement of the intestinal biopsy as the gold standard for celiac disease diagnosis.

  12. Exhaled breath and oral cavity VOCs as potential biomarkers in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, M; Gonzalez-Soto, J; Pereiro, R; de Vicente, J C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2017-03-01

    Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible for the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt to use VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. A total of 52 breath samples were collected (in 3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls. The samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Different statistical strategies (e.g., Icoshift, SIMCA, LDA, etc) were used to classify the analytical data. Results revealed that compounds such as undecane, dodecane, decanal, benzaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl undecane, 4,5-dimethyl nonane, 1-octene, and hexadecane had relevance as possible biomarkers for OSCC. LDA classification with these compounds showed well-defined clusters for patients and controls (non-smokers and smokers). In addition to breath analysis, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the possibility of lesion-surrounded air (analyzed OSCC tumors are in the oral cavity) as a source of biomarkers. The oral cavity location of the squamous cell carcinoma tumors constitutes an opportunity to non-invasively collect the air surrounding the lesion. Small quantities (20 ml) of air collected in the oral cavity were analyzed using the above methodology. Results showed that aldehydes present in the oral cavity might constitute potential OSCC biomarkers.

  13. Oral hygiene practices and risk of oral leukoplakia | Macigo | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. Design: Case control study. Setting: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. Subjects: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. Results: The relative risk (RR) of oral ...

  14. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  15. Oral Hygiene and Oral Flora Evaluation in Psychiatric Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The oral hygiene of most patients was insufficient. The presence of Gram‑negative Bacilli growth in the oral flora can be explained by poor hand hygiene. These findings suggest that it is useful to educate individuals about oral hygiene and hand hygiene and to inform the staff and families about this issue.

  16. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  17. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  18. Factors associated with lip and oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; de Medeiros, Júlia Julliêta; Rodrigues, Larycia Vicente; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Lima Neto, Eufrásio de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the occurrence of primary cancer of the lip and oral cavity regions compared to other types of head and neck cancers according to demographic, socioeconomic data and lifestyle, in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011. A study was conducted using Hospital Cancer Records (Instituto Nacional do Câncer), from 2000 to 2011, totaling 23,153 cases. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression (response category: primary cancers located in the lip and oral cavity; comparison category; other types of primary cancer in the head and neck, which does not affect the lip and oral cavity) at a significance level α = 5%. The study showed factors associated with higher incidence of cancer in the lip and oral cavity: being of advanced age (OR = 1.16), not having a family history of cancer (OR = 2.38), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.17); former tobacco use (OR = 1.51) or current tobacco use (OR = 1.65); having a previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment (OR =1.66). Being female (OR = 0.92), having completed basic (OR = 0.71) and higher (OR = 0.46) education and having previous diagnosis of cancer with treatment (OR = 0.74) constituted factors associated with lower prevalence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity. Age, absence of family history of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, and previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment were associated with a higher incidence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital ranula: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytül Çorbacıoğlu Esmer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital ranula is a mucous retention cyst which originates from the base of the oral cavity and is caused by sublingual or submandibular canal atresia or canalization defect. As with the other tumors in the oral cavity it may cause upper airway obstruction and hypoxia immediately after delivery. In the following stages of life, apart from the respiratory problems it may cause speach, chewing and swallowing disorders. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital sublingual ranula is very rare, and it presents as an avascular and anechoic cystic mass displacing the tongue upwards on fetal ultrasonography. Polyhydramnios can develop due to the obstruction and stomach may not be visualized. The differential diagnosis includes lymphatic malformations, epulis, epignatus, tyroglossal canal cyst and hemangioma. In this paper, we present a case of ranula which was diagnosed during prenatal ultrasonographic examination. The detailed fetal ultrasound scan performed at the 31th week of gestation revealed a non-septated anechoic cyst in the oral cavity measuring 20 x 17 x 15 mm. The cyst had well-defined regular borders with no solid component. Doppler ultrasonograhy did not show any vascularization within the cyst. After the delivery at the 38th week of gestation, a sublingual cystic mass with regular borders measuring 1.5 x1.5 cm was detected in the mouth of the neonate. Entubation was not required due to the absence of respiratory distress. In order to prevent difficutlies in feeding, the cystic mass was aspirated just after the delivery. A diagnosis of sublingual ranula was made based on the localization and the mucoid consistency of the cyst.

  20. Imaging in oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist

  1. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  2. Fluoride and Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S

    2016-01-01

    and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of ‘Fluoride and Oral Health’ has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fl uoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published...

  3. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  4. History of oral contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  5. Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Daniela I; Setterfield, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common autoimmune T-cell-mediated disease of unknown aetiology affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. Its prevalence varies between 0.5 and 2.2% of the population in epidemiological studies with a peak incidence in the 30-60 years range and with a female predominance of 2:1. Mucosal lichen planus tends to follow a chronic course with acute exacerbations. Spontaneous remission of oral lichen planus (OLP) is uncommon, and indeed mucosal LP may become worse with time. In contrast, cutaneous lichen planus may follow a milder clinical course though some variants may be severe such as those affecting the palms and soles and the scalp and the genital tract in females (vulvovaginal gingival LP) where scarring leads to significant complications. It is important to identify those cases that may be drug induced or be associated with a contact allergic or irritant reaction (lichenoid reaction) or the rarer oral presentation of discoid lupus erythematosus. There is a very small risk of malignancy (approximately 1:200 patients/year) associated with oral lichen planus; thus patients should be informed that long term monitoring via their general dental practitioner is appropriate. This review will focus on the clinical presentation and management of oral lichen planus.

  6. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decay and promotes remineralization, which aids in repairing early decay ; general dentist: a primary care provider for patients in all age groups who takes responsibility for the diagnosis, treatment, ...

  7. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  8. Sonographic diagnosis of lissencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, J.; Morville, P.; Gomes, H.; Cymbalista, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a developmental malformation characterized by absence of sulci in dysmorphic or epileptic infants. Real time ultrasonographic findings correlated with typical electroencephalographic abnormalities established the diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Sonographic diagnosis of lissencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motte, J.; Morville, P.; Gomes, H.; Cymbalista, M.

    1987-07-01

    Lissencephaly is a developmental malformation characterized by absence of sulci in dysmorphic or epileptic infants. Real time ultrasonographic findings correlated with typical electroencephalographic abnormalities established the diagnosis.

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ... Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Find a Surgeon What We Do Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The experts in face, mouth and jaw surgery.™ What We Do Who We ... surgically treat the soft tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ...

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ... tissues of the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ... and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ... in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial surgeon to ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the expert for diagnosing and surgically treating ... late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ... education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and ...

  3. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-07

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection.

  4. MRI and the diagnosis of glioblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowe, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is based on an oral presentation given at the Sydney conference in February 2000. Two cases will be presented to demonstrate the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of glioblastomas, MRI has superior soft tissue imaging abilities making it ideal for imaging the brain. Conventional MRI is good for evaluating oedema and haemorrhage and offers high resolution without associated bone artefacts. However, as with all imaging modalities there are some disadvantages. Patients with pacemakers, certain types of metallic clips, or claustrophobia may not be suitable for an MRI scan. Copyright (2002) Australian Institute of Radiography

  5. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  6. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Rute; Sim?es-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, M?rio-Jorge; Azevedo, ?lvaro; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with n...

  7. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis.

  8. Work Group report: oral food challenge testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Assa'ad, Amal H; Bahna, Sami L; Bock, S Allan; Sicherer, Scott H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2009-06-01

    Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient's history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food.

  9. Telomeres, telomerase and oral cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo

    2005-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (oral cancer) and many squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck arise as a consequence of multiple molecular events induced by the effects of various carcinogens related to tobacco use, environmental factors, and viruses in some instances (e.g., mucosal oncogenic human papillomaviruses), against a background of inheritable resistance or susceptibility. Consequent genetic damage affects many chromosomes and genes, and it is the accumulation of these changes that appears to lead to carcinoma. Telomere maintenance by telomerase or, in its absence, alternative lengthening of telomeres protect this acquired altered genetic information ensuring immortality without losing eukaryotic linear DNA; when this does not occur DNA is lost and end-replication problems arise. Telomerase is reactivated in 80-90% of cancers thus attracting the attention of pathologists and clinicians who have explored its use as a target for anticancer therapy and to develop better diagnostic and prognostic markers. In the last few years, valuable research from various laboratories has provided major insights into telomerase and telomeres leading to their use as diagnostic and prognostic markers in several types of cancer. Moreover, many strategies have emerged which inhibit this complex enzyme for anticancer therapy and are one step ahead of clinical trials. This review explains the basic biology and the clinical implications of telomerase-based diagnosis and prognosis, the prospects for its use in anticancer therapy, and the limitations it presents in the context of oral cancer.

  10. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on a Gaussian process classification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chijun; Chen, He; Luo, Yusheng; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming; Jia, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The incidence rate accounts for 80% of total oral cancer and shows an upward trend in recent years. It has a high degree of malignancy and is difficult to detect in terms of differential diagnosis, as a consequence of which the timing of treatment is always delayed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was adopted to differentially diagnose oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral gland carcinoma. In total, 852 entries of raw spectral data which consisted of 631 items from 36 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 87 items from four oral gland carcinoma patients and 134 items from five normal people were collected by utilizing an optical method on oral tissues. The probability distribution of the datasets corresponding to the spectral peaks of the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue was analyzed and the experimental result showed that the data obeyed a normal distribution. Moreover, the distribution characteristic of the noise was also in compliance with a Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian process (GP) classification method was utilized to distinguish the normal people and the oral gland carcinoma patients from the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The experimental results showed that all the normal people could be recognized. 83.33% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients could be correctly diagnosed and the remaining ones would be diagnosed as having oral gland carcinoma. For the classification process of oral gland carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, the correct ratio was 66.67% and the erroneously diagnosed percentage was 33.33%. The total sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 100% with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) set to 0.447 213 595. Considering the numerical results above, the application prospects and clinical value of this technique are significantly impressive. (letter)

  11. Laser Raman detection for oral cancer based on a Gaussian process classification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhanwei; Yang, Yongjian; Bai, Yuan; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chijun; Chen, He; Luo, Yusheng; Su, Le; Chen, Yong; Li, Xianchang; Zhou, Xiaodong; Jia, Jun; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. The incidence rate accounts for 80% of total oral cancer and shows an upward trend in recent years. It has a high degree of malignancy and is difficult to detect in terms of differential diagnosis, as a consequence of which the timing of treatment is always delayed. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was adopted to differentially diagnose oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral gland carcinoma. In total, 852 entries of raw spectral data which consisted of 631 items from 36 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 87 items from four oral gland carcinoma patients and 134 items from five normal people were collected by utilizing an optical method on oral tissues. The probability distribution of the datasets corresponding to the spectral peaks of the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue was analyzed and the experimental result showed that the data obeyed a normal distribution. Moreover, the distribution characteristic of the noise was also in compliance with a Gaussian distribution. A Gaussian process (GP) classification method was utilized to distinguish the normal people and the oral gland carcinoma patients from the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The experimental results showed that all the normal people could be recognized. 83.33% of the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients could be correctly diagnosed and the remaining ones would be diagnosed as having oral gland carcinoma. For the classification process of oral gland carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma, the correct ratio was 66.67% and the erroneously diagnosed percentage was 33.33%. The total sensitivity was 80% and the specificity was 100% with the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) set to 0.447 213 595. Considering the numerical results above, the application prospects and clinical value of this technique are significantly impressive.

  12. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ... OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk ...

  14. Digital radiography and caries diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, A

    1998-01-01

    Direct digital acquisition of intra-oral radiographs has been possible only in the last decade. Several studies have shown that, theoretically, there are a number of advantages of direct digital radiography compared with conventional film. Laboratory as well as controlled clinical studies are needed to determine whether new digital imaging systems alter diagnosis, treatment and prognosis compared with conventional methods. Most studies so far have evaluated their diagnostic performance only in laboratory settings. This review concentrates on what evidence we have for the diagnostic efficacy of digital systems for caries detection. Digital systems are compared with film and those studies which have evaluated the effects on diagnostic accuracy of contrast and edge enhancement, image size, variations in radiation dose and image compression are reviewed together with the use of automated image analysis for caries diagnosis. Digital intra-oral radiographic systems seem to be as accurate as the currently available dental films for the detection of caries. Sensitivities are relatively high (0.6-0.8) for detection of occlusal lesions into dentine with false positive fractions of 5-10%. A radiolucency in dentine is recognised as a good predictor for demineralisation. Radiography is of no value for the detection of initial (enamel) occlusal lesions. For detection of approximal dentinal lesions, sensitivities, specificities as well as the predictive values are fair, but are very poor for lesions known to be confined to enamel. Very little documented information exists, however, on the utilization of digital systems in the clinic. It is not known whether dose is actually reduced with the storage phosphor system, or whether collimator size is adjusted to fit sensor size in the CCD-based systems. There is no evidence that the number of retakes have been reduced. It is not known how many images are needed with the various CCD systems when compared with a conventional bitewing

  15. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Gloria; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal.

  16. Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lugo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly and gigantism are due to excess GH production, usually as a result of a pituitary adenoma. The incidence of acromegaly is 5 cases per million per year and the prevalence is 60 cases per million. Clinical manifestations in each patient depend on the levels of GH and IGF-I, age, tumor size, and the delay in diagnosis. Manifestations of acromegaly are varied and include acral and soft tissue overgrowth, joint pain, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart and respiratory failure. Acromegaly is a disabling disease that is associated with increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The diagnosis is based primarily on clinical features and confirmed by measuring GH levels after oral glucose loading and the estimation of IGF-I. It has been suggested that the rate of mortality in patients with acromegaly is correlated with the degree of control of GH. Adequately treated, the relative mortality risk can be markedly reduced towards normal.

  17. Oral health: equity and social determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....

  18. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  19. Differential metallothionein expression in oral lichen planus and amalgam-associated oral lichenoid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G-G; Servato, J-P-S; Borges, F-C; Rosa, R-R; Siqueira, C-S; de Faria, P-R; Loyola, A-M; Cardoso, S-V

    2018-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by T cells, which manifests as reticular (white) or erosive (red) lesions, that are eventually painful. Oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) are distinguished from OLP by the presence of precipitating factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of metallothionein, which is involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and the anti-oxidative response, could serve as a differential diagnostic for OLP and OLL. We evaluated the expression of metallothionein in 40 cases of OLP and 20 cases of OLL using immunohistochemistry. White OLP has higher concentrations of metallothionein than red OLP in basal and parabasal layers. Moreover, metallothionein was more frequently observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of basal cells in OLP patients compared to the same regions of OLL cases. Metallothionein levels are related to OLP severity and may contribute to a differential diagnosis between OLP and OLL.

  20. Effect of Fixed Metallic Oral Appliances on Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    There is a substantial proportion of the population using fixed metallic oral appliances, such as crowns and bridges, which are composed of various dental alloys. These restorations may be associated with a number of effects on oral health with variable degrees of severity, to review potential effects of using fixed metallic oral appliances, fabricated from various alloys. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using certain combinations of keywords related to the topic. The search revealed that burning mouth syndrome, oral pigmentation, hypersensitivity and lichenoid reactions, and genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are the major potential oral health changes associated with fixed prosthodontic appliances. Certain oral disorders are associated with the use of fixed metallic oral appliances. Patch test is the most reliable method that can be applied for identifying metal allergy, and the simultaneous use of different alloys in the mouth is discouraged.

  1. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  2. Oral tumors in dogs and cats. II. Prognosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhaliwal, R.S.; Kitchell, B.E.; Marretta, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Small size and rostral location generally are positive prognostic factors for all types of oral tumors.:Standard treatment modalities for oral tumors include surgery, radiation therapy, intralesional matrix cisplatin, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy, Investigational therapeutic regimens, such as immunotherapy and gene therapy are not:yet widely available to practicing veterinarians. Surgery and radiation therapy are the-treatments of-choice for oral tumors because these neoplasms are locally aggressive and rarely metastasize. The advent of radical,surgical techniques coupled: with the use of radiation therapy has dramatically: improved survival Fates for dogs with oral tumors. When considered for oral tumors, chemotherapy is always palliative therapy because a complete cure cannot be anticipated with chemotherapy alone. However, using concurrent chemotherapy (as a radiation Sensitizer) and radiation therapy is gaining a lot of interest in clinical research. Part I of this two-part presentation discussed clinical Signs,diagnosis, and histologic types of various oral tumors; Part II reviews prognosis and treatment

  3. How general dentists could manage a patient with oral lichen planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Sierra, Jairo

    2018-01-01

    Background The literature hardly contains information on how patients suffering from oral lichen planus could be managed by dentists. Material and Methods Based on the limited available literature and particularly on the long-term clinical and histopathological experience of one of the authors, suggestions on how dentists could manage patients with oral lichen planus have been put forward. Results: In most cases, the dentist should be able to establish a correct diagnosis. Results In most cases, the dentist should be able to establish a correct diagnosis. Occasionally, the dentist may call upon a specialist, usually an oral medicine specialist or an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for confirmation of the diagnosis, possibly a biopsy procedure, and management of the patient in case of severe symptoms. Proper patient information is of utmost importance in the management. Conclusions General dentists can be expected to manage the majority of patients with oral lichen planus. Some patients may need to be referred for diagnostic purposes to a specialist; this is also the case for the rare patient with severe symptoms, possibly requiring systemic treatment. Key words:Oral mucosal disease, oral lichen planus. PMID:29476684

  4. Meta-analysis of two computer-assisted screening methods for diagnosing oral precancer and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yaqin; Chen, Guanying; Zhou, Gang

    2015-11-01

    The early diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer is crucial and could have the highest impact on improving survival rates. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the accuracy between the OralCDx brush biopsy and DNA-image cytometry in diagnosing both conditions. Bibliographic databases were systematically searched for original relevant studies on the early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer. Study characteristics were evaluated to determine the accuracy of the two screening strategies. Thirteen studies (eight of OralCDx brush biopsy and five of DNA-image cytometry) were identified as having reported on 1981 oral mucosa lesions. The meta-analysis found that the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves of the OralCDx brush biopsy and DNA-image cytometry were 0.8879 and 0.9885, respectively. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of the OralCDx brush biopsy were 86% (95% CI 81-90), 81% (95% CI 78-85), and 20.36 (95% CI 2.72-152.67), respectively, while these modalities of DNA-image cytometry were 89% (95% CI 83-94), 99% (95% CI 97-100), and 446.08 (95% CI 73.36-2712.43), respectively. Results of a pairwise comparison between each modality demonstrated that specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Q(∗) index of DNA-image cytometry was significantly higher than that of the OralCDx brush biopsy (Z=2.821, p0.05). In conclusion, the meta-analysis of the published studies indicated that DNA-image cytometry is more accurate than the OralCDx brush biopsy in diagnosing oral precancer and oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An orthodontic oral appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Marie; Legrell, Per Erik

    2010-11-01

    This pilot study was performed to test the hypothesis that an orthodontic oral appliance (OA) that is designed to work against the backwardly directed forces on the upper incisors may counteract the reduction in overjet from these devices. Thirty patients with normal bites, good oral health, and milder sleep apnea were randomized to treatment with either OAs or orthodontic OAs. Bite changes were evaluated on plaster casts and radiographs and by questionnaires after a mean of 2.4 years in 19 frequent users. Four of nine patients in the orthodontic OA group increased their overjet by > or =0.4 mm, while none of the 10 patients in the OA group experienced that effect. Only the orthodontic OA increases the overjet; this design may therefore be beneficial to patients at risk of negative effects on their bite during OA treatment.

  6. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  7. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures ...

  8. Challenges in Comparative Oral Epic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Miles Foley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Originally written in 2001 and subsequently published in China, this collaborative essay explores five questions central to comparative oral epic with regard to Mongolian, South Slavic, ancient Greek, and Old English traditions: “What is a poem in oral epic tradition?” “What is a typical scene or theme in oral epic tradition?” “What is a poetic line in oral epic tradition?” “What is a formula in an oral epic tradition?” “What is the register in oral epic poetry?” Now available for the first time in English, this essay reflects a foundational stage of what has become a productive and long-term collaboration between the Center for Studies in Oral Tradition and the Institute of Ethnic Literature of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  9. Fractal analysis in oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Bhai Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractal analysis (FA quantifies complex geometric structures by generating a fractal dimension (FD, which can measure the complexity of mucosa. FA is a quantitative tool used to measure the complexity of self-similar or semi-self-similar structures. Aim and Objective: The study was done to perform the FA of oral mucosa with keratotic changes, as it is also made up of self-similar tissues, and thus, its FD can be calculated. Results: In oral leukoplakia, keratinization increases the complexity of mucosa, which denotes fractal geometry. We evaluated and compared pretreated and post-treated oral leukoplakia in 50 patients with clinically proven oral leukoplakia and analyzed the normal oral mucosa and lesional or keratinized mucosa in oral leukoplakia patients through FA using box counting method. Conclusion: FA using the fractal geometry is an efficient, noninvasive prediction tool for early detection of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant conditions in patients.

  10. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  11. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (plichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  12. MAT FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Rahardianingtyas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacterial infection leptospira interrogans.Leptospira bacteria is a spiral bacterium with solid strands with two flagella periplasmik.Septicaemic phase patient samples taken from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, whereassamples taken at phase immune extracted from urine. The diagnosis of leptospirosis occurdirectly or indirectly. Diagnosis is done by directly isolate and identify the causative agents ofthe agent. Diagnosis is done indirectly by detecting specific antibodies from the patient's body.Gold Standard of the diagnosis of leptospirosis is MAT. Mat made by reacting antibodies toleptospira antigen. Positive results seen with clump formed.Key words: Leptospirosis, Leptospirosis Diagnostic, MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test Leptospirosis merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan karena infeksi bakteri leptospirainterrogans. Bakteri leptospira merupakan bakteri spiral dengan untaian yang padat dengan duaflagella periplasmik. Sampel pasien pada fase septicaemic diambil dari darah dan cairanserebrospinal, sedangkan sampel yang diambil pada fase immune diambil dari urine. Diagnosisleptospirosis dilakukan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Diagnosis secara langsungdilakukan dengan cara mengisolasi agen penyebab dan mengidentifikasi agen tersebut. Diagnosissecara tidak langsung dilakukan dengan cara mendeteksi antibodi spesiflk dari dalam tubuhpasien. Gold Standart dari diagnosis leptospirosis adalah MAT. Mat dilakukan dengan caramereaksikan antibodi dengan antigen leptospira. Hasil positif dilihat dengan terbentuk gumpalanagglutinasiKata kunci: Leptospirosis, Leptospira, Leptospirosis Diagnosis.

  13. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  14. Onychomycosis - epidemiology, diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or nondermatophyte molds and represents about 30% of mycotic cutaneous infections. Increasingly onychomychosis is being viewed as more than a mere cosmetic problem. In spite of improved personal hygiene and living environment, onychomycosis continues to spread and persist. The prevalence rate of onychomycosis is determined by age, predisposing factor, social class, occupation, climate, living environment and frequency of travel. Onychomycosis in immunocompromised patients can pose a more serious health problem. Dermatophytes are the most frequently implicated causative agents in onychomycosis. Previously regarded as contaminants, yeasts are now increasingly recognised as pathogens in fingernail infections, as are some moulds. Clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis is based on the patients′ history; a physical examination, microscopy and culture of nail specimens. The treatment of onychomycosis has been attempted throughout the ages, but only in the last two decades have safe, effective systemic treatments been available for this chronic superficial fungal disease. Oral Griseofulvin and Ketoconazole; once the agents of choice for the treatment of onychomycosis, have been superseded by newer systemic compounds that have a higher cure and lower relapse rates, cause fewer side effects and are suitable for short-term dosing.

  15. Achalasia: from diagnosis to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Michael F; Felix, Valter N; Penagini, Roberto; Mauro, Aurelio; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux; Pu, Leonardo Zorrón Cheng Tao; Martínek, Jan; Rieder, Erwin

    2016-10-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder associated with abnormalities in peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation. The etiology of the disease remains elusive. It is often misdiagnosed initially as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Patients with achalasia often complain of dysphagia to solids and liquids but may focus on regurgitation as the primary symptom, leading to the early misdiagnosis. Chest pain, weight loss, and occasional vomiting may be additional symptoms encountered in those with achalasia. The disease may be suspected on the basis of clinical presentation, but diagnosis depends on classic findings using high-resolution manometry, showing either failed or simultaneous contractions with associated normal or high LES pressures with no or incomplete relaxation with swallows. There are no cures for achalasia, and, in most patients, treatments have to be repeated over time. Definitive treatment options in achalasia include pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and the new technique of per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Botulinum toxin (Botox) or other medical therapies are often reserved for those who cannot have definitive therapies owing to comorbid conditions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. [Overview of researches for Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Yuqing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogens in human and it is closely related to gastrointestinal diseases. It is essential for us to understand the transmission process of H. pylori to prevent its spreading. The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for gastric H. pylori, which has been detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both dental plaque and saliva. Some researchers have proposed H. pylori in oral cavity may play an important role in its transmission and reinfection. Oral-oral or fecal-oral transmission are thought to be the most possible transmit way. This review will discuss the evidence for the role of the oral cavity in the transmission of H. pylori, the difficulties encountered in addressing this topic and possible directions for future research. Oral H. pylori may also play a role in the diagnosis and prevention of deceases related to H. pylori such as gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The recent progresses in this area are also reviewed. Moreover, we also discussed the relationship between oral H. pylori and oral deceases like periodontal disease and oral ulcer.

  17. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  18. Laboratory Diagnosis Of Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta S.K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is not an uncommon disease. Unfortunately, the awareness amongst clinicians is lacking and due to overwhelming prevalence of tuberculosis, a disease with many similar features, the diagnosis is missed and often delayed. The gold standard investigation finding in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is the presence of noncaseating tuberculoid granuloma, also known as sarcoid or sarcoid-like granuloma. Some classical chest X-ray findings, clinico-radiological dissociation. Suggestive organ lesions, negative Mantoux test (MT, development of MT site granuloma, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE value and negative tests for tuberculosis are usually hekpful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  19. Positron emission tomography (PET) for oncologic applications in oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shozushima, Masanori; Terasaki, Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    A rapidly emerging clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is the detection of cancer with radionuclide tracer, because it provides information unavailable by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The most commonly used radiotracer for PET oncologic imaging is fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). Early studies show PET has potential value in viewing the region of the tumor, detecting, staging, grading, monitoring response to anticancer therapy, and differentiating recurrent or residual disease from post treatment changes. However, limitations of FDG-PET in the head and neck region, namely, physiological FDG uptake in the salivary glands and palatine tonsils, have been reported, increasing the false-positive rates in image interpretation. This review was designed to address these distinctions of oral cancer PET imaging: specialization of PET equipment, cancer cell metabolism, proliferation and tracers, clinical diagnosis of oral cancer with PET, pitfalls in oncologic diagnosis with FDG-PET imaging. (author)

  20. Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMobeeriek, Azizah; AlDosari, Abdullah M

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population. (author)

  1. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma - characteristics and survival in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Western australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, A M; Slack-Smith, L M; Parsons, R; Threlfall, T

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm. Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians. This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC.

  2. A multicenter study of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions in a Brazilian pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leni Verônica de Oliveira; Arruda, José Alcides Almeida; Martelli, Stephanie Joana; Kato, Camila de Nazaré Alves de Oliveira; Nunes, Laiz Fernanda Mendes; Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina Uchoa; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; Silveira, Marcia Maria Fonseca da; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions among children from representative regions of Brazil. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. Biopsy records comprising the period from 2000 to 2015 were obtained from the archives of three Brazilian oral pathology referral centers. A total of 32,506 biopsy specimens were analyzed, and specimens from 1,706 children aged 0-12 years were selected. Gender, age, anatomical location and histopathological diagnosis were evaluated. Descriptive statistics was carried out. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the association between the categorical variables. The level of significance was set at 0.05. The post-hoc test was used to identify the subgroups that significantly differed from one another, and the Bonferroni correction was applied. A total of 1,706 oral and maxillofacial lesions were diagnosed in pediatric patients, including 51.9% girls. Oral mucocele was the most prevalent reactive/inflammatory lesion (64%). The most commonly affected sites were the lips (34.5%) and mandible (19.9%). A significant association was observed between age and the group of lesions of the oral cavity (p oral and maxillofacial lesions were frequent and showed wide diversity, with the prevalence of mucocele. Knowledge of oral lesions is important for pediatric dentists worldwide, since it provides accurate data for the diagnosis and oral health of children.

  3. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  4. Clinical diagnosis of hyposalivation in hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya de Azambuja Berti-Couto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical criteria for the diagnosis of hyposalivation in hospitalized patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A clinical study was carried out on 145 subjects (48 males; 97 females; aged 20 to 90 years. Each subject was clinically examined, in the morning and in the afternoon, along 1 day. A focused anamnesis allowed identifying symptoms of hyposalivation, like xerostomia complaints (considered as a reference symptom, chewing difficulty, dysphagia and increased frequency of liquid intake. Afterwards, dryness of the mucosa of the cheecks and floor of the mouth, as well as salivary secretion during parotid gland stimulation were assessed during oral examination. RESULTS: Results obtained with Chi-square tests showed that 71 patients (48.9% presented xerostomia complaints, with a significant correlation with all hyposalivation symptoms (p <0.05. Furthermore, xerostomia was also significantly correlated with all data obtained during oral examination in both periods of evaluation (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Clinical diagnosis of hyposalivation in hospitalized patients is feasible and can provide an immediate and appropriate therapy avoiding further problems and improving their quality of life.

  5. Oral white lesion-histomorhological assessment and associated risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orakzai, G.; Nisa, W.U.; Orakzai, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Oral white lesions constitute a major clinical problem in Pakistan and South Asian countries. The study was done with the objective to analyse oral white lesions histologically and clinically, and evaluate association between various risk factors in different ages, gender, ethnic groups, sites and sizes of the lesion. Methods: A total of 80 patients presenting with oral white lesions were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. The biopsy sample was fixed in 10% formalin and after standardized processing, slides were prepared, stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin, with special stains when required. The histo-pathological diagnosis of lesion was recorded. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variable. Frequency and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables. Results: Out of total 80 patients 43 were females and 37 males. The mean age of cases was 47.92 years. Majority of the patients were between 30-39 years. Buccal mucosa was affected in majority of the cases (55%), followed by lateral border of tongue 17.5% and lip mucosa (8.8%). No risk factor had been observed in almost half of the patients. Histologically Lichen Planus was the most common lesion (32.5%), followed by chronic nonspecific inflammation in (22.5%), keratosis without dysplasia (10%), keratosis with dysplasia (8.8%), Pemphigus vulgaris (7.5%), fungal infestation (5%) and Squamous cell carcinoma (3.8%). Conclusion: Oral Lichen Planus was the most common oral white lesion in our set up, with buccal mucosa involved in majority of the cases. Association between histo-pathological diagnosis with age and gender was insignificant. However, significant association was observed between histopathological diagnosis and site. Among risk factors significant association was seen between snuff dippers and pan users. (author)

  6. Management of oral and maxillofacial radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2002-01-01

    To implement the database system of oral and maxillofacial radiological images using a commercial medical image management software with personally developed classification code. The image database was built using a slightly modified commercial medical image management software, Dr. Image v.2.1 (Bit Computer Co., Korea). The function of wild card '*' was added to the search function of this program. Diagnosis classification codes were written as the number at the first three digits, and radiographic technique classification codes as the alphabet right after the diagnosis code. 449 radiological films of 218 cases from January, 2000 to December, 2000, which had been specially stored for the demonstration and education at Dept. of OMF Radiology of Dankook University Dental Hospital, were scanned with each patient information. Cases could be efficiently accessed and analyzed by using the classification code. Search and statistics results were easily obtained according to sex, age, disease diagnosis and radiographic technique. Efficient image management was possible with this image database system. Application of this system to other departments or personal image management can be made possible by utilizing the appropriate classification code system.

  7. Pigmented Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firstine Kelsi Hartanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic muccocutaneous inflammatory disorder. Oral lichen planus (OLP has certain specific characteristics in its clinical presentation, but can also be presented in forms resembling other diseases. This may introduce difficulty in the diagnostic process. It has been reported that OLP affects between 0.1 to 4% individuals, predominantly women and people over 40 years old. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman complained of a non-healing ulcer present for 1.5 months. Intraorally, multiple white striae with prominent central areas of brownish hyperpigmentation were apparent on the right and left buccal mucosa, right and left buccal sulcus, and lateral and dorsum of the tongue. A biopsy was completed and the histopathology features confirmed the diagnosis of OLP. For the initial treatment, a topical corticosteroid was prescribed, followed by steroid mouthwash. Response to this treatment was positive. OLP has been frequently reported to affect women over the age of 40, with psychological stress as a primary predisposing factor. The clinical presentation is characteristic of Wickham’s striae with erosive areas. However, a biopsy and histopathological examination is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical feature of pigmented OLP has been reported and confirmed by microscopic finding of band-like lymphocytic appearance which is the pathognomonic features of OLP, along with basal cell liquefaction degeneration, and melanin in continence at the lamina propria. Conclusion: Pigmented OLP is a variant of erosive OLP. Anamnesis, clinical presentation, and histopathological examination confirm diagnosis.

  8. Regression of oral lichenoid lesions after replacement of dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårell, L; Tillberg, A; Widman, L; Bergdahl, J; Berglund, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prognosis and to evaluate the regression of lichenoid contact reactions (LCR) and oral lichen planus (OLP) after replacement of dental restorative materials suspected as causing the lesions. Forty-four referred patients with oral lesions participated in a follow-up study that was initiated an average of 6 years after the first examination at the Department of Odontology, i.e. the baseline examination. The patients underwent odontological clinical examination and answered a questionnaire with questions regarding dental health, medical and psychological health, and treatments undertaken from baseline to follow-up. After exchange of dental materials, regression of oral lesions was significantly higher among patients with LCR than with OLP. As no cases with OLP regressed after an exchange of materials, a proper diagnosis has to be made to avoid unnecessary exchanges of intact restorations on patients with OLP.

  9. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  10. Oral manifestations of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kalaskar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by short limbs, post-axial polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, edentulous mandibular incisor region, absence of mucobuccal fold, congenitally missing teeth, slight serrations of the alveolar ridge and multiple small alveolar notches. The clinical report not only describes the classical oral and dental manifestations of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome but also presents unusual findings such as single-rooted and funnel-shaped primary first molars, single conical roots of primary second molars and taurodontisum, which must be considered in the differential diagnostic criteria to avoid misdiagnosis of syndromes. The article also discusses the differential diagnosis and preventive and therapeutic oral health care for these patients. The management of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is multidisciplinary and, therefore, the oral health care provider should get updated with latest knowledge for timely referral to prevent the patient from further complications of heart defect and bony deformity.

  11. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  12. Spontaneous canine oral melanoma: A large animal model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Kraft, S.L.; DeHaan, C.E.; Sande, R.D.; Papageorges, M.; Bauer, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Oral melanomas in dogs are the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Prevalence has been recorded at 127 per 100,000 dogs/year. There is a predilection for the gingiva of male dogs with heavy pigmentation. The tumors are resistant to treatment with conventional radiation and chemotherapy. The tumors are very aggressive and have generally metastasized to the regional lymph nodes at the time of initial diagnosis. Distant metastases occur in approximately 85% of patients. Metastatic sites include lungs, kidneys, liver, brain, skeleton, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Fifteen (15) dogs with oral lesions biopsied and diagnosed as malignant melanoma were entered in the study. A thorough diagnostic regimen was performed in an attempt to detect the regional spread and distant metastases of the tumor

  13. Radiotherapy and verrucous carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidyasagar, M.S.; Fernandes, D.J.; Pai Kasturi, D.; Akhileshwaran, R.; Rao, K.; Rao, S.; Rao, R.V.; Solomon, J.G.R.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and seven cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India between 1977 and 1987 were analysed concerning location within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy. The most common site was the buccal mucosa followed by the buccogingival sulcus. Only 13.2% of the patients presented with T1 or T2 tumours and 32.7% had clinically negative nodes. Biopsy had to be repeated more than once in 22 patients to get confirmation in invasive carcinoma. The 5-year survival rate was 35% for stage III and 26% for stage IV. The treatment results with radiotherapy were comparable with those for ordinary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. It is felt that the treatment policy for verrucous carcinoma can be the same as for ordinary squamous cell carcinoma. In order to prevent delay in diagnosis and treatment, proper cooperation between the treating oncologist and the pathologist is essential. (orig.)

  14. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Villa,1,2 Christopher L Connell,3 Silvio Abati4 1Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of General Dentistry, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 4Dental Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano, Italy Abstract: Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Keyword: saliva stimulation, dry mouth, saliva substitutes, sialogogues

  15. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  16. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female wi...

  17. IMAGE PROCESSING FOR DETECTION OF ORAL WHITE SPONGE NEVUS LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White Sponge Nevus is a rear hereditary disease in human causes incurable white lesions in oral mucosa. Appropriate history, clinical examination along with biopsy and cytological studies are helpful for diagnosis of this disorder. Identification can also be made in alternative way by applying image processing technique using Watershed segmentation with MATLAB software. The applied techniques are effective and reliable for early accurate detection of the disease as alternative of expertise clinical and time taking laboratory investigations.

  18. Oral Pathology in Clinical Dentistry: A systematic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Subramanyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dental clinician frequently comes across lesions that involve the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Most of these conditions do not pose a diagnostic problem for the dental surgeon. However, the clinical dentist is sometimes accosted with a lesion, the diagnosis of which is not only challenging, but influencing the choice of treatment. This review article provides a systematic and logical approach for diagnosing common lesions encountered in the dental practice.

  19. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  20. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  1. DSS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FROWEIN, JC; POSTMA, TJBM

    1992-01-01

    Information technology in relation to organizational diagnosis and organizational change is the subject of extensive and increasing discussion. A condition for change is insight into organizational problems. This paper discusses the relation between the concepts ''problem'', ''decision making'' and

  2. Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... of your body's cells and organs. Read More "Atrial Fibrillation" Articles Atrial Fibrillation / Who Is at Risk for ...

  3. Laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl; Kuhn, Raphael; Tsaltas, Jim

    2002-08-01

    To consider and explain the possibility of difficulties in diagnosis of endometriosis at previous laparoscopy Retrospective patient record review. The Endometriosis Care Centre of Australia and the private practices of authors. Two hundred and fifteen patients with clinical evidence of endometriosis examined laparoscopically between March 1999 and May 2001. Confirmation of endometriosis by histological biopsy. Endometriosis was confirmed in 168 of the 215 women. Of these women 38 had a previous negative laparoscopy within 12 months of the current laparoscopy. It is possible that in some of the patients, who previously had a negative laparoscopy, endometriosis was not recognised. Possible reasons for difficulty in diagnosis have been identified and techniques to improve diagnosis suggested. This retrospective study was performed to consider and explain the possibility of difficulties in diagnosis of endometriosis at previous laparoscopy.

  4. Dementia: Diagnosis and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Diagnosis & Tests If you or someone you care ... To determine whether an older adult might have dementia, a healthcare professional will: Ask about the person’s ...

  5. Microanalysis in cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacheva, G A [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1984-11-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis accuracy of malignant gastric, rectal, liver and prostatic tumors was performed with relation to the sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunological and immunoenzyme commercial kits of reagents manufactured by different companies and used to determine the concentration of the carcinoembryonic antigen, ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein and acid phosphatase of the prostate. With an increase of the test specificity its diagnostic sensitivity decreases, i.e. the percentage of false-negative results increases. The use of highly specific monoclonal antibodies in serological tests results in a marked decrease of the accuracy of tumor diagnosis. It is necessary to strictly determine indications for the use of the serological and immunodiagnostic kits: for the identification of risk populations, early diagnosis of tumors, differential diagnosis or the monitoring of patients.

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Handayani, Diah; Burhan, Erlina; Yunus, Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks. New advances in the molecular detection of TB, including the faster and simpler nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have resulted in a shorter time for diagnosis and, therefore, faster TB treatments. In this review, we explored the current findings on molecular diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB to see how this advancement could be integrated into public health systems in order to control TB.

  7. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; AbdulMajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = −0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC

  8. [Study of testicular cancer gene expression in samples of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodumova, L O; Muraev, A A; Zakharova, E S; Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V; Zaderenko, I A; Ivanov, S Iu; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Larin, S S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are normally expressed mostly in human germ cells, there is also an aberrant expression in some tumor cells. This expression profile makes them potential tumor growth biomarkers and a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Specificity of CT genes expression in oral malignant and potentially malignant diseases, e.g. oral leukoplakia, is not yet studied. Data on CT genes expression profile in leukoplakia would allow developing new diagnostic methods with potential value for immunotherapy and prophylaxis of leukoplakia malignization. In our study we compared CT genes expression in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We are the first to describe CT genes expression in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia. This findings make impossible differential diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of CT genes expression. The prognostic value of CT genes expression is still unclear, therefore the longitudinal studies are necessary.

  9. Quality of oral surgery referrals and how to improve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorkeborn M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mikael Björkeborn,1 Henrik Nilsson,2 Jonas Anderud1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Växjö Hospital, Växjö, Sweden Aim: To assess the quality of routine oral surgery referrals received at Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital and to emphasize areas for improvement. Method: A retrospective study was performed on all routine oral surgery referrals received between 2014 and 2015 at both Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital. A total of 1,891 referral letters were assessed for their quality against a predetermined checklist of basic requirements of a satisfactory referral. The referrals were also categorized according to if it was sent by a male, female, private dental service, or the Swedish Public Dental Health service. Results: A diagnosis was missing in 30% of all referrals. Radiographs and information about previous radiographic examinations were not included in 10% of the referrals. Of those referrals that included radiographs, only around half were deemed adequate for diagnostic purposes. The presenting complaint was missing in 40% of all referrals. Current medical history was absent in 40% and current medication was omitted in 60% of the referrals. Information about tobacco use was only included in 10% of all referrals. Overall, female referrers performed better than male colleagues. Private referrals more regularly included information about diagnosis, previous treatment, and current medication. On the other hand, referrals from the public dental health service more frequently included radiographs, tobacco use, and current medical history. Conclusion: There is plenty of room for improving the standards of oral surgery referrals. We suggest that future electronic referral systems should only allow for submission once all of the essential information has been considered. Keywords: clinical audit, referral quality, oral surgery referrals

  10. Current Diagnosis and Treatment of Halitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mustafa Kılıçkaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis or oral malodor is not a diagnosis, but is symptom. Halitosis, that we frequently encounter in ear, nose and throat practice can be the harbinger of some serious underlying disease. Therefore, diagnosis and to find the cause of the halitosis are important. Also halitosis treatment is necessary due to the social and psychological effects. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are by-products of our metabolism. Certain diseases such as nasopharynx cancer, larynx cancer ve lung cancer alter the mix of gases. Thus, the analysis of exhaled air has gained importance. New technologies lead to the development of new devices. And with these called electronic noses the analysis of exhaled air has becomes an important non-invasive diagnostic method. In the literature, halitosis and bad breath which is used as synonymus with oral malodor is the emission of unpleasant odor from mouth and nasal passage. It occurs in 25% of the population, approximately and it has a significant social and economic impact. Halitosis is classified as true halitosis (physiologic halitosis and pathologic halitosis, pseudohalitosis and halitophobia. The most common cause is intra-oral diseases. Among all these factors, the most important etiologic factor are the coating tongue. Other ear, nose and throat diseases such as rhinitis and sinusitis are seen among the most common extraoral causes. Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanneralla forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinobacilli and Solobacterium moorei are the bacteria which are commonly isolated from patients with halitosis and they are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs producing ones as well. The treatment of halitosis should be carried out according to the etiology. In the physiologic halitosis tooth brushing, use of dental floss, tongue cleaning and chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc containing antimicrobial mouthwashes

  11. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a epidemiologic study of 191 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature

  12. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral Granular Cell Tumor: Report of Case Series and a Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakostas Panayiotis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The present analysis focuses on examining a case series of eight patients diagnosed with a granular cell tumor located in the oral cavity. Case series: The patients’ clinical states were thoroughly studied, along with the histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations findings. Their surgical treatment and postoperative course are also within the scope of this analysis. Numerous histogenesis theories and the appropriate tumor treatment are mentioned within the article being always in accordance with the relative literature. Conclusions: Oral granular cell tumor is a benign oral disease of possible neural origin commonly located on the tongue. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In any case, histological and immunohistochemical examination confirm both the clinical diagnosis and the differential diagnosis between oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Mucoceles of the oral cavity: a large case series (1994-2008) and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re Cecconi, Dario; Achilli, Antonio; Tarozzi, Marco; Lodi, Giovanni; Demarosi, Federica; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating data of patients affected by oral mucoceles, examined at the Unit of Oral Medicine and Pathology of the University of Milan between January 1994 and December 2008. Concise review on oral mucoceles and analysis of the clinical files of patients who underwent excisional biopsy (patient age, medical history, diagnosis, date and site of the biopsy, histopathological diagnosis and recurrences if any). During the period June 1994-December 2008, 158 mucoceles were observed (93 males and 65 females), with the most frequent site being the lower lip (53%) (p=0.001 by Fisher's test). The mean age of the patients was 31.9 years, with a peak of occurrence in the first four decades of life (75%). Mucoceles are lesions commonly seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lips.

  15. Ileocecal endometriosis: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana López Carrasco

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Variability in symptoms hinders diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis is MRI, but clinical suspicion optimizes imaging test diagnosis. Segmental resection should be indicated in the majority of the cases.

  16. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, S.; Kirsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is very common and affects almost everyone at some point. It is one of the most common disorders that leads patients to see their physician. All different forms have the nociception via trigeminal nerve fibers in common. Beside the clinical course headaches are classified as either primary or secondary, with the latter having an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Imaging has a low diagnostic yield in primary headache but play an important role in the differential diagnosis of secondary forms. An overview of different forms of secondary headache is given, outlining diagnostic procedures and the morphologic imaging features of each syndrome.

  17. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients’ delay, and 3) reduction of doctors’ delay. Oral cancer population-based screening (“mass screening”) programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients’ delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients’ delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients’ delay. Doctors’ delay includes dentists’ delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors’ delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, quality of life

  18. Direct Microscopy: A Useful Tool to Diagnose Oral Candidiasis in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mathieu; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Vaysse, Frédéric; Bonner, Mark; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity in human. Among children, this condition represents one of the most frequent affecting the mucosa. Although most diagnoses are made based on clinical signs and features, a microbiological analysis is sometimes necessary. We performed a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis to identify the techniques most commonly employed in routine clinical practice. A Medline-PubMed search covering the last 10 years was performed. Microbiological techniques were used in cases requiring confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In such cases, direct microscopy was the method most commonly used for diagnosing candidiasis. Direct microscopy appears as the method of choice for confirming clinical diagnosis and could become a routine chair-side technique.

  19. A Skeptical Approach to the Management of Persistent Oral Ulceration in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Kartal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of oral lesions is sometimes difficult due to both the clinician’s limited experience with the conditions that may cause the lesions and their similar appearances, especially in children. Correctly establishing a definitive diagnosis is of major importance to clinicians who manage patients with oral mucosal diseases. In patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA, oral ulcers occur frequently, which are quite variable, and may lead to a misdiagnosis or failure to diagnose. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who was examined for squamous cell cancer of the tongue and diagnosed as having FA without any haematological manifestations. While surgery could not be done, both radiotherapy and chemotherapy had to be decreased. He died of progressive disease 6 months after the diagnosis. Unexplained ulcers in a child with a duration longer than 2 weeks should be further evaluated, especially for FA, even without the presence of anaemia.

  20. [New oral anticoagulant drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Alejandro; Aizman, Andrés; Zúñiga, Pamela; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.

  1. Local recurrence of rectal cancer: MR imaging before and after oral superparamagnetic particles vs contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Ohlsen, H.; Holm, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three imaging strategies for the diagnosis of local recurrence of rectal cancer: (a) MR imaging; (b) MR imaging after administration of enteral superparamagnetic particles (Ferristene); and (c) contrast-enhanced CT. Seventeen patients with previous surgery for rectal cancer were examined, 12 patients with local tumour recurrence in the pelvis and 5 patients with postoperative changes. Pelvic multi-coil MR imaging before and after oral administration of superparamagnetic contrast medium [Abdoscan (Ferristene USAN), Nycomed-Amersham, Lidingoe, Sweden] as well as abdominal and pelvic CT was performed in all patients. The examinations were independently evaluated by three different radiologists. The general effect of the oral MR contrast medium, the delineation of normal and pathological structures as well as confidence in the diagnosis were registered on a visual analog scale (VAS). The diagnosis according to MR before and after oral contrast medium, and CT, was compared, in 16 patients, with the final diagnosis which was verified by biopsy (n = 3), surgery (n = 6), clinical follow-up (n = 4) and by follow-up with MR or CT (n = 3). No significant improvement in MR image quality was found after enteral contrast medium. The post-contrast MR diagnosis was not changed in any of the patients. The diagnosis on MR correlated with the final diagnosis in 12 of 16 patients (sensitivity 91 %, accuracy 62 %) and the diagnosis on CT in 11 of 16 patients (sensitivity 82 %, accuracy 56 %). The radiologists' ''confidence'' in the diagnosis and the degree of accordance with the final diagnosis did not score higher on MR after than before oral contrast administration; however, the accordance with the final diagnosis scored better on MR than on CT. No advantages of orally administered superparamagnetic contrast medium were observed in the examined patient group. Magnetic resonance is preferable to CT in diagnosing local tumour recurrence. (orig.)

  2. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural...

  3. Chronic myeloproliferative disorders: A rarest case with oral manifestations and dental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh B Ruparelia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD are rarest hematological disorders (malignant myeloid neoplasms. The three most common chronic myeloproliferative disorders are polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis. Clinical manifestations (including oral manifestations of these disorders are overlapping with each other and with other hematologic disorders, which makes the diagnosis of CMPD a challenging task. In this article we report a rare to rarest case of CMPD at dental outpatient department, its oral manifestations and its management in dental clinics.

  4. Oral complications in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications

  5. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  6. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  7. Pathogenesis of oral FIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Miller

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years. Modern quantitative analyses applied to natural FIV oral infection could significantly further our understanding of lentiviral oral disease and transmission. We therefore characterized FIV salivary viral kinetics and antibody secretions to more fully document oral viral pathogenesis. Our results demonstrate that: (i saliva of FIV-infected cats contains infectious virus particles, FIV viral RNA at levels equivalent to circulation, and lower but significant amounts of FIV proviral DNA; (ii the ratio of FIV RNA to DNA is significantly higher in saliva than in circulation; (iii FIV viral load in oral lymphoid tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes is significantly higher than mucosal tissues (buccal mucosa, salivary gland, tongue; (iv salivary IgG antibodies increase significantly over time in FIV-infected cats, while salivary IgA levels remain static; and, (v saliva from naïve Specific Pathogen Free cats inhibits FIV growth in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that oral lymphoid tissues serve as a site for enhanced FIV replication, resulting in accumulation of FIV particles and FIV-infected cells in saliva. Failure to induce a virus-specific oral mucosal antibody response, and/or viral capability to overcome inhibitory components in saliva may perpetuate chronic oral cavity infection. Based upon these findings, we propose a model of oral FIV pathogenesis

  8. The management of oral erythema multiforme in juvenile patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Savitri Ernawati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme is an acute inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes that causes a variety of the skin lesionhence the name ‘multiforme’.The oral mucosa looks severely inflamed, but the feature are non specific and usually a biopsy is required in order to confirm the diagnosis. Cracked, bleeding, Crusted, swollen and ulcers of the lips is very characteristic of erythema multiforme, and lip involvement may cause significant morbidity. EM is assumed as an immune complex disorder which rises as a result of an immune response to an external agent such as herpes simplex virus or various drugs. We reported: 14-year girl, complained she suffered from painful oral ulceration for one week. One weeks advance the patient received a treatment of paracetamol and paramex for febris, headache and cough. Clinical examination of the skin showed no signs of cutaneous involvement. Other site such as the conjunctival, and genital were also free of lesions. The patients had several red-based superficial erosions on the upper and lower lips accompanied by crusting and bleeding. Intra oral findings showed multiple irregular erosions, ulcers and intense erythematous areas, mainly on the labial mucosa. The clinical diagnosis of EM was concluded by anamnesis and clinical appearance, with differential diagnosis of secondary herpes infection (herpes labialis and pemphigus vulgaris. Systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy is frequently used to treat EM Although it may partially suppress the disease. Objective: This report explains and describes the management of patients with EM which may help dentists to determine an accurate diagnosis to avoid further complication and to give medical intervention to the disease. Conclusion: Early recognition of this disease may prevent delayed diagnosis and incorrect treatment.

  9. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  10. Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge, Anticoagulation Control, and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Attending an Anticoagulation Clinic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Evaluation.

  11. Oral Cancer Awareness Among Dental Patients in Omdurman, Sudan: a cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Tasneem Mohammed; Osman, Khansa Awad Alkareem; Mohamed, Safa Abdelrawf; Mohamed, Matab Abdalrhaman; Almahdi, Hatim Mohammed

    2017-03-23

    Oral cancer is a preventable disease. Its occurrence is mostly due to lifestyle. In Sudan, the use of smokeless tobacco (Toombak) has long been linked to oral cancer. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of oral cancer may well aid in early diagnosis and treatment. This is bound to result in increasing survival rates, as well as reducing the oral cancer burden on the society. This study aimed to assess oral cancer awareness regarding knowledge of signs, symptoms, risk factors and sources of the information. Furthermore, it attempts to evaluate attitudes towards oral cancer screening and any previous experience of screening, amongst dental patients attending University of Science and Technology (UST) Dental Teaching Hospital. Omdurman, Sudan. A hospital based cross-sectional study, interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted amongst 500 adult patients attending the UST Dental Hospital during 2015. A total of 57.7% (286) of the individuals demonstrated good knowledge of signs and symptoms, whereas 49% (139) expressed good knowledge of risk factors of oral cancer. For the majority of the individuals 66.1% (290), the most common source of information about oral cancer was from the media, while 33.9% individuals (149), obtained knowledge from direct contact of health workers. The overwhelming majority, 93.2% (466) never screened for oral cancer despite their positive attitude towards it 66.4% (332). Knowledge of risk factors associated significantly with those reported positive attitude towards oral cancer screening and those reported direct contact with health workers as a source of information, (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, females and those living in urban districts scores higher than their counterpart in knowledge of risk factor of oral cancer. In addition, those employed 58.6% (280) and 62.8% (164) with correct believes about oral cancer showed significant association with positive knowledge of signs and symptoms (p ≤ 0.05). Awareness levels, knowledge

  12. Clinicopathologic Correlation of Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Lichenoid Lesions: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka; Lončar-Brzak, Božana; Bakale-Hodak, Iva; Seiwerth, Sven; Majstorović, Martina; Grce, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are clinically and histologically similar lesions but their treatment planning and prognosis are different. The review of the literature indicates numerous criteria to distinguish these two lesions; however there is a lot of inconsistency. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the correlation of histopathology and clinical OLP and OLL diagnosis and to clarify which histopathologic criteria could best distinguish these two diagnoses. A retrospective study showed that clinically diagnosed 92 OLPs and 14 OLLs have been confirmed histopathologically in 52.2% and 42.9% of cases, respectively. In addition, histopathology showed statistically significant more eosinophils (P < 0.0005), plasma cells (P < 0.0005), and granulocytes (P < 0.05) in OLL than OLP. To establish histopathological diagnosis of OLP and OLL it should be mandatory to define the type of cells in mononuclear infiltrate, which can be associated more accurately with clinical feature and patient history. Therefore, currently accepted diagnostic criteria for OLP and OLL should be modified and validated on a larger number of patients taking into account particular distinguishing histopathological features. PMID:25531004

  13. Halitosis: Current concepts on etiology, diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Uditi; Sharma, Gaurav; Juneja, Manish; Nagpal, Archna

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis or oral malodor is an offensive odor originating from the oral cavity, leading to anxiety and psychosocial embarrassment. A patient with halitosis is most likely to contact primary care practitioner for the diagnosis and management. With proper diagnosis, identification of the etiology and timely referrals certain steps are taken to create a successful individualized therapeutic approach for each patient seeking assistance. It is significant to highlight the necessity of an interdisciplinary method for the treatment of halitosis to prevent misdiagnosis or unnecessary treatment. The literature on halitosis, especially with randomized clinical trials, is scarce and additional studies are required. This article succinctly focuses on the development of a systematic flow of events to come to the best management of the halitosis from the primary care practitioner's point of view. PMID:27095913

  14. High percentage of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesion in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokonen, Hellevi M A; Juurikivi, Aino; Kauppila, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta

    2017-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (OLL) are regarded as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with potential for malignant transformation. This potential is not clear due to difficulties in diagnosis of OLP and OLL. Our aim was therefore to evaluate previously identified OLP and OLL as precursor lesions in OSCC and to identify cancer related etiological factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We retrospectively reviewed all cases (total 323, comprising 164 females and 159 males) with OSCC treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases and Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital during 2015. Confirmed by histopathological biopsy, 58 (17.9%) had OLP and 13 had OLL (4.0%) as precursor lesion. Patients with OLP were slightly older than those without it. OLP was more common in females than in males (p < .0001). TN class 1 tumors were more prevalent among patients with OLP or OLL (p = .006) and cancer relapses less common (p = .005). Smoking was less frequent in patients with OLP and OLL (p < .0001). Also alcohol abuse was less frequent among these patients (p < .001). Our findings confirm the importance of active follow-up of all patients with OLP and OLL even in patients who do not fit a traditional high-risk category for OSCC.

  15. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral Insulin – Fact or Fiction? - Possibilities of Achieving Oral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 5. Oral Insulin – Fact or Fiction? - Possibilities of Achieving Oral Delivery of Insulin. K Gowthamarajan Giriraj T Kulkarni. General Article Volume 8 Issue 5 May 2003 pp 38-46 ...

  17. Can the oral microflora affect oral ulcerative mucositis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review: Oral mucositis is one of the most prevalent toxicities after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Mucositis is initiated by the chemotherapy or radiotherapy preceding the transplantation. It is commonly accepted that microorganisms play a role in the process of oral mucositis.

  18. Oral paracoccidioidomycosis: Retrospective analysis of 55 Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Aline Heloísa; Meira, Henrique Côrtes; Pereira, Igor Figueiredo; de Lacerda, Julio César Tanos; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a rare fungal infection in the world, but endemic and acquired exclusively in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in South America and Brazil, particularly. Changes in oral cavity are common and constitute the first clinical manifestation in many patients. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of oral PCM and analyse the profile of the disease and patients. Retrospective research, consisting of information present in the medical records in the period 1998-2015, whose histopathological diagnosis was oral PCM. Fifty-five oral PCM cases were confirmed. Of these patients, 90.9% were males and 9.1% were females. The average age was 49.66 years and the most reported occupation was rural workers. The painful symptomatology was present in 61.82% of patients. Erythematous lesions were predominant in 73% of them. In single lesions (22 cases), the most common locations were jugal mucosa and tongue. In multiple involvement (30 cases), the most affected regions were lips, jugal mucosa and alveolar ridge. Epidemiology of PCM, was similar to several other studies, especially in Brazil. This is the most important fungal infection in Latin America and the recognition of oral lesions is extremely important, as is often the first and in many cases the only manifestation of the disease. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Oral mucosal lesions in Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and EDNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Rene; Piemonte, Eduardo; Lazos, Jerónimo; Gilligan, Gerardo; Zampini, Anibal; Lanfranchi, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe oral lesions in patients with eating disorders (ED), including Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). A prospective case-control study was carried out from April 2003 to May 2004. Inclusion criteria for the study group were individuals with a diagnosis of ED; age and sex-matched individuals without ED were included as controls. Clinical data regarding ED, medical complications and oral examination were performed by previously calibrated professionals. Study group (n = 65) presented 46 cases of BN (71%), 13 of EDNOS (20%) and 6 of AN (9%); also, 94% (n = 61) showed oral lesions. The most common were: labial erythema, exfoliative cheilitis, orange-yellow palate, hemorrhagic lesions, lip-cheek biting and non-specific oral atrophies. Only two patients of the study group had dental erosions, and no case of major salivary gland swelling was found. ED display a wide array of oral mucosal lesions that can be regarded as their early manifestations. The dentist could be the first professional to detect symptoms of eating disorders, potentially improving early detection and treatment of ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  1. [Oral diseases in auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust-Lemoine, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Sylvie

    2017-09-01

    Auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) also called Auto-immune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare monogenic childhood-onset auto-immune disease. This autosomal recessive disorder is caused by mutations in the auto-immune regulator (AIRE) gene, and leads to autoimmunity targeting peripheral tissues. There is a wide variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with APSI, with auto-immune endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. These patients suffer from oral diseases such as dental enamel hypoplasia and candidiasis. Both are frequently described, and in recent series, enamel hypoplasia and candidiasis are even the most frequent components of APS1 together with hypoparathyroidism. Both often occur during childhood (before 5 years old for canrdidiasis, and before 15 years old for enamel hypoplasia). Oral candidiasis is recurrent all life long, could become resistant to azole antifungal after years of treatment, and be carcinogenic, leading to severe oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral components of APS1 should be diagnosed and rigorously treated. Dental enamel hypoplasia and/or recurrent oral candidiasis in association with auto-immune diseases in a young child should prompt APS1 diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Current management of oral cancer. A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, R A; Blanchaert, R H

    2001-11-01

    Recent basic science discoveries have contributed to our understanding of the etiology of oral cancer and allowed us to consider innovative approaches to therapy. The authors evaluated and summarized current approaches to the management of oral cancer, emphasizing the multidisciplinary team approach to coordinate surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Current concepts in management, including complications of therapy, are described. State-of-the-art surgical techniques can spare patients with oral cancer from much of the morbidity and complications common in the past. The refinement of treatment strategies reduces complications and improves efficacy. Many exciting new clinical trials in the areas of gene therapy and immunomodulation are showing promise. Management of oral cancer has undergone radical change in the past 10 years and continues to evolve rapidly. Discoveries in molecular biology, diagnosis, surgery, radiation therapy and medical oncology have altered many traditional concepts and practices. General dental practitioners need to understand current treatment modalities for oral and pharyngeal cancers to determine to whom they should refer patients for the most appropriate treatment, and to make recommendations regarding complications associated with these cancers.

  3. Emotional assessment of patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; do Carmo Carvalho, Bruna Fernandes; Balducci, Ivan; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Nicodemo, Denise; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic immune-mediated disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.5-2.5% in the general population. Patients with oral lichen planus are often emotionally unstable and anxious and may develop concomitant systemic disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate emotional characteristics of patients with oral lichen planus. Two groups were studied: the first group consisted of 48 patients with a diagnosis of oral lichen planus, and the second group consisted of controls without the disease matched for age and gender at a proportion of 1:1. The emotional state of the patients was evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, SF-36 generic quality of life questionnaire, and the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. The present investigation demonstrated the presence of anxiety and depression in patients with oral lichen planus and a negative impact of the disorder on the patient's quality of life as indicated by impairment of the physical aspect, vitality, mental health, and social aspect domains. This could indicate that associated psychological treatment may be important in the follow-up of these patients. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression in oral lichen planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Bagheri, Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules that their receptors are located on endothelial cells and leukocytes. The aim of this study is the immunohistochemical evaluation of VCAM1 and ICAM1 in oral lichen planus and to compare these two markers with normal mucosa for evaluation of angiogenesis. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 70 paraffined blocks of oral lichen planus and 30 normal mucosa samples taken from around the lesions. Samples were stained with H & E and then with Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal mouse anti human VCAM1 (CD106), & monoclonal mouse anti human ICAM1(CD54) for confirmation of diagnosis. Slides were evaluated under light microscope and VCAM1 and ICAM1 positive cells (endothelial cells and leukocytes) were counted. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon and Chi-Square and poral lichen planus according to the percentage of stained cells (p=0.000& p=0.000, Mann-Whitney test). Thirty cases of oral normal mucosa associated with lichen planus showed that the VCAM1 has increased significantly in comparison to normal mucosa (plichen planus and normal mucosa, showed a significantly difference (plichen planus was not observed (p>0.05). Regarding the results, it seems that high expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 is related to oral lichen planus. PMID:24551788

  5. Radiological diagnosis of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlay, D.B.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is about radiology of fractures. While it contains sections of clinical features it is not intended that readers should rely entirely upon these for the diagnosis and management of the injured patient. As in the diagnosis and treatment of all medical problems, fracture management must be carried out in a logical step-by-step fashion - namely, history, examination, investigation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and then treatment. Each section deals with a specific anatomical area and begins with line drawings of the normal radiographs demonstrating the anatomy. Accessory views that may be requested, and the indications for these, are included. Any radiological pitfalls for the area in general are then described. The fractures in adults are then examined in turn, their radiological features described, and any pitfalls in their diagnosis discussed. A brief note of important clinical findings is included. A brief mention is made of pediatric fractures which are of significance and their differences to the adult pattern indicated. Although fractures can be classified into types with different characteristics, in life every fracture is individual. Fractures by and large follow common patterns, but many have variations

  6. Molecular diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Joaquín; Sastre-Ibañez, Marina

    2016-12-01

    To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts. These changes in immunotherapy prescription aided by molecular diagnosis have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in some scenarios. Certain patterns of sensitization to grass or olive pollen and bee allergens may identify patients with higher risk of adverse reaction during immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis, when used with other tools and patients' clinical records, can help clinicians better to select the most appropriate patients and allergens for specific immunotherapy and, in some cases, predict the risk of adverse reactions. The pattern of sensitization to allergens could potentially predict the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy provided that these immunotherapy products contain a sufficient amount of these allergens. Nevertheless, multiplex assay remains a third-level approach, not to be used as screening method in current practice.

  7. Oral Metagenomic Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The goal is to test the  hypothesis that oral microbiome and metagenomic analyses will allow  us  to identify new...biomarkers  that are  useful  for the diagnosis of early RA and/or biomarkers that help to predict the efficacy of  specific therapeutic interventions... RNA  microbiome analysis as well as whole genome shotgun sequencing.  Upon completion of these aims, any identified bacterial biomarkers may be

  8. Nasal and oral masses in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Psychogios, Vassilios; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2006-03-01

    A 5-year-old, intact male, stray dog was presented in poor body condition, with pallor, muzzle deformity, multiple oozing fistulas with grass awns, bilateral sanguinopurulent nasal discharge and a fleshy friable mass occupying part of the hard palate. A friable mass occupying both nasal cavities was found on rhinoscopy. The dog had moderate nonregenerative normochromic-microcytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Cytologic preparations of the nasal and oral masses contained a neoplastic population of round cells with intracytoplasmic and extracellular vacuoles. Leishmania amastigotes also were observed, in the cytoplasm of macrophages and, occasionally, within neoplastic cells. A diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumor and concurrent leishmaniosis was made. Treatment with vincristine and allopurinol resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs and disappearance of the masses. The presence of amastigotes in neoplastic TVT cells may suggest an alternative mode of transmission of canine leishmaniosis where these diseases co-exist.

  9. [Oral maxillofacial-head and neck tumor and holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C P

    2017-08-09

    The advance of clinical diagnosis and treatment in oral and maxillofacial-head and neck tumors has been through the process of specialization and multidisciplinary cooperation. In most cases, a single discipline cannot meet the requirements of diagnosis and treatment, which needs the cooperation of oral and maxillofacial surgery, otolaryngology and oncology approach and therapeutic method such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Holistic integrative medicine aims at integrating the most effective clinical practice experience and patients' individual situation and prognosis, establishing new medical mode conforming to the modern concept and fulfilling the medical system adapting to the specific characteristics of the diseases.

  10. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620)......Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6...

  11. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  12. Patients’ perceptions of oral cancer screening in dental practice: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is increasing in incidence in the UK and indeed worldwide. Delay in diagnosis is common; up to half of patients are diagnosed with advanced lesions. Thus it is essential to develop methods to aid early detection. This study aimed to assess dental patients’ experiences and awareness of oral cancer and screening within general dental practice. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 184 English-speaking adults, with no previous history of oral cancer was conducted. The questionnaire collected data on participant’s knowledge of oral cancer, experience of ‘screening’, attitudes and feelings towards having a screening, anticipated help-seeking behaviours, health-related behaviours (particularly risk factors) and sociodemographics. Results Twenty percent of respondents had never heard of oral cancer; 77% knew little or nothing about it and 72% did not know that their Dentist routinely screens for oral cancer. Overall, attitudes to screening were positive. Ninety two percent of respondents would like their Dentist to tell them if they were being screened for signs of oral cancer and 97% would like help from their Dentists to reduce their risk. Conclusion Patients seem generally unaware of oral cancer screening by their dentist but are happy to take part in screening, would like to be informed, and welcome the support of their Dentist to reduce their risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:23249393

  13. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment. (paper)

  14. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  15. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  16. Generalized Pustular Psoriasis and Hepatic Dysfunction Associated with Oral Terbinafine Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Soo; Jwa, Seung-Wook; Jang, Bong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Bum; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of 61-yr-old man with stable psoriasis who progressively developed generalized pustular eruption, erythroderma, fever, and hepatic dysfunction following oral terbinafine. Skin biopsy was compatible with pustular psoriasis. After discontinuation of terbinafine and initiating topical corticosteroid and calcipotriol combination with narrow band ultraviolet B therapy, patient'S condition slowly improved until complete remission was reached 2 weeks later. The diagnosis of generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) induced by oral terbinafine was made. To our knowledge, this is the first report of GPP accompanied by hepatic dysfunction associated with oral terbinafine therapy. PMID:17297275

  17. Anatomy and Disorders of the Oral Cavity of Miscellaneous Exotic Companion Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Angela M; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2016-09-01

    Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relevance of tumor angiogenesis patterns as a diagnostic value and prognostic indicator in oral precancer and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Devicharan D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Devi Charan Shetty,1 Puneet Ahuja,2 DK Taneja,5 Ajit Singh Rathore,2 Shivjot Chhina,3 Upasana Sethi Ahuja,4 Kiran Kumar,1 Anshuman Ahuja,5 Priyanka Rastogi,11Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, I.T.S-CDSR, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India; 2Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology; 3Department of Periodontics; 4Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology; 5Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, I.T.S Dental College, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaAbstract: Tumor angiogenesis occurs by recruitment of endothelial cell precursors or by sprouting of existing capillaries, which differ from the normal vasculature by having an altered morphology that can be exploited for diagnosis and as a prognostic indicator. Improved technologies have propelled diagnosis into a new era. These technologies have to be used with great precision. The diagnosis of a dysplastic premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa cannot be based solely on clinical findings. Therefore histologic evaluation of a representative biopsy specimen is necessary. Accurate judgment of the proper site for biopsy is essential for reaching a correct diagnosis. The aim of this report is to analyze the vascular patterns with the help of direct oral microscopy and the technique of stereo-optical microscopy in the oral cavity to select biopsy sites, and compare the outcome of a directed biopsy with that of biopsy specimens obtained from sites selected solely on the basis of clinical criteria. The study sample comprised 50 oral mucosal lesions. A statistically significant difference was noted between samples judged to be microscopically representative sites. We conclude that this method would aid in early and better diagnosis and treatment planning of oral premalignant and malignant lesions by assessing the various vascular patterns in the mucosa.Keywords: stereomicroscope, biopsy site selection, angiogenesis, colposcopy

  19. Design of a smartphone-camera-based fluorescence imaging system for the detection of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Ross

    Shown is the design of the Smartphone Oral Cancer Detection System (SOCeeDS). The SOCeeDS attaches to a smartphone and utilizes its embedded imaging optics and sensors to capture images of the oral cavity to detect oral cancer. Violet illumination sources excite the oral tissues to induce fluorescence. Images are captured with the smartphone's onboard camera. Areas where the tissues of the oral cavity are darkened signify an absence of fluorescence signal, indicating breakdown in tissue structure brought by precancerous or cancerous conditions. With this data the patient can seek further testing and diagnosis as needed. Proliferation of this device will allow communities with limited access to healthcare professionals a tool to detect cancer in its early stages, increasing the likelihood of cancer reversal.

  20. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  1. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Bauer, T; Richter, F; Leonhardt, P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases. Patient's history and physical evaluation give major hints of the underlying disease. Further diagnostic measures comprise lung function analysis including spirometry, plethysmography and--in severe cases--blood gas analysis. Bronchial hyperreactivity may be quantified with an unspecific inhalative provocation test. In many cases allergic diseases are accompanied by asthma. Thus, allergy tests--particularly skin prick tests--have to be carried out. To further define an underlying allergy, in some cases even specific inhalative provocation tests have to be performed. X-ray of the thorax and other imaging techniques, detailed blood analysis, further diagnosis of the upper respiratory tract and the cardiac system may have to be carried out a) to quantify the effects of a severe form of asthma or COPD on other organs, and b) for differential diagnostic examinations.

  2. CT diagnosis of hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-04-01

    In hepatocellular carcinoma, present status of CT diagnosis was discussed. Hepatocellular carcinoma is sometimes imaged in same concentration as that of surrounding tissues, and the detection rate ranged from 79 to 94%. The rate of differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic carcinoma was only 83% (includes 22% of false diagnosis) using contrast enhancement. The rates of detection of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic one were also only 87% and 75%, respectively, even by the combined use of arterial infusion CT and dynamic CT. However, the CT images is reproducible, and is supplemented by the information of US. Thus, the combination of these methods is useful in diagnosing the presence, extension, and nature of liver carcinoma.

  3. Human prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  4. [Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladure, H; D'hervé, D; Loget, P; Poulain, P

    2006-04-01

    Sirenomelia sequence associates a fusion of inferior legs with renal anomalies until bilateral agenesis. It is a rare and lethal polymalformation. The purpose of the ultrasonographic study is to identify the sirenomelia as early as possible during pregnancy and to differentiate it from caudal regression syndrome. A case of sirenomelia diagnosed early is reported together with a review of the literature. The ultrasonographic diagnosis, associated defects, the interest of color Doppler study of abdominal vasculature are discussed. Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis should be obtained as early as possible, before 20th gestational week at the latest. Color Doppler is helpful to confirm the diagnosis in case of bilateral renal agenesis. The main differences between sirenomelia and caudal regression syndrome (which requires a very different genetic counselling) are summarized in a table.

  5. Diagnosis of venous disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, E.

    1993-01-01

    Limited accuracy in the clinic diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (VT) makes such diagnostic tests such as duplex sonography or venography necessary. Exact information on the age and extent of the thrombus are necessary for the clinician to optimize the therapeutric management. The correct diagnosis of calf vein thrombosis and of recurrent VT in patients with postphlebitis changes also has implications for treatment. After exclusion of thrombosis, the radiologist should evaluate the leg for other possible causes of symptoms besides VT. Investigation of the venous sytem also has a role in the diagnosis in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. In patients with chronic venous insuffficiency the deep venous system should assessed for patency and venous valve function. The superficial veins should be differentiated in segments with sufficient or insufficient venous valves, and it is also necessary to look for insufficiency of the perforrating veins. In patients with superficial phlebitis there is risk of propagation into the deep venous system. (orig.) [de

  6. Can 3'-Deoxy-3'-((18)F) Fluorothymidine Out Perform 2-Deoxy-2-((18)F) Fluoro-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Patients With Oral/Head and Neck Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua D; Carlson, Eric R; Heidel, Robert E

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the performance of cellular metabolism imaging with 2-deoxy-2-((18)F) fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) versus cellular proliferation imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-((18)F) fluorothymidine (FLT) in the detection of cervical lymph node metastases in oral/head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess a head-to-head performance of FLT imaging and clinical FDG imaging for characterizing cervical lymph node metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral/head and neck region. The primary predictor variable of the study was the presence of FDG or FLT avidity within the cervical lymph nodes. The primary outcome variable was the histologic presence of metastatic SCC in the cervical lymph nodes. The performance was reported in terms of the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values. The overall accuracy for discriminating positive from negative lymph nodes was evaluated as a function of the positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake value (SUV). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed for both tracers. Eleven patients undergoing surgical resection of SCC of the oral/head and neck region underwent preoperative FDG and FLT PET-computed tomography (CT) scans on separate days. The interpretation of the FDG PET-CT imaging resulted in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 43.2, 99.5, 94.4, 88.9, and 94.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for FLT PET-CT imaging was 75.7, 99.2, 97.1, 90.3, and 97.7%, respectively. The areas under the curve for the ROC curves were 0.9 and 0.84 for FDG and FLT, respectively. Poor correlation was observed between the SUV for FDG and FLT within the lymph nodes and tumors. FLT showed better overall performance for detecting lymphadenopathy on qualitative assessment within the total

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea and oral language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Cavalheiro, Maria Gabriela; Maximino, Luciana Paula; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa

    Children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have consequences, such as daytime sleepiness and learning, memory, and attention disorders, that may interfere in oral language. To verify, based on the literature, whether OSA in children was correlated to oral language disorders. A literature review was carried out in the Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using the descriptors "Child Language" AND "Obstructive Sleep Apnea". Articles that did not discuss the topic and included children with other comorbidities rather than OSA were excluded. In total, no articles were found at Lilacs, 37 at PubMed, 47 at Scopus, and 38 at Web of Science databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six studies were selected, all published from 2004 to 2014. Four articles demonstrated an association between primary snoring/OSA and receptive language and four articles showed an association with expressive language. It is noteworthy that the articles used different tools and considered different levels of language. The late diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with a delay in verbal skill acquisition. The professionals who work with children should be alert, as most of the phonetic sounds are acquired during ages 3-7 years, which is also the peak age for hypertrophy of the tonsils and childhood OSA. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea and oral language disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Castro Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may have consequences, such as daytime sleepiness and learning, memory, and attention disorders, that may interfere in oral language. Objective To verify, based on the literature, whether OSA in children was correlated to oral language disorders. Methods A literature review was carried out in the Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using the descriptors “Child Language” AND “Obstructive Sleep Apnea”. Articles that did not discuss the topic and included children with other comorbidities rather than OSA were excluded. Results In total, no articles were found at Lilacs, 37 at PubMed, 47 at Scopus, and 38 at Web of Science databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six studies were selected, all published from 2004 to 2014. Four articles demonstrated an association between primary snoring/OSA and receptive language and four articles showed an association with expressive language. It is noteworthy that the articles used different tools and considered different levels of language. Conclusion The late diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with a delay in verbal skill acquisition. The professionals who work with children should be alert, as most of the phonetic sounds are acquired during ages 3–7 years, which is also the peak age for hypertrophy of the tonsils and childhood OSA.

  9. [Recurrent pulmonary infection and oral mucosal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fei-Mei; Tang, Lan-Lan; Zhang, Hui; Xie, Min; Yang, Ming-Hua; Yang, Liang-Chun; Yu, Yan; Cao, Li-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    An 8-year-old girl who had experienced intermittent cough and fever over a 3 year period, was admitted after experiencing a recurrence for one month. One year ago the patient experienced a recurrent oral mucosal ulcer. Physical examination showed vitiligo in the skin of the upper right back. Routine blood tests and immune function tests performed in other hospitals had shown normal results. Multiple lung CT scans showed pulmonary infection. The patient had recurrent fever and cough and persistent presence of some lesions after anti-infective therapy. The antitubercular therapy was ineffective. Routine blood tests after admission showed agranulocytosis. Gene detection was performed and she was diagnosed with dyskeratosis congenita caused by homozygous mutation in RTEL1. Patients with dyskeratosis congenita with RTEL1 gene mutation tend to develop pulmonary complications. Since RTEL1 gene sequence is highly variable with many mutation sites and patterns and can be inherited via autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance, this disease often has various clinical manifestations, which may lead to missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. For children with unexplained recurrent pulmonary infection, examinations of the oral cavity, skin, and nails and toes should be taken and routine blood tests should be performed to exclude dyskeratosis congenita. There are no specific therapies for dyskeratosis congenita at present, and when bone marrow failure and pulmonary failure occur, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation are the only therapies. Androgen and its derivatives are effective in some patients. Drugs targeting the telomere may be promising for patients with dyskeratosis congenita.

  10. Oral Bilateral Collagenous Fibroma: A previously unreported case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana-Carolina; Gomes, Ana-Paula; Tarquinio, Sandra; Abduch-Rodrigues, Eduardo; Mesquita, Ricardo; Silva, Karine

    2018-01-01

    Collagenous fibroma, also known as desmoplastic fibroblastoma, is a rare benign slow growing tumor particularly uncommon in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and histopathological features of an oral collagenous fibroma as well as to compare this data with those reported in an English-literature review. The thirteenth case of collagenous fibroma in the oral cavity and the first to present clinically as a bilateral mass was described. A 48-years-old female patient was referred to a School of Dentistry, complaining about an asymptomatic swelling on the hard palate, lasting around ten years. The intraoral examination revealed two well-defined mass, bilaterally in the hard palate. An excisional biopsy was performed. Microscopically, the connective tissue consisted of dense collagen bundles in which were seen scarcely distributed spindle-shaped to stellate fibroblastic cells. Blood vessels were few, as well as inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and factor XIIIa and negative for S-100, CD68, CD34, HHF35, desmin and AE1/AE3. The patient remains disease-free 24 months after excision. In conclusion, oral collagenous fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of bilateral sessile nodules in the oral cavity. Key words: Connective tissue, mouth diseases, mouth neoplasms, oral diagnosis, oral pathology.

  11. Diagnosis of epitheliod leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, A.E.; Shevyakov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Epithelioid leiomyoma (EL) is unusual and rarely met tumor of the stomach. From International histological classification it belongs to benign tumors of smooth muscular tissue. As other nonepithelial tumors EL can grow endogastral, intramural and exogastral. Exogastral type of tumor growth presents difficulties for diagnosis as changes of mucous and sometimes muscular layers of stomach wall are absent. An observation was given of a patient with mentioned disease. Primary diagnosis was mechanical jaundice, chronic cholecystitis. Tumor formation (10x8x9 sm) was revealed in the stomach during operation

  12. [Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea

    2013-03-01

    Mucormycosis are deep infections caused by ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order of Mucorales. The disease occurs mostly in immunocompromised, diabetic or solid organ transplant recipients. There are currently no specific diagnostic guidelines for mucormycosis. The histological examination and culture of the clinical sample remain the most useful approaches for diagnosis. Furthermore, alternative methods to the fungal culture are yet to be standardized. Here we review the current microbiological approaches used for the diagnosis and identification of Mucorales. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  13. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  14. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  15. Diagnosis of Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some...... to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis...

  16. Oral health in frail elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ageing points towards increasing health problems and rising costs for the society. One of these health problems is the deteriorating oral health in care dependent elderly. The latter is related to the high need for care on many levels in these elderly. The lack of attention for oral care can be

  17. Oral health problems and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ki Kim

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying.

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ... be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ... will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. Click here ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the cancer is often discovered late in its development. Your family dentist or OMS is in the best position to detect oral cancer during your routine dental examinations. Don't risk it. Perform an oral cancer self-exam each month. Perform a Self-Exam Monthly ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. ... Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Here’s what you need to know. ...

  2. BETTER ORAL HEALTH TO ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Murtomaa

    2016-12-01

    The behavioral science experts are of opinion that only comprehensive and integrated common-risk-factor-based health promotion activities can enhance oral health and its equity as a part of general health. Are health professionals ready to assume their responsibility for promoting better oral health?

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  4. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: statement on oral pathology and oral medicine in the European Dental Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, C; Reibel, J; Hadler-Olsen, E S

    2010-01-01

    source in revisions of dental curricula throughout Europe converging towards a European Dental Curriculum. In order to render the best conditions for future curriculum revisions providing the best quality dentist we feel obliged to analyse and comment the outlines of oral pathology and oral medicine...

  5. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  6. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  7. Direct oral anticoagulants: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Moreno, Ana Isabel; Martín Díaz, Rosa María; García Navarro, María José

    2017-12-30

    Vitamin K antagonists were the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Over the past few years, direct oral anticoagulants have emerged, including one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran etexilate) and three factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban). In randomised controlled trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants with traditional vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants all showed a favourable benefit-risk balance in their safety and efficacy profile, in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. In 2008, dabigatran was the first direct oral anticoagulant approved by the European Medicine Agency. Subsequently, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban were also authorised. This article reviews the evidence related to the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.

  9. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers....... In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...... use. Although most oral pathologists possibly recognize and accept the criteria for grading epithelial dysplasia, firstly based on architectural features and then of cytology, there is great variability in their interpretation of the presence, degree and significance of the individual criteria...

  10. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  11. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jayasri Krupaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment.

  12. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  13. [Diagnosis and treatment of STDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A

    1995-07-01

    Even though laboratory tests can easily diagnose sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), they require expensive, sophisticated equipment, which is lacking in many countries, and they take several days to obtain the results. In most cases, these tests require a sample for culture or the patient must be transferred to a hospital or an STD treatment center. Often patients do not want to return for test results or for treatment or they refuse to be transferred to another health facility. Thus, the STD goes untreated. The syndromic approach addresses these obstacles to STD diagnosis and treatment at the primary health care level. Nurses, midwives, health assistants, and clinical personnel undergo training in order to be able to diagnose and treat STDs during the first visit, at a reasonable cost, and without lab tests. They identify principal groups of signs and symptoms (i.e., syndromes) common to certain STDs. Prescribed drugs must be effective, cause no side effects, be available at the same center as the first consultation, and, preferably, be administered orally or by one dose. STD control programs need to identify the most prevalent syndromes and etiologic agents in the area and determine the most effective antibiotics for those syndromes. Donovanosis, syphilis, and soft chancre are responsible for genital ulcers in India and in Papua New Guinea; only syphilis and soft chancre are in other areas. Thus, it is important to provide treatment for all three causes in India and Papua New Guinea. It is easier to diagnose and treat penal discharge and genital ulcers in men and women than vaginal discharge and/or symptoms of pelvic inflammation in women. Thus, health workers need to ask a series of questions on risk factors for gonorrhea and chlamydia.

  14. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral ...

  15. Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... your desktop! more... Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral Health Article Chapters Pregnancy Cravings Can Harm Your Oral ...

  16. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  17. Need for Oral Health Policy in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to ... Professional dental organizations can also support government programs to .... who can play effective role in providing oral health care services.

  18. Oral candidiasis following steroid therapy for oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marable, D R; Bowers, L M; Stout, T L; Stewart, C M; Berg, K M; Sankar, V; DeRossi, S S; Thoppay, J R; Brennan, M T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented the development of an oral candidiasis in these patients. Records of 315 patients with OLP seen at four Oral Medicine practices treated for at least 2 weeks with steroids with and without the use of an antifungal regimen were retrospectively reviewed. The overall incidence of oral fungal infection in those treated with steroid therapy for OLP was 13.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of oral candidiasis development in those treated with an antifungal regimen vs those not treated prophylactically (14.3% vs 12.6%) (P = 0.68). Despite the use of various regimens, none of the preventive antifungal strategies used in this study resulted in a significant difference in the rate of development of an oral candidiasis in patients with OLP treated with steroids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Oral cancer--current knowledge, practices and implications for training among an Irish general medical practitioner cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the current knowledge and practices of general medical practitioners (GMPs) in Ireland regarding the examination of the oral cavity and the detection of oral malignancy and the training they had received at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and since commencing in practice. A questionnaire survey of GMPs in Ireland was conducted. One hundred and fifty four (65.3%) of the practitioners reported regularly examining the oral mucosa of their patients. Almost half of these (n=68) further qualified this response by stating that they only examined the oral mucosa if the patient reported pain in this area or if the patient specifically requested an oral examination for some reason. Eighty one (34.3%) practitioners surveyed felt confident in their ability to detect oral malignancies with the remaining two thirds unsure of whether they would be able to detect oral cancer. There was a significant association between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on examination of the oral cavity and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=4.811, p<0.05]. A statistically significant association was also found between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on the diagnosis of oral malignant disease and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=6.194, p<0.05]. In conclusion the level of knowledge of Irish general medical practitioners needs to be addressed with appropriate initiatives both at undergraduate level and via CME.

  20. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patients with Dermatological Diseases Attending Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shivakumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity is a unique environment where systemic maladies may be amplified by the oral mucosa. Sometimes, oral lesions are the first indication of a systemic problem. Oral mucosal lesions may be the initial feature or the only clinical sign of mucocutaneous diseases commonly observed in a dermatologic practice. Aim and Objectives: To assess the frequency of the oral manifestations in patients who suffer from dermatologic diseases, emphasizing the aspects referring to their, sex and age of the patients. Material and Methods:A cross sectional hospital-based study was carried out focusing on patients with skin lesions, for data gathering only patients included in the research were clinically examined aiming at identifying oral and cuteneous alterations. Information was recorded in individual clinical cards, as well as personal information, health conditions, family diseases and current and previous diseases. The structured interview was done in the local language containing questions regarding socio-demographics (gender, age, education and occupation general and oral health related characteristics and lifestyle. Results: In our study, the prevalence rate of oral mucosal lesions in patients with dermatological diseases is relatively low (94/489. Our study results showed that there is a positive correlation of oral manifestations with their respective dermatological diseases Conclusion: Oral mucosal lesions in skin diseases deserve special attention, Documenting the frequency of oral mucosal lesions in dermatological diseases may alert the dental surgeons and gives scope for early diagnosis and progress for such diseases and a multidisciplinary approach

  1. Imaging diagnosis in jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, A.

    1985-01-01

    For a patient presenting with jaundice, ultrasonography is the most rapid and sure way of ascertaining whether the jaundice is due to biliary obstruction of a macroscopic surgical nature rather than of an intrahepatic microscopic nature. Diagnosis could be done by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography. These methods as well as radionuclide scintigraphy are discussed

  2. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia Symptoms Frequent infections Fever and chills Anemia Easy ...

  3. Differential diagnosis diphtheria adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Liashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,824 human cases of diphtheria, treated at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital SP Botkin (St. Petersburg during 1993, as well as 19 deaths in 1994. It is known that early diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially diphtheria, contributes to the favorable outcome of the disease. The diagnosis of diphtheria at the prehospital stage is always difficult. Presented in detail the differential diagnosis of the disease, clinically similar to diphtheria: Lacunal angina, angina Simanovsky, infectious mononucleosis, angina Ludwig’s angina Dugue, syphilis, non-infectious with clinical «masks» of diphtheria and other. Diphtheria epidemic of 1993–1994 in Russia and, in particular, in St. Petersburg, showed that the late admission of patients with diphtheria infection in hospitals, usually associated with irregular differential diagnosis of this dangerous disease.

  4. Body imaging: Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pfannenstiel incision for caesarean section was noted. No synchronous lesions were identified. Based on the location of the lesion, sonar features and MRI enhancement pattern, the principal radiological diagnosis was that of a desmoid tumour of the left rectus muscle. In fact, the initial sonar-guided core biopsy specimen ...

  5. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  6. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Yu, W L

    2010-01-01

    To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.

  7. Hints for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2015-01-01

    /or caretakers. Based on this, a provisional decision to pursue a food allergy diagnosis may be made after carefully considering other possible reasons for an adverse reaction to a food: aversion, infection, intoxication, or an underlying metabolic disease. To respond to the next question, the anamnesis...

  8. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  9. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna F Husain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung sonography has rapidly emerged as a reliable technique in the evaluation of various thoracic diseases. One important, well-established application is the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the management of a critical patient can prevent the progression into a life-threatening situation. Sonographic signs, including ′lung sliding′, ′B-lines′ or ′comet tail artifacts′, ′A-lines′, and ′the lung point sign′ can help in the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound has a higher sensitivity than the traditional upright anteroposterior chest radiography (CXR for the detection of a pneumothorax. Small occult pneumothoraces may be missed on CXR during a busy trauma scenario, and CXR may not always be feasible in critically ill patients. Computed tomography, the gold standard for the detection of pneumothorax, requires patients to be transported out of the clinical area, compromising their hemodynamic stability and delaying the diagnosis. As ultrasound machines have become more portable and easier to use, lung sonography now allows a rapid evaluation of an unstable patient, at the bedside. These advantages combined with the low cost and ease of use, have allowed thoracic sonography to become a useful modality in many clinical settings.

  11. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Joop F. P.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient. PMID:26354823

  12. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Veeze

    1995-01-01

    textabstractApplying the sweat-test as the first choice of test when a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is suspected is still common practice and advisable. Since the cloning of the CFTR gene more than 400 different cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations have already been identified. The use of CF mutation

  13. 3D handheld endoscope for optical coherence tomography of the human oral mucosa in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Schnabel, Christian; Ebert, Nadja; Baumann, Michael; Koch, Edmund

    2017-07-01

    The early non-invasive diagnosis of epithelial tissue alterations in daily clinical routine is still challenging. Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows the potential to differentiate between benign and malignant tissue of primal endothelium, OCT could be beneficial for the early diagnosis of malignancies in routine health checks. In this research, a new handheld endoscopic scanning unit was designed and connected to a spectral domain OCT system of our workgroup for the in vivo imaging of the human oral mucosa.

  14. Nutrition and Oral Health: Experiences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre Sadat Sangsefidi; Amin Salehi-Abargouei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral health is a crucial factor for overall well-being and there is a mutual relationship between nutrition and oral health. The aim of this study was to review the publications which have examined the association between nutrition or diet and oral health status or oral disease in Iran. Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, scientific information database (SID), and Magiran were searched using key words of diet, nutrition, oral health, oral disease, ...

  15. The oral microbiome - an update for oral healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, M; Chapple, I L C; Hannig, M

    2016-01-01

    disease-promoting bacteria to manifest and cause conditions such as caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. For practitioners and patients alike, promoting a balanced microbiome is therefore important to effectively maintain or restore oral health. This article aims to give an update on our current...... and health. The mouth houses the second most diverse microbial community in the body, harbouring over 700 species of bacteria that colonise the hard surfaces of teeth and the soft tissues of the oral mucosa. Through recent advances in technology, we have started to unravel the complexities of the oral...

  16. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  17. Oral symptoms and salivary findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristine Roen; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher...... of xerostomia, clinical examination, sialometry, mucosal biopsy and contact allergy testing. RESULTS: Nineteen patients had oral lichen planus, 19 patients had oral lichenoid lesions and 11 patients had generalised stomatitis. 38.8% had contact allergy. Xerostomia was significantly more common and severe...... in the chewing stimulated saliva samples from patients when compared to healthy controls. The differences were not significant and they were irrespective of the presence of contact allergy. CONCLUSION: Xerostomia is prevalent in patients with oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis...

  18. Criteria for Evaluating Oral History Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsino, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)

  19. Genetic etiology of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Johar; Sabiha, Bibi; Jan, Hanif Ullah; Haider, Syed Adnan; Khan, Abid Ali; Ali, Saima S

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 2.5% of all new cancer cases and 1.9% of all cancer deaths annually. More than 90% of oral cancers (occurring in the mouth, lip, and tongue) are oral squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence rate of oral cancer varies widely throughout the world, with an evident prevalence in South Asian countries. This high incidence occurs in correlation with oral cancer-associated behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco use. Researchers have reported that these behaviors lead to genetic variations in tumor suppressor genes (APC, p53), proto-oncogenes (Myc), oncogene (Ras) and genes controlling normal cellular processes (EIF3E, GSTM1). Processes such as segregation of chromosomes, genomic copy number, loss of heterozygosity, telomere stabilities, regulations of cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA damage repairs and defects in notch signaling pathways are involved in causing oral cancer. In order to develop preventive and therapeutic options, it is necessary to comprehend the basic molecular mechanisms forcing oral tumorigenesis. This review examines, in detail, the mechanisms of genetic alteration which are considered to be responsible for the initiation of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Robert L; Semidey, Michael J

    2015-03-15

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a heterogeneous group of musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions involving the temporomandibular joint complex, and surrounding musculature and osseous components. TMD affects up to 15% of adults, with a peak incidence at 20 to 40 years of age. TMD is classified as intra-articular or extra-articular. Common symptoms include jaw pain or dysfunction, earache, headache, and facial pain. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial and includes biologic, environmental, social, emotional, and cognitive triggers. Diagnosis is most often based on history and physical examination. Diagnostic imaging may be beneficial when malocclusion or intra-articular abnormalities are suspected. Most patients improve with a combination of noninvasive therapies, including patient education, self-care, cognitive behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, physical therapy, and occlusal devices. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants are recommended initially, and benzodiazepines or antidepressants may be added for chronic cases. Referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is indicated for refractory cases.