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  1. Diabetes prevalence in populations of South Asian Indian and African origins: a comparison of England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton E.; Bhopal, Raj; Anujuo, Kenneth; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Unwin, Nigel; van Valkengoed, Irene; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien

    2011-01-01

    We determined whether the overall lower prevalence of type II diabetes in England versus the Netherlands is observed in South-Asian-Indian and African-Caribbean populations. Additionally, we assessed the contribution of health behavior, body size, and socioeconomic position to observed differences

  2. Clinical profile, outcomes, and progression to type 2 diabetes among Indian women with gestational diabetes mellitus seen at a diabetes center in south India

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    Manni Mohanraj Mahalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the clinical profile, maternal and fetal outcomes, and the conversion rates to diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM seen at a tertiary care diabetes center in urban south India. Materials and Methods: Clinical case records of 898 women with GDM seen between 1991 and 2011 were extracted from the Diabetes Electronic Medical Records (DEMR of a tertiary care diabetes center in Chennai, south India and their clinical profile was analyzed. Follow-up data of 174 GDM women was available. To determine the conversion rates to diabetes, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was done in these women. Glucose tolerance status postpartum was classified based on World Health Organization (WHO 2006 criteria. Results: The mean maternal age of the women was 29 ± 4 years and mean age of gestation at first visit were 24 ± 8.4 weeks. Seventy percent of the women had a family history of diabetes. Seventy-eight percent of the women delivered full-term babies and 65% underwent a cesarean section. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 10.0 ± 4.2 kg. Macrosomia was present in 17.9% of the babies, hypoglycemia in 10.4%, congenital anomalies in 4.3%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 1.9%. Mean follow-up duration of the 174 women of whom outcome data was available was 4.5 years. Out of the 174, 101 women who were followed-up developed diabetes, of whom half developed diabetes within 5 years and over 90%, within 10 years of the delivery. Conclusions: Progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Indian women with GDM is rapid. There is an urgent need to develop standardized protocols for GDM care in India that can improve the maternal and fetal outcomes and help prevent future diabetes in women with GDM.

  3. Potential of circulatory procalcitonin as a biomarker reflecting inflammation among South Indian diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, Dhamodharan; Dornadula, Sireesh; Rajagopalan, Arvind; Murthy, Narayana; Mariappanadar, Vairamani; Kesavan, Rajesh; Kunka Mohanram, Ramkumar

    2018-04-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), the major complication associated with diabetes mellitus, has been shown to precede amputation in up to 90% of cases. Recent data reveal that procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infections compared with traditional markers like white blood cell count, C-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in DFU patients. Furthermore, cytokines are proposed to act as modulators and mediators for the expression and release of PCT into the circulation. Hence, this preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCT compared with other traditional markers and to predict the association of PCT plasma levels with inflammatory cytokines and clinical parameters of incident diabetes among South Indian DFU subjects. There were 185 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) selected in this cross-sectional study, subdivided into three groups: group I, control/T2DM subjects free from DFU (n = 75; male, 43; female, 32); group II, T2DM subjects with noninfected DFU (n = 34; male, 19; female, 15); and group III, T2DM subjects with infected DFU (IDFU; n = 76; male, 46; female, 30). Patients with IDFU were further divided into three subgroups as per the Infectious Diseases Society of America-International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot classification criteria: grade 2 (n = 27), grade 3 (n = 38), and grade 4 (n = 11). Subjects with type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, pneumonia, sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, meningitis, or hematologic diseases and those who underwent surgery in the past 2 to 3 weeks were excluded from this study. For investigation of clinical parameters, blood samples were drawn from all the study subjects; plasma samples were used for estimating PCT by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The profiling of plasma cytokines was carried out using a multiplex bead-based assay. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation for clinical and

  4. Identification of novel variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene in South Indian patients with maturity onset diabetes of young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radha, V; Ek, J; Anuradha, S

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations in the HNF 1A gene are the most common cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in most populations. India currently has the largest number of people with diabetes in the world, and onset of type 2 diabetes occurs at a younger age with possible overlap with MODY...... was conducted at a diabetes specialties centre in Chennai in southern India. PATIENTS: Ninety-six unrelated south Indian subjects in whom clinical diagnosis of MODY was made were included in the study. The control population comprised of 57 unrelated nondiabetic subjects selected from the Chennai Urban Rural....... There are very few data on MODY mutations from India. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to screen coding and promoter regions of HNF1A gene for mutations in unrelated South Indian subjects in whom a clinical diagnosis of MODY was made. DESIGN: This was an observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study...

  5. Incidence and risk factors of hypoglycemia among Type 2 diabetic patients in a South Indian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas Pv; Chandrakumar, Abin; Dilip, C; Suriyaprakash, T N K; Thomas, Levin; Surendran, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the cumulative incidence of hypoglycemia and precipitating risk factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus in-patients of a tertiary care hospital in South India. The prospective cross sectional study spanning 14 months was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Kerala. All T2DM patients who were administered any form of insulin during the length of hospital stay was monitored for assessing the hypoglycemic episodes. Any patient with a GRBS value less than 70mg/dL was defined to be hypoglycemic as per the ADA guidelines. The statistical analysis of collected data was performed using SPSS 18 for windows version. Of the 1650 subjects enrolled in the study, 204 subjects developed hypoglycemia. The sample composed of 60.8% females and 39.2% males and the difference was significant with p=0.02. A significant positive correlation was observed between HbA1c values and GRBS value, with a 2 tailed Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.027. On stratifying as per the modality of insulin dose prescribed, 72.5% of the hypoglycemic patients were found to have been administered fixed dose insulin. The cumulative incidence of institutional hypoglycemia among type 2 diabetic inpatients was gauged as 12.36%; among which, 26.96% had asymptomatic episodes. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes mellitus in a young Amazon Indian child

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    Mônica Andrade Lima Gabbay

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although type 2 diabetes has been described among American Indian children, no case of type 1 diabetes has been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of diabetes in a South American Indian child from the tropical rainforest, who was positive for IA2 autoantibodies and genetic markers of susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, but also demonstrated residual beta cell function four years after diagnosis.

  7. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Petersen, Joergen Holm; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. social class, respectively (P social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.

  8. Assessment of cost of illness for diabetic patients in South Indian tertiary care hospital

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    Leelavathi D Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of diabetes on health-care expenditures has been increasingly recognized. To formulate an effective health planning and resource allocation, it is important to determine economic burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the cost of illness (COI for diabetic inpatients with or without complications. Methodology: The study was conducted in the medicine wards of tertiary care hospital after ethical approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 116 each diabetic with or without complications were selected and relevant data were collected using COI questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mann–Whitney U test is used to assess the statistical significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes alone and with complications'. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total COI includes the cost of treatment, investigation, consultation fee, intervention cost, transportation, days lost due to work, and hospitalization. The median of total COI for diabetic care without any complication was Rs. 22,456.97/- per patient per annum and with complication was Rs. 30,634.45/-. Patients on dialysis had to spend 7.3 times higher, and patients with cardiac intervention had to spend 7.4 times higher than diabetic patients without any complication. Conclusion: Treatment costs were many times higher in patients with complications and with cardiac and renal interventions. Complications in diabetic patients will increase the economic burden to family and also to the society.

  9. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116

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    Mette Skar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1 household income; (2 family history of diabetes; (3 physical activity; (4 smoking status; (5 alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000 intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000` and high (Rs. 5000-20000. Results: The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001. A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]. The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016 when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087. Conclusion: An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.

  10. Investigating correlations in the altered metabolic profiles of obese and diabetic subjects in a South Indian Asian population using an NMR-based metabolomic approach.

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    Gogna, Navdeep; Krishna, Murahari; Oommen, Anup Mammen; Dorai, Kavita

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that obesity/high body mass index (BMI) plays a key role in the evolution of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the exact mechanism underlying its contribution is still not fully understood. This work focuses on an NMR-based metabolomic investigation of the serum profiles of diabetic, obese South Indian Asian subjects. (1)H 1D and 2D NMR experiments were performed to profile the altered metabolic patterns of obese diabetic subjects and multivariate statistical methods were used to identify metabolites that contributed significantly to the differences in the samples of four different subject groups: diabetic and non-diabetic with low and high BMIs. Our analysis revealed that the T2DM-high BMI group has higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids, certain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, lysine, proline, threonine, valine, glutamine, phenylalanine, histidine), lactic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, choline, 3,7-dimethyluric acid, pantothenic acid, myoinositol, sorbitol, glycerol, and glucose, as compared to the non-diabetic-low BMI (control) group. Of these 19 identified significant metabolites, the levels of saturated fatty acids, lactate, valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine are also higher in obese non-diabetic subjects as compared to control subjects, implying that this set of metabolites could be identified as potential biomarkers for the onset of diabetes in subjects with a high BMI. Our work validates the utility of NMR-based metabolomics in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis to provide insights into the underlying metabolic pathways that are perturbed in diabetic subjects with a high BMI.

  11. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes with ascending social class in urban South Indians is explained by obesity: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-116)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban...... measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. social class, respectively (P ....001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk...

  12. Prevalence of Charcot arthropathy in Type 2 diabetes patients aged over 50 years with severe peripheral neuropathy: A retrospective study in a Tertiary Care South Indian Hospital

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    Dharmadas Salini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Available literature on the prevalence of Charcot arthropathy (CA represents mainly Western population. No study has been reported from India so far. Hence we attempted to study the prevalence of CA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN, belonging to Indian population amongst whom type 2 diabetes is on the rise in alarming proportions. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 3387 patients who performed an objective vibration perception threshold test during the year 2015 were screened for T2DMPN. Out of these, 1475 T2DMPN patients above 50 years were selected and analyzed in detail for CA. CA was diagnosed based on clinical features and/or radiological investigations. The anatomical localization of the disease distribution of the affected foot was done according to Brodsky's classification. Results: The prevalence of CA in T2DMPN patients was found to be 9.8%. The mean age of patients diagnosed with CA was 63 ± 8.36 years, and mean duration of DM for CA to develop was 18.01 ± 8.23 years. About 62.5% of the patients were male and 37.5% female. Bilateral presentation of CA was observed in 20.8% of patients. Multiple sites of the foot were affected in 48.6% of patients and belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky. Conclusions: A high prevalence of CA (9.8% was observed in the present study conducted on T2DMPN patients who presented to the endocrinology department of a tertiary care South Indian hospital. In the majority of patients, the area of foot affected belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky.

  13. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Special Diabetes Program for Indians Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) ... On Demand IHS Diabetes Standards of Care Diabetes Treatment Algorithms Diabetes Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes ...

  14. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Us Special Diabetes Program for Indians Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) ... and On Demand IHS Diabetes Standards of Care Diabetes Treatment Algorithms Diabetes Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes ...

  15. Knowledge and awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in suburban population of a South Indian state and its practice among the patients with diabetes mellitus: A population-based study.

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    Hussain, Rameez; Rajesh, Bindu; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Sadasivan, Sanjai; James, Justin; Vijayan, Pradeep Padickal; John, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    Ocular complications due to diabetes mellitus (DM) were on the rise despite good literacy levels in South India. To assess the knowledge and attitude toward DM and diabetic retinopathy of the general population in a suburban town of South India. Door-to-door population survey in suburban town of South India in May 2013. A 30-point questionnaire was prepared and the data were collected and analyzed to determine statistically the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores of the general and diabetic population and also to determine significant demographic associations. In this study, 6211 people (3528 [56.8%] women and 2683 [43.2%] men) with a mean age of 55.6 ± 11.7 years (range 21-98 years) were included. Good knowledge and positive attitude were observed in 3457 (55.6%) and 3280 (52.8%) people. Among 1538 (25.4%) people known to have DM, only 619 (40.7%) had good knowledge, 828 (53.8%) had a positive attitude, and 886 (57.6%) had good practice patterns. Although half of them followed general diabetic care, only 9.6% had undergone screening for retinopathy. Literacy showed a significant association with good KAP (P retinopathy screening and periodic follow-ups.

  16. Palmar Dermatoglyphs of South Mrican Indians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... Topological analysis of the palmar dermatoglyphs of 150 male and 200 female Indians is presented and compared with similar data from South African Blacks and Coloureds of the Durban area. A vary high prevalence of loops in area III of both hands is an Indian characteristic; a high frequency of ulnar ...

  17. Palmar Dermatoglyphs of South Mrican Indians | Grace | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topological analysis of the palmar dermatoglyphs of 150 male and 200 female Indians is presented and compared with similar data from South African Blacks and Coloureds of the Durban area. A vary high prevalence of loops in area III of both hands is an Indian characteristic; a high frequency of ulnar loops in the ...

  18. Anthropometry of south Indian industrial workmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J E; Uppugonduri, K G

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on South Indian male workers in the electronic industry. The data were collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 27 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 128 workmen (aged 18-35 years). The anthropometric measurements are compared with those of Indian men from Central, Western, and Northern parts of India and with those of the American, German, and Japanese men. The results indicate that in general the South Indian man is smaller than Central, Western, and Northern Indian men, as well as smaller than men in America, Germany, Japan, and Africa. This difference needs to be allowed for when considering buying and subsequently using imported equipment for the electronics industry in South India.

  19. Knowledge and awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in suburban population of a South Indian state and its practice among the patients with diabetes mellitus: A population-based study

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    Rameez Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ocular complications due to diabetes mellitus (DM were on the rise despite good literacy levels in South India. Aims: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward DM and diabetic retinopathy of the general population in a suburban town of South India. Settings and Design: Door-to-door population survey in suburban town of South India in May 2013. Materials and Methods: A 30-point questionnaire was prepared and the data were collected and analyzed to determine statistically the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP scores of the general and diabetic population and also to determine significant demographic associations. Results: In this study, 6211 people (3528 [56.8%] women and 2683 [43.2%] men with a mean age of 55.6 ± 11.7 years (range 21-98 years were included. Good knowledge and positive attitude were observed in 3457 (55.6% and 3280 (52.8% people. Among 1538 (25.4% people known to have DM, only 619 (40.7% had good knowledge, 828 (53.8% had a positive attitude, and 886 (57.6% had good practice patterns. Although half of them followed general diabetic care, only 9.6% had undergone screening for retinopathy. Literacy showed a significant association with good KAP (P < 0.001 each in general population and those with DM. Overall, women had significantly better knowledge (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Better literacy, especially among women, is contributory to better public awareness; however, the trend for poor practice patterns needs to be radically changed with aggressive public motivation emphasizing on the necessity of retinopathy screening and periodic follow-ups.

  20. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Program for Indians Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) About SDPI ... diabetes education. Find Guides for Diabetes Programs, Diabetes Prevention Program Toolkit, Program Spotlights, and more! Announcing Online ...

  1. Case-control analysis of SNPs in GLUT4, RBP4 and STRA6: association of SNPs in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population.

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    Anup Kumar Nair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The inverse relationship between GLUT4 and RBP4 expression is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of RBP4 were shown to cause insulin resistance in muscles and liver. Identification of STRA6 as a cell surface receptor for RBP4 provides further link in this axis and hence we analyzed SNPs in these three genes for association with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Selected SNPs in the three genes were analyzed in a total of 2002 individuals belonging to Dravidian ethnicity, South India, by Tetra Primer ARMS PCR or RFLP PCR. Allele frequencies and genotype distribution were calculated in cases and controls and were analyzed for association by Chi-squared test and Logistic regression. Haplotype analysis was carried out for each gene by including all the markers in a single block. We observed a significant association of three SNPs, rs974456, rs736118, and rs4886578 in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, OR 0.79[0.69-0.91], P = 0.003, OR 0.81[0.71-0.93], and P = 0.001, OR 0.74[0.62-0.89] respectively. None of the SNPs in RBP4 and GLUT4 showed any association with type 2 diabetes. Haplotype analysis revealed that two common haplotypes H1 (111, P = 0.001, OR 1.23[1.08-1.40] and H2 (222, P = 0.002 OR 0.73[0.59-0.89] in STRA6, H6 (2121, P = 0.006, OR 1.69[1.51-2.48] in RBP4 and H4 (2121, P = 0.01 OR 1.41[1.07-1.85] in GLUT4 were associated with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSION: SNPs in STRA6, gene coding the cell surface receptor for RBP4, were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes and further genetic and functional studies are required to understand and ascertain its role in the manifestation of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

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    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy.

  3. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk in South Indian women based on MTHFR (C677T and FVL (G1691A mutations

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    Imran Ali Khan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to scrutinize the extent to which single amino acid substitutions in the MTHFR and FVL genes affect the risk of GDM in pregnant women of South Indian descendant. This case-control study was implemented once the ethical approval has been obtained. Overall 237 women were recruited in this study: 137 had been diagnosed with GDM and the remaining 100 women were used as normal controls or non-GDM. The diagnosis of GDM was confirmed with biochemical analysis i.e., GCT and OGTT tests. Five milliliters of peripheral blood was collected and used for biochemical and molecular analyses. DNA was isolated and genotyping for MTHFR (C677T and FVL (G1691A mutations was performed using PCR-RFLP. FVL (G1691A locus was not polymorphic in the investigated sample. There was no significant difference in the allele and genotype frequencies of C677T polymorphism between GDM and non-GDM women (p=0.8892

  4. A case-control analysis of common variants in GIP with type 2 diabetes and related biochemical parameters in a South Indian population

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    Kumar Harish

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP is one of the incretins, which plays a crucial role in the secretion of insulin upon food stimulus and in the regulation of postprandial glucose level. It also exerts an effect on the synthesis and secretion of lipoprotein lipase, from adipocytes, important for lipid metabolism. The aim of our study was to do a case-control association analysis of common variants in GIP in association with type 2 diabetes and related biochemical parameters. Method A total of 2000 subjects which includes 1000 (584M/416F cases with type 2 diabetes and 1000 (470M/530F normoglycemic control subjects belonging to Dravidian ethnicity from South India were recruited to assess the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GIP (rs2291725, rs2291726, rs937301 on type 2 diabetes in a case-control manner. The SNPs were genotyped by using tetra primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS PCR. For statistical analysis, our study population was divided into sub-groups based on gender (male and female. Association analysis was carried out using chi-squared test and the comparison of biochemical parameters among the three genotypes were performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Result Initial analysis revealed that, out of the total three SNPs selected for the present study, two SNPs namely rs2291726 and rs937301 were in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD with each other. Therefore, only two SNPs, rs2291725 and rs2291726, were genotyped for the association studies. No significant difference in the allele frequency and genotype distribution of any of the SNPs in GIP were observed between cases and controls (P > 0.05. Analysis of biochemical parameters among the three genotypes showed a significant association of total cholesterol (P = 0.042 and low density lipoprotein (LDL with the G allele of the SNP rs2291726 in GIP (P = 0.004, but this was observed only in the case of female

  5. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

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    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively

  6. Inertially induced connections between subgyres in the South Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palastanga, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313947112; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467; de Ruijter, W.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068476760

    2009-01-01

    A barotropic shallow-water model and continuation techniques are used to investigate steady solutions in an idealized South Indian Ocean basin containing Madagascar. The aim is to study the role of inertia in a possible connection between two subgyres in the South Indian Ocean. By increasing

  7. Healing the wounds of history: South African Indian writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feature of the post-apartheid literary scene is the way in which the history of earlier times is being recalled and re-interpreted. This 'memory work' includes the history of Indian indenture in South Africa. I shall focus on the fictional treatment of indenture by South African Indian writers. At the same time, I argue that the ...

  8. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes Educators and Community Members Diabetes Educator Tools Diabetes Education Lesson Plan ... prevention and treatment in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. IHS Headquarters, Indian Health Service, 5600 Fishers Lane, ...

  9. Postpartum development of type 1 diabetes in Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes

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    Ranjit Unnikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the postpartum conversion of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM to different types of diabetes among Asian Indian women. Materials and Methods: Using data from electronic medical records, 418 women with GDM seen at a tertiary diabetes care center for diabetes in Chennai in South India between 1991 and 2014 were evaluated for development of diabetes postpartum. Results: Of the 418 GDM women followed up postpartum, 388 progressed to diabetes. Of these 359 (92.5% developed type 2 diabetes (T2DM and 29 women (7.5% developed type 1 diabetes (T1DM. The median time to development of T1DM was 2 years (interquartile range 2 [IQR] while for T2DM it was 5 years (IQR 6. Women who developed T1DM had significantly lower mean body mass index (BMI (20.4 ± 2.8 vs. 27.5 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 , P = 0.001, and higher fasting plasma glucose (222 ± 105 vs. 165 ± 62 mg/dl P = 0.008 and glycated hemoglobin levels (10.2 ± 2.7 vs. 8.5 ± 2.1% P < 0.001 compared to those who developed T2DM. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD autoantibodies were present in 24/29 (82.7% of women who developed T1DM. Conclusion: A small but significant proportion of women with GDM progress to T1DM postpartum. Measurement of GAD antibodies in leaner women with more severe diabetes could help to identify women who are likely to develop T1DM and thus prevent their presentation with acute hyperglycemic emergencies after delivery.

  10. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Sohal

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient's perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management.We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 -February, 2014 evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire. Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis.All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician's guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to diabetes management.Diabetes

  11. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Tanveer; Sohal, Parmjit; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Khan, Nadia A

    2015-01-01

    Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient's perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management. We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 -February, 2014) evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire). Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis. All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician's guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to diabetes management. Diabetes

  12. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Tanveer; Sohal, Parmjit; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Khan, Nadia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient’s perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management. Methods We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 –February, 2014) evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire). Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis. Results All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician’s guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to

  13. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) About SDPI Community-Directed SDPI ... who provide diabetes education. Find Guides for Diabetes Programs, Diabetes Prevention Program Toolkit, Program Spotlights, and more! ...

  14. Comparison of Palatal Rugae Pattern among North Indian, South Indian and Chinese Students of Manipal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Venu M Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Results: There were no significant differences in any parameter when compared between the sexes in the three groups. The difference in length among 3 groups was not statistically significant. The most common rugae shapes observed were wavy and curved. The North Indian group had a predominantly curved rugae shape while the South Indian and Chinese groups had wavy rugae. The rugae direction observed was mostly forward. Most of North Indians and South Indians had forward rugae and Chinese group had both types. Conclusion: The present study indicated that the rugae patterns of the Chinese group are significantly different from the two Indian groups and can hence be used for group identity.

  15. Drug addiction and diabetes: South Asian action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Balhara, Yatan Pal; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Both diabetes and drug addiction are common phenomena across the world. Drug abuse impacts glycaemic control in multiple ways. It becomes imperative, therefore, to share guidance on drug deaddiction in persons with diabetes. The South Asian subcontinent is home to specific forms and patterns of drug abuse. Detailed study is needed to ensure good clinical practice regarding the same. This communication provides a simple and pragmatic framework to address this issue, while calling for concerted action on drug deaddiction in South Asia.

  16. Strategic Stability in South Asia: An Indian?s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanwal, Gurmeet [Inst. for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi (India)

    2017-05-01

    The security environment in South Asia has been marked by instability for several decades. The foremost causes of regional instability are the nuclear weapons-cum-missile development program of China, North Korea and Pakistan, the strident march of Islamist fundamentalism, the diabolical nexus between narcotics trafficking and terrorism, the proliferation of small arms and the instability inherent in the rule of despotic regimes. Instability on the Indian sub-continent is manifested, first and foremost, in the continuing conflict in Afghanistan, its tense relations with Iran and the Central Asian Republics (CARs); Pakistan’s struggle against the Taliban, the emerging fissiparous tendencies in Balochistan and Pakhtoonkhwa, the rise of Jihadi Islam and what some fear is Pakistan’s gradual slide towards becoming a ‘failed state’ despite some economic gains in the last five years. Also symptomatic of an unstable and uncertain security environment in the South Asian region are what some see as Sri Lanka’s inability to find a lasting solution to its internal challenges; the potential for Bangladesh’s gradual emergence as the new hub of Islamist fundamentalist terrorism and its struggle for economic upliftment to subsistence levels; the continuing negative impact of Maoist insurgency on Nepal’s fledgling democracy; the simmering discontent in Tibet and Xinjiang and what some see as a low-key uprising against China’s regime; and, the Myanmar peoples’ nascent movement for democracy. In all these countries, socio-economic development has been slow and, consequently, per capita income is alarmingly low. Transborder narcotics trafficking – the golden triangle lies to the east of South Asia and the golden crescent to its west – and the proliferation of small arms, make a potent cocktail. Ethnic tensions and fairly widespread radicalization, worsened by the advent of the vicious ideology of the Islamic state, add further to regional instability.

  17. Association of recently identified type 2 diabetes gene variants with Gestational Diabetes in Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthimathi, Sekar; Chidambaram, Manickam; Bodhini, Dhanasekaran; Liju, Samuel; Bhavatharini, Aruyerchelvan; Uma, Ram; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan

    2017-06-01

    Earlier studies have provided evidence that the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) share common genetic background. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) showed a strong association of six novel gene variants with T2DM among south Asians but not with Europeans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these variants that confer susceptibility to T2DM in Asian Indian population also correlate with GDM in Asian Indian population. In addition to these novel variants, three T2DM associated SNPs that were previously identified by GWAS in Caucasian populations, which also showed association with T2DM in south Indian population in our previous study were also evaluated for their susceptibility to GDM in our population. The study groups comprised unrelated pregnant women with GDM (n = 518) and pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 1220). A total of nine SNPs in or near nine loci, namely AP3S2 (rs2028299), BAZ1B (rs12056034), CDKN2A/B (rs7020996), GRB14 (rs3923113), HHEX (rs7923837), HMG20A (rs7178572), HNF4A (rs4812829), ST6GAL1 (rs16861329) and VPS26A (rs1802295) were genotyped using the MassARRAY system. Among these nine SNPs that previously showed an association with T2DM in Asian Indians, HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) gene variants showed a significant association with GDM. The risk alleles of rs7178572 in HMG20A and rs4812829 in HNF4A gene conferred 1.24 and 1.28 times higher risk independently and about 1.44 and 1.97 times increased susceptibility to GDM for one and two risk genotypes, respectively. We report that the HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) variants that have previously shown a strong association with T2DM in Asian Indians also contributes significant risk to GDM in this population. This is the first report of the association of HMG20A (rs7178572) and HNF4A (rs4812829) variants with GDM.

  18. High prevalence of diabetes in an urban population in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, A.; Jali, M. V.; Mohan, V.; Snehalatha, C.; Viswanathan, M.

    1988-01-01

    An urban population in a township in south India was screened for diabetes with an oral glucose tolerance test, every fifth person aged 20 and over registered at the local iron ore company's hospital being screened. Of 678 people (346 men and 332 women) who were tested, 34 (5%; 20 men and 14 women) had diabetes and 14 (2%; 8 men and 7 women) had impaired glucose tolerance. Thirteen subjects were already known to be diabetic. Diabetes was present in 21% (37/179) of people aged over 40. The peak prevalence (41%; 7/17) was in the group aged 55-64. A family history of diabetes was present in 16 of the 34 subjects with diabetes and nine of the 15 with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes was significantly related to obesity in women but not in men (57% (8/14) v 5% (1/20)). The plasma glucose concentration two hours after glucose loading was correlated to body mass index, age, and income in both sexes. The prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in subjects whose income was above the mean. When the overall prevalence of diabetes was adjusted to the age distribution of the Indians living in Southall, London, and in Fiji it increased to 10% and 9%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes is high among urban Indians and is comparable with the high prevalence seen in migrant Indian populations. PMID:3139221

  19. Diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetic foot syndrome in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Thoiba; Kamath, Yogish Subraya; Rao, Lavanya G; Rao, Krishna Addoor; Shenoy, Shailaja Bhat; Bhandary, Sulatha V

    2018-04-01

    The purpose was to study the retinopathy status in diabetic patients with a risk of diabetic foot (DF) syndrome visiting a tertiary care hospital in South India. In this cross sectional study all patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) with a risk of DF syndrome, visiting a tertiary care hospital during the study period, underwent an ophthalmological evaluation for documentation of their retinopathy status. One hundred and eighty-two patients diagnosed to have a risk profile for DF syndrome were included in the study. Their mean age was 59.28 years and 75.27% were males. The mean duration of Type 1 and Type 2 variants of DM was 14.9 years and 10.9 years, respectively. Of the 182 patients, 67.58% had retinopathy changes. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) constituted 17.88% of the total patients with retinopathy. An increased presence of retinopathy in patients with an increased risk grade of DF was found significant by the Chi-square test (P < 0.001). Our study found an increased presence of DR in a South Indian cohort with DF syndrome. The severity of retinopathy was greater in patients with higher grades of risk for DF. The establishment of an association between DR and DF syndrome will help in developing an integrated management strategy for these two debilitating consequences of diabetes.

  20. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes LISTSERV to receive updates on training opportunities, research, and resources related to diabetes prevention and treatment in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. IHS Headquarters, Indian Health Service, 5600 Fishers Lane, ...

  1. Marketplace Clinics Complementing Diabetes Care for Urban Residing American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Robert; Hoye, Robert E; Thron, Raymond W; Kumar, Vibha

    2017-10-01

    For several decades, the Minneapolis American Indian population has experienced limited health care access and threefold diabetes health disparity. As part of an urban health initiative, the marketplace clinics located in nearby CVS, Target, and Supervalu stores committed financial support, providers, certified educators, and pharmacy staff for a community-based diabetes support group. To measure the extent to which collaborating marketplace clinics and the community-based support group expanded diabetes care and provided self-management education for this largely urban Indian neighborhood. A controlled quasi-experimental study and 3-years retrospective analysis of secondary data were used to test whether the Minneapolis marketplace clinics and the community diabetes support group participants (n = 48) had improved diabetes health outcomes relative to the comparison group (n = 87). The marketplace complemented intervention group employed motivational interviewing and the patient activation measure (PAM®) in coaching diabetes self-care and behavioral modification. The federally funded comparison group received only basic self-management education. T tests and effect sizes were used to quantify the difference between the study intervention and comparison groups. Statistical significance was determined for the following outcome variables: A1C ( P health complementation were found with regard to improved blood glucose control, weight loss, and healthful lifestyle adaptation. Primary care and community health improvements could be realized by incorporating patient activation with diabetes prevention programs for the urban Indian two-thirds majority of the United States 5 million American Indian population.

  2. in a Family of South Indian Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly. Although data on specific gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is relatively scarce, mutations of voltage gated sodium channel subunit genes (CACNB4 and nonsense mutations in voltage gated calcium channels (CACNA1A have been linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in two families. We speculate that gene mutations altering the ability of the beta subunit to interact with the alpha subunit of the CaV1.1 channel and mutations in the pore-forming potassium channel subunit may be possible explanations for the combined manifestation of both diseases. Functional analysis of voltage gated calcium channel and other ion channels mutations may provide additional support and insight for the causal role of these mutations. The understanding of mutations in ion-channel genes will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of such inherited channelopathies.

  3. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... IHS Diabetes Audit Audit/SOS Login Clinician Resources Education Materials and Resources (Online Catalog) Contact Us Special Diabetes Program for Indians Division of Diabetes Treatment ...

  4. Association of paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Panneerselvam; Iyer, Anandi Chandramouli; Murugan, Ponniah Senthil; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Raj, Nancy Bright Arul Joseph; Ganesan, Divya; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Murugan, Maruthamuthu; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2018-04-15

    Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, paraoxonase-1(PON1) is reported to have an ability to reduce insulin resistance by promoting glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) expression in vitro. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PON1 is associated with variability in enzyme activity and concentration. Based on this we aimed to investigate the association of PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms with the risk of developing insulin resistance in adult South Indian population. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) Type 2 diabetes patients and 293 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All the study subjects were genotyped for PON1 (Q192R and L55M) missense polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) method. Fasting serum insulin level was measured by ELISA. The distribution of QR/RR and LM/MM genotypes were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the R and M alleles were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes with an Odds Ratio of 1.68 (P  R genotypes were found to be significantly associated with higher BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Further, the mutant allele or genotypes of PON1 L55M were associated with higher BMI, triglycerides, VLDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR among adult type 2 diabetes patients. PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms may play a crucial role in pathogenesis and susceptibility of insulin resistance thus leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Antioxidant and oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot ulcer. KS Mossanda, EB Bolajoko, M Moropane, F Adeniyi, O Akinosun, A Fasanmade. Hypertension and diabetes: Poor care for patients at community health centre. K Steyn, NS ...

  6. Prevalence of photoparoxysmal response among South Indian epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Nayak, S D; Nandini, V S; Venugopal, A

    1998-10-01

    The reported geographical variations in the prevalence of photoparoxysmal response (PPR) among epilepsy patients have been variously attributed to methodological problems such as patient selection, technique of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and definition of PPR, and environmental and racial factors. We determined the prevalence rate of PPR among South Indian epilepsy patients and compared it with the rates reported from elsewhere. Twenty of our 575 patients had a PPR, a prevalence ratio of 3.5%, which is in striking contrast to the 0.6% reported for North Indian epilepsy patients. Environmental and racial factors cannot explain the difference in the prevalence rates of PPR between South and North Indian epilepsy patients. We conclude that the demographic characteristics of the patient group, such as age and gender, the epilepsy type, sleep deprivation, technique of IPS and definition of PPR, greatly influence the prevalence rate of PPR.

  7. Genetic disorders in the Indian community of South Africa | Winship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the range of genetic disorders in the Indian population of South Africa, assess relevant historical and demographic factors, and discuss the implications for medical and genetic care. Methods. WSW reviewed the archived data pertaining to patients seen in his paediatric practice in Durban during the ...

  8. Eddy formation around South West Mascarene Plateau (Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eddy formation around South West Mascarene Plateau (Indian Ocean) as evidenced by satellite 'global ocean colour' data. ... The geostrophic velocities derived from altimeter data revealed that the current was moving in a clockwise direction that propagated in an east-west trend with higher geostrophic velocities (30-40 ...

  9. Review of renal biopsy database: a single centre south Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Clement Wilfred Devadass, Vijaya Mysorekar V, Gireesh MS, Mahesh E, Gurudev KC, Radhika K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of biopsy- proven renal disease (BPRD provides information that is useful for clinical practice and investigation. India lacks a national renal data registry system and there is a scarcity of information on the pattern of BPRD in South India. Objectives: To determine the occurrence and analyse the epidemiology of BPRD in our local (South Indian population. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of reports of native renal biopsies performed on patients at a tertiary care hospital in South India, from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken. All renal biopsies were studied by light and immunofluorescence microscopy and were classified into primary glomerulonephritis (PGN, secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN, tubulointerstitial nephritis, vascular nephropathy, hereditary nephritis, end stage renal disease and biopsies exhibiting no significant pathology. Results: A total of 661 cases were included in the study. The most common clinical syndrome as an indication for renal biopsy was NS (29%. PGN was the most common BPRD, accounting for 42.3 % of the cases. Minimal change disease (33.6% was the commonest PGN followed by membranous nephropathy (15.7% and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (12.6%. Diabetic nephropathy (76.9% was the commonest SGN (14.7% followed by lupus nephritis. Conclusion: Our study represents an important contribution to understanding the epidemiology of renal disease in South India. The distribution pattern of PGN largely corresponds to the distribution pattern described in other South Indian studies. However, there is a wide variation of major histologic patterns of PGN across the world.

  10. Type 2 diabetes: the emerging epidemic | Rheeder | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article reports on the prevalence of diabetes in South Africa and gives projections for the epidemic proportions that this disease may take by the year 2030. South African Family Practice Vol. 48 (10) 2006: pp. 20 ...

  11. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment for the Prevention of Diabetes Richard Arakaki, MD Area Diabetes Consultant Phoenix Area IHS Stay Connected ... Headquarters, Indian Health Service, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 - Find a Mail Stop Office Mail Stops ...

  12. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Audit Audit/SOS Login Clinician Resources Education Materials and Resources (Online Catalog) Contact Us Special Diabetes ... Indians and Alaska Natives. The report and related materials can be found on the Vital Signs website ...

  13. Anthropometric analysis of the hip joint in South Indian population using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivel Chezian Sengodan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that there are significant differences in anthropometric parameters of proximal femur among the South Indian population compared with Western population. Even within the Indian population, the anthropometric parameters vary region to region.

  14. American Indian Diabetes Beliefs and Practices: Anxiety, Fear, and Dread in Pregnant Women With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, L D; Henderson, J Neil; King, Kama; Kleszynski, Keith; Thompson, David M; Mayer, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes among American Indian (AI) people is a health disparities condition that creates excessive morbidity and mortality. This research delineated culturally constructed models of type 2 diabetes among 97 pregnant women in two large AI nations in Oklahoma. The data analysis of explanatory models of type 2 diabetes revealed the participants' intense anxiety, fear, and dread related to the condition. The sample was further stratified by combinations of diabetes status: 1) absence of type 2 diabetes (n = 66), 2) type 2 diabetes prior to pregnancy (n = 4), and 3) gestational diabetes (n = 27). Patients were interviewed regarding perceptions of the etiology, course, and treatment of diabetes. The research incorporated an integrated phenomenologic and ethnographic approach using structured and semi-structured interviews to yield both quantitative and qualitative data. General findings comprised three main categories of patients' concerns regarding type 2 diabetes as an illness: 1) mechanical acts (i.e., injections), 2) medical complications, and 3) the conceptual sense of diabetes as a "severe" condition. Specific findings included significant fear and anxiety surrounding 1) the health and well-being of the unborn child, 2) the use of insulin injections, 3) blindness, 4) amputation, and 5) death. Paradoxically, although there was only a slight sense of disease severity overall, responses were punctuated with dread of specific outcomes. The latter finding is considered consistent with the presence of chronic diseases that can usually be managed but present risk of severe complications if not well controlled.

  15. Radiographic localization of mental foramen in Northeast and South Indian ethnic groups of Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Hunsigi, Prahalad; Kaipa, Balakasi Reddy; Reddy, Rajini; Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Kumar, Chakki B Arun; Prasanna, M D

    2014-11-01

    The position of mental foramen varies in different ethnic groups. The position of mental foramen is mainly important for achieving effective mental nerve block to carry out dental surgical procedures in mandible. Deviation in its position can be a cause of complication during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The position of the mental foramen in South Indian and Northeast Indian population has not been reported. The purpose of the current study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen (MF) and its bilateral symmetry in selected Indian population. 380 digital panoramic radiographs (DPR) of a randomly selected 2 Ethnic groups of Indian population were studied. The common position (59.2%) of the mental foramen was located between the 1st and 2nd premolars (P3) in Northeast Indians and in South Indians the common location (62.8%) was in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar (P4), which was statistically significant in both Populations. A bilateral symmetry was observed in the location of mental foramina, either mesial to or in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar, which is consistent with the observations of similar studies in various ethnic or racial groups. In our study a statistically significant association between the 2 ethnic groups and the position of mental foramen exists. Therefore the position of mental foramen may be specific to racial groups facilitating accurate landmark for mental nerve block depending on the ethnic group. Further, studies are required with larger sample for better understanding of mental foramen location in different ethnic groups.

  16. Palmar Dermatoglyphs of South Mrican Indians | Grace | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47, No 3 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  17. Common variants of inflammatory cytokine genes are associated with risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Khullar, Madhu; Ahuja, Monica; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Bhansali, Anil; Mohan, Viswanathan; Venkatesan, Radha; Rai, Taranjit Singh; Sud, Kamal; Singal, Pawan K

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokine genes have been proposed as good candidate genes for conferring susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of multiple alleles of pro inflammatory cytokine genes for determining the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (CCL2, TGFB1, IL8, CCR5, and MMP9) were genotyped in two independently ascertained type 2 diabetic cohorts with (DN) and without nephropathy (DM); consisting of patients from North India (n = 495) and South India (n = 188). Genotyping was carried out using PCR, allele specific oligonucleotide-PCR (ASO-PCR), PCR-RFLP and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays and the gene-gene interaction among genetic variants were determined by multi dimensional reduction (MDR) software. Serum high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) levels were measured by ELISA. The hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in DN as compared to the DM group (p<0.05). The CCL2, IL8, CCR5 and MMP9 polymorphisms were found to be associated with the risk of diabetic nephropathy. Frequency of CCL2 II, IL8 -251AA, CCR5 59029AA and MMP9 279Gln/Gln genotypes were significantly higher in DN than in DM group (p<0.05) and associated with an increased risk of nephropathy in both North and South Indian cohorts. CCR5 DD and IL8 -251AA genotypes were more prevalent in North Indian DN group only. The co-occurrence of risk associated genotypes (II, -2518GG (CCL2), DD (CCR5) and 279Gln/Gln (MMP9) conferred a tenfold increased risk of nephropathy among type 2 diabetics (p<0.0002). The present study highlights that common variants of inflammatory cytokine genes exert a modest effect on risk of DN and a combination of risk alleles confer a substantial increased risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians.

  18. Quality of Life in People with Diabetic Retinopathy: Indian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Datson Marian; Shah, Amish; D'Souza, May; Simon, Paul; George, Thomas; D'Souza, Nameeth; Suresh, Sucharitha; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a well-known consequence of long standing and poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Several studies have demonstrated both a qualitative and quantitative reduction in health related quality of life in persons with DR. But no such study has been done in the Indian population. To assess health related and vision related quality of life in people with DR. The present study included two groups of patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Cases included 97 patients with DR. The control group (n=26) consisted of diabetic cases with no clinically detectable DR changes. After taking informed consent, health and vision related quality of life was assessed using National Eye Institute 25-Item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). Demographic information, social history and diabetic history were also obtained from all patients. DR was graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification. Of the 97 cases with DR, 42.3% were females. Of the 26 controls, 53.8% were females. The mean±SD age in years of the cases was 55.09±9.56 and controls were 54.12±13.01. The mean±SD of DM in years for the cases was 10.98±5.62 and for controls was 6.69±2.29. There were statistically significant (pQuality of life was significantly lower in diabetics with DR when compared with those without DR with maximum effect seen on general health, general vision and mental health. Quality of life decreased as the duration of retinopathy and severity of retinopathy increased.

  19. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JEMDSA) is published by the South African Medical Association and publishes papers related to endocrinology, metabolism and diabetes. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.jemdsa.co.za ...

  20. Quality assurance in diabetic retinal screening in South Africa | Cook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... external quality assurance (EQA) on graders registered in the Ophthalmological Society of South Africa DR screening programme. Methods. Graders registered on the South African (SA) Diabetic Register website were invited to participate in the study. The Scottish EQA software system was used to enable on-line grading ...

  1. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  2. Decay of eddies at the South-West Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Coward

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The South-West Indian Ridge in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean is a region recognised for the creation of particularly intense eddy disturbances in the mean flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Eddies formed at this ridge have been extensively studied over the past decade using hydrographic, satellite, drifter and float data and it is hypothesised that they could provide a vehicle for localised meridional heat and salt exchange. The effectiveness of this process is dependent on the rate of decay of the eddies. However, in order to investigate eddy decay, logistically difficult hydrographic monitoring is required. This study presents the decay of cold eddies at the South-West Indian Ridge, using outputs from a high-resolution ocean model. The model’s representation of the dynamic nature of this region is fully characteristic of observations. On average, 3–4 intense and well-defined cold eddies are generated per year; these eddies have mean longevities of 5.0±2.2 months with average advection speeds of 5±2 km/day. Most simulated eddies reach their peak intensity within 1.5–2.5 months after genesis and have depths of 2000 m – 3000 m. Thereafter they dissipate within approximately 3 months. The decay of eddies is generally characterised by a decrease in their sea surface height signature, a weakening in their rotation rates and a modification in their temperature–salinity characteristics. Subantarctic top predators are suspected to forage preferentially along the edges of eddies. The process of eddy dissipation may thus influence their feeding behaviour.

  3. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Type 2 Diabetes and Edentulism as Chronic Co-Morbid Factors Affecting Indian Elderly: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ladha, Komal; Tiwari, Bhawana

    2013-01-01

    In past 50 years, type 2 diabetes has emerged as one of the major public health problem. India leads the world with the largest number of diabetic patients and has a huge elderly population. The present article discusses the effect of diabetes and edentulism on the overall general health of elderly. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and edentulism in Indian elderly and their inter-relationship has been discussed. Dentists must provide optimum oral care with special attention towards comprehen...

  5. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... selected presentation recordings. Good news: Reduction in Kidney Failure in AI/AN People Exit Disclaimer: You Are ... ihs.gov showing a dramatic decrease in kidney failure from diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. ...

  6. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share with others today! 2017 Diabetes in Indian Country Conference Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs. ... 776 KB] Performance Plain Writing Act The White House USA.gov Website Privacy Policy Stay Connected Language ...

  7. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ihs.gov showing a dramatic decrease in kidney failure from diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. The report and related materials can be found on the Vital Signs website ...

  8. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SOS Login Clinician Resources Education Materials and Resources (Online Catalog) Contact Us Special Diabetes Program for Indians ... Prevention Program Toolkit, Program Spotlights, and more! Announcing Online Lesson Plan Outlines for Educators New or seasoned ...

  9. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dramatic decrease in kidney failure from diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. The report and related materials can be found on the Vital Signs website Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs. ...

  10. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with others today! 2017 Diabetes in Indian Country Conference Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov Did you miss the conference? Get the highlights, presentation slides, and watch selected ...

  11. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ibrahim Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.

  12. Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.

  13. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  14. Association analysis of nine candidate gene polymorphisms in Indian patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Gowthaman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR is classically defined as a microvasculopathy that primarily affects the small blood vessels of the inner retina as a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM.It is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of a set of nine candidate genes with the development of diabetic retinopathy in a South Indian cohort who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods Seven candidate genes (RAGE, PEDF, AKR1B1, EPO, HTRA1, ICAM and HFE were chosen based on reported association with DR in the literature. Two more, CFH and ARMS2, were chosen based on their roles in biological pathways previously implicated in DR. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one dinucleotide repeat polymorphism, previously reported to show association with DR or other related diseases, were genotyped in 345 DR and 356 diabetic patients without retinopathy (DNR. The genes which showed positive association in this screening set were tested further in additional sets of 100 DR and 90 DNR additional patients from the Aravind Eye Hospital. Those which showed association in the secondary screen were subjected to a combined analysis with the 100 DR and 100 DNR subjects previously recruited and genotyped through the Sankara Nethralaya Hospital, India. Genotypes were evaluated using a combination of direct sequencing, TaqMan SNP genotyping, RFLP analysis, and SNaPshot PCR assays. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies. Results Among the nine loci (15 polymorphisms screened, SNP rs2070600 (G82S in the RAGE gene, showed significant association with DR (allelic P = 0.016, dominant model P = 0.012, compared to DNR. SNP rs2070600 further showed significant association with DR in the confirmation cohort (P = 0.035, dominant model P = 0.032. Combining the two cohorts gave an allelic P HTRA1, rs11200638 (G>A, showed marginal

  15. Dietary education tools for South Asians with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Sadia Iftekhar; Brauer, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    South Asian immigrants to Canada are at high risk for developing diabetes, and culturally relevant diet counselling tools are needed. We examined perceived needs and preferences for diet counselling resources based on the newly revised Canadian Diabetes Association meal planning guide. Five focus groups of individuals from different regions of South Asia (n=53) discussed portion size estimating methods, cultural values and holidays, food group classifications, and common South Asian foods. A focus panel with dietitians (n=8) provided insight on current diabetes education methods and resources for teaching South Asian clients. The dietitian panel members reported a need for resources targeted at differing client skill levels. They also noted preferences for individual counselling, and common barriers to education including finances, access, South Asian diets, and cultural views on health. Community focus groups reported larger portions but fewer daily meals in Canada. Ingredients and portions were not measured. Fasting was an important value, and sweets were a crucial component of holidays. Resources in South Asian languages, inclusion of pictures, and separate legumes, sweets, and snacks food groups were preferred. Findings can be used when developing new counselling tools for the South Asian community.

  16. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bovalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  17. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rakhi; Sivapathasundharam B; Einstein A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy...

  18. Comparison of dietary profile of a rural south Indian population with the current dietary recommendations for prevention of non-communicable diseases (CURES 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhan Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action.

  19. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Felicia M.

    2012-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  20. Measuring the quality of diabetes care in urban and rural Indian health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Roubideaux, Yvette; Noonan, Carolyn; Goldberg, Jack; Shields, Ray; Acton, Kelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of diabetes care provided to American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) by urban and rural Indian health programs. Medical record review data collected by the Indian Health Service as part of the Diabetes Care and Outcomes Audit in 2002. Seventeen urban Indian health clinics and 225 rural Indian health programs. All urban AI/AN patients (n = 710) and random sample records of rural AI/AN patients (n=1420). Adherence to guidelines for process measures and intermediate outcomes of diabetes care. Compared to the rural sample, urban patients were more likely to have received diabetes education during the prior year (P urban patients than rural patients (19% vs 41%, P care and the percentage achieving recommended levels varied slightly but were not statistically or clinically significant. Few differences in the quality of diabetes care were found between urban and rural Indian health sites. Differences in the receipt of dental examinations may reflect differences in resources and staffing between urban and rural settings. This study serves as a baseline for the assessment of ongoing interventions aimed at improving the quality of care.

  1. Effect of 12 Weeks of Yoga Therapy on Quality of Life and Indian Diabetes Risk Score in Normotensive Indian Young Adult Prediabetics and Diabetics: Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, Gorantla Shravya; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Balachander, Jayaraman

    2017-09-01

    India has become the epicentre for diabetes, a stress-related disorder affecting the working skills and day-to-day lifestyle management of younger population. Most of the studies have reported the effect of yoga on improving Quality of Life (QoL) in diabetic patients with other comorbidities. Till date, no randomized control trial reports are available to show the effect of yoga therapy on QoL and Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) in normotensive prediabetic and diabetic young individuals. To determine the effect of 12 weeks of yoga therapy on QoL and IDRS among normotensive prediabetic and diabetic young Indian adults. A randomized control trial was conducted in Endocrinology Outpatient Department (OPD). Normotensive participants (n=310) aged 18-45 years were divided into healthy controls (n=62), prediabetics (n=124) and diabetics (n=124). Study group subjects were randomly assigned to Group II (n=62, prediabetes-standard treatment), Group III (n=62, prediabetes-standard treatment + yoga therapy), Group IV (n=62, diabetes-standard treatment) and Group V (n=62, diabetes-standard treatment + yoga therapy). Flanagan QoL scale, IDRS questionnaire, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and insulin were assessed pre and post 12 weeks of intervention. Statistical analysis was done using Student's paired t-test and one-way ANOVA. Pre-post intervention analysis showed significant improvement in QoL scale with ppV respectively. There was significant reduction in IDRS in Group II (ppV respectively. Significant difference (p<0.001) in QoL scale and IDRS were found when study groups with standard treatment along with yoga therapy were compared to standard treatment alone. Yoga therapy along with standard treatment for 12 weeks improved QoL and attenuated the diabetes risk among Indian prediabetics and diabetics compared to standard treatment alone.

  2. Structure and variability of the Leeuwin current in the south eastern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peter, B.N.; Sreeraj, P.; VimalKumar, K.G.

    The present study analyses the structure and variability of the Leeuwin Current in the south Indian Ocean. Besides the historic hydrographic dataset various observations made during WOCE, TOGA and other experiments conducted in the study region...

  3. The Indian Ocean Experiment : Widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, PJ; Ramanathan, A.; Andreae, MO; Brenninkmeijer, CAM; Campos, T; Cass, GR; Dickerson, RR; Fischer, H; de Gouw, JA; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, ATJ; Lal, S; Lawrence, MG; Lobert, JM; Mayol-Bracero, OL; Mitra, AP; Novakov, T; Oltmans, SJ; Prather, KA; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, HA; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure Long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution Levels were observed over

  4. Last Stop “Little Gujarat”: Tracking South African Indian Writers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inevitably, too, South African Indian writers descended from these first immigrants have written about the Grey Street area in their works, describing the close community ties that developed amid the Indian-styled buildings their forefathers erected. Writers such as Dr Goonam (Coolie Doctor), Phyllis Naidoo (Footprints in ...

  5. Quality of diabetes related health information on internet: an Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Kandarp; Upadhyay, Vandana; Gupta, Puneet; Joshi, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health concern in Indian subcontinent. More and more people are searching internet for health information, however, the quality of internet-based medical information is extremely variable. This study aims to evaluate quality of health information about type-II diabetes mellitus in an Indian context. We used key words 'diabetes', 'diabetes management', 'diabetes prevention' and 'diabetes monitoring' and searched over Google, Yahoo and Bing during August 2011. Two independent reviewers used DISCERN tool to assess quality of health information of the final 84 websites. Majority of the websites were '.com' and DISCERN scores were highest in 'other' category. Inter-rater reliability analysis suggests 81% (N = 17) DISCERN criteria are in substantial agreement between two reviewers. There is no significant difference between two reviewers as well as among four website categories (.com, .edu, .org and others) for reliability of publication, specific details about treatment choices and overall quality rating.

  6. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its influence on microvascular complications in the Indian population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Rajiv

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metabolic syndrome (MS consists of central obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, low high density lipoproteins, high triglycerides and hypertension. Different studies have observed that MS causes microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of MS in the Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to gender, duration of diabetes, and to evaluate the influence of MS and its individual components on microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. Methods A population-based cross sectional survey was conducted with 1414 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria were used to identify the metabolic syndrome. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using the stereoscopic digital fundus photography. Neuropathy was assessed by measuring the vibration perception threshold through a sensitometer. Nephropathy was diagnosed by the presence of microalbuminuria in the first morning urine sample. Results The age and gender adjusted prevalence of MS, using the IDF criteria, in the South Indian population was 73.3%. The prevalence was higher in women (83.3%, compared to men (65.3%. In subjects with diabetes mellitus, without and with MS, the prevalence of retinopathy was 21.3% and 16.9% (p = 0.057; prevalence of nephropathy was 20.5% and 18.0% (p = 0.296, and prevalence of neuropathy was17.2% and 19.4% (p = 0.353 respectively. Overall and in women, the clustering of MS components led to an increase in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The prevalence of retinopathy and neuropathy in MS subjects, who had diabetes for Conclusions The association of MS with microangiopathies decreased with an increase in the duration of diabetes. MS behaved differently in men and women. It may need to be managed differently in the two groups.

  7. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary comp...

  8. Common variants of inflammatory cytokine genes are associated with risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokine genes have been proposed as good candidate genes for conferring susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we examined the combined effect of multiple alleles of pro inflammatory cytokine genes for determining the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (CCL2, TGFB1, IL8, CCR5, and MMP9 were genotyped in two independently ascertained type 2 diabetic cohorts with (DN and without nephropathy (DM; consisting of patients from North India (n = 495 and South India (n = 188. Genotyping was carried out using PCR, allele specific oligonucleotide-PCR (ASO-PCR, PCR-RFLP and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays and the gene-gene interaction among genetic variants were determined by multi dimensional reduction (MDR software. Serum high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP levels were measured by ELISA. The hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in DN as compared to the DM group (p<0.05. The CCL2, IL8, CCR5 and MMP9 polymorphisms were found to be associated with the risk of diabetic nephropathy. Frequency of CCL2 II, IL8 -251AA, CCR5 59029AA and MMP9 279Gln/Gln genotypes were significantly higher in DN than in DM group (p<0.05 and associated with an increased risk of nephropathy in both North and South Indian cohorts. CCR5 DD and IL8 -251AA genotypes were more prevalent in North Indian DN group only. The co-occurrence of risk associated genotypes (II, -2518GG (CCL2, DD (CCR5 and 279Gln/Gln (MMP9 conferred a tenfold increased risk of nephropathy among type 2 diabetics (p<0.0002. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights that common variants of inflammatory cytokine genes exert a modest effect on risk of DN and a combination of risk alleles confer a substantial increased risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians.

  9. Psychosocial stress in South African patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ramkisson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is considered an emotionally and behaviourally demanding condition which adds to the stress of a patient’s daily living. There is a paucity of literature in South Africa regarding stress and diabetes. This study therefore aims to identify the areas and contributory factors of psychosocial stress in South African patients with diabetes. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two public facilities and five private medical practices on the north coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Questionnaire on Stress in Diabetes – Revised was administered to 401 participants. Results: Eighteen percent of the sample reported having extreme psychosocial stress. Depression, physical complaints and self-medication/diet were the main areas which contributed to high psychosocial stress. Factors that also contributed to high levels of psychosocial stress were low educational level, unemployment, female gender, attending the public sector and high HbA1c levels. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress affects metabolic control in patients with diabetes, thereby increasing the risks of long-term complications.

  10. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be screened for GDM with the IADPSG criteria (Z Bayat, personal communication, September 2016). At present, risk factor-based. This open-access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in a. South African population: Prevalence, comparison.

  11. Determinants of vascular complications in type 2 diabetic South Asians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezenga, Machiel Andries

    2011-01-01

    South Asians have a high incidence of diabetes and subsequent cardiovascular and renal complications. Increasing evidence points towards the involvement of the complement system. We found higher levels of both complement C3( the central molecule in the complement cascade) and SC5b-9 (the effector

  12. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence and Association of Low Testosterone Levels in a South African Male, Diabetic, Urban Population · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Kemp, P Rheeder, 92-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16089677.2015.1056478 ...

  13. Root canal morphology of South asian Indian mandibular premolar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian mandibular premolars using a tooth clearing technique. Two hundred mandibular premolar teeth were collected from different dental schools and clinics in India. After pulp tissue removal and root canal staining with Indian ink, the specimens were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated in ethyl alcohol, and subsequently cleared in methyl salicylate. Of the 200 mandibular premolars, 100 were first premolars and 100 were second premolars. Of the first premolars, 94% had a single root, whereas 6% were 2 rooted. Seventy-six percent had a single canal, 22% had 2 canals, and 2% had 3 canals. Eighty-two percent had a single apical foramen, 16% had 2 foramens, and 2% teeth had 3 apical foramens. Eighty percent of teeth had type I, 6% had type II, 10% had type IV, 2% had type V, and 2% teeth had type IX root canal anatomy. Of the 100 second premolars, 92% had a single root, whereas 8% teeth were 2 rooted and fused. Fifty-eight percent of teeth had a single canal, and 42% had two canals. Eighty-eight percent had a single apical foramen, and 12% had 2 foramens. Sixty-six percent had type I, 30% had type II, and 4% had type V root canal anatomy. A high prevalence of 2 canals was noted in the first and second premolars. Also, 20% of first premolars and 34% of second premolars had a root canal anatomy other than type I. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ETHNICITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ASIAN INDIAN MIGRANTS IN AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowitt Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to present ethnic differences in body size and body composition in Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand, associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, through the comparison with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. About 74 studies out of 128 publications were selected to ensure relevance to the topic of the review. Seven research projects were presented for the body size and body composition of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes of 8.6% in Asian Indians in New Zealand is still higher than in their homeland, owing to their ethnicity, genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle and altered nutrition, and other psychosocial factors related to migration and living conditions like stress at work and depression. For the same body mass index, in comparison with people of other ethnic groups in New Zealand Asian Indians had more total body fat, higher percent body fat, more central fat, less lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Central obesity was associated with insulin resistance and low grade systemic inflammation. Considering the evidence that type 2 diabetes develops ten years earlier in Asian Indians than in other populations, further studies are warranted to shed some light on the still incompletely understood metabolic syndrome and “thin-fat” Indian phenotype.

  15. A Visit to the South Pole-Adventures of the First Indian to Winter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. A Visit to the South Pole - Adventures of the First Indian to Winter-Over the South Pole and Explore Antarctica. Parmjit Singh Sehra. Reflections Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 384-391 ...

  16. Saline Indian Ocean Waters invaded the South Atlantic thermocline during glacial termination II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Marino, G.; Brummer, G.J.; Peeters, F.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Salty and warm Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlanticvia the Agulhas leakage, south of Africa. Model simulations andproxy evidence of Agulhas leakage strengthening during glacial terminationsled to the hypothesis that it was an important modulator ofthe Atlantic Ocean circulation. Yet, the

  17. Saline Indian Ocean waters invaded the South Atlantic thermocline during glacial termination II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Scussolini, G.; Brummer, G.-J.A.; Peeters, F.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Salty and warm Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage, south of Africa. Model simulations and proxy evidence of Agulhas leakage strengthening during glacial terminations led to the hypothesis that it was an important modulator of the Atlantic Ocean circulation. Yet, the

  18. Diabetes and other glucose metabolism abnormalities in Mexican Zapotec and Mixe Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, J; Chavira, I; Martínez, L; Velasco, X; Escandón, C; Cabral, J

    2010-04-01

    Aboriginal populations are experiencing an explosive rise in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and other glucose metabolism abnormalities in Mexican Zapotec and Mixe Indians and to determine their association with known risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca. Two communities of Zapotec population and three of Mixe population were randomly chosen. Mexican Indians>or=35 years old were invited to participate; 394 Zapotec and 730 Mixe Indians participated. Diabetes and other glucose metabolism abnormalities were diagnosed using standard World Health Organization criteria after an oral glucose tolerance test. Prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The crude prevalence of diabetes was 8.19% (95% CI 6.7-9.9%) and the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 8.27%, significantly higher among Zapotec (8.71%) than among Mixe Indians (6.90%). The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 9.9% and 4.7% of the studied subjects had impaired fasting glucose. The main risk factors related to the occurrence of diabetes were a family history of diabetes (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.9-8.8), obesity (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.6), hypertension (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.7) and a high-risk waist-hip ratio (4.6; 95% CI 1.2-17.7). The prevalence of diabetes is high in this population, the highest so far reported in Mexican Indians. Mexico's health system faces a huge challenge to avert the advanced spread of diabetes in this susceptible population.

  19. 'We should change ourselves, but we can't': accounts of food and eating practices amongst British Pakistanis and Indians with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Ahmad, Naureen; Hanna, Lisa; Douglas, Margaret; Bains, Harpreet; Hallowell, Nina

    2008-09-01

    To look at food and eating practices from the perspectives of Pakistanis and Indians with type 2 diabetes, their perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to dietary change, and the social and cultural factors informing their accounts. Qualitative, interview study involving 23 Pakistanis and nine Indians with type 2 diabetes. Respondents were interviewed in their first language (Punjabi or English) by a bilingual researcher. Data collection and analysis took place concurrently with issues identified in early interviews being used to inform areas of investigation in later ones. Despite considerable diversity in the dietary advice received, respondents offered similar accounts of their food and eating practices following diagnosis. Most had continued to consume South Asian foods, especially in the evenings, despite their perceived concerns that these foods could be 'dangerous' and detrimental to their diabetes control. Respondents described such foods as 'strength-giving', and highlighted a cultural expectation to participate in acts of commensality with family/community members. Male respondents often reported limited input into food preparation. Many respondents attempted to balance the perceived risks of eating South Asian foodstuffs against those of alienating themselves from their culture and community by eating such foods in smaller amounts. This strategy could lead to a lack of satiation and is not recommended in current dietary guidelines. Perceptions that South Asian foodstuffs necessarily comprise 'risky' options need to be tackled amongst patients and possibly their healthcare providers. To enable Indians and Pakistanis to manage their diabetes and identity simultaneously, guidelines should promote changes which work with their current food practices and preferences; specifically through lower fat recipes for commonly consumed dishes. Information and advice should be targeted at those responsible for food preparation, not just the person with diabetes

  20. Quality assurance in diabetic retinal screening in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steve; Staff, Roger T; Goatman, Keith A; Olson, John A

    2014-09-03

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an important biomarker for microvascular disease and blindness. Digital fundus photography is a cost-effective way of screening for DR. Access to DR screening is difficult for many South Africans with diabetes. To perform external quality assurance (EQA) on graders registered in the Ophthalmological Society of South Africa DR screening programme. Graders registered on the South African (SA) Diabetic Register website were invited to participate in the study. The Scottish EQA software system was used to enable on-line grading of 100 retinal photographs. Expert National Health Service graders provided the consensus expert grading for the image set. Two hundred and sixty-one participants completed the EQA process, including nine ophthalmologists, 243 optometrists, and nine other graders. A wide range of outcomes were demonstrated, with a mean sensitivity of 0.905 (range 0.286 - 1.000) and mean specificity of 0.507 (0.000 - 0.935). The mean diagnostic odds ratio was calculated to be 12.3 (range 0.147 - 148.2). This is the first quality assurance study conducted with SA healthcare professionals. The outcomes are of interest to all stakeholders dealing with the diabetes epidemic. The disparity in grader performance indicates room for improvement. The results demonstrate a high referral rate to ophthalmology, suggesting that on average graders are performing safely, but with a high number of inappropriate referrals.

  1. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Sarita; Jawad, Fatema; Islam, Najmul; Mahtab, Hajera; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Shrestha, Dina; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Muthukuda, Dimuthu T.; Widanage, Niranjala Weegoda; Aye, Than Than; Aung, Moe Wint; Kalra, Bharti; Anjana, R. M.; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Verma, Komal

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultur...

  2. The Relationship between Diabetes Self-efficacy and Diabetes Self-care in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Mary Turner; Trahan, Lisa H; Eliza, Jessenia M; Wagner, Aimee E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how American Indian/Alaska Natives' (AI/ANs') attitudes and beliefs might influence how they experience and manage diabetes, with particular attention paid to their attitudes about disease causality. An AI/AN sample of 119 participants completed an anonymous survey that examined the impact of judgments of personal responsibility for disease onset, anger, self-blame, social support, and diabetes self-efficacy on diabetes self-care. Our primary model was tested using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that, while many participants considered themselves almost entirely responsible for their disease onset, this judgment did not predict anger. Anger was strongly related to self-blame and social support, while diabetes self-efficacy was strongly related to diabetes self-care. These psychosocial variables accounted for 70% of the variability in self-reported disease management.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  4. South Asia and the Indian Ocean: The Strategic Environment, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    finance and arm political dis- sidents in the Sind and Karachi . • Sri Lanka believes South Indian nationalists have assisted or turned a blind eye to...Paki- stani cities (Lahore, Karachi , Rawalpindi, and Wah) would cause 700,000 casualties. Air bursts at 10,000 feet would cause five times these...Asian Region (Post Cold War) and India’s Defense Concerns," IDF , July 1993: "The Chinese Navy and projection of sea power into the Indian Ocean

  5. Relationship between Sialic acid and metabolic variables in Indian type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak B Shivananda

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma sialic acid is a marker of the acute phase response. Objective is to study the relationship between sialic acid relationship with metabolic variables in Indian type 2 diabetes with and without microvascular complications. Research design and Methods Fasting Venous blood samples were taken from 200 subjects of which 50 were of diabetes mellitus (DM and nephropathy patients, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and retinopathy, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes without any complications and 50 healthy individuals without diabetes. The Indian subject's aged 15–60 years with type 2 diabetes were recruited for the study. Simultaneously urine samples were also collected from each of the subjects. All the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, fasting and postprandial glucose on fully automated analyzer. Serum and urine sialic acid along with microalbumin levels were also estimated. Results There was a significantly increasing trend of plasma and urine sialic acid with severity of nephropathy (P 1c, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, waist-to-hip ratio and hypertension. Significant correlations were found between sialic acid concentration and cardiovascular risk factors like LDL and TG in the diabetic subjects. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that elevated serum and urinary sialic acid and microalbumin concentrations were strongly related to the presence of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian type 2 diabetic subjects. Further study of acute-phase response markers and mediators as indicators or predictors of diabetic microvascular complications is therefore justified.

  6. Barriers and Motives to PA in South Asian Indian Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Manju; Abendroth, Maryann; Erlen, Judith A

    2017-03-01

    The high prevalence of chronic illnesses in South Asian Indian immigrant women underscores the need for identifying factors that could influence their PA. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perspectives of South Asian Indian immigrant women related to barriers to and motives for lifestyle PA within the PA Framework for South Asian Indian Immigrants. Forty women participated in focus groups that were conducted in English and Hindi. Focus group questions were open-ended and semistructured. Transcribed and de-identified audiotaped sessions were coded and analyzed using Atlas.ti software. Role expectation was a core theme for barriers with four subthemes: lack of time, loss of interest, diminished social support, and environmental constraints. Self-motivation was a core theme for motives with three subthemes: optimal physical and psychological health, emphasis on external beauty, and strong social support. Future PA interventions need to target these culturally sensitive factors.

  7. Stature estimation from the length of the sternum in South Indian males: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kumar, G Pradeep; Rao, P P Jagadish; Lobo, Stany W; Uysal, Selma; Krishan, Kewal; Kalthur, Sneha G; Nagesh, K R; Shettigar, Sunder

    2009-11-01

    Estimation of stature is one of the important initial steps during forensic analysis of human skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to derive a linear regression formula for estimating stature of adult South Indian males from the length of the sternum. The study included 35 male sternums of South Indian origin dissected from cadavers during medico-legal autopsies. The linear regression equation [Stature=117.784 + (3.429 x Sternal length)] was derived to estimate the stature from the length of the sternum. The correlation coefficient was 0.638. The standard error of the estimate was 5.64 cm. This preliminary study concludes that the length of the sternum can be used as a tool for stature estimation in adult South Indian males.

  8. Internipple measurements in Indian neonates | Faridi | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internipple measurements in Indian neonates. MMA Faridi, P Dhingra. Abstract. Background. Anthropometric parameters such as the distance between the nipples and the internipple index are important signs of some genetic disorders. Indian data on these measurements are scarce. Objectives. To determine internipple ...

  9. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... watch selected presentation recordings. Good news: Reduction in Kidney Failure in AI/AN People Exit Disclaimer: You Are ... www.ihs.gov showing a dramatic decrease in kidney failure from diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. ...

  11. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment and Prevention About Us Training IHS Diabetes Audit Audit/SOS Login Clinician Resources Education Materials and Resources ( ... Access and Partnerships - 10E85C Office of Tribal Self Governance - 08E05 Office of Urban Indian Health Programs - 08E65C ...

  12. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment and Prevention About Us Training IHS Diabetes Audit Audit/SOS Login Clinician Resources Education Materials and Resources ( ... Access and Partnerships - 10E85C Office of Tribal Self Governance - 08E05 Office of Urban Indian Health Programs - 08E65C ...

  13. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Press Releases Reports to Congress Tribal Leader Letters Urban Leader Letters IHS Home Division of Diabetes Treatment ... Office of Tribal Self Governance - 08E05 Office of Urban Indian Health Programs - 08E65C Accessibility Budget Contact Information ...

  14. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  15. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sohal, Tanveer; Sohal, Parmjit; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Khan, Nadia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient’s perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management. Methods We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 –February, 2014) evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and me...

  16. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  17. Eruption status of third molars in South Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata M Byahatti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the present study is to determine the number of third molars per person, angulation, level, amount of space for eruption of third molar between ramus of mandible and second molar status of root and also to study the difficulty index. Objective: To study the eruption status of third molar in South Indian population. Materials and methods: The study conducted at Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Maratha Mandals NG Halgekar College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. Belgaum, Karnataka, India A total of 150 patients (54 females and 96 males visiting outpatient department between the age group of 17 and 30 with a mean age of 23.5 years were selected- Before starting the study, ethical concern taken from the ethical committee and informed consent from each patent who underwent radiographic examination. Results: The results showed approximately 94.66% of the subjects had all four third molars, 8.6% had three third molars, 4.6% had two third molars and 2% had one third molars with 3.3% having agenesis of all third molars. Third molar agenesis showed predilection for upper jaw with higher proportion in females (5 5% than males (2%. Angular position seen maximum with vertical position (66.16% with least being horizontal impactions. Level of occlusal plane of third molar similar to that of adjacent tooth seen in 52.65%. Below the occlusal plane in 19.61 %, totally impacted teeth noted in 27.73%. More than 75% of the teeth had complete root formation. Among total number of teeth, 518 (91.51 % teeth were easy to extract and remaining 33 (5.8% were difficult to extract. Conclusion: Radiological and clinical findings have correlated to assess whether teeth were easy to extract or difficult. Because of the increasing incidence of unerupted third molars and the association of numerous complications with these retained teeth, assessment of germ position and prognosis of third molar eruption is necessary for better patient management.

  18. The Effects of growing Indian military potential on South Asian stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    response. Both sides will then be engaged in a series of actions and counteractions leading to a potential ascent up the escalation ladder. If...national power and military potential . The dangerous outcome associated with these actions is the primary cause of instability in South Asia. In this...THE EFFECTS OF GROWING INDIAN MILITARY POTENTIAL ON SOUTH ASIAN STABILITY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army

  19. The position of the mental foramen in the north and south Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Naveen; Ramdurg, Praveenkumar; Puranik, Surekha R; Sali, Ketki; Ingaleshwar, Pramod

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare the position of the mental foramen MF in the north and south Indian populations using Panoramic radiographs. A total of 100 Panoramic radiographs were selected from the archives of PMNM Dental College and the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, of which 50 radiographs belonged to a north Indian population and 50 radiographs belonged to a local population of Bagalkot Karnataka. The position of the MF was classified into 6 positions depending on the relationship to the mandibular teeth. The distance from the superior border of the MF to the lower border of the mandible was also measured. The most common position of the MF was along the long axis of the second premolar in the north Indian population and in south Indian populations it was found to be between the first and second premolar. Descriptive analysis was used to compare the distance between the superior border of the mental foramen and the lower border of the mandible bilaterally. There was a significant difference in the position of the MF between the north and south Indian populations. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  20. The accuracy of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and Indian Diabetes Risk Score in adults screened for diabetes mellitus type-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshakti D Pawar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The World Health Organization report suggests that over 19% of the world's diabetic population currently resides in India. Unfortunately, >50% of the diabetics in India are unaware about their diabetic status. In the poor income country like India, it is essential to use cost-effective methods for screening for diabetes, and traditionally using three classical symptoms and Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS tool is helpful but, data regarding their diagnostic accuracy is very less. Objective: (1 To assess the diagnostic accuracy of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and IDRS for detecting diabetes. Settings and Design: Six hundred and seventy-seven adult individuals> 20 years of age were screened for diabetes and assessed polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and IDRS score. All were subjected for postprandial blood glucose level. Subjects and Methods: For diagnostic accuracy sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios (LRs, for positive and negative tests, and accuracy was calculated for each symptom. Similarly, by receiver operative curve (ROC curve analysis, we carried out sensitivity and specificity of IDRS. Results: There was statistically significant association between these three classical symptoms and diabetes status of individuals. When present, all these three symptoms carried 7.34% sensitivity and 98.42% specificity with positive predictive value 47.06% and NPV 84.70%, LR+4.36, LR−0.94 with accuracy of 85%. The optimum cutoff value of IDRS score was> 50, which carried sensitivity 73%, specificity 58.7%, and area under curve for ROC was 68% (P < 0.001. Conclusions: This study has shown highest specificity for these three classical symptoms in diagnosing diabetes, but these symptoms were insensitive to detect all diabetic subjects.

  1. Diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Idiculla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jyothi Idiculla1, G D Ravindra’n1, Jason D’Souza1, Girija Singh1, Sultana Furruqh21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Biochemistry, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, IndiaAbstract: Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are increasingly being reported in the global medical literature. This cross-sectional study was done to describe the occurrence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance in HIV-positive patients in a tertiary referral center in South India. A total of 60 patients who had HIV infection for 12 months or more were enrolled in the study. Of these, 30 patients were antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve, and 30 were treated with ART. Biochemical estimations (fasting blood glucose, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and fasting insulin and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference were performed for each patient. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Plan III criteria, and insulin resistance was calculated applying the homeostasis model assessment method. Diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycemia, and impaired glucose tolerance were diagnosed based on American Diabetes Association criteria. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in patients with HIV (16/60, and was more prevalent in the ART-treated group (13/30; P = 0.028. Similarly, insulin resistance was also noted to be high (24/60, and of these patients, 15 were on ART. Seventy-five percent of patients with metabolic syndrome had insulin resistance. Diabetes was diagnosed in one patient who was ART-naïve and in six patients who were on ART. Our observations suggest an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus in ART-treated patients. These warrant attention and substantiation with larger studies. While ART

  2. Multiple environments: South Indian children’s environmental subjectivities in formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, E.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the formation of South Indian children’s (11–15 years old) environmental subjectivities based on five months of qualitative fieldwork with children in their school and non-school lives. By doing so, this paper aims to widen the scope of the existing literature on children’s

  3. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  4. Rajend Mesthrie. A Lexicon of South African Indian English, 1st edition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with biryani) and the House of Deli-goats (House of Delegates). More positive contributions will emerge from politics, music, arts, culture, literature, diplo- macy and tourism. Moreover, as Mesthrie concedes, "the early history of South. African Indian English has yet to be fully uncovered" (p. xxiii). To this, one could add that a ...

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in South American Indians (Mapuches) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inostroza, J; Diaz, P; Saunier, C

    1991-01-01

    The seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies was investigated in 405 serum samples from healthy South American Indians (Mapuches) from Chile, using enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA), Western immunoblot (WB) and radioimmuno precipitation assay (RIPA). Six samples were positive by ELISA; 3 of them were confirmed by WB/RIPA. Thus, we observed a seroprevalence of 0.7% for HTLV-1 antibodies in healthy Mapuches.

  6. U.S. Engineering Degrees for Improving South Indian Graduate Students' Marriage and Dowry Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakaboski, Tamara; Sheridan, Robyn Stout; Dade, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The article examines improved marriage opportunities as an unexplored motivator for pursuing international education via U.S. graduate engineering degrees and stresses the need to centralize gender in analyzing academic mobility and international education. This interdisciplinary qualitative study explores how South Indian men and women's…

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Mayuri; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Huang, Lei; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wang, Jie Jin; Tai, E-S; Heng, C-K; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin

    2014-12-01

    To describe prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in an Asian Indian population without diabetes. A population-based cross-sectional study of 3400 Indians aged 40-80 years residing in Singapore was conducted. Retinopathy was assessed from retinal photographs by trained graders using modified Airlie House Classification System. Risk factors were assessed from standardized interviews, clinical examinations and laboratory investigations. Diabetes mellitus was defined as glycosylated haemoglobin ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or physician diagnosis of diabetes. Among the 1900 individuals without diabetes, mean HbA1c was 5.7% and mean systolic blood pressure was 132.4 mmHg. Age-standardized prevalence of retinopathy was 5.05% (n = 98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07-6.21), with no significant difference in retinopathy prevalence between males (6.15%) and females (4.13%). Among non-diabetic persons with retinopathy, 96.9% (n = 95) had signs of minimal-to-mild retinopathy while 3.06% (n = 3) had moderate-to-severe retinopathy. After adjusting for multiple covariables, retinopathy signs were associated with higher levels of HbA1c (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.5; per% increase), systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; per mmHg increase) and serum creatinine (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.002-1.009; per mm increase), but not C-reactive protein, cigarette smoking or lipid levels. One in 20 Asian Indian persons without diabetes had retinopathy signs. Risk factors for these signs include higher glycosylated haemoglobin, systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  9. Acculturation and glycemic control of Asian Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Sumathi; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J; Kaplowitz, Stan A; Song, Won O

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is disproportionately high among Asian Indians (AI), one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States (US). Poorly controlled diabetes associated with inadequate self-management increases complications and thus medical costs. Acculturation may be an important determinant of diabetes self-management and hence control. This study examined the association between the degree of acculturation and glycemic control as measured by Hemoglobin A1c in AI adults with type 2 diabetes. A mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) study was conducted among 30 AI adults with type 2 diabetes. Acculturation assessment using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Instrument was followed by socio-demographic questions, self-reported anthropometric measures, and open ended diabetes self-care questions. A two-step multiple regression analysis and content analysis of verbatim interview transcriptions were conducted. Interactions of acculturation with body mass index (interaction b = 1.11; p = 0.01), annual household income (interaction b = 7.19; p = .01), and diabetes duration (interaction b = .30; p = .02) significantly predicted higher HbA1c levels (R(2) change = .368; F change = 4.21; p = .02). From the qualitative interviews, the following were regarded as US specific facilitators for glycemic control: excellent health care system and facilities, availability of healthy food choices and self-monitoring devices, medical insurance benefits, good quality medications, and improved health awareness. Cultural orientation might be important for patient tailored interventions targeting AI with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, interventions targeted at Asian Indians with diabetes should include culture specific adaptations to nutrition education and support.

  10. Diabetes guidelines and clinical practice: is there a gap? The South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this survey was to determine the therapeutic management of patients with diabetes in the South African private healthcare environment. Design: The International Diabetes Management Practices Study is an international multicentre and observational study. In this paper, the local South African ...

  11. Epidemiology of Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes in South Asians and Comparison with Other Ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asians have been shown to have increased abdominal adiposity, visceral fat, low muscle mass and subclinical inflammation, all of which make them prone to diabetes and its macrovascular complications. Diabetes is the most important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD in South Asia and South Asians with diabetes have a higher prevalence of CAD than Caucasians. Similar trends have been seen with coronary mortality, stroke and cerebrovascular disease. Importantly peripheral vascular disease and diabetic foot disease occur less frequently in South Asians compared to Caucasians. In addition, erectile dysfunction is emerging as an important complication of diabetes in South Asians and its association with cardiovascular disease is being recognised increasingly.

  12. Association of an Osteopontin gene promoter polymorphism with susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Balneek Singh; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sharma, Rajni; Shah, Viral N; Bhansali, Anil; Sakhuja, V; Khullar, Madhu

    2012-10-09

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Osteopontin (OPN) has been suggested to be associated with renal diseases characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis and proteinuria. However, information on association of genetic polymorphisms in OPN with diabetic nephropathy is lacking. Thus, the present study was designed with the aim to examine the association of an OPN gene promoter polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians. OPN C-443T (rs11730582) polymorphism was determined in 1115 type 2 diabetic patients belonging to two independently ascertained cohorts using Real time PCR based Taqman assay. We observed a nearly threefold elevated risk of diabetic nephropathy among carriers of T allele and TT genotype of OPN C-443T polymorphism. Further, this allele was found to be significantly associated with proteinuria and lower eGFR, a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy, in both our cohorts. This is the first study which suggests that OPN C-443T polymorphism may be a significant risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal outcome of type 2 diabetes in South Africa - a 12-year follow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. Previous studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus have indicated a benign renal outcome after long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine how often renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy was a cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Prospective observational study of 59 South African ...

  14. Dietary modifications to improve micronutrient status of Indian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Lavanya S; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2015-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role for maintaining normal growth and development while optimizing glycemic control in children with diabetes. Dietary restrictions, in a diabetic child's diet may lead to micronutrient deficiencies. To examine dietary nutritional deficiencies of Asian Indian children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and develop micronutrient-rich recipes suitable for them. Anthropometry, diet (3-day recall) of 70 children with diabetes (24 boys) was recorded. Daily nutrient intakes and nutrient content of recipes were estimated using CDIET version 2.0. Mean intake amongst children for energy was 79% of Indian Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), protein was 105% RDA, but fat intakes were high (143% RDA). Mean intakes of riboflavin, β carotene, zinc, iron were less than 50%, and thiamin and calcium were around 60% RDA suggesting a possible multiple micronutrient deficiency. Based on popularly consumed snacks, 20 healthy recipes were devised that can be incorporated in children's diet. Mean energy content of new recipes was similar to routine snacks (281±28 kcal/100 g vs 306±27 kcal/100 g cooked weight). However, the mean vitamin and mineral content of new recipes was significantly higher (pcontent (zinc, calcium and iron) and twofold increase in total vitamin content (β carotene, vitamin C, vitamin B-1, B-2, and B-3) in new recipes compared with the routine snacks. Multiple dietary micronutrient deficiencies are observed in diabetic children. Addition of newly developed recipes in their everyday diet may help to enhance micronutrient intakes without increasing their energy load.

  15. Human leukocyte Antigen-B*27 allele subtype prevalence and disease association of ankylosing spondylitis among south indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Haridas

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study indicates that a majority of South Indian AS patients are associated with HLA-B*27 alleles. In addtion we found that HLA-B*27 associated AS patients presented with more severe axial manifestations.

  16. South Dakota NASA Space Grant Consortium Creating Bridges in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    The South Dakota Space Grant Consortium (SDSGC) was established March 1, 1991 by a NASA Capability Enhancement Grant. Since that time SDSGC has worked to provide earth and space science educational outreach to all students across South Dakota. South Dakota has nine tribes and five tribal colleges. This has presented a tremendous opportunity to develop sustainable equitable partnerships and collaborations. SDSGC believes strongly in developing programs and activities that highlight the balance of indigenous science and ways of knowing with current findings in contemporary science. This blending of science and culture creates a learning community where individuals, especially students, can gain confidence and pride in their unique skills and abilities. Universities are also witnessing the accomplishments and achievements of students who are able to experience a tribal college environment and then carry that experience to a college/university/workplace and significantly increase the learning achievement of all. The presentation will highlight current Tribal College partnerships with Sinte Gleska University and Oglala Lakota College amongst others. Programs and activities to be explained during the presentation include: Native Connections, Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL), Bridges to Success Summer Research Program, Fire Ecology Summer Experience, and dual enrolled/college bridge programs. The presentation will also cover the current initiatives underway through NASA Workforce Development. These include: partnering program with the Annual He Sapa Wacipi, American Indian Space Days 2005, NASA research/internship programs and NASA Fellow Summit. An overview of recent American Indian student success will conclude the presentation. The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has struggled over many years to develop and implement sustainable successful initiatives with Tribal Colleges and Communities. The motivating philosophy is the

  17. Impact of gestational diabetes on the risk of diabetes following pregnancy among Chinese and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, G; Chiu, M; Shah, B R

    2012-08-01

    Ethnicity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are both risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, it is uncertain whether ethnicity modifies the effect of GDM on diabetes risk. We aimed to determine the risk of diabetes following pregnancy with and without GDM for Chinese and South Asian women compared with white women. Using healthcare databases, all 1,050,108 women aged 20-49 with live births between January 1995 and June 2008 in Ontario were identified. They were followed for up to 15 years for the diagnosis of diabetes. The age-standardised prevalences of GDM were 4.1%, 7.1% and 2.9% for Chinese, South Asian and white women, respectively. The cumulative incidence of diagnosed diabetes at the median follow-up time of 7.6 years was 16.5% and 1.8% for Chinese women with and without GDM, 31.8% and 3.6% for South Asian women with and without GDM, and 25.7% and 1.8% for white women with and without GDM. The presence of GDM conferred an increase in the risk for diabetes after pregnancy of more than 13-fold in white women, but only a nine- to tenfold increase among Chinese and South Asian women. Although one-third of South Asian women with GDM were diagnosed with diabetes within 8 years postpartum, the incremental impact of GDM on diabetes risk was not as strong among Chinese and South Asian women as it was among white women.

  18. Modes of genetic transmission of dyslexia in south Indian families

    OpenAIRE

    Saviour P; Ramachandra N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dyslexia is a major educational problem, but the studies on genetics of dyslexia are very limited in India. There is a great dearth of proper statistical data to show the incidence of dyslexia in Indian population. More over inheritance pattern of dyslexia is not well established in our population. Aims & Objective: To establish the inheritance pattern of dyslexia in 23 selected families. Materials and Methods: We have ascertained 23 dyslexic probands and their famil...

  19. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  20. Textual Subjects in Motion: Letters, Literature and Print Medium in an Indian-South African Exchange (1928-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Samuelson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces an epistolary exchange between South Africa and India that was animated by the circulation of print media and literary texts. The exchange – between the South African archivist, poet and social historian MK Jeffreys and the Indian statesmen and scholars VS Srinivasa Sastri and P Kodanda Rao – is read as forming part of a larger web of personal and political relations and textual traffic that contributed to the production of Indian Ocean public spheres. Through engagement with this particular case study, the article seeks to contribute to the scholarly turn from explorations of relations between ‘centre’ and ‘periphery’ or along a North-South axis toward elaborating those engaging South-South connections within the Indian Ocean arena.

  1. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Musale, A.S.; Desai, D.V.

    and distribution. Keywords Polychaete • Macrobenthos • Indian coast • Pollution indicator • Organic carbon 1 Introduction Soft bottom macrobenthic communities are key components in the functioning of coastal and marine ecosystems (Lu 2005... of benthos on the South-west coast of India. In: Fertility of the sea. Vol. I, J. D. Costlow Jr. (Ed.) Gordon and Breach Scientific Publication, New York: 225-239. Lu, L. (2005). The relationship between soft bottom macrobenthic communities...

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome, blood group & diet: A correlative study in South Indian females

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30) years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30) years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system...

  3. Glucose patterns during the OGTT and risk of future diabetes in an urban Indian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Gujral, Unjali P; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2017-01-01

    : We studied a population-based sample of 3666 Asian Indians without diabetes from the CARRS-Chennai Study, India. Participants underwent a three-point (fasting, 30-min, and 2-h) OGTT at baseline. Patterns of glycemic response during OGTT were identified using latent class mixed-effects models. After...... a median follow-up of two years, participants had a second OGTT. Logistic regression adjusted for diabetes risk factors was used to compare risk of incident diabetes among participants in different latent classes. RESULTS: We identified four latent classes with different glucose patterns (Classes 1......-4). Glucose values for Classes 1, 2, and 4 ranked consistently at all three time-points, but at gradually higher levels. However, Class 3 represented a distinct pattern, characterized by high 30-min (30minPG), normal fasting (FPG) and 2-h (2hPG) plasma glucose, moderately high insulin sensitivity, and low...

  4. Evidence of a southward eddy corridor in the South-West Indian ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ansorge, IJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 119(2015)69–76 Evidence of a southward eddy corridor in the South-West Indian ocean I.J. Ansorgea, , , J.M. Jacksona, b, K. Reida, J.V. Durgadooc, S. Swarta, d, S. Eberenzc a Department of Oceanography, Marine Research Institute..., University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa b ASL Environmental Sciences Inc., 6703 Rajpur Place, Victoria, BC, Canada V8M 1Z5 c GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany d Southern Ocean Carbon...

  5. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  6. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakhi; Sivapathasundharam, B; Einstein, A

    2007-01-01

    The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson's Chi-square test with Yates' continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection in apparently healthy South Indian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Caszo, B.; Raj, T.; Vaz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been established as a major cause of chronic gastritis in adults, and it has been implicated in the genesis of gastric carcinomas and the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is now postulated that neatly 90% of the adult population in developing countries may be affected with the infection since childhood. Earlier studies on Indians using serology and endoscopic biopsy have shown a high incidence of H. pylori infection in small numbers of patients. The 13 C-urea breath test, which is simple, specific and non-invasive, is also increasingly being used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Preliminary data from India has shown a high prevalence in the urban Indian environment, and there is an urgent need to quantify the prevalence of H. pylori infections on an epidemiological basis in both urban and rural settings. It is also important to study the possible impact of this infection on growth in children, particularly in environments with low sanitation and high crowding. In this paper, we outline a proposal to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in children from the following different environments: urban middle socio-economic class, urban slum, rural middle socio-economic class and rural village. (author)

  8. Activity of convective tropical gravity-waves above the south west indian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, S.; Chane-Ming, F.; Keckhut, P.

    Tropical gravity waves play an important role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere Such small-scale waves can transport energy and momentum vertically as well as horizontally from the troposphere to the middle and upper atmosphere affecting the global circulation Recent studies have focused on the characterization of gravity-waves from local and global observation to improve numerical modelling in terms of parameterisation and comparison for more realistic outputs Many studies have used high-resolution radiosoundings but first climatologies concern continental regions such as Australia and the US Allen and Vincent 1995 Wang and Geller 2003 In the tropics and over ocean and especially in the South-West Indian Ocean measurements are scarce and little is known about the activity of the gravity-waves except using satellite data for large-scale gravity waves above the lower stratosphere In this study a climatology and spatial distribution of the gravity-wave activity for the South West Indian Ocean is produced The dataset includes measurements of daily soundings in the South-West Indian Ocean located between 4oS-30oS and 30oE-56oE Waves parameters energy spatial and temporal scales of waves direction of horizontal wave propagation are analyzed from January 1998 to November 2005 in the troposphere and lower stratosphere A daily activity and wave sources tropical cyclones QBO convection are also investigated

  9. Estimation of stature from the length of the sternum in South Indian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Nagesh, K R; Monteiro, Francis N P; Kumar, G Pradeep; Kanchan, Tanuj; Uysal, Selma; Rao, P P Jagadish; Rastogi, Prateek; Lobo, Stany W; Kalthur, Sneha G

    2011-08-01

    Estimation of stature is one of the principal elements in practical forensic casework involving examination of skeletal remains. The present study was undertaken to estimate stature from the length of the sternum in South Indian females using a linear regression equation. The material for the present study consisted of intact sternums belonging to adult females of South Indian origin aged between 25 and 35 years of age obtained during medico-legal autopsies. The length of the sternum was measured as the combined length of the manubrium and the mesosternum (body of the sternum) from the incisura jugularis (central suprasternal notch) to the mesoxiphoid junction along the mid-sagittal plane using vernier calipers. A linear regression equation [Stature = 111.599 + (3.316 × Length of the sternum)] was derived to estimate stature from the length of the sternum. The correlation coefficient was 0.639. The standard error of the estimate was 4.11 cm. The present study concludes that the length of the sternum is a reliable predictor of stature in adult South Indian females and can be used as a tool for stature estimation when better predictors of stature like the long bones of the limbs are not available when examining skeletal remains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Walls

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available American Indian (AI communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose–response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.

  11. Etiology and outcome determinants of intracerebral hemorrhage in a south Indian population, A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of methodologically sound published studies on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH from India, on pub med/embase search. Aims: To explore etiology of ICH and correlate the causes, location, and size of hemorrhage to clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based descriptive study from South Indian eastern coastal town of Puducherry; 60 consecutive subjects aged > 12 years, predominantly of inbred Tamil population, with head CT evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage not associated with trauma and brain tumors, were recruited. Outcome at three months was measured using Glasgow Outcome scale, NIHSS and mortality. SPSS v 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Commonest etiological factor was hypertension, followed by bleeding diathesis, thrombolysis for myocardial infarction, and cortical vein thrombosis. Most frequent locations of hematoma were basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. Hematoma volume correlated significantly with systolic and mean arterial pressure but not with diastolic blood pressure. Poor outcome was correlated to size (P < 0.05 and intraventricular extension of hematoma (P < 0.05, and to systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, but not to age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and blood sugar level. Among diabetic patients with ICH, the size of hematoma (P = 0.04 and severity of coma (P = 0.01 at admission were significantly worse compared to the non-diabetic, but not the outcome at three months [Glasgow outcome scale or mortality (P = 0.94 and 0.14]. Conclusions: The location of hemorrhage and correlation with outcome agreed with the patterns described for the non-white races in prior reports. Independence of outcome to diabetic status despite a more severe initial presentation may indicate importance of good care, even in high risk groups.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and risk of major coronary events among the urban diabetic patients: North Indian Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Study-NIDCVD-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Gurjit Kaur; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Vijayvergiya, Rajesh; Mastana, Sarabjit Singh; Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prospectively, evaluating cardiovascular events among Asian Indians type 2 diabetic subjects. The sample comprised 1522 type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) subjects aged 25-91years, who participated in the North Indian Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Study (NIDCVD). The participants were screened for hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and cardiovascular events. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical measurements were done in all subjects. The prevalence of MetS was estimated in all the subjects according to the harmonized criteria of 2009. The prevalence of MetS among urban Indian diabetic subjects was 71.9% and was significantly higher in females (86%) as compared to males (57.9%). To determine the independent predictors of the MetS in diabetic sample, binary logistic regression analyses were performed using demographic and biochemical parameters. Significant differences in the indices of generalized and abdominal obesity and lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein) were observed (prisk/predictor of CAD (odd ratio (OR)=3.44, CI 1.31-9.01, p=0.012) along with higher age groups, BMI and hypertension in Indian population. The study demonstrated that the high prevalence of MetS and its different components were positively associated with a higher risk of CAD in north Indian diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, MetS is a major health problem in India, comprehensive population studies are warranted for estimation of incidence and prevalence, and education should be provided on its prevention and control to reduce the diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Disordered Sleep in Southeast Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarabalan Rajendran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSleep disturbances are common in individuals with diabetes. Patients with diabetes have higher rates of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness and increased incidence of restless leg syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and determine the predictors of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in a southeast Asian Indian population.MethodsWe enrolled 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who attended an endocrinology clinic in a tertiary-care hospital. After we collected their demographic data, we recorded their anthropometric measurements. Fasting, postprandial blood glucose values and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values were then obtained. Quality of sleep was evaluated in all the patients through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, which is a questionnaire that assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a monthlong period. A Global Sleep Quality score ≥5 discriminates between good and poor sleepers.ResultsThe mean global PSQI score was 7.08 (standard deviation, 3.89, which suggested poor sleep quality in this population. Sixty-nine percent of patients had a global PSQI score ≥5, indicating that they were "poor sleepers." The global PSQI score positively correlated with the duration of diabetes and was also independent of other variables such as age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, or medications.ConclusionWe found a high prevalence of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also found a significant correlation between duration of diabetes and quality of sleep, independent of other variables. It is important for physicians to address the quality and duration of sleep in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. PATTERNS OF INTERNET USE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS: A STUDY FROM A SOUTH INDIAN MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kishore

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Internet has become a platform for recent advances, innovative learning methods and self-assessment. Medical students spend significant time using Internet for academic and non-academic purposes. There is a dearth of clear evidence regarding patterns of internet use among Indian Medical students. An internet usage patterns study in First Year Medical students would help identify the necessity to train students in Internet access in the initial phase of Medical course. AIM To assess the Internet usage patterns in First Year Indian Medical Students. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which 132 students studying in First Year undergraduate medical course at MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, a cosmopolitan city in South India, participated. Data related to internet use was captured using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel version 2007. RESULTS 70% of students used internet for academic and non-academic purposes. Slow internet speed (31% and lack of time (23% were most common amongst impediments to internet use. Majority of students (57% used internet for greater than 7 hours per week. Understanding a topic better (62% seems to be most important motive for academic use of internet. 36% of students did not use any academic website. CONCLUSIONS First Year Indian Medical students spent significant amounts of time using internet for multiple purposes. There is a lack of awareness regarding academic websites and online animations among significant portion of students. Students in our study may be guided appropriately by Internet training sessions at the beginning of the Medical course to enable the best use of internet for academic purpose.

  15. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul A

    2007-05-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world's population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

  16. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Mithal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs, as per American Diabetes Association (ADA 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065 of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632 patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05 correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like

  17. How to offer culturally relevant type 2 diabetes screening: lessons learned from the South asian diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil

    2014-10-01

    The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of stature from hand dimensions of north and south Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Prateek; Nagesh, K R; Yoganarasimha, K

    2008-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to predict the stature of a person using hand length and breadth. The study includes 500 right-hand dominant medical students aged between 20 and 30 years, from northern and southern parts of India, studying in Kasturba medical college, Manipal, India. Hand length was measured 'between the distal wrist crease and the tip of middle finger (HL-1)' and 'between the mid-point of inter-styloid line to the tip of middle finger (HL-2)'. Hand breadth was measured between radial side of the second metacarpophalyngeal joint and ulnar side of the fifth metacarpophalyngeal joint (HB). No significant difference was present in hand dimensions between north and south Indians. When compared between both hands, right-hand dimensions were larger than the left hand, with statistically significant difference in HL-2 and HB. Linear regression equations using hand length is more helpful in estimating stature than the hand breadth. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.673 to 0.665 and 0.740 to 0.732 in north Indian males and females, respectively. Whereas in south Indians, it ranged from 0.752 to 0.732 and 0.701 to 0.691 in males and females, respectively. Multiple regression equations give better results than linear regression equations. HL-2 gives more accurate results in stature estimation than the HL-1.

  19. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  20. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Jung Mo; Kang, Young Ae; Leem, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Song Yee

    2017-04-01

    South Korea has an increasing prevalence of diabetes and a relatively high burden of tuberculosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and examine the effect of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Data from patients ≥30 years diagnosed with and treated for PTB between January 2010 and December 2012 at Severance Hospital, a 2000-bed tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, South Korea, were analyzed and compared with data from a contemporaneous general population sample extracted from KNHANES V. Diabetes prevalence was 24.2% (252/1044) among patients with PTB and 11.6% (1700/14,655) among controls. Diabetes [odds ratios (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.21, P Diabetes was the only factor associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.03-2.70, P = 0.039). The prevalence of diabetes was markedly higher in patients with PTB than in a sample of the general South Korean population. Diabetes may delay sputum conversion and adversely affect treatment outcomes; detection and management of diabetes in patients with PTB is crucial.

  2. Studies on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes in young Indians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, C.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) have defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. In the discrete genetic syndrome of NIDDY (non-insulin-dependent diabetes in the young), the situation is less clear and these aspects is the subject of this thesis. This study included Indian pasients with three generation transmission of NIDDM via one parent. The insulin and C-peptide responses to oral and intravenous glucose in patients with NIDDY were studied. The insulin and glucose responses to non-glucose secretogogues glucagon, tolbutamide and arginine, in NIDDY were also investigated. The following aspects with regard to insulin resistance in NIDDY were examined: glucose and free fatty acid response to intravenous insulin administration, insulin binding to circulating erythrocytes and monocytes, 125 I-insulin binding to the solubilized erythrocyte membrane receptor and 125 I-insulin binding to fibroblasts in culture

  3. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  4. A Comprehensive Review onRasam: A South Indian Traditional Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Agilandeswari; Mohanmarugaraja, M K

    2017-01-01

    The view that food can have an expanded role that goes well beyond providing a source of nutrients truly applies to traditional functional foods. The systematic consumption of such traditional functional food provides an excellent preventive measure to ward off many diseases. Rasam , a soup of spices, is a traditional South Indian food. It is traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of Indian sesame oil, turmeric, tomato, chili pepper, pepper, garlic, cumin, curry leaves, mustard, coriander, asafoetida, sea salt, and water. Rasam is a classic example of traditional functional food with all its ingredients medicinally claimed for various ailments. The preclinical and clinical studies on rasam and its ingredients support their traditional claim. This review is an attempt to compile the literatures on rasam , its ingredients, and to highlight its medicinal potential that has been underestimated.

  5. SCREENING FOR UNDIAGNOSED DIABETIC SUBJECTS USING A SIMPLIFIED INDIAN DIABETES RISK SCORE [IDRS] IN KHAMMAM URBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothukuchi Madhavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rising prevalence of diabetes in developing countries is closely associated with industrialisation and socioeconomic development. The major determinants of diabetics in these countries are population growth, age structure, and urbanisation, prevalence of obesity because of increased intake of junk food, lack of physical activity, and stress among urban dwellers. Diabetes is increasingly concentrated in the urban areas. Hence, the present study was undertaken. METHODOLOGY A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Raghunadhapalem, an urban area of Khammam with a total population of 1552. List of areas under Khammam (urban was obtained from Municipal Corporation and the present study area Raghunadhapalem, was chosen by simple random sampling technique. Duration of the study was 4 months. RESULTS Majority 232 (74.3% of study participants are at risk of developing Diabetes in future. Majority 291 (93.3% of the study participants do not have family history of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS IDRS is a simple, useful and cost-effective screening tool for diabetes in resource limited settings. By identifying the high & medium risk individuals using IDRS, we could make screening programs more cost effective.

  6. Automated diabetic retinopathy imaging in Indian eyes: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of an automated retinal image grading system in diabetic retinopathy (DR screening. Materials and Methods: Color fundus images of patients of a DR screening project were analyzed for the purpose of the study. For each eye two set of images were acquired, one centerd on the disk and the other centerd on the macula. All images were processed by automated DR screening software (Retmarker. The results were compared to ophthalmologist grading of the same set of photographs. Results: 5780 images of 1445 patients were analyzed. Patients were screened into two categories DR or no DR. Image quality was high, medium and low in 71 (4.91%, 1117 (77.30% and 257 (17.78% patients respectively. Specificity and sensitivity for detecting DR in the high, medium and low group were (0.59, 0.91; (0.11, 0.95 and (0.93, 0.14. Conclusion: Automated retinal image screening system for DR had a high sensitivity in high and medium quality images. Automated DR grading software′s hold promise in future screening programs.

  7. Surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity when compared to euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies in Asian Indian men without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Padmanaban; Tiwari, Akankasha; Dasgupta, Riddhi; Carey, Michelle; Kehlenbrink, Sylvia; Wickramanayake, Anneka; Jambugulam, Mohan; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Ramanathan, Kavitha; Hawkins, Meredith; Thomas, Nihal

    2016-03-01

    Fasting surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity are increasingly used in research and clinical practice. To assess the reliability of these measures, we aimed to evaluate multiple fasting surrogate measures simultaneously in non-diabetic subjects in comparison with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study. Sixteen normoglycemic male South Indian subjects were studied. After an overnight fast, blood samples were collected for glucose, insulin and lipid profile measurements, and stepped euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies were performed on all subjects. Steady state glucose infusion rates (M value) during low and high insulin phases of the clamp were calculated. Correlation of M value with surrogate markers of insulin sensitivity was performed. Predictive accuracy of surrogate indices was measured in terms of Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and leave-one-out cross-validation-type RMSE of prediction using a calibration model. M values showed a strong and significant correlation (pHOMA-IR and QUICKI. Among the surrogate measures, FGIR had the strongest correlation with M values. FGIR was also the most accurate surrogate measure, as assessed by the calibration model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A prevalent amino acid polymorphism at codon 98 (Ala98Val) of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anuradha, Shekher; Radha, Venkatesan; Deepa, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Among Europeans, mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha) gene are associated with the most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3. In Asian Indians, type 2 diabetes occurs earlier and often overlaps with MODY, but the genetics of the latter are unknown....... The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Ala98Val polymorphism of the HNF1alpha gene in different types of diabetes in Asian Indians....

  9. American Indian Parents’ Assessment of and Concern About Their Kindergarten Child’s Weight Status, South Dakota, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. Methods We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-c...

  10. Acupuncture Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in an American Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bailey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN develops in 30% of type 2 diabetes patients, increases the risk for foot ulcers and amputation, and is a significant source of disability and medical costs. Treatment remains challenging, propelling research to focus on therapeutic methods that aim to improve blood circulation or ameliorate oxidative stress that drives development of DPN. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for DPN symptoms and lower extremity arterial circulation in people with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five patients seen at a Southern California Tribal Health Center who reported a threshold level of diabetic neuropathy symptoms in the lower extremities during the previous 4 weeks received acupuncture treatment once per week over a 10-week period between 2011 and 2013. The Neuropathy Total Symptom Scale (NTSS-6, Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS, and laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF were used for assessment at baseline and 10 weeks. A total of 19 of 25 study participants completed the study and reported a significant reduction in the NTSS symptoms of aching pain, burning pain, prickling sensation, numbness, and allodynia. Lancinating pain did not decrease significantly. LDF measures improved but not significantly. Acupuncture may effectively ameliorate selected DPN symptoms in these American Indian patients.

  11. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Xavante Indians from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Fabbro, Amaury L; Franco, Laércio J; da Silva, Anderson S; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Soares, Luana P; Franco, Luciana F; Kuhn, Patrícia C; Moisés, Regina S; Vieira-Filho, João Paulo B

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and describe demographic, anthropometric and medical characteristics, in a genetically distinct population: the Brazilian Xavante Indians. Population-based survey carried out among 948 Xavante from Mato Grosso, Brazil. Fasting and 2-hour after 75 g glucose capillary glycemia were measured by a portable glucometer (HemoCue Glucose201+). Diabetes was defined according to WHO criteria. Anthropometric data and medical characteristics were measured, and fat mass (%) was evaluated using bioelectrical impedance. Blood pressure was measured by an automated device (OMRON 742INTC), and hypertension was defined according to WHO criteria. Age-adjusted prevalence rates with 95% confidence intervals were diabetes: 28.2% (25.3-31.1) in general, 18.4% (14.9-22.2) in men and 40.6% (36.2-45.1) in women (P.05); hypertension: 17.5% (15.1-19.9) in general. Obesity was found in 50.8% of the individuals. Fat mass (%) was associated with diabetes in men (Pdiabetes, in men and women (Pdiabetes and obesity in Xavante is likely related to their recent change in food habits and physical activities. Our results should raise awareness about the magnitude of this health problem and also indicate that it could increase dramatically in the future if no preventive actions are adopted.

  12. Skin lightening practices: an epidemiological study of South African women of African and Indian ancestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlova, N C; Hamed, S H; Tsoka-Gwegweni, J; Grobler, A

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous adverse sequelae of skin lightening creams present with myriad skin complications and affect dermatology practice, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where such products are widely used, with a prevalence of 25-67%. To examine the skin lightening practices of both African and Indian women living in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in the general outpatient departments of two regional university hospitals in Durban, South Africa. All consenting African and Indian women aged 18-70 years were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire. Six hundred women completed the questionnaire, of whom 32·7% reported using skin lightening products. The main reasons cited were treatment of skin problems (66·7%) and skin lightening (33·3%). Products were purchased from a variety of sources. Twenty-five percent reported using sunscreen. The use of skin lightening cosmetics is common among darkly pigmented South African women, including those of both African and Indian ancestries. Despite more than 20 years of governmental regulations aimed at prohibiting both the sale of cosmetics containing mercury, hydroquinone and corticosteroids, and the advertising of any kind of skin lightener, they are far from having disappeared. The main motivations for using these products are the desire to treat skin disorders and to achieve a lighter skin colour. Television and magazine advertisements seem to influence women's choice of these products and, thus, would be efficient channels for raising public awareness about the dangers of using uncontrolled skin lighteners. © 2015 The Authors BJD © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Ethnicity and upper airway measurements: A study in South Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana P; Chockalingam, Punitha A

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Most studies on upper airway are conducted based on airway measurements in the western population. We set out to find the normal values of upper airway measurements in South Indian population. The aim of this study was to perform various upper airway examinations and to set standards for normal measurements in the South Indian population as well as to analyse the data for predictors of difficult intubation. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary cancer hospital in Southern India. Airway assessment parameters, including modified Mallampati classification (MPC), upper lip bite test (ULBT), sternomental distance, thyromental distance (TMD), and the inter-incisor distance were documented for 2004 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Laryngoscopic view after induction was graded as per Cormack and Lehane's (CL) classification. Any CL ≥3 was considered to be difficult laryngoscopy. The collected data (2004 cases) was analyed with SPSS software version 17. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-offs in the population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were computed. Results: MPC, ULBT, and ratio of height to TMD (RHTMD) predicted difficult intubation with sensitivity of 40.86%, 45.53% and 64.60%, respectively and these were statistically significant with P < 0.001. Using the area under the curve of the ROC curve and discrimination analysis normal RHTMD in our population had a cut off value of 17.1. Conclusion: The cut off value for RHTMD to predict difficult laryngoscopy in the South Indian population is 17.1. PMID:28890556

  14. A longitudinal study of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes among American Indian young adults, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Tennille L; Metzger, Molly W

    2015-05-07

    American Indian young adults have higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the general US population. They are also more likely than the general population to have higher rates of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes, such as poverty, frequent changes of residence, and stress. The objective of this study was to investigate possible links between these 2 sets of problems. Data from the American Indian subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine potential links between obesity and type 2 diabetes and structural risk factors such as neighborhood poverty, housing mobility, and stress. We used logistic regression to explore explanatory factors. American Indians in the subsample had higher rates of poor health, such as elevated hemoglobin A1c levels, self-reported high blood glucose, self-reported diabetes, and overweight or obesity. They also had higher rates of structural risk factors than non-Hispanic whites, such as residing in poorer and more transient neighborhoods and having greater levels of stress. Self-reported stress partially mediated the increased likelihood of high blood glucose or diabetes among American Indians, whereas neighborhood poverty partially mediated their increased likelihood of obesity. Neighborhood poverty and stress may partially explain the higher rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among American Indian young adults than among non-Hispanic white young adults. Future research should explore additional neighborhood factors such as access to grocery stores selling healthy foods, proximity and safety of playgrounds or other recreational space, and adequate housing.

  15. Zygomatic air cell defect: A panoramic radiographic study of a south Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hs, Srikanth; Patil, Karthikeya; Vg, Mahima

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, patterns of occurrence and variations of zygomatic air cell defects (ZACDs) using panoramic radiographs. Dental panoramic radiographs of 600 outpatients were examined to evaluate the variations and characteristics of ZACDs. ZACDs were identified in 15 subjects out of 600, giving an overall prevalence of 2.5%. Seven ZACDs were seen in males and eight in females. Among the 15 ZACDs, nine were unilateral and six were bilateral. The overall prevalence of ZACD is relatively low in south Indian population and careful radiographic evaluation is needed to detect these entities

  16. Radiographic assessment of facial soft tissue thickness in South Indian population--An anthropologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Mallapur, M D

    2016-04-01

    Facial reconstruction is a technique used in forensic anthropology to identify an unknown person. Various methods used for facial reconstruction are drawings, sculpture and computer aided image building which is mainly based on facial soft tissue thickness measurement. Several methods have been established for measuring facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) with each one having certain limitations. There is limited data available on FSTT among South Indian population. Hence the present study was ventured to determine the FSTT among South Indian adults and also to find FSTT difference between male and female. 308 subjects of South Indian origin (18-27 years) having full set of permanent dentition who require orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Subjects were assessed for Body Mass Index (BMI) and diagnostic digital x-ray of lateral cephalogram (LC), Lateral oblique (LO) view and posterior-anterior (PA) view was obtained. The digital image was transferred to Adobe Photoshop CS4 software and 23 different soft tissue points were measured. Mean FSTT was more in males compared to females except for three landmarks. Statistically significant difference was observed in 20 landmarks when height and weight was compared in males, whereas in females only 12 landmarks showed significant difference. BMI showed good correlation with FSTT in both males and females, which was confirmed by linear regression. The best regressor in terms of estimating FSTT in association with age/sex/BMI were nasion, sub nasale, labial superioris, labrale inferius, gnathion, inferior border of zygomatic, right and left gonion. Stepwise discriminant analysis using all variables showed 94.8% of overall accuracy in sex determination. The observation of present study suggests that LO and PA view along with LC gives information regarding mean FSTT among South Indian population. Even though BMI plays a dominant role in determining FSTT, but age, sex, height and weight should also be considered

  17. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    F. Chane-Ming; D. Faduilhe; J. Leveau

    2008-01-01

    Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW) in the Upper Troposphere (UT) and the Lower Stratosphere (LS) from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E), Tromelin (15° S, 54° E) and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E) located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3) of the i...

  18. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Aba, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy is regarded as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). The incidence of diabetes in pregnancy in any obstetric population will vary according to whether diabetic screening is done routinely or not in these populations. Objective: To ...

  19. The role of the Diabetes Specialist Nurse | Cable | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following article focuses upon the essential role of the Diabetes Specialist Nurse (DSN) in the care and management of patients with diabetes. The author is a DSN in the United Kingdom (UK), where the specialist nursing role has become a fundamental and crucial part of the diabetes multidisciplinary team (MDT) and ...

  20. Immigrant Asian Indians in the U.S.: A Population at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2009-01-01

    Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…

  1. Radiocarbon Content of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the South Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, S. K.; McNichol, A. P.; Xu, L.; Hansell, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We report four profiles of the radiocarbon content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) spanning the South Indian Ocean (SIO), ranging from the Polar Front (56°S) to the subtropics (29°S). Surface waters held mean DOC Δ14C values of -426 ± 6‰ ( 4,400 14C years) at the Polar Front and DOC Δ14C values of -252 ± 22‰ ( 2,000 14C years) in the subtropics. At depth, Circumpolar Deep Waters held DOC Δ14C values of -491 ± 13‰ ( 5,400 years), while values in Indian Deep Water were more depleted, holding DOC Δ14C values of -503 ± 8‰ ( 5,600 14C years). High-salinity North Atlantic Deep Water intruding into the deep SIO had a distinctly less depleted DOC Δ14C value of -481 ± 8‰ ( 5,100 14C years). We use multiple linear regression to assess the dynamics of DOC Δ14C values in the deep Indian Ocean, finding that their distribution is characteristic of water masses in that region.

  2. Knowledge and screening of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers.

  3. Global warming and South Indian monsoon rainfall-lessons from the Mid-Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Kern, Andrea K; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Piller, Werner E

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation over India is driven by the Indian monsoon. Although changes in this atmospheric circulation are caused by the differential seasonal diabatic heating of Asia and the Indo-Pacific Ocean, it is so far unknown how global warming influences the monsoon rainfalls regionally. Herein, we present a Miocene pollen flora as the first direct proxy for monsoon over southern India during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. To identify climatic key parameters, such as mean annual temperature, warmest month temperature, coldest month temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation during the driest month, mean precipitation during the wettest month and mean precipitation during the warmest month the Coexistence Approach is applied. Irrespective of a ~ 3-4 °C higher global temperature during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum, the results indicate a modern-like monsoonal precipitation pattern contrasting marine proxies which point to a strong decline of Indian monsoon in the Himalaya at this time. Therefore, the strength of monsoon rainfall in tropical India appears neither to be related to global warming nor to be linked with the atmospheric conditions over the Tibetan Plateau. For the future it implies that increased global warming does not necessarily entail changes in the South Indian monsoon rainfall.

  4. Global warming and South Indian monsoon rainfall—lessons from the Mid-Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus; Kern, Andrea K.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Piller, Werner E.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation over India is driven by the Indian monsoon. Although changes in this atmospheric circulation are caused by the differential seasonal diabatic heating of Asia and the Indo-Pacific Ocean, it is so far unknown how global warming influences the monsoon rainfalls regionally. Herein, we present a Miocene pollen flora as the first direct proxy for monsoon over southern India during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. To identify climatic key parameters, such as mean annual temperature, warmest month temperature, coldest month temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation during the driest month, mean precipitation during the wettest month and mean precipitation during the warmest month the Coexistence Approach is applied. Irrespective of a ~ 3–4 °C higher global temperature during the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum, the results indicate a modern-like monsoonal precipitation pattern contrasting marine proxies which point to a strong decline of Indian monsoon in the Himalaya at this time. Therefore, the strength of monsoon rainfall in tropical India appears neither to be related to global warming nor to be linked with the atmospheric conditions over the Tibetan Plateau. For the future it implies that increased global warming does not necessarily entail changes in the South Indian monsoon rainfall. PMID:27087778

  5. Identifying gaps in the continuum of care for hypertension and diabetes in two Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabert, Rose; Ng, Marie; Sogarwal, Ruchi; Bryant, Miranda; Deepu, R V; McNellan, Claire R; Mehra, Sunil; Phillips, Bryan; Reitsma, Marissa; Thomson, Blake; Wilson, Shelley; Wollum, Alexandra; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Duber, Herbert C

    2017-12-27

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent the largest, and fastest growing, burden of disease in India. This study aimed to quantify levels of diagnosis, treatment, and control among hypertensive and diabetic patients, and to describe demand- and supply-side barriers to hypertension and diabetes diagnosis and care in two Indian districts, Shimla and Udaipur. We conducted household and health facility surveys, as well as qualitative focus group discussions and interviews. The household survey randomly sampled individuals aged 15 and above in rural and urban areas in both districts. The survey included questions on NCD knowledge, history, and risk factors. Blood pressure, weight, height, and blood glucose measurements were obtained. The health facility survey was administered in 48 health care facilities, focusing on NCD diagnosis and treatment capacity, including staffing, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured key informant interviews with health professionals and public health officials, as well as focus groups with patients and community members. Among 7181 individuals, 32% either reported a history of hypertension or were found to have a systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥90 mmHg. Only 26% of those found to have elevated blood pressure reported a prior diagnosis, and just 42% of individuals with a prior diagnosis of hypertension were found to be normotensive. A history of diabetes or an elevated blood sugar (Random blood glucose (RBG) ≥200 mg/dl or fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥126 mg/dl) was noted in 7% of the population. Among those with an elevated RBG/FBG, 59% had previously received a diagnosis of diabetes. Only 60% of diabetics on treatment were measured with a RBG demand for NCD services.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic South Indian pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anegundi, Rajesh T; Tegginmani, Veeresh S; Battepati, Prashant; Tavargeri, Anand; Patil, Shruthi; Trasad, Vijay; Jain, Garima

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are one of the most widely reported and significant anomaly in patients affecting the primary and early mixed dentition. To describe the distribution and characteristics of the supernumerary teeth in South Indian population of paediatric patients. In a 12 year retrospective study, a total of 63,569 patients up to the age of 14 years who visited our department between June 2003 and May 2013 were revised.790 cases of supernumerary teeth were found. Patients were evaluated for age, sex, site, status of dentition, number, position, orientation and type of supernumerary teeth. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi square test. 790 subjects with supernumerary teeth (481 males and 309 females) were detected, revealing male-female ratio of 1.55:1.The most common supernumerary teeth were mesiodens (82.28%), the most common site was the anterior maxilla (92.53%)region. Majority of patients had a single erupted supernumerary oriented straight in the arch. Patients in mixed dentition stage reported with maximum number of supernumerary teeth. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in non syndromic South Indian paediatric population is 1.24% with slight male predilection and conical mesiodens being the commonest.

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a non-syndromic South Indian pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh T Anegundi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supernumerary teeth are one of the most widely reported and significant anomaly in patients affecting the primary and early mixed dentition. Aim: To describe the distribution and characteristics of the supernumerary teeth in South Indian population of paediatric patients. Design: In a 12 year retrospective study, a total of 63,569 patients up to the age of 14 years who visited our department between June 2003 and May 2013 were revised.790 cases of supernumerary teeth were found. Patients were evaluated for age, sex, site, status of dentition, number, position, orientation and type of supernumerary teeth. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi square test. Results: 790 subjects with supernumerary teeth (481 males and 309 females were detected, revealing male-female ratio of 1.55:1.The most common supernumerary teeth were mesiodens (82.28%, the most common site was the anterior maxilla (92.53%region. Majority of patients had a single erupted supernumerary oriented straight in the arch. Patients in mixed dentition stage reported with maximum number of supernumerary teeth. Conclusions: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in non syndromicSouth Indian paediatric population is 1.24% with slight male predilection and conical mesiodens being the commonest.

  8. Prevalence of Catalase (-21 A/T Gene Variant in South Indian (Tamil Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lourdhu Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is responsible for regulating reactive species levels. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism in catalase gene may be associated with many diseases. The genotype of CAT (-21 A/T point mutation in promoter region of catalase gene was determined by polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the DNA of 100 healthy volunteers. The frequency of CAT (-21 A/T gene polymorphism AA, AT, and TT genotypes was found to be 7, 23, and 70 percent, respectively. The mutant “T” allele frequency was found to be 0.82 among the south Indian (Tamil population. Chi square analysis showed that the study population lies within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The wild type genotype (AA was found to be very low (7% and the mutant genotype (AT/TT was found to be more prevalent (93% among the south Indian population. This suggests that the high prevalence of mutant genotype may increase the susceptibility to oxidative stress associated diseases.

  9. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27555869

  10. Assessment of diabetes care by medical record review. The Indian Health Service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, J A; Rith-Najarian, S J; Acton, K J; Schraer, C D; Stahn, R M; Johnson, M H; Gohdes, D

    1994-08-01

    To evaluate the adherence to minimum standards for diabetes care in multiple primary-care facilities using a uniform system of medical record review. In 1986, the Indian Health Service (IHS) developed diabetes care standards and an assessment process to evaluate adherence to those standards using medical record review. We review our assessment method and results for 1992. Charts were selected in a systematic random fashion from 138 participating facilities. Trained professional staff reviewed patient charts, using a uniform set of definitions. A weighted rate of adherence was constructed for each item. Medical record reviews were conducted on 6,959 charts selected from 40,118 diabetic patients. High rates of adherence (> 70%) were noted for blood pressure and weight measurements at each visit, blood sugar determinations at each visit, annual laboratory screening tests, electrocardiogram at baseline, and adult immunizations. Lower rates of adherence (dental examinations. IHS rates of adherence are similar to rates obtained from medical record reviews and computerized billing data, but are less than rates obtained by provider self-report. Medical record review, using uniform definitions and inexpensive software for data entry and reports, can easily be implemented in multiple primary-care settings. Uniformity of data definition and collection facilitates the aggregation of the data and comparison over time and among facilities. This medical record review system, although labor intensive, can be easily adopted in a variety of primary-care settings for quality improvement activities, program planning, and evaluation.

  11. Perceptions and Concerns Regarding Diabetes Mellitus During Pregnancy Among American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, L D; Henderson, J Neil; King, Kama; Kleszynski, Keith; Thompson, David M; Mayer, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes among American Indian (AI) people is a. condition that creates excessive morbidity and mortality and is a significant health disparity. This research delineated culturally constructed models of diabetes mellitus (DM) among 97 pregnant women in 2 large AI Nations to Oklahoma. Analysis of data revealed intense anxiety, fear, and dread related to DM during pregnancy. The sample was stratified by DM status: (a) absence of DM ( n = 66), (b) DM prior to pregnancy ( n = 4), and (c) gestational ( n = 27). Structured and semistructured interviews elicited patient culturally based explanatory models (EMs) of etiology, course, and treatment. The research incorporated an integrated phenomenologic and ethnographic approach and yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. General findings comprised the following main categories of patients' concerns regarding DM as an illness: (a) care-seeking behaviors, (b) medical management, (c) adherence and self-management, (d) complications, and (e) the conceptual sense of DM as a "severe" and feared condition. Many findings varied according to acculturation status, but all included significant fear and anxiety surrounding (a) the health and well-being of the unborn child, (b) the use of insulin injections, (c) blindness, (d) amputation, and (e) death, but with (f) a paradoxically lowered anxiety level about diabetes severity overall, while at the same time expressing extreme dread of specific outcomes. The latter finding is considered consistent with the presence of chronic conditions that can usually be managed, yet still having risk if severe.

  12. Comparison of dietary profile of a rural south Indian population with the current dietary recommendations for prevention of non-communicable diseases (CURES 147)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Narasimhan; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Arumugam, Kokila; Venkatachalam, Sivasankari; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Ruchi, Vaidya; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Sudha, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite the rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in rural India, data on the dietary profile of the rural Indian population in relation to the recommendations for prevention of NCDs are scarce. This study was conducted to assess the dietary intake of a rural south Indian population in relation to the current dietary recommendations for the prevention of NCDs. Methods: The dietary profiles of 6907 adults aged ≥ 20 yr, from a cluster of 42 villages in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu State in southern India, were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of general obesity was 27.4 per cent and that of abdominal obesity, 14.0 per cent among this rural population. The median daily energy intake of the population was 2034 (IQR 543) kcals. More than 3/4th of the calories (78.1%) were provided by carbohydrates. Refined cereals, mainly polished rice, was the major contributor to total calories. About 45 per cent of the population did not meet WHO recommendation for protein due to low intake of pulses, flesh foods and dairy products and more than half (57.1%) exceeded the limit of salt intake; 99 per cent of the population did not meet WHO recommendations for fruits and vegetables and 100 per cent did not meet the requirement of n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids. Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action. PMID:27834334

  13. Dermatoglyphic patterns in diabetes mellitus in a South Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermatoglyphic analysis of 49 cases of Diabetes Mellitus and 52 normal individuals was carried out. Twenty- eight (28) of the diabetic patients were males while the remaining twenty-one (21) were females. Twenty-nine (29) of the normal subjects were males while Twenty-three (23) were females. The subjects were all ...

  14. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. The complications exemplified by renal ... Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria with the majority of the patients having combined .... at the chemical pathology laboratory of NAUTH. Nnewi. The lipid assays were done ...

  15. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Diabetes Mellitus | Joffe | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to determine the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria among 100 ambulant diabetic patients attending a diabetic outpatient clinic. At the same time, we assessed the reliability of the Uricult dip-slide method for detecting urinary bacterial growth. Significant bacteriuria occurred in 9% of the total ...

  16. The pattern of diabetic admissions in UCTH Calabar, South Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    the prevalence of diabetes especially in developing countries like ... and India. In the 1960s, diabetes was considered to be rare among. Nigerians; reported prevalence rates were less than 1%. Since that time, surveys have shown a steady increase in. ,. DM over ... The health care demands in Nigeria are rapidly expanding.

  17. Phenotype, Body Composition, and Prediction Equations (Indian Fatty Liver Index) for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Diabetic Asian Indians: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Misra, Anoop; Nigam, Priyanka; Guleria, Randeep; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted comparison of detailed body composition phenotype of Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) vs. those without, in a case controlled manner. We also aim to analyse prediction equations for NAFLD for non-diabetic Asian Indians, and compare performance of these with published prediction equations researched from other populations. In this case-control study, 162 cases and 173 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited. Clinical, anthropometric, metabolic, and body composition profiles, and liver ultrasound were done. Fasting insulin levels, value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were evaluated. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to arrive at prediction equations for fatty liver [Indian fatty liver index (IFLI)]. As compared to those without fatty liver, those with fatty liver exhibited the following; Excess dorsocervical fat ('Buffalo hump'), skin tags, xanthelasma, 'double chin', arcus; excess total, abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity, and high blood pressure, blood glucose, measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values), lipids and hs-CRP levels. Two prediction equations were developed; Clinical [Indian Fatty Liver Index-Clinical; IFLI-C]: 1(double chin) +15.5 (systolic blood pressure) +13.8 (buffalo hump); and IFLI-Clinical and Biochemical (CB): serum triglycerides+12 (insulin)+1(systolic blood pressure) +18 (buffalo hump). On ROC Curve analysis, IFLI performed better than all published prediction equations, except one. Non-diabetic Asian Indians with NAFLD researched by us were overweight/obese, had excess abdominal and subcutaneous fat, multiple other phenotypic markers, had higher insulin resistance, glycemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation than those without. Prediction score developed by us for NAFLD; IFLI-C and IFLI-CB, should be useful for clinicians

  18. Phenotype, Body Composition, and Prediction Equations (Indian Fatty Liver Index for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Diabetic Asian Indians: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Bhatt

    Full Text Available In this study, we have attempted comparison of detailed body composition phenotype of Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD vs. those without, in a case controlled manner. We also aim to analyse prediction equations for NAFLD for non-diabetic Asian Indians, and compare performance of these with published prediction equations researched from other populations.In this case-control study, 162 cases and 173 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited. Clinical, anthropometric, metabolic, and body composition profiles, and liver ultrasound were done. Fasting insulin levels, value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were evaluated. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to arrive at prediction equations for fatty liver [Indian fatty liver index (IFLI].As compared to those without fatty liver, those with fatty liver exhibited the following; Excess dorsocervical fat ('Buffalo hump', skin tags, xanthelasma, 'double chin', arcus; excess total, abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity, and high blood pressure, blood glucose, measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values, lipids and hs-CRP levels. Two prediction equations were developed; Clinical [Indian Fatty Liver Index-Clinical; IFLI-C]: 1(double chin +15.5 (systolic blood pressure +13.8 (buffalo hump; and IFLI-Clinical and Biochemical (CB: serum triglycerides+12 (insulin+1(systolic blood pressure +18 (buffalo hump. On ROC Curve analysis, IFLI performed better than all published prediction equations, except one.Non-diabetic Asian Indians with NAFLD researched by us were overweight/obese, had excess abdominal and subcutaneous fat, multiple other phenotypic markers, had higher insulin resistance, glycemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation than those without. Prediction score developed by us for NAFLD; IFLI-C and IFLI-CB, should be useful for

  19. Performance of risk assessment tools for predicting osteoporosis in south Indian rural elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyaraddi, Anil; Shetty, Sahana; Kapoor, Nitin; Cherian, Kripa Elizabeth; Naik, Dukhabandhu; Thomas, Nihal; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis in elderly men is an under-recognized problem. In the current study, we intend to look at the performance of two risk assessment tools [OSTA and MORES] for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis was seen in 1/4th of elderly men at spine and 1/6th of them at femoral neck. Both risk assessment tools were found to have good sensitivity in predicting osteoporosis at spine and femoral neck with good area under curve (AUC). This study attempts to look at the performance of osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) and male osteoporosis risk estimation score (MORES) for predicting osteoporosis in south Indian rural elderly men. Five hundred and twelve men above 65 years of age from a south Indian rural community were recruited by cluster random sampling. All subjects underwent detailed clinical, anthropometric, and bone mineral density measurement at lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A T score ≤ - 2.5 was diagnostic of osteoporosis. Scores for OSTA and MORES were calculated at various cut offs, and their sensitivities and specificities for predicting osteoporosis were derived. The prevalence of osteoporosis was found to be 16% at femoral neck and 23% at spine. OSTA with a cut-off value of ≤2 predicted osteoporosis with a sensitivity and specificity at lumbar spine of 94 and 17% and at femoral neck of 99 and 18%. The area under ROC curve for OSTA index for spine was 0.716 and for femoral neck was 0.778. MORES with a cut-off value of ≥6 predicted osteoporosis at spine with a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 15%, and at femoral neck, they were 98 and 13%, respectively. The area under ROC curve for MORES for spine was 0.855 and for femoral neck was 0.760. OSTA and MORES were found to be useful screening tools for predicting osteoporosis in Indian elderly men. These tools are simple, easy to perform, and cost effective in the context of rural Indian setting.

  20. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafat Ali

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, p<5.5E-04 with T2D susceptibility in combined population. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08 in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59 when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  1. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafat; Chopra, Rupali; Manvati, Siddharth; Singh, Yoginder Pal; Kaul, Nabodita; Behura, Anita; Mahajan, Ankit; Sehajpal, Prabodh; Gupta, Subash; Dhar, Manoj K; Chainy, Gagan B N; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, ppopulation. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08) in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR)<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59) when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  2. Issues for South Asian Indian patients surrounding sexuality, fertility, and childbirth in the US health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith A; Bowman, Marjorie; Thomas, Tessie

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 ethnic minorities comprised 28% of the US population, and India is the third most common country of origin for immigrants. Many recently immigrated South Asian Indian patients are seen in health care settings in the United States. To deliver health care effectively to these patients, it is helpful for physicians to understand common cultural beliefs and practices of South Asian Indian patients. Two illustrative cases are reported. One author's observations of the care of pregnant and parturient women in India and similar experiences in our own office spurred a literature search of the cultural behaviors surrounding sexuality, fertility, and childbirth. A literature search was conducted in Index Medicus, Grateful Med, and the catalogue of the University of Pennsylvania Arts and Sciences library, using the terms "Indian," "South Asian," "male and female gender roles," "gynecology in third world," "sexuality," "sexual health," "women's health," "women's health education," "obstetrical practices/India," and "female roles/India." Issues surrounding sexuality and childbirth that arise during the US physician-South Asian Indian patient encounter might not correspond to the commonly held knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors of the US health care system. Common cultural beliefs and behaviors of South Asian Indian patients around sexuality and childbirth experience include the role of the individual patient's duty to society, the patient's sense of place in society, lack of formal sexual education, prearranged marriages, importance of the birth of the first child, little premarital contraceptive education, dominance of the husband in contraceptive decisions, and predominant role of women and lack of role for men (including the husband) in the childbirth process. Lack of understanding of the Indian cultural mores surrounding sexual education, sexual behavior, and the childbirth experiences can form barriers to Indian immigrants in need of health care. These

  3. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lack of association of PTPN1 gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes in south Indians · Dhanasekaran Bodhini Venkatesan Radha Saurabh Ghosh Partha P. Majumder Viswanathan Mohan · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 94 Issue 1 March 2015 pp 105-113 Research Article. Comparative analyses of genetic risk ...

  4. Concepts and treatment for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the northern province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Khoza, L B; Lekhuleni, M E; Madu, S N; Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province in South Africa. The sample consisted of 50 traditional healers (13 females and 37 males) and 50 faith healers (12 females and 38 males). They were interviewed on local terminology, clinical manifestations, causes, curability, and treatment for diabetes, help-seeking behaviour of diabetes patients, and the healers' sources of information about diabetes. Results indicate that all healers were familiar with "diabetes", however, not all of them had seen patients suffering from diabetes. The perceived causes of diabetes by both traditional and faith healers could be divided into (1) diet (especially too much of sugar), (2) heredity, (3) supernatural, and (4) psychological causes. Most traditional healers (92%) and faith healers (90%) indicated that diabetes is curable. Treatments used by the healers in this study included the use of prayer, diet, and herbs. The authors conclude that the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers should be taken note of by health workers while developing health education programmes in the Province.

  5. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vacancies Health Professions Indian Health Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Student Opportunities Contact a Recruiter Newsroom Announcements Congressional Testimony ...

  6. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common environmental contributors include diabetes, diet, alcohol and medications (including oestrogen, steroids, retinoids and protease inhibitors). Severe hypertriglyceridaemia can trigger acute pancreatitis while mild to moderate hypertriglyceridaemia is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Treatment ...

  7. Palatal rugae in population differentiation between South and North Indians: A discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Shankar; Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Shaikh, Hidayathulla; Murali, Kruthika; Suresan, Vinay; Nisharudeen, Khaja; Brinda Devi, Sulur Pechimuthu; Rajasundaram, Prakash

    2012-07-01

    The present study is aimed at delineation of different types of rugae in two different populations and developing a discriminant function for the same. A total of 940 subjects were included in the present study. The sample consisted of 466 subjects from South Indian population and 474 from North Indian population in the age group of 18-23 years. Neo colloid Easy flow((™)) alginate impressions of maxillary arch were made and casts were immediately poured with Type IV dental stone. A sharp graphite pencil was used to delineate the rugae and patterns were recorded according to the classification given by Kapali et al. The association between different population and different sexes was analyzed with chi-square test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis was also performed to develop a discriminant formula. Wavy, curved and straight rugae were the most common forms in both groups. Chi-square analysis for association between rugae shape and population groups showed significant differences among all the rugae patterns at the P rugae shapes showed significant difference in straight, unification and circular type. Five rugae shapes - curved, wavy, nonspecific, unification and circular - were selected for discriminant function. The discriminant function equation obtained from the different rugae shapes in the present study was highly accurate enough to distinguish the Southern and Northern Indian population with the classification accuracy of 87.8%. Thus to identify a specific population, separate discriminant function formulae have to be developed. Hence, the study of palatal rugae is one of the simple and reliable tools for population identification in forensic science.

  8. "I'm Managing My Diabetes between Two Worlds": Beliefs and Experiences of Diabetes Management in British South Asians on Holiday in the East--A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neesha R; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David; Chew-Graham, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is disproportionately high among British South Asians compared to the general UK population. Whilst the migrant British South Asians group has received most attention on research related to diabetes management, little consideration has been given to impact of travel back to the East. This study aimed to explore the role of social networks and beliefs about diabetes in British South Asians, to better understand their management behaviours whilst holidaying in the East. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Greater Manchester. Forty-four participants were recruited using random and purposive sampling techniques. Interviews were analysed thematically using a constant comparison approach. Migrant British South Asians expressed a strong preference to be in a hot climate; they felt they had a healthier lifestyle in the East and often altered or abandoned their diabetes medication. Information acquisition on diabetes and availability of social networks in the East was valued. Social networks in the East are a valued source of information and support for diabetes. The lack of adherence to medication whilst abroad suggests that some migrant British South Asians have a poor understanding of diabetes. Future research needs to explore whether patients are seeking professional advice on diabetes management prior to their extended holiday.

  9. Annual Pollen and Spore Sedimentation Record off South Java in Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakova, Anastasia; Rixen, Tim; Behling, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Marine sediments are excellent archives recording environmental changes in the ocean as well as on land. In particular pollen and spores preserved in marine sediments could provide crucial information on land use and climate changes in the past. However, in order to better understand and interpret sedimentary records studies on modern pollen and spore transportation and sedimentation is needed. Therefore a sediment trap was deployed for about one year (December 2001 - November 2002) off South Java in the Indian Ocean at a water-depth of about 2000 m. Abundance and taxa composition of pollen and spores collected by the sediment trap reflect climatic (monsoon conditions and ocean currents) as well as biological (flowering periods, migration ability of pollen) factors controlling their sedimentation. Pollen and, at a lower rate, pteridophyta spore concentration tends to increase during non-monsoon period.

  10. Ectodermal Dysplasia: Report and Analysis of Eleven South Indian Patients with Review of Literature

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    Renuka Ammanagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia represents a rare syndrome affecting two or more ectodermally derived structures. The condition is thought to occur in approximately 1 in every 100,000 live births. It affects men more frequently and severely, while women being the carriers and heterozygote usually show minor defects. There are more than 150 different variants of ectodermal dysplasia (ED reported in the literature. Most commonly encountered among them is hypohidrotic ED which frequently exhibits the most severe dental anomalies like hypodontia or anodontia along with hypohidrosis and hypotrichosis. Here we make an attempt to collectively report and discuss eleven South Indian patients who reported to our department during the year 1998 to 2004. An added emphasis is laid on family history of consanguineous marriage among the parents of these patients.

  11. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.

  12. Association of limited joint mobility and increased plantar hardness in diabetic foot ulceration in north Asian Indian: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association of limited joint mobility and foot sole hardness in north Asian Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Limited joint mobility and hardness of the foot sole were measured for 39 subjects attending the AIIMS Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinic. The total subject divided into three groups: 13 control subjects (nondiabetic), 13 diabetic patients without neuropathy and 13 diabetic neuropathy patients. Neuropathy status was assessed using 10 gm Semen's Weinstein monofilament. Joint mobility parameters, such as ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion and metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, are measured using a goniometer. Foot sole hardness was measured using a durometer or shore meter. We found that diabetic patients with a neuropathic foot had significantly reduced joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness, placing them at risk for subsequent ulceration. Metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion of both feet of diabetic patients had significant correlation (at p hardness in both feet of diabetic neuropathy subjects. Also linear regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes was significantly associated with the joint mobility parameters. In this study we conclude that joint mobility had reduced further if neuropathy and increased foot sole hardness coexisted owing to high plantar pressures. Hence, both limited joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness appears to be important determinants of foot sole ulceration in diabetic neuropathic subject.

  13. Depression among patients with diabetes: A community-based study in South India

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    Abdullahi S Aminu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the more common mental health conditions found among people suffering from chronic diseases. Its presence in patients with type 2 diabetes could hinder the adherence to and effectiveness of treatment. Most studies on depression among patients with diabetes are hospital-based suggesting the need for a community-based study to assess the correlates of depression among patients with diabetes. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to identify the factors influencing depression among patients with type 2 diabetes in Udupi taluk situated in southern India. Subjects and Methods: This study recruited 200 patients with type 2 diabetes from both rural and urban areas. Demographic, clinical, and diabetes-related information were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9; a standardized questionnaire developed in the United States of America and validated in the Indian population. Results: The prevalence of depression among patients with diabetes in the community was found to be 37.5%. Most frequently, depression was mild (42, 21% in nature with severe depression (9, 4.5% seen the least. Several factors were found to be positively associated with depression including female gender, rural residence, unemployment, and the status of being unmarried. The presence of diabetic complications and other chronic diseases such as hypertension and obesity also were found to be associated with depression. Conclusion: Depression was found to be particularly high among the study population. Since depression could significantly hinder patient's adherence to treatment, there is an urgent need for early diagnosis and treatment. This calls for the integration of mental health care into the management of diabetes.

  14. Diversity of palatal rugae patterns and their reliability in sex discrimination in a South Indian population

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    Sai Madhavi Nallamilli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims: Array of palatal rugae in the realm of forensic odontology has been constantly explored owing to their individual uniqueness and resistance to postmortem procedures, while their scope in sex determination and racial profiling remains understated. In this context, the present study aimed to record the diversity of palatal rugae patterns in a South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among people who reported to the outpatient department of a dental institution. Sample comprised a total of 200 subjects divided into two groups of 100 each, based upon gender. Impressions of anterior maxilla were made of all the study subjects and casts obtained subsequently. Outline of palatal rugae pattern was traced on these models and the data computed. Z test and unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis and the probability value calculated. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy of sex allocation. Results: The shape of rugae exhibited highly significant sex difference in the curved type, which was found to be higher in males, and in the wavy type which was higher in females, enabling sex differentiation using palatal rugae patterns. Logistic regression analysis predicted high power of sex allocation for males rather than females in the study population. Conclusion: This study highlighted the uniqueness and greater sex discrimination potential of curved shape of palatal rugae in categorizing males of South Indian population, substantiating their use in the identification of deceased, by relating the antemortem and postmortem dental records.

  15. An acenocoumarol dosing algorithm exploiting clinical and genetic factors in South Indian (Dravidian) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Beaune, Philippe; Sai Chandran, B V; Balachander, Jayaraman; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX genetic polymorphisms on mean daily dose of acenocoumarol in South Indian patients and to develop a new pharmacogenetic algorithm based on clinical and genetic factors. Patients receiving acenocoumarol maintenance therapy (n = 230) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The mean daily acenocoumarol maintenance dose was found to be 3.7 ± 2.3 (SD) mg/day. The CYP2C9 *1*2, CYP2C9 *1*3, and CYP2C9 *2*3 variant genotypes significantly reduced the dose by 56.7 % (2.0 mg), 67.6 % (1.6 mg), and 70.3 % (1.5 mg) than wild-type carriers 4.1 mg, p genetic variants of CYP2C9 and GGCX (rs11676382) were found to be associated with lower acenocoumarol dose, whereas CYP4F2 (rs2108622) was associated with higher doses. Age, body mass index (BMI), variation of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX were the major determinants of acenocoumarol maintenance dose, accounting for 61.8 % of its variability (adjusted r (2) = 0.615, p algorithm was established to determine the acenocoumarol dose in South Indian population.

  16. Sex Determination by Biometry of Anterior Features of Human Hip Bones in South Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, Sssn; Vasudha, T K; Aravindhan, K

    2017-06-01

    Sex determination is the first step in establishing the identity of skeletal remains. Many studies included biometry of posterior features of hip bone. Very few studies are reported involving the biometry of anterior features of the hip bone. Anterior features of hip bone are important especially, if there is damage to the posterior features of hip bone in cases involving deliberate disfigurement of the body to resist identification of the crime in medicolegal cases. The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of anterior border parameters of the hip bone for prediction of sex using discriminant function analysis in South Indian population. A total of 206 dry bones were used (121 male and 85 female) and parameters like the distance between pubic tubercle and anterior rim of acetabulum, vertical acetabular diameter, transverse acetabular diameter, and the distance between pubic tubercle to highest point on the iliopubic eminence were measured using Vernier calipers. Normally distributed variables were compared using Students t-test to analyse the significance. There was significant difference between the male and female hip bones of the observed variables with p-value less than 0.05. In parameters like the distance between pubic tubercle to anterior rim of acetabulum and distance between the highest points on iliopubic eminence to pubic tubercle; the values were more in female when compared to males. In parameters like vertical and transverse acetabular diameters; the values in males were more when compared to females. These parameters of hip bone can be utilised for sex determination in South Indian population.

  17. Predisposition of angiotensin-converting enzyme deletion/deletion genotype to coronary artery disease with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South India

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    Dhivakar Mani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, South Asians contribute to a high proportion of coronary artery disease (CAD burden, mainly attributed to a high prevalence of diabetes. Early identification of such high-risk individuals would enable aggressive disease modification and prevention of complications. Definition of susceptible genotypes early in the course of disease may be one such avenue for reduction in morbidity and mortality from CAD. Aim: Our study was aimed to investigate the insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D gene and susceptibility to CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a South Indian population. Subjects and Methods: ACE (I/D genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction specific primer for 187 CAD patients and 185 age- and sex-matched controls. Results: We observed that the ACE“II” genotype was found to be significantly associated with CAD patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.689; P = 0.028. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ACE “DD” genotype was found to be most predominant risk factor for CAD patients with T2DM (OR = 6.118; P = 0.001. Conclusion: Our results showed that ACE (I/D genotypes and alleles presented functional dimorphism in the development of CAD and CAD with T2DM patients in South India. This finding may be extremely useful in identifying subsets of patients where early aggressive treatment of risk factors is warranted.

  18. Predisposition of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Deletion/Deletion Genotype to Coronary Artery Disease with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dhivakar; Chinniah, Rathika; Ravi, Padmamalini; Swaminathan, Krishnan; Janarthanan, R A; Vijayan, Murali; Raju, Kamaraj; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, South Asians contribute to a high proportion of coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, mainly attributed to a high prevalence of diabetes. Early identification of such high-risk individuals would enable aggressive disease modification and prevention of complications. Definition of susceptible genotypes early in the course of disease may be one such avenue for reduction in morbidity and mortality from CAD. Our study was aimed to investigate the insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D) gene and susceptibility to CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a South Indian population. ACE (I/D) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction specific primer for 187 CAD patients and 185 age- and sex-matched controls. We observed that the ACE"II" genotype was found to be significantly associated with CAD patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.689; P = 0.028). However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ACE "DD" genotype was found to be most predominant risk factor for CAD patients with T2DM (OR = 6.118; P = 0.001). Our results showed that ACE (I/D) genotypes and alleles presented functional dimorphism in the development of CAD and CAD with T2DM patients in South India. This finding may be extremely useful in identifying subsets of patients where early aggressive treatment of risk factors is warranted.

  19. Relation between plasma leptin and anthropometric and metabolic covariates in lean and obese diabetic and hyperlipidaemic Asian Northern Indian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Arora, N; Mondal, S; Pandey, R M; Jailkhani, B; Peshin, S; Chaudhary, D; Saluja, T; Singh, P; Chandna, S; Luthra, K; Vikram, N K

    2001-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship of plasma leptin to obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia in Asian Northern Indian subjects, considered to have a predisposition to abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. A total of 72 subjects, subcategorised into lean and obese healthy subjects, lean and obese Type 2 diabetic and lean and obese non-diabetic hyperlipidaemic subjects were recruited. High leptin values were observed in all obese groups, and obese diabetic patients showed the highest levels. In lean and obese diabetic subjects, plasma leptin did not show any correlation to any index of glycaemia. When all lean and all obese subjects were analysed in two separate groups, body mass index (BMI), percent total body fat, and body density significantly correlated with the plasma leptin levels (p<0.05). Leptin values, when correlated to all variables in all patients taken together, showed the greatest magnitude of correlation with BMI (r=0.64), percent total body fat (r=0.67), and waist circumference (r=0.51). Strong inverse correlation was seen with body density (r=-0.67). Levels of serum insulin did not show any correlation with leptin levels in all subjects combined, and separately in various groups. Multiple linear regression analysis performed in obese, non-diabetic and normolipidaemic subjects, all Type 2 diabetic and all non-diabetic hyperlipidaemic subjects separately showed that percent total body fat is the only significant predictor of plasma leptin concentration in all the 3 groups. The present study suggests that plasma leptin has a strong positive correlation with percent total body fat in Asian Northern Indian subjects. Among other components of metabolic syndrome, only abdominal obesity is weakly correlated to serum leptin levels.

  20. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2012-01-01

    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

  1. Insights into the genetic structure and diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from deep whole-genome sequencing.

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    Lai-Ping Wong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language-speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP. The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP. SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP.

  2. Impact of the Agulhas Return Current on the glacial Subantarctic region in the South Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, M.; Crosta, X.; Manoj, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Agulhas leakage due to a northward shift of the westerlies and ACC impacted significantly on sea ice melting in the glacial Subantarctic region in the South Indian Ocean.

  3. Clinical characteristics, angiographic profile and in hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in south indian population

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    Rajni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to study the clinical profile, risk factors prevalence, angiographic distribution, and severity of coronary artery stenosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1562 patients of ACS were analyzed for various risk factors, angiographic pattern and severity of coronary heart disease, complications and in hospital mortality at Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Results: Mean age of presentation was 54.71 ± 19.90 years. Majority were male 1242 (79.5% and rest were females. Most patients had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI 995 (63.7% followed by unstable angina (UA 390 (25% and non-STEMI (NSTEMI 177 (11.3%. Risk factors; smoking was present in 770 (49.3%, hypertension in 628 (40.2%, diabetes in 578 (37%, and obesity in (29.64% patients. Angiography was done in 1443 (92.38% patients. left anterior descending was most commonly involved, left main (LM coronary artery was least common with near similar frequency of right coronary artery and left circumflex involvement among all three groups of ACS patients. Single-vessel disease was present in 168 (45.28% UA, 94 (56.29% NSTEMI and 468 (51.71% STEMI patients. Double-vessel disease was present in 67 (18.08% UA, 25 (14.97% NSTEMI and 172 (19.01% STEMI patients. Triple vessel disease was present in 28 (7.55% UA, 16 (9.58% NSTEMI, 72 (7.95% STEMI patients. LM disease was present in 12 (3.23% UA, 2 (1.19% NSTEMI and 9 (0.99% STEMI patients. Complications; ventricular septal rupture occurred in 3 (0.2%, free wall rupture in 2 (0.1%, cardiogenic shock in 45 (2.9%, severe mitral regurgitation in 3 (0.2%, complete heart block in 11 (0.7% patients. Total 124 (7.9% patients died in hospital after 2.1 ± 1.85 days of admission. Conclusion: STEMI was most common presentation. ACS occurred a decade earlier in comparison to Western population. Smoking was most prevalent

  4. Management issues in hypertensive diabetics | Ker | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 53, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

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    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome, blood group & diet: A correlative study in South Indian females

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    Rahul Pal, Pratik Kumar Chatterjee, Poulomi Chatterjee, Vinodini NA, PrasannaMithra, Sourjya Banerjee, Suman VB2, Sheila R. Pai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the co-relation between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS with blood group & diet in South Indian females, between the age-group of (20-30 years. Objectives: Correlative analysis of ABO & Rh system, dietary habits & alcohol consumption with PCOS. Materials & Methods: 100 patients between (20-30 years, diagnosed with PCOS were selected. A standard PCOS questionnaire was given. Blood group & dietary status data were collected. Patients were grouped according to ABO & Rh system considering their diet & alcohol intake (p≤0.05 significant. Result: Our data revealed that the highest risk of PCOS was observed in females with blood group ‘O’ positive followed by ‘B’ positive who were on mixed diet & used to consume alcohol. Our study also suggests that Rh negative individuals didn’t show any association with PCOS. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that ‘O’ positive females, are more prone to PCOS. Though the relative frequency of B positive individuals are more in India, females with blood group O positive are more susceptible to PCOS, contributing factors being mixed diet & alcohol intake. So, early screening of ‘O’ positive &‘B’ positive females of reproductive age-group in South-India, could be used as a measure for timely diagnosis of PCOS, better management &also prevention of complications. However, further research should be done to investigate the multifaceted mechanisms triggering these effects.

  8. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.

    2003-12-01

    We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox," for the Jan-Feb-March period, which included initial indications of a very long-distance contribution from South Asia. The approach has been to describe typical periods of significant maximum and minimum tropospheric ozone for early 1999, exploiting TOMS tropospheric ozone estimates jointly with characteristic features of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone soundings. Further investigation of the Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) record for all of 1999 suggests that there are repeated periods of very long-distance Asian influence crossing Africa, with an apparent effect on those portions of the Atlantic Equatorial troposphere which are downwind. Trajectory analyses suggest that the pattern over the Indian Ocean is complex: a sequence invoving multiple or mixed combustion sources, low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and high-level transport to the west seem to be indicated by the TTO record. Biomass burning, fossil and biofuel combustion, and lighting seem to all contribute. For the Atlantic, burning and lighting on adjacent continents as well as episodes of this cross-Africa long-distance transport are all linked in a coordinated seasonal march: all are related by movement of the sun. However, interseasonal tropical variability related to the Madden-Julian oscillation allows intermittent ozone buildups that depart from the seasonal norm.

  9. Outward Bound with Ayyappan: Work, Masculinity, and Self-Respect in a South Indian Pilgrimage Festival

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    Elizabeth (Liz Wilson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The annual pilgrimage festival dedicated to the god Ayyappan has become immensely popular in the past sixty years. As many as fifty million pilgrims participate each year. This paper draws on interviews of pilgrims conducted in South India in 2012–2013. My fieldwork suggests that the increasing popularity of the event relates to the contemporary South Indian work environment, an environment in which traditional gender roles are being reshaped by the challenges posed by migration for work opportunities. Interviews of English-speaking pilgrims show that their interpretations of the pilgrimage festival highlight the complexities of manhood in a time of rapidly changing work roles for men and women. Specifically, my fieldwork demonstrates that pilgrims perceive Ayyappan as a source of aid for those who struggle to succeed as financial providers and heads of the family unit. Pilgrims anxious about the loss of traditional models of masculinity amidst rapid change find solace in the blessings the god Ayyappan yields.

  10. A comparative study of south Indian children with Tamil children born in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Chantal

    2009-11-01

    A comparative database with Tamil children [( 0 to 6 yr old, south Indian (n=13) and Sri Lanka (n=69)] born in France (Paris and its suburbs, first generation) and those living in south India [(Tamil Nadu (n=43) and Kerala (n=66)] was created with the ultimate purpose of preventing deficiencies in children's health. Two main methods were used for collection of socio-demographic data as parents and body mass index of children. In France, Tamil boys (n=42) and girls (n=40) had almost the same percentage for obesity (about 5%), adiposity rebound was more for girls (7%) than for boys (2%). But thinness (between the 3(rd) and 10(th) percentile) was more in boys (22%) and girls (24%). In India (boys n=48, girls n=61), obesity was more in girls than those born in France; as also adiposity rebound, and underweight was noticed in a third of both girls and boys. In France, cultural impact of immigration is very important and can explain the stress of immigrant families. This may account for the thinness of the children.

  11. Waist–thigh Ratio: A Surrogate marker for Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian North Indian patients

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    Shivanjali Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is a major world-wide healthcare problem. Cost effective markers for screening and diagnosis of T2DM are the need of the day especially in developing and under-developed countries. Simple anthropometric measurements may help us in identifying individuals likely to have diabetes. Material and Methods: Data from 1055 North-Indian subjects was analysed. Results: Out of several anthropometric measurements studied, Waist-Thigh ratio (WTR correlated significantly and positively with all three measures of diabetes i.e. FPG, RPG and PPG. (P < .0001 suggesting that it is the best predictor of diabetes. Subjects with diabetes had greater WTR (mean 2.088 than those without (mean1.842. (P < .0001. A thresh-hold effect was evident at a cut-off WTR of 2.3. Out of those subjects who were diagnosed to have diabetes by AACE/AHA guidelines, 82% had WTR greater than this value (P < 0.001. Conclusion: WTR may prove to be a simple and inexpensive marker for detecting Type 2 diabetes. Larger studies are required to develop population norms.

  12. Waist-thigh Ratio: A Surrogate Marker for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Asian North Indian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shivanjali; Kumar, Kamal; Bajaj, Sarita; Kumar, Ranjana; Gogia, Atul; Kakar, Atul; Byotra, Shrishti Paul

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a major world-wide healthcare problem. Cost effective markers for screening and diagnosis of T2DM are the need of the day especially in developing and under-developed countries. Simple anthropometric measurements may help us in identifying individuals likely to have diabetes. Data from 1055 North-Indian subjects was analysed. Out of several anthropometric measurements studied, Waist-Thigh ratio (WTR) correlated significantly and positively with all three measures of diabetes i.e. FPG, RPG and PPG. ( P < .0001) suggesting that it is the best predictor of diabetes. Subjects with diabetes had greater WTR (mean 2.088) than those without (mean1.842). ( P < .0001). A thresh-hold effect was evident at a cut-off WTR of 2.3. Out of those subjects who were diagnosed to have diabetes by AACE/AHA guidelines, 82% had WTR greater than this value ( P < 0.001). WTR may prove to be a simple and inexpensive marker for detecting Type 2 diabetes. Larger studies are required to develop population norms.

  13. Socio-cultural influences on the behaviour of South Asian women with diabetes in pregnancy: qualitative study using a multi-level theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Clinch, Megan; Afsar, Nur; Choudhury, Yasmin; Sudra, Rita; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Claydon, Anne; Hitman, Graham A; Hanson, Philippa; Finer, Sarah

    2015-05-21

    Diabetes in pregnancy is common in South Asians, especially those from low-income backgrounds, and leads to short-term morbidity and longer-term metabolic programming in mother and offspring. We sought to understand the multiple influences on behaviour (hence risks to metabolic health) of South Asian mothers and their unborn child, theorise how these influences interact and build over time, and inform the design of culturally congruent, multi-level interventions. Our sample for this qualitative study was 45 women of Bangladeshi, Indian, Sri Lankan, or Pakistani origin aged 21-45 years with a history of diabetes in pregnancy, recruited from diabetes and antenatal services in two deprived London boroughs. Overall, 17 women shared their experiences of diabetes, pregnancy, and health services in group discussions and 28 women gave individual narrative interviews, facilitated by multilingual researchers, audiotaped, translated, and transcribed. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method, drawing on sociological and narrative theories. Key storylines (over-arching narratives) recurred across all ethnic groups studied. Short-term storylines depicted the experience of diabetic pregnancy as stressful, difficult to control, and associated with negative symptoms, especially tiredness. Taking exercise and restricting diet often worsened these symptoms and conflicted with advice from relatives and peers. Many women believed that exercise in pregnancy would damage the fetus and drain the mother's strength, and that eating would be strength-giving for mother and fetus. These short-term storylines were nested within medium-term storylines about family life, especially the cultural, practical, and material constraints of the traditional South Asian wife and mother role and past experiences of illness and healthcare, and within longer-term storylines about genetic, cultural, and material heritage - including migration, acculturation, and family memories of food

  14. Diabetes distress and related factors in South African adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes, perception of support, emotional burden and access to quality health care. There has been ... attending the public health sector, unemployment and being a person of colour. Conclusion: Healthcare providers need to pay particular attention to the psychological needs of the patient, which impact on the medical ...

  15. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between MPV and paraoxonase-1 activity, brachial artery diameter and IMT in patients with diabetes mellitus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Pinar Karakaya, Yildiz Okuturlar, Meral Mert, Asuman Gedikbasi, Filiz Islim, Didem Acarer, ...

  16. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymatic and genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase- 1 in the Gabonese population: The relation to lipid parameters in patients with diabetes · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. FA Abessolo, MJ Bruno, MA N'negue, M Yangou, E Ngou-Milama, 92-99 ...

  17. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

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    Obesity and kidney disease: hidden consequences of the epidemic · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Performance of the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male questionnaire for the clinical detection of androgen deficiency in black sub-Saharan African men with Type-2 diabetes mellitus · EMAIL FREE ...

  18. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

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    Investigating the effects of Lactobacillus casei on some biochemical parameters in diabetic mice · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Feizollah Asgharzadeh, Asghar Tanomand, Mohammad Reza Ashoori, Ali Asgharzadeh, Nosratollah Zarghami, 47–50 ...

  19. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joint Consensus: Hormone therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2008. BH Ascott-Evans, EWW Sonnendecker, T de Villiers. Review Article: Screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. HB Bacus, AA Motala, FJ Pirie. Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. AM Klisiewicz ...

  20. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical challenges in the co-management of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in southern Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MJA Reid, N McFadden, BM Tsima, 135-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201009.2013.10872319 ...

  1. The Ramadan fast and the diabetic patient | Omar | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ramadan fast and the diabetic patient. M.A.K. Omar, Ayesha A. Motala, F Pirie. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dyslipidemia has been noted to play an integral role in the pathogenesis and progression of micro and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. The complications exemplified by renal vascular and cardiovascular disease cause the most morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

  3. A prevalent amino acid polymorphism at codon 98 (Ala98Val) of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anuradha, Shekher; Radha, Venkatesan; Deepa, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Among Europeans, mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha) gene are associated with the most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3. In Asian Indians, type 2 diabetes occurs earlier and often overlaps with MODY, but the genetics of the latter are unknown...

  4. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or used for any lawful Government purpose. IHS Home Division of Diabetes Treatment and Prevention Division of ... Live and On Demand IHS Diabetes Standards of Care Diabetes Treatment Algorithms Diabetes Foot Care Training Tools ...

  5. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Care Diabetes Treatment Algorithms Diabetes Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes Educators and Community Members Diabetes Educator ... CDC and IHS have released a Vital Signs report Exit Disclaimer: You Are Leaving www.ihs.gov ...

  6. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Outcomes System (SOS) Fact Sheets Clinician CME/CE Training and Resources CME/CE – Live and On Demand ... of Care Diabetes Treatment Algorithms Diabetes Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes Educators and Community Members Diabetes ...

  7. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sarita; Jawad, Fatema; Islam, Najmul; Mahtab, Hajera; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Shrestha, Dina; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Muthukuda, Dimuthu T; Widanage, Niranjala Weegoda; Aye, Than Than; Aung, Moe Wint; Kalra, Bharti; Anjana, R M; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Verma, Komal

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death. Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier. There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect of sexual issues

  8. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death.Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier.There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect

  9. Intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with higher adiposity and insulin resistance and clustering of cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Kehoe, Sarah; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes increases cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and glucose/insulin concentrations were measured in 514 children at 5 and 9.5 years of age (35 offspring of diabetic mothers [ODMs], 39 offspring of diabetic fathers [ODFs]). Children of nondiabetic parents were control subjects. At age 9.5 years, female ODMs had larger skinfolds (P risk over genetic factors; the effects strengthen during childhood.

  10. Risk factors for mortality in a south Indian population on generic antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupali, Priscilla; Mannam, Sam; Bella, Annie; John, Lydia; Rajkumar, S; Clarence, Peace; Pulimood, Susanne A; Samuel, Prasanna; Karthik, Rajiv; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Mathai, Dilip

    2012-12-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs from low-income countries utilizing standardized ART regimens, simplified approaches to clinical decision making and basic lab monitoring have reported high mortality rates. We determined the risk factors for mortality among HIV-infected adults following the initiation of ART from a single center in south India. ART-naive HIV-infected south Indian adults attending the Infectious Diseases clinic in a 2000-bed academic medical center in south India who were initiated on ART (generic, fixed-dose combinations) as per the national guidelines were followed up. Cases (32 patients who died) were compared with age and sex matched controls. Eight-hundred and twenty-two patients were started on ART from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008. The cumulative mortality was 6.8% (56/822). Among the cases mean age was 44 years, 18% were women and mean CD4 counts was 107 cells/microl. Among the controls mean age was 41 years, 18% were women and mean CD4 counts were 113 cells/microl. Stavudine based ART was predominant 62.5% in the cases vs 37.5% in the controls, followed by zidovudine based therapy in 31.2% of cases and 43.7% in the controls. Tenofovir based therapy was used in 6.2% of cases vs 18.7% in the controls. The commonest causes of death were drug toxicity 19%, advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 37%, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) in 16%, non AIDS related deaths in 22% and malignancies 6%. In a univariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count ART (p=0.001) were significantly associated with mortality. The mortality among our patients was comparable to that reported from other low-income countries. Earlier initiation of ART may reduce the high mortality rates observed.

  11. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CE – Live and On Demand IHS Diabetes Standards of Care Diabetes Treatment Algorithms Diabetes Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes Educators and Community Members Diabetes Educator Tools Diabetes Education Lesson Plan Outlines Integrating Case Management Into Your Practice [PDF – ...

  12. Pelagic communities of the South West Indian Ocean seamounts: R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen Cruise 2009-410

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Alvheim, O.; Bemanaja, E.; Benivary, D.; Boersch-Supan, P.; Bornman, T. G.; Cedras, R.; Du Plessis, N.; Gotheil, S.; Høines, A.; Kemp, K.; Kristiansen, J.; Letessier, T.; Mangar, V.; Mazungula, N.; Mørk, T.; Pinet, P.; Pollard, R.; Read, J.; Sonnekus, T.

    2017-02-01

    The seamounts of the southern Indian Ocean remain some of the most poorly studied globally and yet have been subject to deep-sea fishing for decades and may face new exploitation through mining of seabed massive sulphides in the future. As an attempt to redress the knowledge deficit on deep-sea benthic and pelagic communities associated mainly with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge two cruises were undertaken to explore the pelagic and benthic ecology in 2009 and 2011 respectively. In this volume are presented studies on pelagic ecosystems around six seamounts, five on the South West Indian Ridge, including Atlantis Bank, Sapmer Seamount, Middle of What Seamount, Melville Bank and Coral Seamount and one un-named seamount on the Madagascar Ridge. In this paper, existing knowledge on the seamounts of the southwestern Indian Ocean is presented to provide context for the studies presented in this volume. An account of the overall aims, approaches and methods used primarily on the 2009 cruise are presented including metadata associated with sampling and some of the limitations of the study. Sampling during this cruise included physical oceanographic measurements, multibeam bathymetry, biological acoustics, and net sampling of phytoplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton/nekton. The studies that follow reveal new data on the physical oceanography of this dynamic region of the oceans, and the important influence of water masses on the pelagic ecology associated with the seamounts of the South West Indian Ridge. New information on the pelagic fauna of the region fills an important biogeographic gap for the mid- to high-latitudes of the oceans of the southern hemisphere.

  13. Management of hyperglycemia in geriatric patients with diabetes mellitus: South Asian consensus guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash P Baruah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia is home to four of the world′s five largest diabetic populations, two of them being South Asian nations, namely, India and Pakistan. This problem is compounded by a substantial rise in the elderly population in Asian countries. On the other hand, the heterogeneous health condition and multiple co-morbidities make the care of chronic disease in the elderly a challenging task. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly population. Current Guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. No evidence grading was done for the purpose of this manuscript. The clinical questions of the guidelines, the methodology of literature search, and medical writing strategy were finalized by consultations in person and through mail. The South Asian Consensus guideline emphasizes tailoring of glycemic goals for patients based on age, co-morbid conditions especially that of cardiovascular system, risk of hypoglycemia, and life expectancy. It also recommends cautious use of available pharmacotherapy in geriatric patients with diabetes. The primary principle of diabetes therapy should be to achieve euglycemia, without causing hypoglycemia. Appropriate use of modern insulins and oral drugs, including incretin mimetics will help physicians achieve this aim.

  14. Spicing up your advice for South Asian and Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and CVD: Do cultural constructions of diet matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sabrina S; Teede, Helena; Aroni, Rosalie

    2018-01-01

    South Asians are a growing migrant population, both globally and in Australia. This group are at higher risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this qualitative study was to compare dietary practices of South Asians, n = 41 (Indian, n = 25; Sri Lankan, n = 16) and Anglo-Australians, n = 16, with these conditions, using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that both groups had a high level of awareness of dietary practices necessary for optimum disease management, both prior to and post diagnosis. Bi-directional effects of migration were noted in the dietary practices of both groups suggesting hybrid diets are evident in Australia. A key barrier to implementing dietary changes highlighted by both groups of participants was a lack of specific, timely and detailed dietary advice from clinicians. Both groups expressed that advice should be repeated and reinforced throughout the course of their disease. In addition, South Asian participants wanted more culturally relevant advice. Clinicians providing dietary advice need to recognise that preferences for staple food items are resistant to change and may affect adherence. Acculturation was evident in the dietary practices of the South Asian participants. Nevertheless, many maintained traditional food practices which were tied to their cultural identity. It is recommended that clinicians consider these factors when offering advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The diet-heart hypothesis, obesity and diabetes | Rossouw | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  16. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Position paper of the National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa (NOFSA) on the use of parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) in the treatment of osteoporosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Stephen Hough, Brynne Ascott-Evans, Tobie de Villiers, ...

  17. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Stephen Hough Editor-in-Chief. Medpharm Publications (Pty). PO Box 14804. Lyttelton. 0140. South Africa. Phone: +27 (0)21 938 9044. Email: fsh@sun.ac.za. Support Contact. The Administrator, Medpharm Publications Email: toc@jemdsa.co.za. ISSN: 003-8-2469. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  18. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Kalasuramath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR. The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of [57] Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

  19. High prevalence of antithyroid peroxidase and antiparietal cell antibodies among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes centre in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruk, Imran M; Ganie, Yasmeen; Maharaj, Sureka; Pirie, Fraser J; Naidoo, Vasudevan G; Nkwanyana, Ntombifikile M; Dinnematin, Hilary L; Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Motala, Ayesha A

    2017-06-01

    Data on the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and gastric autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Africa are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of antithyroid peroxidase (TPO-A) and antiparietal cell antibody (PCA) in patients with T1DM at a tertiary diabetes clinic in Durban, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional observational study among subjects attending the adult T1DM clinic at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital. Information about history and clinical examination was collected. Blood tests included glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA), TPO-A, PCA, vitamin B 12 , folate, ferritin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, lipids and HbA1c. A total of 202 (M:F, 90:112) patients were recruited. The ethnic composition was African (black) (56.4%; n=114), Indian (31.7%; n=64), white (4.5%; n=9) and coloured (mixed race) (7.4%; n=15). Mean age and mean duration of diabetes were 26.4±11.4 and 10.7±9.1 years, respectively. Mean body mass index was 21.6±6.3 kg/m 2 . GADA was positive in 63.37% (n=128). The prevalence of TPO-A was 18.9% (n=39) and PCA 8.9% (n=17). The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and Graves' disease was 10.9%, 2.5% and 1.5%, respectively; vitamin B 12 deficiency was noted in 3.5% (n=7) and iron deficiency in 19.3% (n=39). Among patients with T1DM in this study, there was a high prevalence of coexistent AITD and gastric autoimmunity. Screening for hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity should be undertaken in all patients at initial presentation. However, to assess the feasibility and optimal timing of subsequent testing in the African setting with limited resources, more collaborative research with longitudinal studies is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Diabetes prevention among American Indians: the role of self-efficacy, risk perception, numeracy and cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa W. Simonds

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity. We used the RPA framework to classify participants into four groups based on their perceptions of risk and self-efficacy. Analyses of variance and covariance estimated inter-group differences in behaviors associated with type 2 diabetes prevention. Results Among 128 participants, our only finding consistent with the RPA framework was that self-efficacy and risk perception predicted knowledge about diabetes risk factors. We found limited evidence for the influence of cultural identity within the RPA framework. Overall, participants had lower numeracy skills which tended to be associated with inaccurate perceptions of higher levels of risk. Conclusions The theoretical framework may benefit from inclusion of further contextual factors that influence these behaviors. Attention to numeracy skills stands out in our study as an important influence on the RPA framework, highlighting the importance of attending to numeracy when targeting and tailoring risk information to participants segmented by the RPA framework.

  1. Diabetes prevention among American Indians: the role of self-efficacy, risk perception, numeracy and cultural identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Omidpanah, Adam; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-10-02

    According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity. We used the RPA framework to classify participants into four groups based on their perceptions of risk and self-efficacy. Analyses of variance and covariance estimated inter-group differences in behaviors associated with type 2 diabetes prevention. Among 128 participants, our only finding consistent with the RPA framework was that self-efficacy and risk perception predicted knowledge about diabetes risk factors. We found limited evidence for the influence of cultural identity within the RPA framework. Overall, participants had lower numeracy skills which tended to be associated with inaccurate perceptions of higher levels of risk. The theoretical framework may benefit from inclusion of further contextual factors that influence these behaviors. Attention to numeracy skills stands out in our study as an important influence on the RPA framework, highlighting the importance of attending to numeracy when targeting and tailoring risk information to participants segmented by the RPA framework.

  2. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Care Frequently Asked Questions Health Care Health Topics Improve Your Health Patient Forms Patients Rights & Responsibilities Purchased/ ... Indian/Alaska Native communities. IHS Headquarters, Indian Health Service, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857 - Find a ...

  3. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available Skip to site content U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Search IHS A to Z Index × A ...

  4. Presence of coronary artery disease in diabetic and non diabetic South Asian immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dodani

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The susceptibility to diabetes amongst SAIs promotes an adverse CAD risk, as evident by this small study. Further research, including larger longitudinal prospective studies, is required to validate the current small study findings with investigation of the temporal association.

  5. Cultural basis for diabetes-related beliefs among low- and high-education African American, American Indian, and white older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Arcury, Thomas A; Ip, Eddie H; Nguyen, Ha T; Saldana, Santiago; Reynolds, Teresa; Bell, Ronny A; Kirk, Julienne K; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes and subsequent complications are often attributed to culture; however, previous diabetes disparities research is restricted to in-depth ethnic-specific samples or to comparative study designs with limited belief assessment. The goal of our study was to improve understanding of the cultural basis for variation in diabetes beliefs. Cross-sectional. Rural North Carolina. Older adults (aged 60+) with diabetes, equally divided by ethnicity (White, African American, American Indian) and sex (N=593). Guided by Explanatory Models of Illness and Cultural Consensus research traditions, trained interviewers collected data using 38 items in four diabetes belief domains: causes, symptoms, consequences, and medical management. Items were obtained from the Common Sense Model of Diabetes Inventory (CSMDI). Beliefs about diabetes. Response options for each diabetes belief item were "agree," "disagree" and "don't know." Collected data were analyzed using Anthropac (version 4.98) and Latent Gold (version 4.5) programs. There is substantial similarity in diabetes beliefs among African Americans, American Indians and Whites. Diabetes beliefs were most similar in the symptoms and consequences domains compared to beliefs pertaining to causes and medical management. Although some discrete beliefs differed by ethnicity, systematic differences by ethnicity were observed for specific educational groups. Socioeconomic conditions influence diabetes beliefs rather than ethnicity per se.

  6. Cytotoxic, Antimitotic, and Antiproliferation Studies onRasam: A South Indian Traditional Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Agilandeswari; Mohan Maruga Raja, M K

    2017-10-01

    Rasam is a traditional South Indian food, prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with a variety of spices. Rasam , with all its ingredients medicinally claimed for various ailments, is a functional food. Systematic consumption of traditional functional food provides an excellent preventive measure to ward off many diseases. To study rasam for cytotoxic, antimitotic, and antiproliferation potential beyond its culinary and nutritional effect. Brine shrimp lethality assay, onion root tip inhibition assay, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in Calu-6, HeLa, MCF-7 cell lines for four stage-wise samples in the preparation of rasam (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) were studied. RS4, the end product of rasam showed high lethality with an LC 50 value of 38.7 μL/mL. It showed maximum antimitotic activity in a dose-dependent manner compared to other samples with an IC 50 value of 189.86 μL/mL. RS4 also showed an IC 50 value of 350.22 and 410.15 μL/mL in MCF-7 and Calu-6 cell lines, respectively. From this study, we suggest that rasam is a classic example of traditional functional food and it can treat breast and lung cancer on chronic use. Rasam , a South Indian traditional functional food, showed high lethality (LC 50 = 38.7 mL/mL) against brine shrimps Rasam also showed potential antimitotic activity (IC 50 = 189.86 mL/mL) by inhibiting the onion root tips Rasam showed an IC 50 value of 350.22 and 410.15 mL/mL against MCF-7 and Calu-6 cell lines respectively Rasam , when consumed on daily dietary basis, can treat breast and lung cancer. Abbreviations used: SS 316: Stainless Steel 316 grade; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum media; TPVG: Trypsin phosphate versene glucose; EDTA: Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid; PBS: Phosphate buffered saline; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide.

  7. Validation of Indian diabetic risk score in diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus against high fasting blood sugar levels among adult population of central India.

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    Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Kasar, Pradeep Kumar; Toppo, Neelam Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Globally the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is major public health concern. The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) was developed by Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (MDRF) as a simple tool to help detect undiagnosed type 2 DM (T2DM) in the community. We conducted a study among 911 adults of Jabalpur District to validate the IDRS score against increased fasting blood sugar levels in diagnosing T2DM. T2DM was confirmed either by history of previously known disease or fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl on two occasions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index (sensitivity + specificity -1), likelihood ratio for positive test, and likelihood ratio for negative test were calculated for IDRS cut-offs of ≥20, ≥40, ≥60, and ≥80 against the presence of T2DM (either known diabetic or fasting plasma glucose >126 mg/dl on two occasions). The overall prevalence of T2DM was 9.99% (95% confidence interval, 8.04-11.94%). In the Receiver operating characteristic analysis, IDRS had an area under the curve of 0.736 (P diabetes in the community and IDRS is also a much stronger risk indicator than examining individual risk factors like age, family history, obesity, or physical activity.

  8. Baseline characteristics of participants in the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program: a cluster randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, T; Oldenburg, B; Tapp, R J; Shaw, J E; Wolfe, R; Sajitha, B; D'Esposito, F; Absetz, P; Mathews, E; Zimmet, P Z; Thankappan, K R

    2017-05-01

    To describe the baseline characteristics of participants in the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program. The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program is a cluster randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention for prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in India. Participants in the study were those aged 30-60 years who had an Indian Diabetes Risk Score ≥ 60 and who were without Type 2 diabetes on oral glucose tolerance test. Data on demographic, lifestyle, clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected using standardized tools. A total of 2586 individuals were screened with the Indian Diabetes Risk Score, of these 1529 people (59.1%) had a score ≥ 60, of whom 1209 (79.1%) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. A total of 202 individuals (16.7%) had undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes and were excluded, and the remaining 1007 individuals were enrolled in the trial (control arm, n = 507; intervention arm, n = 500). The mean participant age was 46.0 ± 7.5 years, and 47.2% were women. The mean Indian Diabetes Risk Score was 67.1 ± 8.4. More than two-thirds (69.0%) had prediabetes and 31.0% had normal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors was high, including current tobacco use (34.4% in men), current alcohol use (39.3% in men), no leisure time exercise (98.0%), no daily intake of fruit and vegetables (78.7%), family history of diabetes (47.9%), overweight or obesity (68.5%), hypertension (22.3%) and dyslipidemia (85.4%). The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program recruited participants using a diabetes risk score. A large proportion of the participants had prediabetes and there were high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors. The trial will evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in a population selected on the basis of a diabetes risk score. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  9. Risk perception is not associated with attendance at a preventive intervention for type 2 diabetes mellitus among South Asians at risk of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaar, Everlina M A; Nierkens, Vera; Nicolaou, Mary; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the association between risk perception and attendance in a diabetes prevention programme among South Asians with a high risk for diabetes. An observational study. We measured risk perception during the baseline interview with causal beliefs, perceived susceptibility and perceived controllability. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between risk perception and attendance. We adjusted for relevant sociodemographic factors, screening results and psychosocial factors. The Hague, the Netherlands. Five hundred and thirty-five Hindustani Surinamese (South Asians) aged 18-60 years from a lifestyle-versus-control intervention for the prevention of diabetes. In total, 68·2% attended the lifestyle or control intervention. Participants perceived lifestyle and heredity to increase the risk of diabetes and perceived increasing physical activity to decrease it. Only 44·2% of the participants perceived themselves as susceptible to diabetes and only those who perceived a family history of diabetes as a cause of diabetes appeared to be more inclined to attend. However, after adjustment for confounding, the association was not statistically significant. Risk perception was not significantly associated with attendance. The results suggest that increasing the risk perception alone in this South Asian population is unlikely to increase the attendance at a diabetes prevention programme.

  10. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

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    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  11. Estimating diabetes prevalence in South Auckland: how accurate is a method that combines lists of linked health datasets?

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    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger; Jackson, Gary; Smith, James; Chan, Wing-Cheuk; Wright, Craig; Gentles, Dudley; Jackson, Rod

    2010-12-17

    To assess the accuracy of a method for estimating adult diabetes prevalence that combines linked, routine health datasets in South Auckland, New Zealand. We used a simple algorithm that combined records of laboratory testing, drug dispensing and hospital diagnoses applied to National Health Index-linked health data in South Auckland to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in 2007. We investigated the sensitivity of this 'combined list' algorithm against a gold standard of individuals with diagnosed diabetes enrolled in a Chronic Care Management programme (CCMP). We also assessed the sensitivity of this algorithm against an estimated diabetes population generated using capture-recapture methods. From the combined-list algorithm, 25,797 (7.2%) South Aucklanders aged 15 years and over had diabetes. During this period, 10,725 patients were enrolled in the CCMP. The combined list algorithm correctly identified (sensitivity) 10,351/10,725 (96.5%) of those enrolled. When we used the capture-recapture estimated diabetes population as an alternative gold standard, 34,418 [9.5%] of South Aucklanders 15 years and over had diabetes, with the sensitivity of the combined list method falling to about 75% (25,797/34,418). Linked health data provide reasonably accurate estimates of diabetes prevalence in a New Zealand population; particularly for cases with longstanding or complicated disease.

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes among Chinese and South Asian women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Geetha; Chiu, Maria; Shah, Baiju R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the association between Chinese or South Asian ethnicity and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes for women with gestational diabetes compared to the general population. A cohort study was conducted using population-based health care databases in Ontario, Canada. All 35,577 women aged 15-49 with gestational diabetes who had live births between April 2002 and March 2011 were identified. Their delivery hospitalization records and the birth records of their neonates were examined to identify adverse neonatal outcomes and adverse maternal outcomes. Compared to infants of mothers from the general population (55.5%), infants of Chinese mothers had a lower risk of an adverse outcome at delivery (42.9%, adjusted odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.68), whereas infants of South Asian mothers had a higher risk (58.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.23). Chinese women also had a lower risk of adverse maternal outcomes (32.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.63) compared to general population women (41.2%), whereas the risk for South Asian women was not different (39.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.02) from that of general population women. The risk of complications of gestational diabetes differs significantly between Chinese and South Asian patients and the general population in Ontario. Tailored interventions for gestational diabetes management may be required to improve pregnancy outcomes in high-risk ethnic groups.

  13. Palmaris Longus Muscle in the South Indian Population – A Cadaveric Study

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    Lydia S. Quadros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palmaris longus, one of the superficial flexor muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm is the most variable muscle of the upper limb. Purpose: To note the variations of palmaris longus for tendon grafts. Methods: Forty formalin-fixed upper limb specimens of South Indian population were dissected to note the variations of Palmaris longus muscle. Results: Out of the forty upper limb specimens, two variants of the palmaris longus were noted. In one specimen, a reversed palmaris longus was noted. It had a long tendinous origin with a muscle belly and a short flat tendon at insertion. The tendon inserted partly into the flexor retinaculum and partly into palmar aponeurosis. In another specimen, apart from the normal palmaris longus muscle, an additional smaller muscle was noted. It was the Palmaris profundus. This muscle took origin in the form of a tendon from the middle of the shaft of the radius, continued as a muscle belly and then terminated as a tendon which later inserted into the flexor retinaculum, close to the tendon of palmaris longus muscle. At its insertion, the superficial palmar branch of radial artery hooked it. The anterior interosseous nerve supplied the Palmaris profundus. Conclusion: These variations are worthy to be noted for tendon grafts.

  14. Prevalence of hyperdontia in nonsyndromic South Indian population: An institutional analysis

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    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker; Kini, Raghavendra; Naik, Vathsala

    2015-01-01

    Context: Supernumerary teeth or hyperdontia is an additional tooth, teeth or tooth like structures that either have erupted or remain unerupted in addition to the 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. Supernumerary teeth may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome or developmental abnormality. Aims: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of supernumerary teeth in a group of South Indian nonsyndromic population. Settings and Design: A total of 2400 radiographs were examined for the presence of supernumerary teeth. Subjects and Methods: All the radiographs were examined for the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, morphology, and number. Statistical Analysis Used: Cross-tabulation using statistical analysis software (SPSS version 16). Results: The study results showed the prevalence to be 1.2% with 44.83% of them having single supernumerary teeth. Their prevalence was more in males and the maxillary posterior region was the most common location. Conclusions: Knowledge about the supernumerary teeth is important for dental clinicians as they are relatively common but are detected as an incidental finding in a radiograph. A routine screening panoramic radiograph is mandatory for every patient to prevent the possible complications associated with it. PMID:26392730

  15. High incidence of persistence of sacral and coccygeal intervertebral discs in South Indians - a cadaveric study.

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    Satheesha Nayak, B; Ashwini Aithal, P; Kumar, Naveen; George, Bincy M; Deepthinath, R; Shetty, Surekha D

    2016-06-01

    The sacrum, by virtue of its anatomic location plays a key role in providing stability and strength to the pelvis. Presence of intervertebral discs in sacrum and coccyx is rare. Knowledge of its variations is of utmost importance to surgeons and radiologists. The current study focused on the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae in south Indian cadaveric pelvises. We observed 56 adult pelvises of which, 34 (61%) pelvises showed the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral vertebrae and between the coccygeal vertebrae, while 22 (39%) pelvises did not have the intervertebral discs either in the sacrum or the coccyx. We also found that most of the specimens had discs between S1 and S2 vertebrae (39%), followed by, between S4 and S5 (18%), between S2-S3 (14%) and least being between S3-S4 (13%). In the coccyx it was found that 7% of pelvises had disc between Co1-Co2, 4% of them had between Co2-Co3 and 4% had between Co3-Co4. Knowledge regarding such anatomic variations in the sacro-coccygeal region is important to note because they require alterations in various instrumentation procedures involving the sacrum.

  16. Morphometric study of tensor of vastus intermedius in South Indian population.

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    Veeramani, Raveendranath; Gnanasekaran, Dhivyalakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Tensor of vastus intermedius is a newly discovered muscle located between vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of tensor of vastus intermedius, specifically to provide data pertaining to the attachments, innervations, variation in the types and its morphometry in South Indian population. The tensor of vastus intermedius was studied in thirty six cadaveric lower limbs using macrodissection techniques. The origin of the muscle was from upper part of intertrochanteric line and anterior part of greater trochanter of femur inserted to medial aspect of upper border of patella. The muscle was classified into four types based on the origin and also the aponeurosis course with independent type (type 1) being common. The mean and standard deviation of the length of tensor of vastus intermedius and aponeurosis were 145.40±37.55 mm and 193.55±42.32 mm, respectively. The results of the study suggest that tensor of vastus intermedius is variable and the information provided regarding the attachments, types and quantitative data will contribute to the existing knowledge of the muscle.

  17. Morphological Analysis of the Human Internal Iliac Artery in South Indian Population

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    Naveen NS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The accidental hemorrhage is common due to erroneous interpretation of the variant arteries during surgical procedures, hence the present study has been undertaken with reference to its morphological significance. The objectives were to examine the level of origin, length and the branching pattern of the human internal iliac artery in South Indian population. Methods: The study included 60 human bisected pelvises irrespective of their side and sex. The specimens were collected from the anatomy laboratory and were fixed with the formalin. The branching patterns were studied and demonstrated as per the guidelines of Adachi. Results: The origin of internal iliac artery was at the level of S1 vertebra in majority (58.3% of the cases. The average length of internal iliac artery was 37 ± 4.62 mm (range, 13-54 mm. The type I pattern of the internal iliac artery was most common (83.5% followed by types III and II. The type IV and V pattern of adachi were not observed. Conclusions: The results of this study were different from those reported by others and may be because of racial and geographical variations. Prior knowledge of the anatomical variations is beneficial for the vascular surgeons ligating the internal iliac artery or its branches and the radiologists interpreting angiograms of the pelvic region.

  18. Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans' Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong

    2017-05-01

    To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Assessing Children with Language Impairments: A Study on Kannada, a South Indian Language

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    Srimani Chakravarthi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This is one of the first comprehensive studies to assess receptive and expressive language skills in a South Indian language, Kannada. It demystifies language impairments and provides a model for future research to understand other languages in India and in countries around the world.Method: Language impairments were identified in 68 students of Grades 3 and 4, in elementary schools where Kannada was the medium of instruction. The children were assessed in different language components. The results were analysed in terms of their ages and their levels of functioning in each language component and sub-component.Results: As a group, the subjects showed no significant deficits in phonological and semantic skills; however, individual deficits and deficits within sub-component skills of semantics were noted. Mean and individual deficits in auditory reception, aural comprehension and receptive vocabulary were also noted. Deficits in syntax & verbal expression were notably significant. The extent of language delay increases with age, and plateaus at higher ages.Conclusion: Children with language impairments in Kannada, display many similar characteristics in terms of problems in different components of language. Early intervention is called for because the language delay increases as age advances. A thorough assessment reveals specific strengths and weaknesses in language components and skills. This can be used as a starting point to base remediation activities.doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.134

  20. Zone Based Hybrid Feature Extraction Algorithm for Handwritten Numeral Recognition of South Indian Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekararadhya, S. V.; Ranjan, P. Vanaja

    India is a multi-lingual multi script country, where eighteen official scripts are accepted and have over hundred regional languages. In this paper we propose a zone based hybrid feature extraction algorithm scheme towards the recognition of off-line handwritten numerals of south Indian scripts. The character centroid is computed and the image (character/numeral) is further divided in to n equal zones. Average distance and Average angle from the character centroid to the pixels present in the zone are computed (two features). Similarly zone centroid is computed (two features). This procedure is repeated sequentially for all the zones/grids/boxes present in the numeral image. There could be some zones that are empty, and then the value of that particular zone image value in the feature vector is zero. Finally 4*n such features are extracted. Nearest neighbor classifier is used for subsequent classification and recognition purpose. We obtained 97.55 %, 94 %, 92.5% and 95.2 % recognition rate for Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam numerals respectively.

  1. Psychometric properties of the hearing handicap questionnaire: a Kannada (South-Indian) translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; McPherson, Bradley

    2017-03-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire (HHQ) in Kannada (a South-Indian language) among adults with hearing loss. The study involved a cross-sectional survey design. Participants provided demographic details and completed the Kannada and English (original) version of the HHQ questionnaire. To evaluate test-retest reliability, ∼50% of the participants completed the Kannada version for the second time after 15 days. The sample comprised 103 adults with hearing loss recruited from local audiology clinics. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a one-factor structure, which explained 71% of the variance in Kannada-HHQ scores. The internal consistency measured with Cronbach's alpha was 0.96. The test-retest reliability correlations of the Kannada version with the English and with the same Kannada version re-administered after 15 days were 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by significant correlations with the Participation Scale and the Assessment of Quality of Life scales. Discriminant validity was found to be low as all the Kannada-HHQ questions were highly correlated with each other (r> 0.60). No floor and ceiling effects were identified. The psychometric properties of the Kannada-HHQ scale are considered to be adequate for clinical or research use.

  2. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean

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    F. Chane-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW in the Upper Troposphere (UT and the Lower Stratosphere (LS from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E, Tromelin (15° S, 54° E and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3 of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.

  3. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chane-Ming, F.; Faduilhe, D.; Leveau, J.

    2007-12-01

    Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW) in the Upper Troposphere (UT) and the Lower Stratosphere (LS) from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E), Tromelin (15° S, 54° E) and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E) located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3) of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.

  4. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of gravity-wave energy in the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chane-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical temperature profiles obtained by radiosonde and Raman lidar measurements are used to investigate a climatology of total energy density of gravity waves (GW in the Upper Troposphere (UT and the Lower Stratosphere (LS from 1992 to 2004 above Mahé (4° S, 55° E, Tromelin (15° S, 54° E and La Réunion (21° S, 55° E located in the tropical South-West Indian Ocean. The commonly used spectral index value (p≈5/3 of the intrinsic frequency spectrum is used for calculating estimated total energy density in the UT and LS. Estimated total energy density provides good estimation of total energy density in the LS but underestimates total energy density by one half in the UT above Mahé and Tromelin probably due to the activity of near-inertial frequency waves. Estimated total energy density reveals a strong seasonal variability as a function of latitude and convection as an evident active source of GW activity in the LS in austral summer. Above La Réunion, a semi-annual GW activity is observed in the LS with the signature of the subtropical barrier in the UT. Moreover, radiosondes and Raman lidar provide consistent GW surveys in the UT/LS at heights<23 km above La Réunion.

  5. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-02

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element.

  6. A Comparative Rugoscopic Study of the Dentate and Edentulous Individuals in the South Indian Population

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    Jagdish Prasad Rajguru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the rugae pattern in dentulous and edentulous patients and also evaluates the association of rugae pattern between males and females. Aims and Objectives. This study aims to investigate rugae patterns in dentulous and edentulous patients of both sexes in South Indian population and to find whether palatoscopy is a useful tool in human identification. Materials and Methods. Four hundred outpatients from Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study. The study group was equally divided between the sexes, which was further categorized into 100 dentulous and edentulous patients, respectively. Results. The edentulous male showed the highest mean of wavy pattern and total absence of circular pattern while the edentulous female group showed the highest mean of curved pattern and total absence of nonspecific pattern, while dentate population showed similar value as that of the overall population such as straight, wavy, and curved patterns. Conclusion. The present study concludes that there is similar rugae pattern of distribution between male and female dentate population while there is varied pattern between the sexes of edentulous population. However, the most predominant patterns were straight, wavy, and circular patterns.

  7. Epidemiology of Oral Lichen Planus in a Cohort of South Indian Population: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Soma Susan; George, Giju Baby; Sarojini, Sreenivasan Bargavan; Vinod, Sankar; Mathew, Philips; Mathew, Deepu George; Sebastian, Joseph; George, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Dysplastic OLP has an altered cytogenic profile and can progress into oral squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology of OLP is well-described in several relatively large series from various geographic locations, whereas such series from southern India is rare. The aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiology of OLP in a cohort of South Indian population. Methods: All the case data records of 29,606 patients who visited Mar Baselios Dental College and Hospital, Kerala, India from 2014 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. For data review, 122 patients of OLP were selected Estimated were type, number, and location of lesions, clinical manifestation, age of the patient, gender, onset and duration of lesion, stressful life style, habits, skin involvement and associated systemic illness, and presence/absence of dysplasia. Results: When the distribution of OLP among the gender was considered, we found more prevalence in females than males. Fifty-seven percent of patients were associated with stressful lifestyle. Reticular lichen planus was the most common clinical subtype found. Bilateral buccal mucosal was the common site, when the distribution of sites of OLP were compared (P lichen planus lesions. Conclusions: OLP patients had high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions and 5% of OLP lesions showed anaplasia. Long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the recurrence, prognosis, and malignant transformation of OLP. PMID:27051650

  8. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

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    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  9. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Foot Care Training Tools for Diabetes Educators and Community Members Diabetes Educator Tools Diabetes Education Lesson Plan Outlines Integrating Case Management Into Your Practice [PDF – 290 KB] Integrating DSMES Into Your Practice [ ...

  10. A profile of Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes in South Florida

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    Sonjia Kenya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States and diabetes or pre-diabetes affects more than 70% of Latinos aged 45 years and older. Miami-Dade County is home to one of the highest populations of diverse Latinos. In this descriptive manuscript, we present baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Miami Healthy Heart Initiative (MHHI. This was a study conducted to determine the effects of a community health worker (CHW intervention among Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes in South Florida. Methods: We recruited 300 diverse Latino adults with suboptimal diabetes outcomes (HbA1c≥8 into MHHI. This randomized control trial examined the impact of a 1-year CHW-led intervention on glycemic control, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. At baseline, physiologic measures, including HbA1c, LDL, blood pressure, and BMI, were assessed. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and additional determinants of health such as depression status, provider communication, diet, exercise, cigarette smoking, readiness to change diabetes management behaviors (stages of change, and confidence in ability to improve diabetes self-care (self-efficacy were collected. Results: Participants came from 20 different countries, with Cuban Americans representing 38% of the sample. Most had lived in the US for more than 10 years, had completed at least 12 years of school, and had high levels of health literacy, yet 48% had very low acculturation. Nearly 80% had poor self-efficacy, 80% met the criteria for depression, and 83% were not adherent to their medications. More than half the population was not at their target for blood pressure, 50% were above the recommended LDL goal, and most were obese. Conclusion: In a diverse population of Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes in Miami, we found high rates of depression, obesity, medication non-adherence, poor self-efficacy, and provider communication. These may contribute to poor

  11. The relation between rice consumption, arsenic contamination, and prevalence of diabetes in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Niaz, Kamal; Khan, Fazlullah; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food for about two billion people living in Asia. It has been reported to contain considerable amount of inorganic arsenic which is toxic to pancreatic beta cells and disrupt glucose homeostasis. Articles and conference papers published between 1992 and 2017, indexed in Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, Google, and Google scholar were used. Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased blood glucose and insulin levels, or decreased sensitization of insulin cells to glucose uptake. Several studies have shown the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and incidence of diabetes mellitus. Considerable amounts of arsenic have been reported in different types of rice which may be affected by cultivation methods, processing, and country of production. Use of certain microbes, fertilizers, and enzymes may reduce arsenic uptake or accumulation in rice, which may reduce its risk of toxicity. Combined exposure to contaminated rice, other foods and drinking water may increase the risk of diabetes in these countries. Maximum tolerated daily intake of arsenic contaminated rice (2.1 µg/day kg body weight) has been set by WHO, which may be exceeded depending on its content in rice and amount consumed. Hence, increased prevalence of diabetes in South Asia may be related to the consumption of arsenic contaminated rice depending on its content in the rice and daily amount consumed. In this review, we have focused on the possible relation between rice consumption, arsenic contamination, and prevalence of diabetes in South Asia. PMID:29285009

  12. The relation between rice consumption, arsenic contamination, and prevalence of diabetes in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Niaz, Kamal; Khan, Fazlullah; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food for about two billion people living in Asia. It has been reported to contain considerable amount of inorganic arsenic which is toxic to pancreatic beta cells and disrupt glucose homeostasis. Articles and conference papers published between 1992 and 2017, indexed in Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, Google, and Google scholar were used. Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased blood glucose and insulin levels, or decreased sensitization of insulin cells to glucose uptake. Several studies have shown the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and incidence of diabetes mellitus. Considerable amounts of arsenic have been reported in different types of rice which may be affected by cultivation methods, processing, and country of production. Use of certain microbes, fertilizers, and enzymes may reduce arsenic uptake or accumulation in rice, which may reduce its risk of toxicity. Combined exposure to contaminated rice, other foods and drinking water may increase the risk of diabetes in these countries. Maximum tolerated daily intake of arsenic contaminated rice (2.1 µg/day kg body weight) has been set by WHO, which may be exceeded depending on its content in rice and amount consumed. Hence, increased prevalence of diabetes in South Asia may be related to the consumption of arsenic contaminated rice depending on its content in the rice and daily amount consumed. In this review, we have focused on the possible relation between rice consumption, arsenic contamination, and prevalence of diabetes in South Asia.

  13. Development and validation of health related quality of life questionnaire (Indian scenario) in diabetic foot ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateel, Ramya; Augustine, Alfred J; Ullal, Sheetal; Prabhu, Shivananda; Bhat, Rahul; Adhikari, Prabha

    2017-12-01

    To develop and validate Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients (HRQLQDFU) for Indian scenario. This study was conducted in two phases. First phase was Development of HRQLQDFU which included literature search and expert interview. Second phase was validation of HRQLQDFL which included face validation, content validation and construct validation. Face validation was done by ten diabetic foot ulcer patients, ten practicing nurses and ten care givers. They were asked to read and respond to questionnaire and report any difficulty in understanding the questions. Further they were asked to add any item to the questionnaire which according to them has a significant effect on quality of life. Content validation was done by six subject experts who judged the content relevance of questionnaire with score ranging from zero to four; zero being least relevant and four being most relevant. Content validity index was calculated for each question. Questions having content validity index≥0.8 were selected for the study. Reliability was tested by calculating Cronbach's alpha. In the development phase a questionnaire containing 37 questions with six domains was developed. None of patient had difficulty in understanding questions. After content validation a new questionnaire containing 20 questions was developed. Cronbach's alpha was 0.86 which shows good reliability. The new health related quality of life questionnaire on diabetic foot ulcer patients for an Indian scenario is validated and can be a reliably measure for quality of life in diabetic foot ulcer patients. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Diabetes and Factors Associated with Foregoing Medical Care among Persons with Diabetes: Disparities Facing American Indian/Alaska Native, Black, Hispanic, Low Income, and Southern Adults in the U.S. (2011–2015

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    Samuel D. Towne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identify individual- and place-based factors associated with diagnosed diabetes and forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes. Background: Diabetes affects millions of individuals globally. In the U.S. alone the prevalence rate of diagnosed diabetes has more than doubled over the past 20 years (4.2% in 1994 to 10% in 2014. Methods: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011–2015 was used to identify factors associated with self-reported diabetes diagnoses (ever diagnosed among U.S. adults. Logistic regression modeled: (1 the likelihood of having diabetes; (2 the likelihood of forgone medical care among those with diabetes, given appropriate medical care has been linked to preventing complications associated with diabetes. Results: Rates of diabetes remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2015. The likelihood of diabetes was higher (p < 0.01 among racial and ethnic minority groups, men, those with lower incomes and those with lower education. Place-based disparities indicating a higher likelihood of having a diagnosis of diabetes were found for those living in rural areas (urban versus rural, unadjusted OR = 0.844–0.908; p < 0.01 and those living in the South (North, Midwest, and Western/Pacific regions versus the South, unadjusted OR = 0.794–0.889; p < 0.01. Similar results were found with forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes being more likely in the South (North, Midwest, and Western/Pacific regions versus the South, unadjusted OR = 0.542–0.819. In fully-adjusted analyses, the prevalence of diabetes and forgone medical care among those diagnosed with diabetes was higher for those with lower incomes, from several racial/ethnic minority groups, and in the South versus most other regions. Conclusions: Identifying at-risk groups informs targets for prevention and assists efforts to address chronic disease self-management among those already diagnosed with diabetes.

  15. Demographic, medical and visual aspects of Dia- betic Retinopathy (DR and Diabetic Macular Edema (DME in South African diabetic patients*

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    Anusha Y. Sukha

    2009-12-01

    interactions (p = 0.01 and emotional re-action to vision loss (p = 0.018 was reported in subjects with DME.Conclusion: This study has identified possible demographic, medical and visual risk factors of DR and DME in South African diabetic patients.  

  16. Demographic, medical and visual aspects of Dia- betic Retinopathy (DR and Diabetic Macular Edema (DME in South African diabetic patients*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Y. Sukha

    2009-12-01

    interactions (p = 0.01 and emotional re-action to vision loss (p = 0.018 was reported in subjects with DME. Conclusion: This study has identified possible demographic, medical and visual risk factors of DR and DME in South African diabetic patients.

  17. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asians : effects of dietary interventions on metabolism and cardiovascular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Leontine Erica Henriëtte

    2015-01-01

    People of South Asian origin have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people of Western European descent. Not only is the prevalence of these diseases higher in South Asians, they also occur at a younger age and lower BMI, and have a

  18. Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale among South Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Ju; Song, Misoon; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale among South Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Self-efficacy has been reported to be a key component of enhancing diabetes self-management, and many healthcare providers have paid attention to the instruments to accurately measure self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management. A psychometric test of an instrument measuring self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management. A total of 278 Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited in one senior centre in Seoul, South Korea. The instrument included the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale and the summary of the Diabetes Self-care Activities. Item analyses, reliability including internal consistency and stability, and validity including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and hypothesised relationships test were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale. The item-total correlation coefficients of all items were >0·30 and ranged from 0·47-0·73. The coefficient alpha for the internal consistency was 0·89, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for the stability was 0·90. Two factors were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis (factor 1, self-efficacy for diet-related self-management behaviours; factor 2, self-efficacy for diabetes self-management behaviours except diet), and the two-factor model for the confirmatory factor analysis had good fitness indices. The diabetes self-efficacy scores were positively correlated with the level of diabetes self-management. The findings supported that the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale was reliable and valid in measuring self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management in Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes. The Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale can allow healthcare providers to

  19. A Home-Based Educational Intervention Improves Patient Activation Measures and Diabetes Health Indicators among Zuni Indians.

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    Vallabh O Shah

    Full Text Available One in three people will be diagnosed with diabetes by 2050, and the proportion will likely be higher among Native Americans. Diabetes control is currently suboptimal in underserved populations despite a plethora of new therapies. Patient empowerment is a key determinant of diabetes control, but such empowerment can be difficult to achieve due to resource limitation and cultural, language and health literacy barriers. We describe a home-based educational intervention using Community Health Representatives (CHRs, leading to improvement in Patient Activation Measures scores and clinical indicators of diabetes control.Sixty participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D completed a baseline evaluation including physical exam, Point of Care (POC testing, and the Patient Activation Measure (PAM survey. Participants then underwent a one hour group didactic session led by Community Health Representatives (CHRs who subsequently carried out monthly home-based educational interventions to encourage healthy lifestyles, including diet, exercise, and alcohol and cigarette avoidance until follow up at 6 months, when clinical phenotyping and the PAM survey were repeated.PAM scores were increased by at least one level in 35 (58% participants, while 24 participants who started at higher baseline score did not change. Six months after intervention, mean levels of A1C decreased by 0.7 ± 1.2%; fasting blood glucose decreased by 24.0 ± 38.0 mg/dl; BMI decreased by 1.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2; total cholesterol decreased by 12.0 ± 28.0 mg/dl; and triglycerides decreased by 52.0 ± 71.0 mg/dl. All of these changes were statistically significant (p < 0.05.This six month, CHR led and community-oriented educational intervention helps inform standards of practice for the management of diabetes, engages diabetic populations in their own care, and reduces health disparities for the underserved population of Zuni Indians.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02339311.

  20. The Participation Scale: psychometric properties of a South Indian translation with hearing-impaired respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; McPherson, Bradley

    2017-07-07

    The Participation Scale (P-Scale) is a widely used generic self-report measure designed to assess an individual's participation restriction consequent to any disease condition. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a south Indian (Kannada language) version of the P-Scale for use with adults with hearing loss. This study is a part of an ongoing research program on the assessment of outcomes of hearing health rehabilitation with hearing aids involving Indian client groups. One hundred and three adults with hearing loss completed the original English and the newly translated-adapted Kannada P-Scale questionnaire. Nearly half of the participants completed repeat testing of the Kannada version 15 days after the initial assessment. Along with the P-Scale, Kannada versions of the Hearing Handicap Questionnaire (HHQ) and the Assessment of Quality of Life - 4 Dimensions Questionnaire (AQoL-4D) were also administered. Based on predefined quality criteria, five different psychometric properties of the P-Scale were evaluated, together with an analysis of the Kannada P-Scale's factor structure. The psychometric properties assessed included internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and floor-ceiling effects. Principal component analysis indicated a four-factor complex structure, which explained 69.78% of the variance in the Kannada P-Scale. High internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90) and test-retest reliability (internal consistency coefficient  >0.90) were obtained. Comparisons with the HHQ (ρ = 0.52) and AQoL-4 D (ρ = 0.76) indicated good convergent validity. Discriminant validity among the P-Scale questions was acceptable (inter-item correlation  Kannada P-Scale. The psychometric characteristics of the Kannada P-scale were found to be sufficient for use with the participant group (literate, Kannada-speaking adults with hearing loss) who were assessed in this study

  1. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.

  2. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.

  3. Putting theory into practice: a case study of diabetes-related behavioral change interventions on Chicago's South Side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Monica E; Ferguson, Molly J; Roberson, Tonya P; Chin, Marshall H

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes self-management is central to diabetes care overall, and much of self-management entails individual behavior change, particularly around dietary patterns and physical activity. Yet individual-level behavior change remains a challenge for many persons with diabetes, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities who disproportionately face barriers to diabetes-related behavioral changes. Through the South Side Diabetes Project, officially known as "Improving Diabetes Care and Outcomes on the South Side of Chicago," our team sought to improve health outcomes and reduce disparities among residents in the largely working-class African American communities that comprise Chicago's South Side. In this article, we describe several aspects of the South Side Diabetes Project that are directly linked to patient behavioral change, and discuss the theoretical frameworks we used to design and implement our programs. We also briefly discuss more downstream program elements (e.g., health systems change) that provide additional support for patient-level behavioral change. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Association of CAPN10 SNPs and haplotypes with polycystic ovary syndrome among South Indian Women.

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    Shilpi Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is known to be characterized by metabolic disorder in which hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance are central features. Given the physiological overlap between PCOS and type-2 diabetes (T2DM, and calpain 10 gene (CAPN10 being a strong candidate for T2DM, a number of studies have analyzed CAPN10 SNPs among PCOS women yielding contradictory results. Our study is first of its kind to investigate the association pattern of CAPN10 polymorphisms (UCSNP-44, 43, 56, 19 and 63 with PCOS among Indian women. 250 PCOS cases and 299 controls from Southern India were recruited for this study. Allele and genotype frequencies of the SNPs were determined and compared between the cases and controls. Results show significant association of UCSNP-44 genotype CC with PCOS (p = 0.007 with highly significant odds ratio when compared to TC (OR = 2.51, p = 0.003, 95% CI = 1.37-4.61 as well as TT (OR = 1.94, p = 0.016, 95% CI = 1.13-3.34. While the haplotype carrying the SNP-44 and SNP-19 variants (21121 exhibited a 2 fold increase in the risk for PCOS (OR = 2.37, p = 0.03, the haplotype containing SNP-56 and SNP-19 variants (11221 seems to have a protective role against PCOS (OR = 0.20, p = 0.004. Our results support the earlier evidence for a possible role of UCSNP-44 of the CAPN10 gene in the manifestation of PCOS.

  5. Influence of Tropical South Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures on the Indian Summer monsoon in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Fred; Joshi, Manish K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study the teleconnection from the tropical south Atlantic to the Indian monsoon has been assessed in observations and in 32 models from the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models show that the regression pattern of tropics-wide Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies onto the tropical south Atlantic index correlates well with that in observations, even though with varying spatial standard deviations. However, only about half of the 32 models considered show the correct sign of rainfall response over India to a warm anomaly in the south tropical Atlantic, which is a reduction of rainfall. On the other hand, models generally do show large-scale responses broadly consistent with the observations, and the signal over India depends on relatively subtle changes in the response. This response to a tropical south Atlantic warm (cold) anomaly is a low-level quadrupole in streamfunction with an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the Arabian Sea and India. This anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly leads to a weakening (strengthening) of the Somali jet and low-level divergence (convergence) over India, both inducing a reduction (increase) of Indian rainfall. The models which do not show the correct rainfall response over India also show a response similar to the one indicated above, but with maximum of the anticyclonic (cyclonic) response shifted to the western Pacific. The large-scale Walker circulation adjustment to the tropical south Atlantic SST anomalies is identified as one of the factors which account for the differences in the low-level streamfunction response. Models (and the observations) with the correct sign of the rainfall signal over India show the dominant upper-level convergence (divergence) as response to a warm (cold) tropical south Atlantic in the western Pacific region, whereas models with the wrong sign of the rainfall signal show it predominantly in the central-eastern Pacific

  6. Are the current Indian growth charts really representative? Analysis of anthropometric assessment of school children in a South Indian district

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    V Kumaravel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India currently is posed by the double threat of thinness and overweight/obesity among children. Different growth charts have taken different population and give different cut-off points to assess these conditions. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometry of school children, 5-18 years of age and thereby estimate the prevalence of childhood thinness, overweight and obesity. To analyze how the study population compares with that of Agarwal′s growth chart. Materials and Methods: The anthropometric measurements of all the students who were studying from 1 st to 12 th standards were taken from 27 randomly selected Government and private schools. Prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity were assessed using two standards - Indian standard given by Agarwal and International Standards given by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF. Results: The prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among 18,001 students enrolled as per Indian standard were 12.2%, 9.5% and 3% and as per International standard were 15.3%, 8.1% and 2.6% respectively. The mean and the 95 th percentile values of body mass index for both boys and girls at all ages in this study are falling short of Agarwal′s and IOTF values. Using international cut-offs as well as Indian cut-offs given by Agarwal, underestimate the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls of all age groups. Conclusion: This study shows that under and over-nutrition among school children is in almost equal proportions. There is an underestimation of obesity among children whenever an Indian or an International growth chart is used. Thus, this study brings out the need for a really representative growth chart.

  7. Accuracy of Demirjian′s 8 teeth method for age prediction in South Indian children: A comparative study

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    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Demirjian′s method of tooth development is most commonly used to assess age in individuals with emerging teeth. However, its application on numerous populations has resulted in wide variations in age estimates and consequent suggestions for the method′s adaptation to the local sample. Original Demirjian′s method utilized seven mandibular teeth, to which recently third molar is added so that the method can be applied on a wider age group. Furthermore, the revised method developed regression formulas for assessing age. In Indians, as these formulas resulted in underestimation, India-specific regression formulas were developed recently. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of original regression formulas (Chaillet and Demirjian 2004 and India-specific regression formulas (Acharya 2010 using Demirjian′s 8 teeth method in South Indian children of age groups 9-20 years. Methods: The present study consisted of 660 randomly selected subjects (330 males and 330 females were in the aged ranging from 9 to 20 years divided into 11 groups according to their age. Demirjian′s 8 teeth method was used for staging of teeth. Results: Demirjian′s method underestimated the dental age (DA by 1.66 years for boys and 1.55 years for girls and 1.61 years in total. Acharya′s method over estimated DA by 0.21 years for boys and 0.85 years for girls and 0.53 years in total. The absolute accuracy was better for Acharya′s method compared with Demirjian method. Conclusion: This study concluded that both the Demirjian and Indian regression formulas were reliable in assessing age making Demirjian′s 8 teeth method applicable for South Indians.

  8. The meaning of widowhood and health to older middle-class Hindu widows living in a South Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerenda, A Judith

    2010-10-01

    Indian widowhood has long been associated with victimization and vulnerability, but traditional attitudes toward widowhood are changing and reflect the rapid changes occurring in India. Using Caring Inquiry, a phenomenological-hermeneutic methodology that places caring at its center, this article presents a study that explores the meaning of health and widowhood to 14 older middle-class Hindu widows living in urban South India. From the data emerge six metathemes that are pertinent to nursing praxis and the delivery of health care to widows in South India: (a) Drawing From Within, (b) Seeking Help and Guidance, (c) Accepting the Role, (d) Challenging Tradition, (e) Serving Others, and (f) Finding Companionship. The findings reveal that all the widows share a common desire to move on with life, articulated by one widow as "The Show Must Go On," which serves as a foundation for a theory and model of the meaning of widowhood and health to older middle-class South Indian Hindu widows. This study advances the limited body of knowledge on the lives and health of these widows.

  9. HLA class II alleles influence rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility and autoantibody status in South Indian Tamil population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaselvam, C M; Fortier, C; Charron, D; Krishnamoorthy, R; Tamouza, R; Negi, V S

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex multifactorial autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory arthritis. The precise etiology and pathogenesis of RA remains elusive but evidence points towards stochastic interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study investigated the distribution of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1/DQB1 alleles in South Indian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their influence on RA susceptibility and clinical phenotype. Low resolution HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 typing was performed in 271 RA patients and 233 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using sequence-specific primers (SSP). HLA-DRB1*10 was found to be more frequent in patients (P c = 0.004, OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.5-3.34) than controls. This difference persisted in RF positive (P c = 9 × 10 -6 , OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.62-3.74), ACPA positive (P c = 0.007, OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.35-3.29), ACPA negative (P c = 0.001, OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.50-3.97) and both RF and ACPA positive subgroup of patients (P c = 0.003, OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.41-3.51). On the contrary, the HLA-DRB1*13 (P c = 0.01, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.25-0.73) and HLA-DRB1*14 (P c = 0.003, OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.26-0.69) alleles were over-represented in controls than patients. Further, distribution of the prominent Caucasian RA risk allele DRB1*04 did not differ between patients and controls in our study population. We did not find any association between DQB1 alleles and RA susceptibility or autoantibody status. The haplotypes DQB1*05-DRB1*10 (P = 6.8 × 10 -6 , OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.63-3.79) and DQB1*06-DRB1*15 (P = 0.03, OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.02-1.96) were more frequent in patients while DQB1*05-DRB1*14 (P = 8.4 × 10 -4 , OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.26-0.74) and DQB1*06-DRB1*13 (P = 9.5 × 10 -4 , OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.72) were higher in controls. To conclude, HLA-DRB1*10 is associated with RA while HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-DRB1*14 alleles confer protection in south Indian Tamils. © 2016

  10. Recruiting South Asians to a lifestyle intervention trial: experiences and lessons from PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians

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    Tuomilehto Jaakko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing emphasis on the inclusion of ethnic minority patients in research, there is little published on the recruitment of these populations especially to randomised, community based, lifestyle intervention trials in the UK. Methods We share our experience of recruitment to screening in the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians trial, which screened 1319 recruits (target 1800 for trial eligibility. A multi-pronged recruitment approach was used. Enrolment via the National Health Service included direct referrals from health care professionals and written invitations via general practices. Recruitment within the community was carried out by both the research team and through our partnerships with local South Asian groups and organisations. Participants were encouraged to refer friends and family throughout the recruitment period. Results Health care professionals referred only 55 potential participants. The response to written invitations via general practitioners was 5.2%, lower than reported in other general populations. Community orientated, personal approaches for recruitment were comparatively effective yielding 1728 referrals (82% to the screening stage. Conclusions The PODOSA experience shows that a community orientated, personal approach for recruiting South Asian ethnic minority populations can be successful in a trial setting. We recommend that consideration is given to cover recruitment costs associated with community engagement and other personalised approaches. Researchers should consider prioritising approaches that minimise interference with professionals' work and, particularly in the current economic climate, keep costs to a minimum. The lessons learned in PODOSA should contribute to future community based trials in South Asians. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25729565

  11. A STUDY ON TIBIAL TORSION IN ADULT DRY TIBIA OF EAST AND SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

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    Jami Sagar Prusti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rotational deformities of the lower limbs are very common. There is increasing evidence that abnormal torsion in the tibia is associated with severe knee and ankle arthritis. Primary knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in older persons. Varus or valgus alignment increases the risk of osteoarthritis. Coexistence of tibial torsional deformity may increase the risk further. Variability in the tibial torsion has been reported and is due to the torsional forces applied on tibia during development. The aim of the study is to estimate the angle of tibial torsion on both sides and both sexes. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of tibial torsion in the East and South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 100 dry adult unpaired human tibia, i.e. 50 male and 50 female bones. The measurements were recorded and statistically analysed using Student’s unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (free trial version. RESULTS Out of the 100 tibia undertaken, mean value of tibial torsion angle obtained is 25.8°. In males, it is 23.68° and in females it is about 27.86°. Statistical analysis revealed significant greater average angle of tibial torsion in female bones. The angle of the right-sided bones was more and this was statistically significant. CONCLUSION The gender variation for the angle could be the result of the difference in lifestyle in day-to-day activities. The knowledge of the angle in a population could be helpful in understanding the incidence of pathogenesis related to gait and knee osteoarthritis and in view of reconstructive surgeries in orthopaedic practice.

  12. Community-based game intervention to improve South Asian Indian Americans' engagement with advanced care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T

    2017-07-27

    Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.

  13. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population

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    J Rajkohila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental foramen (MF is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. Results and Conclusions: In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%. The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%. AMF were round in shape (74% and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  14. Morphological and morphometric analysis of accessory mental foramen in dry human mandibles of south indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkohila, J; Daniel, Priyanka; Ambikaipakan, Sakunthala; Rabi, Suganthy

    2018-01-01

    Mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark for administration of local anesthesia in surgical procedures involving the mandible. Additional mental foramina, called accessory mental foramina (AMF) transmitting branches of mental nerve, have been reported. Detection of AMFs in presurgical imaging may reduce postoperative pain in dental surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the incidence and morphometric analysis of accessory MF in the dry human mandibles of South Indian population. Two hundred and sixty dry human mandibles were studied for the presence, location, shape of AMF, and its relation to MF. The horizontal diameter of AMF, and its distance from symphysis menti, the posterior border of mandible and from the base of mandible were measured and statistically analyzed. In our study, AMF were present in 8.85% mandibles (unilateral - 7.6% [4.6% - left, 2.69% - right] and bilateral 1.6%). The most common position was below the second premolar (48.1%). AMF were round in shape (74%) and was often located either superomedial or inferolateral to MF. Their transverse diameter ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm. The AMF were situated at a mean distance of 2.96 mm from MF, 23.47 mm from symphysis menti, 11.24 mm from the lower border of the body of the mandible, and 57.35 mm from the posterior border of ramus of mandible. The knowledge of the presence of AMF and its dimensions would enable the clinicians to do mandibular procedures carefully and avoid injury to the branches of mental nerve that may be passing through it.

  15. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk in a south Indian population

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    S Martha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, obesity is the most prevalent metabolic disease and leads to an important cardiovascular and global mortality rate, either directly or indirectly through cardiovascular risk factors. Aim: We sought to study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MS, and cardiovascular risk (CVR in a south Indian population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional, single-center observational study in a cohort of 96 healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Age, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, total lipid profiles, fating plasma glucose (FPG, post lunch plasma glucose (PLPG, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine and insulin were measured by standard methods. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used to determine differences between mean and frequency values of continuous and categorical variables. Results: Significant differences were observed in the means of BMI (28.89 kg/m 2 (P<0.0001, FPG (102.41 mg/dL (P<0.0001, insulin (18.1 μU/L (P<0.0001, PLPG (149.05 mg/dL (P<0.0001, diastolic BP (84.41 mmHg (P<0.01, total cholesterol (166.72 mg/dL (P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein (90.65 mg/dL (P<0.0001 in overweight subjects when compared to normal subjects . The prevalence of dyslipidemia, IGT, MS and CVR was significantly higher in younger (<45years than middle-aged (46-55years subjects. Conclusions: The condition of being overweight, expressed as BMI, appears to be a good indicator of risk for IGT, MS, and CVR, particularly in young non-obese subjects (BMI<30.

  17. Pharmacogenetic markers to predict the clinical response to methotrexate in south Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indhumathi, S; Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Thappa, D M; Negi, V S

    2017-08-01

    Despite the advent of several new systemic therapies, methotrexate remains the gold standard for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. However, there exists a significant heterogeneity in individual response to methotrexate. There are no consistently reliable markers to predict methotrexate treatment response till date. We aimed to demonstrate the association of certain genetic variants in the HLA (HLA-A2, HLA-B17, and HLA-Cw6) and the non-HLA genes including T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 cytokine genes (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12B, and IL-23R), and T-regulatory gene (FOXP3) with the methotrexate treatment response in South Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis. Of the 360 patients recruited, 189 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were treated with methotrexate. Of the 189 patients, 132 patients responded to methotrexate and the remaining 57 patients were non-responders. We analyzed the association of aforesaid polymorphisms with the methotrexate treatment outcome using binary logistic regression. We observed that there were significant differences between genotype frequencies of HLA-Cw6 and FOXP3 (rs3761548) among the responders compared to non-responders, with conservative estimation. We observed that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-23 were markedly reduced with the use of methotrexate, in comparison to the baseline levels, while the plasma IL-4 levels were increased posttreatment. Our results serve as preliminary evidence for the clinical use of genetic markers as predictors of response to methotrexate in psoriasis. This might aid in the future in the development of a point-of-care testing (POCT) gene chip, to predict optimal treatment response in patients with psoriasis, based on their individual genotypic profile.

  18. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

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    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  19. Needs and Concerns of Family Caregivers of American Indians, African Americans, and Caucasians With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lisa J; Bakas, Tamilyn; Poe, G Doug; Hull, Margie A; Ongwela, Loice A; Miller, Wendy R

    2016-04-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness affecting the entire family, scant literature exists in this area. This study's purpose was to identify needs of family caregivers of persons with type 2 diabetes across cultures. Using a semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions, a convenience sample of 33 family caregivers of American Indians (n = 14), African Americans (n = 11), and Caucasians (n = 8) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative content analysis was conducted based on five pre-determined categories derived from an existing conceptual model. Results were similar across groups and provided support for the conceptual model with themes emerging within the five pre-determined categories: (a) information about type 2 diabetes, (b) managing emotions and behaviors, (c) physical care, (d) instrumental care, and (e) personal responses to caregiving. No additional themes emerged. Although small and exploratory, findings provide information that may be useful to the future development of culturally based interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Comparative studies on Indian traditional nanomedicine Yashadha Bhasma and zinc oxide nanoparticles for anti-diabetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgalakshmi, D.; Ajay Rakkesh, R.; Bhargavi Ram, T.; Balakumar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder due to carbohydrate metabolism. Also, zinc and its supplements have been used in Indian traditional medicines for treating urinary tract infections. In this work, an attempt has been made to compare the properties of ‘Yashadha Bhasma’ a traditional ayurvedic ZnO supplement for diabetic treatment with the laboratory-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. The nano-sized ZnO particles are synthesized using co-precipitation method and calcined at 400 °C for further purification. Confirmation of ZnO and presence of Ca and K elements additional to Zn in Yashadha Bhasma is confirmed from XPS. The morphology of ZnO is found to be spherical with average diameter of 15 nm. TEM results show that ZnO rods of Yashadha Bhasma are porous and non-uniform. Glucose degradation studies revealed good performance with ZnO nanoparticles with 80% degradation occurring within 15 min itself. Antibacterial studies also performed well establishing efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains, thereby establishing suitable material for treating diabetes mellitus and also curing bacterial wound infections arising due to diabetes mellitus.

  1. Immigration and dietary patterns in South Asian Canadians at risk for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Kirandeep; Sandhu, Supna; Tang, Tricia

    To examine the relationship between immigration and dietary patterns among South Asian adults at risk for diabetes and living in Canada. We recruited 428 South Asian adults affiliated with Sikh and Hindu temples in Metro Vancouver. Of the total sample, 422 completed self-report surveys including demographic background information, and two brief food screeners (fruit/vegetable/fiber intake and fat intake). Food screeners were culturally tailored to include traditional foods consumed in the South Asian community. Multiple linear regressions examined the relationship between diet and immigration. All models were adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Participants reported low levels of meat, fruit and vegetable consumption. Intake of whole milk products, traditional South Asian desserts and snacks were relatively high in comparison to other fat-containing food items. Specific trends in diet were seen in relation to time following immigration with the longer duration of years living in Canada the greater consumption of fruit/vegetable/fiber, non-starchy vegetables, total fat and meat reported; and lower intake of whole milk. Acculturation appears to influence some dietary patterns in our sample of South Asian Canadian adults. These findings should be considered when designing culturally tailored lifestyle modification interventions for this community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism studies in Asian Indian pregnant women biochemically identifies gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran A; Jahan, Parveen; Hasan, Qurratulain; Rao, Pragna

    2014-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu repetitive sequence in intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been widely investigated in Asian Indian populations with different ethnic origins. The present study examined possible association between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. A total of 200 pregnant women (100 GDM and 100 non-GDM) were recruited in this study and I/D polymorphism of a 287 bp Alu1 element inside intron 16 of the ACE gene was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gel electrophoresis. The distribution of the variants like II, ID, and DD genotypes of ACE gene showed differences between normal GDM versus non-GDM subjects, and the frequency of the ID+ DD Vs II genotype was significant (p=0.0002) in the GDM group. ACE gene polymorphism was associated with GDM in Asian Indian pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Changing food habits in a South Indian Hindu Brahmin community: a case of transitioning gender roles and family dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Meena; Blair, Dorothy; Raines, Emily Rose

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the perceptions of 20 South Indian Hindu Brahmin women on the factors influencing their food habits upon immigrating to America. The competing demands of juggling a new career and managing their family's nutritional needs at the same time, all without the support of extended family members, played an important role in steering these women away from cooking traditional healthy meals, and resorting to fast foods instead. Intervention strategies should be directed toward improving the barriers to eating healthy that were specifically identified within the confines of shifting gender roles and limited family support networks.

  5. The ART Advantage: Health Care Utilization for Diabetes and Hypertension in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Montana, Livia; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Rohr, Julia; Harling, Guy; Wagner, Ryan G; Wade, Alisha; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Berkman, Lisa F; Bärnighausen, Till W; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2017-08-15

    The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension has increased in HIV-positive populations, but there is limited understanding of the role that antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs play in the delivery of services for these conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between ART use and utilization of health care services for diabetes and hypertension. Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa is a cohort of 5059 adults. The baseline study collects biomarker-based data on HIV, ART, diabetes, and hypertension and self-reported data on health care utilization. We calculated differences in care utilization for diabetes and hypertension by HIV and ART status and used multivariable logistic regressions to estimate the relationship between ART use and utilization of services for these conditions, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, education, and household wealth quintile. Mean age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes prevalence were lower in the HIV-positive population (all P ART use was significantly associated with greater odds of blood pressure measurement [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04 to 1.55] and blood sugar measurement (aOR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.51), counseling regarding exercise (aOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.22), awareness of hypertension diagnosis (aOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.05), and treatment for hypertension (aOR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.19). HIV-positive patients who use ART are more likely to have received health care services for diabetes and hypertension. This apparent ART advantage suggests that ART programs may be a vehicle for strengthening health systems for chronic care.

  6. Point-of-care testing improves diabetes management in a primary care clinic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara A; Shephard, Mark D S; Brink, Julie; Lawson, Stefan; Rheeder, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem in South Africa. DiabCare Africa found just 47% of diabetes patients had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test for their management in the previous year. Patients attending an urban diabetes clinic near Johannesburg, run by Project HOPE, accessed HbA1c (and urine albumin:creatinine ratio) point-of-care testing (POCT) as part of a quality-assured international program called ACE (Analytical and Clinical Excellence). Patients who had two or more HbA1c POC tests from 2012 to 2014 were assessed to determine their change in glycaemic control. The mean (±SD) HbA1c in this group of diabetes patients (n=131) fell significantly from 9.7%±2.4 (83mmol/mol) at their first POCT measurement to 8.4%±2.4 (68mmol/mmol/mol) at their most recent POCT measurement (paired t-test ptest was 15 months. The number of diabetes patients achieving optimal glycaemic control (HbA1c≤6.5-7.5% [48-58mmol/mol) increased by 125%, while the number with very poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>10% [86mmol/mol]) halved. An association was observed between degree of glycaemic control and increasing albuminuria in this cohort. POCT has promoted change in clinical practice by facilitating greater accessibility to HbA1c testing. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. All rights reserved.

  7. Constraints faced by urban poor in managing diabetes care: patients’ perspectives from South India

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    Upendra Bhojani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Four out of five adults with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. India has the second highest number of diabetes patients in the world. Despite a huge burden, diabetes care remains suboptimal. While patients (and families play an important role in managing chronic conditions, there is a dearth of studies in LMIC and virtually none in India capturing perspectives and experiences of patients in regard to diabetes care. Objective: The objective of this study was to better understand constraints faced by patients from urban slums in managing care for type 2 diabetes in India. Design: We conducted in-depth interviews, using a phenomenological approach, with 16 type 2- diabetes patients from a poor urban neighbourhood in South India. These patients were selected with the help of four community health workers (CHWs and were interviewed by two trained researchers exploring patients’ experiences of living with and seeking care for diabetes. The sampling followed the principle of saturation. Data were initially coded using the NVivo software. Emerging themes were periodically discussed among the researchers and were refined over time through an iterative process using a mind-mapping tool. Results: Despite an abundance of healthcare facilities in the vicinity, diabetes patients faced several constraints in accessing healthcare such as financial hardship, negative attitudes and inadequate communication by healthcare providers and a fragmented healthcare service system offering inadequate care. Strongly defined gender-based family roles disadvantaged women by restricting their mobility and autonomy to access healthcare. The prevailing nuclear family structure and inter-generational conflicts limited support and care for elderly adults. Conclusions: There is a need to strengthen primary care services with a special focus on improving the availability and integration of health services for diabetes at the community level

  8. Long-term efficacy of liraglutide in Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting

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    Parjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on body weight and glycemic control has not been studied in Indian Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. Aim: To evaluate the effect of liraglutide on glycemic control and body weight for 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Methods: Liraglutide was prescribed to 96 obese patients with T2DM and followed up for 1 year. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Dosage of liraglutide and other medications was adjusted according to clinical judgment. Results: 1 year data were available for 74 patients. Mean age was 50.9 ± 9.6 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 11.6 ± 6.3 years. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c significantly decreased from 8.9 ± 1.3% at baseline to 7.4 ± 1.2% at 1 year. Body weight significantly declined from 98.9 ± 16.0 kg at baseline to 93.8 ± 15.0 kg at 1 year. After an initial decline, subset of patients had an increase in mean HbA1c (n = 30/74 and mean body weight (n = 33/74 after 6 months of liraglutide initiation. Baseline HbA1c and baseline body weight were positively associated with a reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year, respectively. No major side effects occurred. Conclusion: Liraglutide treatment resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in HbA1c and body weight over 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Magnitude of reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year was positively associated with baseline HbA1c and baseline weight, respectively.

  9. [Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in South America: The experience of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando; Casas-Figueroa, Luz Ángela

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, 8.3% of the world population suffers from diabetes mellitus, and it is expected that the number of individuals with the disease will increase to over 592 million. In South and Central America, it is estimated that the increase in the number of cases diagnosed in the period from 2013 to 2035 will be 59.8% (from 24 to 38.5 millions). According to the World Health Organisation, the prevalence of fasting hyperglycaemia in the region of the Americas in 2014 was 9.3% in men and 8.1% in women. The countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adults ≥18years were: Guyana, Surinam, Chile, and Argentina. In Colombia, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is variable, depending on the population range assessed and the diagnostic criteria used. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Factors affecting the quality of life of elderly diabetic patients: survey in north and south Wanjiang river regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuelong; Ding, Lingling; Wang, Quanhai; He, Lianping; Nie, Miao; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Guo, Daoxia; Chen, Yan; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the quality of life of elderly diabetic patients and its influencing factors. By randomized cluster sampling, we conducted a survey in 1450 elderly residents (over 60 years old) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in south and north Anhui province. We evaluated the quality of life of the elderly diabetic patients using a demographic information questionnaire and full items on Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). The elderly diabetic patients had lower scores in all dimensions of quality of life than the elderly without diabetes. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a linear regression in the quality of life among the elderly diabetic patients in terms of geographic regions, education, personality, sleep quality, and age. Elderly diabetic patients have generally poor quality of life, which was subjected to the influences by geographic regions, education, personality, sleep quality, and age, suggesting the necessity of corresponding interventions to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  11. Periodontal disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus: associations with glycemic control and complications: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajita, Meenawat; Karan, Punn; Vivek, Govila; S, Meenawat Anand; Anuj, Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of periodontal disease in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and its relationship with diabetic metabolic control, duration and complications. A comparison was made of periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding index, pocket depth and attachment loss) in a group of diabetic patients versus a group of non-diabetics (n=20). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal parameters and degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease and the appearance of complications. Diabetics had greater bleeding index (pdiabetes for shorter duration of time (4-7 years) showed bleeding index-disease severity correlation to be 1.760 ± 0.434. Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased periodontal disease susceptibility. Periodontal inflammation is greatly increased in subjects with longer disease course, poor metabolic control and diabetic complications. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... more! Announcing Online Lesson Plan Outlines for Educators New or seasoned educators can use these topic-specific ... diabetes. Check back often for the addition of new diabetes-related topics. New SDPI Fact Sheet Infographic! [ ...

  13. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes LISTSERV to receive updates on training opportunities, research, and resources related to diabetes ... Mail Stops Office of Clinical and Preventive Services - 08N34 A&B Office of ...

  14. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... Order yours today! Find Tools for Diabetes Educators! See what the IHS Division of Diabetes has to ... New SDPI Fact Sheet Infographic! [PDF – 776 KB] See how SDPI has helped changed the course of ...

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  17. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... the course of diabetes over the past 20 years by reducing diabetes and its costly complications. Share ... Upcoming Live CME/CE Education April 19 th @ 2 pm EDT Reducing Stress to Help Baby Nurse: ...

  18. Familiality of physical and metabolic characteristics that predict the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakul, H.; Cardon, L. [Sequana Therapeutics, Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States); Pratley, R. [National Inst. of Health, Phoenix, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is largely genetically determined. In Pima Indians, obesity, insulin resistance, and a low acute insulin response (AIR) to an intravenous glucose infusion are each predictors of the disease. To ascertain whether these phenotypes are genetically determined, we estimated their familiarity in nondiabetic Pima Indians with a maximum-likelihood method. Percentage body fat (PFAT) was highly familial (h{sup 2} = .76), whereas waist/thigh circumference ratio (W/T ratio) was not significantly familial after controlling for PFAT (h{sup 2} = .16). AIR was also highly familial (h{sup 2} = .80 at 10 min), even after controlling for PFAT and insulin action (h{sup 2} = .70). Insulin action at physiologic plasma insulin concentrations was familial (h{sup 2} = .61) but less so after controlling for PFAT and W/T ratio (h{sup 2} = .38). At maximally stimulating insulin concentrations, insulin action was familial (h{sup 2} = .45) and was less influenced by controlling for PFAT and W/T ratio (h{sup 2} = .49). We conclude that in Pima Indians (1) PFAT and AIR are highly familial traits, (2) central distribution of fat is not a familial trait when controlled for PFAT, (3) 38%-49% of the variance in insulin action, independent of the effect of obesity, is familial, and (4) PFAT, AIR, and insulin action are useful traits to study genetic susceptibility to NIDDM. Because genetic parameter estimates are applicable only to the populations from which they were estimated, it is important to determine whether these estimates of familiarities in Pima Indians can be confirmed in other populations before the utility of these traits in searching for NIDDM susceptibility genes in those populations can be fully advocated. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

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  20. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambiritch V

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virendra Rambiritch,1 Poobalan Naidoo,2 Breminand Maharaj,1 Goonaseelan Pillai3 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2Department of Internal Medicine, RK Khan Regional Hospital, Chatsworth, South Africa; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects using noncompartmental and model-based methods. Methods: A total of 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes were administered increasing doses (0 mg/d, 2.5 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 10 mg/d, and 20 mg/d of glibenclamide daily at 2-week intervals. Plasma glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin determinations were performed. Blood sampling times were 0 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes (post breakfast sampling and 240 minutes, 270 minutes, 300 minutes, 330 minutes, 360 minutes, and 420 minutes (post lunch sampling on days 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 for doses of 0 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg, respectively. Blood sampling was performed after the steady state was reached.  A total of 24 individuals in the data set contributed to a total of 841 observation records. The PK was analyzed using noncompartmental analysis methods, which were implemented in WinNonLin®, and population PK analysis using NONMEM®. Glibenclamide concentration data were log transformed prior to fitting. Results: A two-compartmental disposition model was selected after evaluating one-, two-, and three-compartmental models to describe the time course of glibenclamide plasma concentration data. The one-compartment model adequately described the data; however, the two-compartment model provided a better fit. The three-compartment model failed to achieve successful convergence. A more complex model, to account for enterohepatic recirculation that was observed in the data, was unsuccessful. Conclusion: In South African diabetic subjects, glibenclamide demonstrates linear PK and was best

  1. Vulnerability of teleosts caught by the pelagic tuna longline fleets in South Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Frédou, Flávia; Kell, Laurie; Frédou, Thierry; Gaertner, Daniel; Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Travassos, Paulo; Hazin, Fábio; Ménard, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Productivity and Susceptibility Analysis (PSA) is a methodology for evaluating the vulnerability of a stock based on its biological productivity and susceptibility to fishing. In this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of 60 stocks of tuna, billfishes and other teleosts caught by the tuna longline fleets operating in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean using a semi-quantitative PSA. We (a) evaluated the vulnerability of the species in the study areas; (b) compared the vulnerability of target and non-target species and oceans; (c) analyzed the sensitivity of data entry; and (d) compared the results of the PSA to other fully quantitative assessment methods. Istiophoridae exhibited the highest scores for vulnerability. The top 10 species at risk were: Atlantic Istiophorus albicans; Indian Ocean Istiompax indica; Atlantic Makaira nigricans and Thunnus alalunga; Indian Ocean Xiphias gladius; Atlantic T. albacares, Gempylus serpens, Ranzania laevis and X. gladius; and Indian Ocean T. alalunga. All species considered at high risk were targeted or were commercialized bycatch, except for the Atlantic G. serpens and R. laevis which were discarded, and may be considered as a false positive. Those species and others at high risk should be prioritized for further assessment and/or data collection. Most species at moderate risk were bycatch species kept for sale. Conversely, species classified at low risk were mostly discarded. Overall, species at high risk were overfished and/or subjected to overfishing. Moreover, all species considered to be within extinction risk (Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) were in the high-risk category. The good concordance between approaches corroborates the results of our analysis. PSA is not a replacement for traditional stock assessments, where a stock is assessed at regular intervals to provide management advice. It is of importance, however, where there is uncertainty about catches and life history parameters, since it can

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene haplotypes and diabetic nephropathy among Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Ahuja, Monica; Rai, Taranjit Singh

    2008-01-01

    of the constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) polymorphisms with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. We genotyped three polymorphisms of eNOS (Two SNPs: -786T > C, 894G > T and one 27-bp repeat polymorphism in Intron 4 (27VNTR)) in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients (cases: n = 195) and type 2 diabetic...... without nephropathy (controls: n = 255), using validated PCR-RFLP assays. We measured serum NO levels in these subjects and examined its correlation with diabetic nephropathy and eNOS genotypes. The frequency of CC (-786T > C), TT (894G > T) and aa genotypes (27VNTR) were significantly higher in diabetic...

  3. Prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital Outpatient Department in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, Joleen P; Steinberg, Wilhelm J; Labuschagne, Mathys J

    2017-09-27

    Diabetic retinopathy is the third most common cause of blindness after cataracts and glaucoma in South Africa. Primary healthcare interventions providing eye care services play an important role in preventing complications. To determine the prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital by screening for diabetes-associated ocular pathology. Outpatients Department run by Department of Family Medicine at National District Hospital in Bloemfontein from June to July 2014. Interviews were used to collect information regarding diabetic patients' history of diabetes mellitus and if and when previous diabetic retinopathy screening was performed. Visual acuity was assessed, intra-ocular pressure measured and a non-mydriatic digital fundus camera used to screen for retinal pathology. During the last year, only 4.5% of patients had their vision checked with a Snellen chart, and 16.5% were examined with an ophthalmoscope. Since diagnosis of diabetes, only 15.5% of patients were referred to an ophthalmologist. Patient referral was needed for 87 (42.9%) cases for refractive disorders, 37 (18.2%) for suspected glaucoma, 30 (14.8%) for cataracts, and 22 (10.8%) for diabetic retinopathy. This study confirms that glaucoma, cataracts and diabetic retinopathy are prevalent eye conditions among diabetic patients. Offering eye screening at primary healthcare level may contribute to early detection of eye pathology and timeous referral for sight-saving treatment.

  4. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262 were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04, and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02 was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  5. Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms in Predicting Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in South Indian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Koshy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene polymorphisms have been implicated as predisposing genetic factors that can predict aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH, but with controversial results from different populations. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether variants in eNOS gene can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We enrolled 122 patients, along with 224 ethnically matched controls. We screened the intron-4 27-bp VNTR, the promoter T-786C and the exon-7 G894T SNPs in the eNOS gene. We found marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of eNOS variants when comparing the South Indian population with the reported frequencies from Caucasian and Japanese populations. Genotype distributions in control and patient populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In patients, the allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies did not differ significantly from the controls. Multiple logistic regression indicated hypertension and smoking as risk factors for the disease, however the risk alleles did not have any interaction with these risk factors. Although the eNOS polymorphisms were not found to be a likely risk factor for aSAH, the role of factors such as ethnicity, gender, smoking and hypertension should be evaluated cautiously to understand the genotype to phenotype conversion.

  6. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... navigation About IHS Agency Overview Annual Budget Eligibility Event Calendar Indian Health Manual Key Leaders Legislation Organizational ... www.ihs.gov . Sunday, April 15, 2018 Upcoming Events Upcoming Live CME/CE Education April 19 th @ ...

  14. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. METHODS: We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULT: There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes

  15. Screening in Primary Care for Diabetic Retinopathy, Maculopathy and Visual Loss in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elizabeth M; Rheeder, Paul; Roux, Polla

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and visual loss in primary care patients and to identify associated risk factors. We conducted a cluster randomised trial at primary care clinics in the Tshwane district in South Africa. Grades of retinopathy and maculopathy (with fundus camera) and visual acuity (Snellen chart) were assessed and, using mobile screening and teleophthalmology, clinical and biochemical testing was conducted to obtain information about glycaemic control and microvascular complications. The prevalence rates for any retinopathy, preproliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy were 24.9, 19.5 and 5.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates of diabetic maculopathy, observable maculopathy and referable maculopathy were 20.8, 11.8 and 9.0%, respectively. The presence of retinopathy was associated with high body mass index, systolic blood pressure, being on insulin treatment, high HbA1c and the presence of neuropathy. High systolic blood pressure, being on insulin treatment, high HbA1c level and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as well as the presence of albuminuria were significant in predicting any diabetic maculopathy. Laser photocoagulation was given to 8.3% of patients from the mobile unit and 12% of patients were referred to the nearest hospital with an outpatient eye clinic for follow-up treatment of various other eye conditions. Using the WHO categories, the study found that 78.1% of diabetes patients had normal vision, 19.3% were visually impaired and 2.2% were severely impaired or blind. High prevalence rates for diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy and visual loss were found and associations were identified. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Devedasan, Narayanan; Mishra, Arima; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes and other chronic conditions.

  17. Impact of service quality management (SQM) practices on Indian railways : study of South Central Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a framework developed for assisting Railways to monitor and : control the quality of services provided to passengers. The study evaluated the passenger Rail Service quality of : Indian Railways by develo...

  18. Modernization of the Indian Air Force: Security Implications for South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the Indian Air Force's (IAF) robust modernization campaign and explores why the IAF is on the path to transforming itself from an air force dedicated to air defense to one capable of global force projection...

  19. North-south diversity of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balachandran, T.

    identified from the zooplankton samples collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Ten distinct patterns were noticed in the latitudinal distribution of 25 species based on their occurrence and abundance. Two species had only solitary...

  20. An ecological analysis of food outlet density and prevalence of type II diabetes in South Carolina counties

    OpenAIRE

    AlHasan, Dana M.; Eberth, Jan Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South ...

  1. A STUDY ON FEMORAL ANTEVERSION IN ADULT DRY FEMORA OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Korukonda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA is an important parameter for diagnosis of gait abnormality in children, risk of various congenital and acquired orthopaedic disorders as well as corrective osteotomy and hip arthroplasty. Femoral anteversion is the lateral rotation of the neck of the femur to the long axis of its shaft. Variability in FNA has been reported and is due to torsional forces applied on femur during development. The aim of this study was to estimate the angle of anteversion of femur in both genders on both sides. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of FNA in South Indian population, in particular, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 70 dried adult unpaired human femora, i.e. 48 male and 22 female bones. The Kingsley Olmsted 1 method was used for the study and the data was analysed. Statistical analysis - Statistical analysis was done using student unpaired ‘t’ test. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (Free Trial Version. RESULTS Out of the 70 femora undertaken, mean value of FNA obtained in male is 15.95, 14.1 on right and 17.8 on left sides and in female it is 19.2, 21.8 on right and 16.6 on left side. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05 greater average anteversion in female bones and right-left variations being greater on the left side. CONCLUSION In the present study, the mean FNA was 17.8 deg. There was a gender variation for the FNA values in the population studied with females showing higher value than the male with a statistically significant difference. The reason for the difference obtained could be the small sample size of female femora due to the rarity of the donated female bodies. The value was higher on the left side than the right; 50% of the femora had the range of 16 - 25 deg of FNA. The overall mean of femoral anteversion determined is very much different from the studies in various regions in India.

  2. Clinical profile and treatment outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome in South Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep B Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the clinical features and outcome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES, a catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy, in a cohort of South Indian children. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of a cohort of children with previously normal development who presented with status epilepticus or encephalopathy with recurrent seizures following a nonspecific febrile illness during the period between January 2007 and January 2012. They were divided into two groups super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE and refractory status epilepticus (RSE depending on the duration and severity of the seizures. Key Findings: Fifteen children who met the inclusion criteria were included for the final analysis. The age of the children at presentation ranged 3-15 years (median 6.3 years. All the children presented with prolonged or recurrent seizures occurring 1-12 days (median 4 days after the onset of fever. Eight children had SRSE while seven children had refractory seizures with encephalopathy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis was done in all the children in the acute phase, and the cell count ranged 0-12 cells/μL (median 2 cells/μL with normal sugar and protein levels. Initial neuroimaging done in all children (MRI in 10 and CT in 5, and it was normal in 13 children. Treatment modalities included multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs (4-9 drugs (median 5 drugs. Midazolam (MDZ infusion was administered in seven patients. Eight patients required barbiturate coma to suppress the seizure activity. The duration of the barbiturate coma ranged 2-90 days (median 3 days. Steroids were used in 14 children and intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg in 7 children. Three children died in the acute phase. All children were maintained on multiple AEDs till the last follow-up, the number of AEDs ranged 1-6 (median 5 AEDs. The patients with super refractory status in the acute phase were found to be more severely disabled

  3. Pelagic ecology of the South West Indian Ocean Ridge seamounts: Introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    The Indian Ocean was described by Behrman (1981) as the "Forlorn Ocean", a region neglected by science up to the late-1950s. For example, the Challenger Expedition from 1872 to 1876 largely avoided the Indian Ocean, sailing from Cape Town into Antarctic waters sampling around the Prince Edward Islands, Kerguelen Island and Crozet Islands before heading to Melbourne. From 1876 to the 1950s there were expeditions on several vessels including the Valdivia, Gauss and Planet (Germany), the Snellius (Netherlands), Discovery II, MahaBiss (United Kingdom), Albatross (Sweden), Dana and Galathea (Denmark; Behrman, 1981). There was no coordination between these efforts and overall the Indian Ocean, especially the deep sea remained perhaps the most poorly explored of the world's oceans. This situation was largely behind the multilateral effort represented by the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIEO), which was coordinated by the Scientific Committee for Ocean Research (SCOR), and which ran from 1959-1965. Work during this expedition focused on the Arabian Sea, the area to the northwest of Australia and the waters over the continental shelves and slopes of coastal states in the region. Subsequently several large-scale international oceanographic programmes have included significant components in the Indian Ocean, including the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). These studies were focused on physical oceanographic measurements and biogeochemistry and whilst the Indian Ocean is still less understood than other large oceans it is now integrated into the major ocean observation systems (Talley et al., 2011). This cannot be said for many aspects of the biology of the region, despite the fact that the Indian Ocean is one of the places where exploitation of marine living resources is still growing (FAO, 2016). The biology of the deep Indian Ocean outside of the Arabian Sea is particularly poorly understood given the presence

  4. Obesity in Indian subjects with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Mina; Anand, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Obesity is considered a public health challenge in South Asia. Obesity is an independent risk factor in vascular dementia. It also contributes to other risk factors of vascular dementia like hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. As the rate of obesity in Indian subjects with vascular dementia is not known, we decided to assess obesity in subjects with vascular dementia. Methods: Subjects with vascular dementia presenting to Mem...

  5. Outcomes in a diabetic population of south Asians and whites following hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Doreen M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether South Asian patients with diabetes have a worse prognosis following hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI compared with their White counterparts. We measured the risk of developing a composite cardiovascular outcome of recurrent AMI, congestive heart failure (CHF requiring hospitalization, or death, in these two groups. Methods Using hospital administrative data, we performed a retrospective cohort study of 41,615 patients with an incident AMI in British Columbia and the Calgary Health Region between April 1, 1995, and March 31, 2002. South Asian ethnicity was determined using validated surname analysis. Baseline demographic characteristics and co-morbidities were included in Cox proportional hazard models to compare time to reaching the composite outcome and its individual components. Results Among the AMI cohort, 29.7% of South Asian patients and 17.6% of White patients were identified as having diabetes (n = 7416. There was no significant difference in risk of developing the composite cardiovascular outcome (Hazard Ratio = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.80-1.01. However, South Asian patients had significantly lower mortality at long term follow-up (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.51-0.74 compared to their White counterparts. Conclusions Following hospitalization for AMI, South Asian patients with diabetes do not have a significantly different long term risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome compared to White patients with diabetes. While previous research has suggested worse cardiovascular outcomes in the South Asian population, we found lower long-term mortality among South Asians with diabetes following AMI.

  6. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard C; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S; Best, Peter B; Findlay, Ken P; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H; Bonatto, Sandro L; Kotze, Deon P G H; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy

    2009-10-08

    Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region.

  7. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C Rosenbaum

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively. Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region.

  8. Glibenclamide population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling in South African type 2 diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambiritch V

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Virendra Rambiritch,1 Poobalan Naidoo,2 Goonaseelan Pillai3 1Pharmacology Department, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2Department of Internal Medicine, RK Khan Regional Hospital, Chatsworth, South Africa; 3Scientific Capability Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Aim: To determine the effective dose of glibenclamide by quantifying the dose–response relationship in South African type 2 diabetic patients.Patients and methods: A total of 24 type 2 diabetic patients participated in a glibenclamide dose-escalation study during which glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin concentrations were quantified, while the dose of glibenclamide was progressively increased. All except four subjects contributed data on all dose-escalation steps; however, data from all 24 patients were included in the model-based analysis. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD relationships were modeled using the software Nonmem®. Six models were utilized to explore the effect of alternative glibenclamide dose and plasma concentration inputs on various metrics of glucose response.Results: Six models adequately described the experimental data. The effective dose for a glucose-lowering effect suggested by PKPD modeling is less than 5 mg/day. Doses beyond 5 mg/day do not meaningfully add to glibenclamide effects on blood-glucose response.Conclusion: The effective dose of glibenclamide, suggested by PKPD modeling, is less than 5 mg/day. Higher doses of glibenclamide, eg, 15 mg/day as originally recommended by the manufacturer, do not produce further decrease in the blood glucose level but may predispose the patients to adverse effects. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, glibenclamide, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, dose–response relationships, Nonmem

  9. Assessment of two versions of regional climate model in simulating the Indian Summer Monsoon over South Asia CORDEX domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Panda, S. K.; Saraswat, Vaishali; Dash, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    This study assess the performance of two versions of Regional Climate Model (RegCM) in simulating the Indian summer monsoon over South Asia for the period 1998 to 2003 with an aim of conducting future climate change simulations. Two sets of experiments were carried out with two different versions of RegCM (viz. RegCM4.2 and RegCM4.3) with the lateral boundary forcings provided from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA-interim) at 50 km horizontal resolution. The major updates in RegCM4.3 in comparison to the older version RegCM4.2 are the inclusion of measured solar irradiance in place of hardcoded solar constant and additional layers in the stratosphere. The analysis shows that the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, moisture flux and surface net downward shortwave flux are better represented in RegCM4.3 than that in the RegCM4.2 simulations. Excessive moisture flux in the RegCM4.2 simulation over the northern Arabian Sea and Peninsular India resulted in an overestimation of rainfall over the Western Ghats, Peninsular region as a result of which the all India rainfall has been overestimated. RegCM4.3 has performed well over India as a whole as well as its four rainfall homogenous zones in reproducing the mean monsoon rainfall and inter-annual variation of rainfall. Further, the monsoon onset, low-level Somali Jet and the upper level tropical easterly jet are better represented in the RegCM4.3 than RegCM4.2. Thus, RegCM4.3 has performed better in simulating the mean summer monsoon circulation over the South Asia. Hence, RegCM4.3 may be used to study the future climate change over the South Asia.

  10. Effect of severe obesity in childhood and adolescence on risk of type 2 diabetes in youth and early adulthood in an American Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Reddy, Sanil P; Chambers, Melissa A; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-28

    The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to Obesity was defined as age-sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile, and its severity was quantified as the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ). In the younger cohort, 0.9% of those non-obese and 2.9% of those with 100% to obese and 9.8% of those with 100% to youth-onset diabetes was 3.8 and 4.9/1000 person-years in the child and adolescent cohorts, respectively, and before the age of 45 was 12.3 and 16.8/1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence rates of youth-onset diabetes in those with the most severe obesity (≥140%BMI p95 ) were 2.3 to 5.1 times as high as in those with the least severe obesity (100 to obesity in an American Indian population is a major driver of type 2 diabetes developing in adolescents and young adults. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of Estimation of Glycated Albumin and Glycosylated Haemoglobin in Indian Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan Ramanathan

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: GA estimation is a useful marker in assessment of short term glycemic control in stage III & IV (< 30 ml/min/1.73m2 diabetic CKD patients. GA: HbA1c ratio if routinely done may also become a useful marker in Diabetic CKD population in future.

  13. Prevalence of ultrasonography proved polycystic ovaries in North Indian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laway Bashir A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovaries (PCO and their clinical expression (the polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are common medical conditions linked through insulin resistance. We studied the prevalence of PCO and PCOS in women with diet and/or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM and non-diabetic control women. Design Prospective study. Methods One hundred and five reproductive age group women with diet and /or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM were the subjects of the study. Sixty age-matched non-diabetic women served as controls. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of the ovaries was used to diagnose PCO. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were also noted. Results Ultrasonographic prevalence of PCO was higher in women with diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects (61.0% vs. 36.7%, P 0.1. Diabetic women with PCO had diabetes of significantly longer duration than those without PCO (4.19±2.0 versus 2.9±1.6 yrs; p Conclusion This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of PCO in women with T2DM as compared to non-diabetic subjects.

  14. Determinants of Intravascular Resistance in Indian Diabetic Nephropathy Patients: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. Metabolic dysregulation has failed to explain clinical variability of patients with diabetic nephropathy and hence a renewed interest emerged in haemodynamic factors as determinant of progression and development of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore studied for various factors which can correlate with raised renal vascular resistance in diabetic nephropathy. Material and Methods. Renal vascular resistance was measured in patients with established and incipient diabetic nephropathy and compared with controls using noninvasive color Doppler examinations of intrarenal vasculature. Results. Renal vascular resistance correlated with age, duration of disease, GFR, serum creatinine, and stage of retinopathy. Renal vascular resistance was significantly reduced in patients on treatment with RAAS inhibitors and insulin, than those on OHA and antihypertensives other than RAAS inhibitors. Conclusion. The study implies that renal vascular resistance may help identify diabetics at high risk of developing nephropathy, and these set of patients could be candidates for RAAS inhibition and early insulin therapy even in patients without albuminuria.

  15. Ethnic differences in C-peptide levels and anti-GAD antibodies in South African patients with diabetic ketoacidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE

    To determine differences between Black and White South Africans with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and between Black patients on insulin vs. those on oral agents presenting with DKA, post stabilization fasting C-peptide levels and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies were measured

  16. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  17. Illness beliefs and the sociocultural context of diabetes self-management in British South Asians: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neesha R; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bundy, Christine; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David

    2015-05-10

    British South Asians have a higher incidence of diabetes and poorer health outcomes compared to the general UK population. Beliefs about diabetes are known to play an important role in self-management, yet little is known about the sociocultural context in shaping beliefs. This study aimed to explore the influence of sociocultural context on illness beliefs and diabetes self-management in British South Asians. A mixed methods approach was used. 67 participants recruited using random and purposive sampling, completed a questionnaire measuring illness beliefs, fatalism, health outcomes and demographics; 37 participants completed a social network survey interview and semi-structured interviews. Results were analysed using SPSS and thematic analysis. Quantitative data found certain social network characteristics (emotional and illness work) were related to perceived concern, emotional distress and health outcomes (p sociocultural context. Better understanding of the contextual determinants of behaviour could facilitate the development of culturally appropriate interventions to modify beliefs and support self-management in this population.

  18. An ecological analysis of food outlet density and prevalence of type II diabetes in South Carolina counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHasan, Dana M; Eberth, Jan Marie

    2016-01-05

    Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South Carolina. Pearson's correlation between four types of food outlet densities- fast food restaurants, convenience stores, super stores, and grocery stores- and prevalence of type II diabetes were computed. The relationship between each of these food outlet densities were mapped with prevalence of type II diabetes, and OLS regression analysis was completed adjusting for county-level rates of obesity, physical inactivity, density of recreation facilities, unemployment, households with no car and limited access to stores, education, and race. We showed a significant, negative relationship between fast food restaurant density and prevalence of type II diabetes, and a significant, positive relationship between convenience store density and prevalence of type II diabetes. In adjusted analysis, the food outlet densities (of any type) was not associated with prevalence of type II diabetes. This ecological analysis showed no associations between fast food restaurants, convenience stores, super stores, or grocery stores densities and the prevalence of type II diabetes. Consideration of environmental, social, and cultural determinants, as well as individual behaviors is needed in future research.

  19. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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  1. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... to site content U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program ... Office of Finance and Accounting - 10E54 Office of Human Resources - 11E53A Office of Information Technology - 07E57B Office ...

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    Full Text Available ... Alaska Natives Search IHS A to Z Index × A to Z Index A B C D E F G H I ... Careers Indian Preference Loan Repayment Student Opportunities Contact a Recruiter Newsroom Announcements Congressional Testimony Contact Us Director's ...

  3. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rautenbach, Christa

    1999-01-01

    The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...

  4. RELATIONSHIP OF ADIPOKINES AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG ASIAN INDIANS WITH OBESITY AND YOUTH ONSET TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Ranjani, Harish; Bibin, Subramanian Y; Balakumar, Mahalingam; Pandey, Gautam Kumar; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that inflammation is associated with diabetes, but it is unclear whether obesity mediates this association in individuals with youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y). We recruited individuals with T2DM-Y (age at onset obesity and categorized as: nonobese NGT (n = 100), Obese NGT (n = 50), nonobese T2DM-Y (n = 50), and obese T2DM-Y (n = 50). We compared adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]) across groups. Compared to nonobese NGT, the other 3 groups (obese NGT, nonobese T2DM-Y, and obese T2DM-Y) were found to have lower adiponectin (7.7 vs. 5.7, 4.2, 3.8 μg/mL, Pobese T2DM-Y (141 pg/mL, Pobese T2DM, respectively. However, adjusted for same factors, leptin, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were associated with markedly higher odds (5- to 14-fold) of nonobese and obese T2DM. In young Asian Indians, leptin and proinflammatory cytokines are positively, and adiponectin negatively, associated with both nonobese and obese T2DM-Y compared to nonobese NGT individuals.

  5. Height of South Asian children in the Netherlands aged 0-20 years: secular trends and comparisons with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Jeroen A; van Dommelen, Paula; van Buuren, Stef; Middelkoop, Barend J C

    2015-01-01

    People from Asian populations are generally shorter than other ethnic groups. It is unknown if current universal height references are suitable for affluent South Asian children in the Netherlands. To develop height-for-age charts for contemporary South Asian children aged 0-20 years living in the Netherlands, to evaluate secular trends, and to compare the charts with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references. A population-based study measured 3315 South Asian children aged 0-20 years between 2007-2010. Among this cohort, 6876 measurements were taken. Another 7388 measurements were taken of a historical cohort of 1078 children born between 1974-1976 (aged 0-18 years). An upward trend in height was observed for South Asian children living in the Netherlands between 1992-2010. The height-for-age charts of the South Asian historical cohort were similar to current Asian Indian charts. South Asian children in the Netherlands were shorter than their Dutch contemporaries at every age; and these differences increased further during adolescence. Compared to the WHO height-for-age references, there were considerable discrepancies in height, with curves intersecting twice. The discrepancies between the South Asian and Dutch and WHO height-for-age references indicate differences in growth patterns between the source populations.

  6. Gender norms in South Africa: Implications for HIV and pregnancy prevention among African and Indian women students at a South African tertiary institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Needham, Sarah L.; Smit, Jennifer Ann; Hoffman, Susie; Cebekhulu, Queen; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Beksinska, Mags; Stein, Zena A.; Milford, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    In post-Apartheid South Africa, women are constitutionally guaranteed protections and freedoms that were previously unknown to them. These freedoms may have positive implications for women’s ability to negotiate sexual protection with partners and hence prevent unintended pregnancy and decrease their risk of HIV. Among tertiary institution students who are a relatively ‘privileged’ group, there is little information on gender norms that might shape responses to HIV prevention programmes. To elicit gender norms regarding women’s and men’s roles, condom and contraceptive use, sexual communication, and sexual pleasure, we conducted 10 semi-structured focus group discussions with African and Indian female tertiary institution students so as to understand how norms might be used to buttress HIV and pregnancy prevention. Participants reported dramatic changes in the structure of gender norms and relations with the formal recognition of women’s rights in the post-Apartheid context. These generational shifts in norms are supported by other research in South Africa. At the same time, women recognized the co-existence of traditional constructions of gender that operate to constrain women’s freedom. The perceived changes that have taken place provide an entry point for intervention, particularly for reinforcing emerging gender norms that promote women’s protection against unintended pregnancy and HIV/STIs. PMID:19247859

  7. Serum insulin levels in non-obese, non-diabetic Asian Indians with acute coronary and non-coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Shukla, P; Reddy, K S; Lall, S B; Peshin, S S; Pandey, R M

    2000-01-01

    Significant insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia has been observed to be associated with coronary heart disease in epidemiological studies, particularly so in Asian Indians. This study attempted to investigate if hyperinsulinemia accompanies acute cardiovascular events in Asian Indians, and that it is not a metabolic response to acute stress alone. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital in northern India. Group I (n = 19), consisting of non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese patients presenting with first episode of acute coronary event (first episode of angina or myocardial infarction) were compared with non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese patients of group II (n = 21) presenting with non-cardiovascular emergencies (severe abdominal pain e.g. uncomplicated ureteric colic or non-specific intestinal colic. Blood was analysed for glycosylated haemoglobin, fructosamine and insulin levels within 24 hours of the acute event. Elevated serum fructosamine was observed in 11 (57.8%) subjects in group I and 9 (42.9%) in group II (p = NS). Glycosylated haemoglobin was 6.8 +/- 0.1 percent in group I versus 5.9 +/- 0.04 percent in group II (p < 0.01). Three out of 11 subjects in group I and 1/9 subjects in group II having elevated serum fructosamine level also had increased glycosylated haemoglobin level. Five (26.3%) subjects in group I and 2 (9.5%) in group II with elevated glycosylated haemoglobin level were excluded from the analysis as these patients might have been diabetic. Mean serum insulin values were significantly higher in group I (161.3 +/- 8.15 micro IU/mL and 17.5 +/- 1.9 micro IU/mL in groups I and II, respectively; p < 0.001). Eleven (57.8%) subjects in group I had insulin values above 100 uIU/ml. The present study indicates that significant hyperinsulinemia accompanies acute cardiovascular events and it is not an acute response to pain or stress hyperglycemia. Markedly high insulin levels

  8. MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in a south Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Jyotsna; Gurramkonda, Venkatesh Babu; Karthik, Nivedita; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S

    2014-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the decrease in folate in periconceptional period or maternal use of folate antagonists has been associated with a higher risk of orofacial clefts (OFCs). MTHFR is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism that catalyzes the irreversible conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, thus playing a vital role in DNA synthesis and DNA methylation. The aim of our study was to determine whether there is any association between the susceptibility to Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) amongst the variations of MTHFR genotypes in South Indian population. Our sample comprised 123 cases with NSCL/P and 141 controls without clefts or family history of clefting. The most common polymorphisms C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) on the MTHFR gene were screened for the genotypes using PCR-RFLP. Both C677T and A1298C are polymorphic with minor allele frequencies of 0.131 and 0.429, respectively, for controls. Genotype data in control and cleft groups are following the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. There were no significant differences in genotypes of both polymorphisms between controls and NSCL/P. The pairwise LD values (D' and r(2)) between C677T and A1298C are 1.0 and 0.096 respectively indicating no significant LD between these two SNPs. Haplotype phenotype analysis did not show the evidence for association. Gene-gene interaction showed the distribution of the observed combinations of the two MTHFR polymorphisms was not different between NSCL/P and controls (p=0.887). Our results do not support the hypothesis, that variants in the MTHFR gene confer a risk for NSCL/P in the South Indian population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of tinnitus and hearing loss in otological disorders: a decade-long epidemiological study in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoshi Kumari Manche

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Tinnitus is a common disorder that occurs frequently across all strata of population and has an important health concern. Tinnitus is often associated with different forms of hearing loss of varying severity. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the association of tinnitus with hearing loss in various otological disorders of a South Indian population. Methods: A total of 3255 subjects referred to the MAA ENT Hospital, Hyderabad, from 2004 to 2014, affected with various otological diseases have been included in the present cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of the diseases was confirmed by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT specialist using detailed medical and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: Tinnitus was observed in 29.3% (956 of the total study subjects that showed an increased prevalence in greater than 40 years of age. There was a significant increase in risk of tinnitus with middle (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.02-3.16 and inner (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.65-5.45 inner ear diseases. It was noted that 96.9% (n = 927 of the tinnitus subjects was associated with hearing loss. Otitis media (60.9%, presbycusis (16.6% and otosclerosis (14.3% are the very common otological disorders leading to tinnitus. Tinnitus was significantly associated with higher degree of hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM subjects. Conclusion: The present study could identify the most prevalent otological risk factors leading to development of tinnitus with hearing loss in a South Indian population.

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  15. Association of an Osteopontin gene promoter polymorphism with susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheema, Balneek Singh; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2012-01-01

    Genetic predisposition has been proposed to be a major determinant in the development of renal complications of diabetes. Osteopontin (OPN) has been suggested to be associated with renal diseases characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis and proteinuria. However, information on association of ...

  16. Observational study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of saroglitazar in Indian diabetic dyslipidemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanand R. Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Saroglitazar is a potential therapeutic option in type 2 diabetic patients with high TG levels, not controlled by statins, for comprehensive control of lipid and glycemic parameters with acceptable safety profile.

  17. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

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    Full Text Available ... system is prohibited and may result in disciplinary action and/or civil and criminal penalties. At any time, ... on training opportunities, research, and resources related to diabetes prevention and treatment ...

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    Full Text Available ... and/or civil and criminal penalties. At any time, and for any lawful Government purpose, the government ... be a favorite to share with friends and family. Order yours today! Find Tools for Diabetes Educators! ...

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    Full Text Available ... on her emotional journey with diabetes through a cultural perspective. This re-printed book is updated with ... www.ihs.gov . Sunday, April 01, 2018 Upcoming Events Upcoming Live CME/CE Education April 19 th @ ...

  20. Glucose tolerance status of Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes at 6weeks to 1year postpartum (WINGS-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Maheswari, Kumar; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Ranjani, Harish; Ninov, Lyudmil; Pastakia, Sonak D; Usha, Sriram; Malanda, Belma; Belton, Anne; Uma, Ram; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-07-01

    To determine postpartum glucose tolerance status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recruited under the Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) Model of Care (MOC). Through the WINGS MOC programme, 212 women with GDM were followed till delivery between November 2013 and August 2015. All women were advised to return for a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6-12weeks after delivery. A multivariate logistic regression (MLR) model was developed to identify the risk factors for postpartum dysglycemia which was defined as presence of diabetes (DM) or prediabetes. 203/212(95.8%) women completed their postpartum OGTT. Of the 161 women (79.3%) who came back for the test between 6 and 12weeks, 2(1.2%) developed DM, 5(3.1%), isolated IFG, 13(8.1%), isolated IGT and 5(3.1%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 25(15.5%)]. 136 women (84.5%) reverted to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Of the 42 women who came back between 12weeks and a year, 5(11.9%) developed DM, 10(23.8%), isolated IFG and 1(2.4%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 16(38.1%)]. 26/42 women (61.9%) reverted to NGT. Thus overall dysglycemia occurred in 41/203 women (20.2%). MLR showed that BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) was significantly associated with postpartum dysglycemia (odds ratio: 4.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-11.2, p=0.001). Among Asian Indian women with GDM, over 20% develop dysglycemia within one year postpartum, and BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) increased this risk four-fold. Early postpartum screening can identify high risk women and help plan strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in the future. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. IOC-Germany Advanced Training Course on Bathymetric Charting in the Western Indian Ocean: On board R.V. Meteor between Durban and Cape Town, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The IOC-Germany Advanced Training Course on Bathymetric Charting in the Western Indian Ocean took place in Durban, South Africa, and on board R.V. METEOR during cruise M33/3 from Durban to Cape Town, from 15 to 29 December 1995. It was a follow-up of a similar, more basic course held in Madagascar and on board R.V. METEOR in 1987. The Course profited from the fact that in 1995 R.V. METEOR spent several months in the Indian Ocean to do research for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WO...

  2. Association of TNF promoter polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes in the South Croatian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA BORASKA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of pancreatic p cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a pleotropic cytokine with potent immunomodulatory and inflammatory activity. Association studies of TNF polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes (TIDM frequently demonstrated TNF involvement with TIDM. Although TNF may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TIDM, the genetic association of TNF región with the disease has not been conclusive because of the strong linkage disequilibrium with HLA genes. In this study, we examined two TNF promoter variants (rs 1800629 at position -308, and rs361525 at position -238 for TIDM association in 233 patients and 144 controls from the population of South Croatia. A higher frequency of TNF -308 A alíele and also, a more frequent specific -308A -238G haplotype in TIDM patients were observed with a limited significance. However, we did not find strong evidence of association of TNF promoter polymorphisms with TIDM. In order to elucidate the trae contribution of TNF to TIDM susceptibility in our population, more comprehensive studies with HLA adjustment in a larger sample are required.

  3. Dietary Transition in the South Asian Diaspora: Implications for Diabetes Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parackal, Sherly

    2017-01-01

    South Asians (SA) have a four to five fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to other Asian migrant groups. Dietary patterns have been attributed as an important independent modifiable risk factor. The aim of this review is to document the dietary patterns of SA migrants in Western countries and to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary patterns with T2DM and its predisposing factors. Using key search words articles from 1990 onwards were sourced from MEDLINE Pro- Quest and PubMed (not MEDLINE) databases for this narrative review. A significant shift in meal pattern with frequent dining out and eating fast foods, traditional festival foods and Western desserts and snacks was common among SA. Consumption of potatoes, dairy, oil, meat and fish increased and beans, lentils, fruits and vegetables decreased post-migration. "Animal protein" and "fried snacks, sweets and high-fat dairy" were associated with greater insulin resistance and lower HDL cholesterol. A "mixed" dietary pattern was associated with obesity and hypertension and a "western" dietary pattern was associated with overall risk for Metabolic Syndrome. A 70% increase in the odds of diabetes per standard deviation in gram of protein intake was also observed. Dietary patterns pave the way to develop diabetes and other obesity related diseases among SA as duration of residence increases. The first five years since migration maybe a window of opportunity to provide targeted interventions to ensure maintenance of healthy dietary habits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Awareness of diabetes amongst undergraduates in a Nigerian University, South West Nigeria

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    Olubukunola Omobuwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disease of global public health importance whose prevention and control may be largely influenced by improved knowledge amongst populations. This study set out to examine the level of awareness, knowledge, and some risk factors for developing DM among students of the Osun State University, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst students of the Osun State University in South-western Nigeria. Study participants were recruited using multistage sampling technique. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on respondents′ socio-demographics; awareness, knowledge and perception of DM and lifestyle characteristics such as dietary habits, physical activity, use of alcohol, and tobacco smoking. Results: A total of 166 students participated in the study, 75.9% of whom have heard of DM and 40.4% of them correctly defined the condition. Seventy-two (43.4% of the study participants erroneously associated excessive intake of sugar with development of DM. Nearly one-third (30.1% of them did not know any preventive measure for DM. Fourteen (56% of the 25 respondents who had a diabetic relative said the diabetic person was their first degree relative. Sixty-one (36.7% subjects engaged in daily consumption of soft drinks, and only 8.5% engaged in regular physical exercise. Only 6.0% of the participants had ever heard of body mass index (BMI. Conclusion: This study showed high awareness level of DM among participants but the knowledge and attitude toward DM was relatively poor.

  5. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, improves glycamic control and reduces body weight in type 2 diabetes: Findings on indian patients from the pooled data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycemia (PPG. The higher carbohydrate in the Indian diets lead to greater prandial glycemic excursion, increased glucosidase, and incretin activity in the gut and may need special therapeutic strategies to tackle these glucose peaks. This is the subgroup analysis of Indian subjects who participated in the GlucoVIP study that investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of acarbose as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness analysis. After 12.5 weeks (mean, the mean change in 2-hour PPG from baseline was −74.4 mg/dl, mean HbA1c decreased by -1.0%, and mean fasting blood glucose decreased by -37.9 mg/dl. The efficacy of acarbose was rated "very good" or "good" in 91.1% of patients, and tolerability as "very good" or "good" in 88.0% of patients. The results of this observational study suggest that acarbose was effective and well tolerated in the Indian patients with T2DM.

  6. Temperature profile and oxygen data collected from multiple ships using bottle casts in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean from 04 November 1956 to 02 January 1994 (NODC Accession 0002700)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using bottle casts from multiple ships in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean from 04 November 1956 to 02 January...

  7. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HMAS DARWIN and other platforms using BT and XBT casts in the North / South Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean from 29 April 1985 to 12 April 1988 (NODC Accession 8800166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the HMAS DARWIN and other platforms in the North / South Pacific Ocean and Indian...

  8. “I’m Managing My Diabetes between Two Worlds”: Beliefs and Experiences of Diabetes Management in British South Asians on Holiday in the East—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesha R. Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes is disproportionately high among British South Asians compared to the general UK population. Whilst the migrant British South Asians group has received most attention on research related to diabetes management, little consideration has been given to impact of travel back to the East. This study aimed to explore the role of social networks and beliefs about diabetes in British South Asians, to better understand their management behaviours whilst holidaying in the East. Methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted in Greater Manchester. Forty-four participants were recruited using random and purposive sampling techniques. Interviews were analysed thematically using a constant comparison approach. Results. Migrant British South Asians expressed a strong preference to be in a hot climate; they felt they had a healthier lifestyle in the East and often altered or abandoned their diabetes medication. Information acquisition on diabetes and availability of social networks in the East was valued. Conclusion. Social networks in the East are a valued source of information and support for diabetes. The lack of adherence to medication whilst abroad suggests that some migrant British South Asians have a poor understanding of diabetes. Future research needs to explore whether patients are seeking professional advice on diabetes management prior to their extended holiday.

  9. Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2008-08-01

    I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades.

  10. Atmospheric research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean: a South Africa-France bilateral collaborative programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available to be employed, university or institutes involved and French and South African co-ordinators for investigating the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere by utilising different in-situ, space-borne and model simulation techniques....

  11. Association study of 25 type 2 diabetes related Loci with measures of obesity in Indian sib pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Gupta

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and they are metabolically related through the mechanism of insulin resistance. In order to explore how common genetic variants associated with T2D correlate with body mass index (BMI, we examined the influence of 25 T2D associated loci on obesity risk. We used 5056 individuals (2528 sib-pairs recruited in Indian Migration Study and conducted within sib-pair analysis for six obesity phenotypes. We found associations of variants in CXCR4 (rs932206 and HHEX (rs5015480 with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.13, p=0.001 and (β=0.09, p=0.002, respectively and weight (β=0.13, p=0.001 and (β=0.09, p=0.001, respectively. CXCR4 variant was also strongly associated with body fat (β=0.10, p=0.0004. In addition, we demonstrated associations of CXCR4 and HHEX with overweight/obesity (OR=1.6, p=0.003 and (OR=1.4, p=0.002, respectively, in 1333 sib-pairs (2666 individuals. We observed marginal evidence of associations between variants at six loci (TCF7L2, NGN3, FOXA2, LOC646279, FLJ39370 and THADA and waist hip ratio (WHR, BMI and/or overweight which needs to be validated in larger set of samples. All the above findings were independent of daily energy consumption and physical activity level. The risk score estimates based on eight significant loci (including nominal associations showed associations with WHR and body fat which were independent of BMI. In summary, we establish the role of T2D associated loci in influencing the measures of obesity in Indian population, suggesting common underlying pathophysiology across populations.

  12. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Spotlight "Wit and Wisdom" is Back – Updated Book Now Available! Join Barbara Mora (Paiute/Diné) as ... diabetes through a cultural perspective. This re-printed book is updated with stories and pictures, and is ...

  13. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources webpage . "Wit and Wisdom" is Back – Updated Book Now Available! Join Barbara Mora (Paiute/Diné) as ... diabetes through a cultural perspective. This re-printed book is updated with stories and pictures, and is ...

  14. American Indians' Family Health Concern on a Northern Plains Reservation: "Diabetes Runs Rampant Here".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donna; Yurkovich, Eleanor; Anderson, Kara

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to identify significant family health concerns from the perspective of adult tribal members residing in a reservation setting on the Northern Plains of the United States. Findings were used to cocreate culturally appropriate strategies to address the most significant family health concern. A focused ethnography within a participatory framework was employed. An advisory council, comprised of seven tribal members, guided the research team. A purposive sampling technique with a snowball process was used. Twenty-one adult tribal members volunteered to participate. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Other data sources included field notes of approximately 100 hours of field work, windshield surveys, and a focus group. Data were analyzed using Spradley's guidelines. The significant family health concern was "diabetes runs rampant here" with inter-related cognitive, emotional, and behavioral responses. These responses were compounded by accumulated emotional trauma from witnessing premature deaths and severe comorbidities associated with diabetes. Contextual factors shaping "diabetes runs rampant here" were identified. Holistic approaches are urgently needed in diabetes prevention and management programs. Implications for public health nurses are discussed and recommendations are provided for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her emotional journey with diabetes through a cultural perspective. This re-printed book is updated with stories ... Office of Finance and Accounting - 10E54 Office of Human Resources - 11E53A Office of Information Technology - 07E57B Office ...

  16. Ideas and Inspirations: Good News about Diabetes Prevention and Management in Indian Country

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on her emotional journey with diabetes through a cultural perspective. This re-printed book is updated with ... Legislative Affairs Staff - 08E37A Office of the Director/Diversity Management and Equal Employment Opportunity Staff - 08E61 Office ...

  17. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Atul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report the anatomic and visual acuity response after intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin in patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema. Design: Prospective, interventional case series study. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 eyes of metabolically stable diabetes mellitus with diffuse diabetic macular edema with a mean age of 59 years who were treated with two intravitreal injections of bevacizumab 1.25 mg in 0.05 ml six weeks apart. Main outcome measures were 1 early treatment diabetic retinopathy study visual acuity, 2 central macular thickness by optical coherence tomography imaging. Each was evaluated at baseline and follow-up visits. Results: All the eyes had received some form of laser photocoagulation before (not less than six months ago, but all of these patients had persistent diffuse macular edema with no improvement in visual acuity. All the patients received two injections of bevacizumab at an interval of six weeks per eye. No adverse events were observed, including endophthalmitis, inflammation and increased intraocular pressure or thromboembolic events in any patient. The mean baseline acuity was 20/494 (log Mar=1.338±0.455 and the mean acuity at three months following the second intravitreal injection was 20/295 (log Mar=1.094±0.254, a difference that was highly significant ( P =0.008. The mean central macular thickness at baseline was 492 µm which decreased to 369 µm ( P =0.001 at the end of six months. Conclusions: Initial treatment results of patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema not responding to previous photocoagulation did not reveal any short-term safety concerns. Intravitreal bevacizumab resulted in a significant decrease in macular thickness and improvement in visual acuity at three months but the effect was somewhat blunted, though still statistically significant at the end of six months.

  18. A numerical study of orographic forcing on TC Dina (2002) in South West Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    S. Jolivet; S. Jolivet; F. Chane-Ming; D. Barbary; F. Roux

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Using the French non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical model Méso-NH, intense tropical cyclone (TC) Dina (2002) is simulated to investigate the forcing caused by the steep orography of Réunion island (20.8° S, 55.5° E) in the southwest Indian Ocean. The model initialised by a bogus vortex derived from Doppler radar observations reproduces quite well the dynamical characteristics of TC Dina approaching the island and provides some clues on the orographic influence on the ...

  19. Rural Sprawl and the Impact of Human Land Use on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.

    2005-12-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.

  20. Spatial Epidemiology of Alcohol- and Drug-Related Health Problems Among Northern Plains American Indians: Nebraska and South Dakota, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Gaidus, Andrew; Gruenewald, Paul J; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Davids, Sharice; Tilsen, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012. We constructed zip code counts for 10 categories of hospitalization with diagnoses or injury causation commonly associated with alcohol or drug use. We related these to community sociodemographic characteristics using Bayesian Poisson space-time regression models and examined associations with and without controls for whether each zip code was located within an American Indian reservation. Controlling for other demographic and economic characteristics, zip codes with greater percentage of American Indians exhibited greater incidence for all 10 substance abuse-related health outcomes (9 of 10 well supported); zip code areas within American Indian reservations had greater incidence of self-inflicted injury and drug dependence and abuse, and reduced incidence of alcohol cirrhosis and prescription opioid poisoning. However, the analyses generally demonstrated no well-supported differences in incidence associated with local residence percentages of American Indian versus African American. In our analyses, ethnicity or heredity alone did not account for alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations among Native populations. Aspects of social, economic, and political dimensions of Native lives must be considered in the etiology of alcohol- and drug-related problems for rural-dwelling indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  2. Contextualising accounts of illness: notions of responsibility and blame in white and South Asian respondents' accounts of diabetes causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Ahmad, Naureen; Peel, Elizabeth; Hallowell, Nina

    2007-09-01

    We undertook a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with white (n = 32) and Pakistani and Indian (n = 32) respondents who had type 2 diabetes, which explored their perceptions and understandings of disease causation. We observed subtle, but important, differences in the ways in which these respondent groups attributed responsibility and blame for developing the disease. Whereas Pakistani and Indian respondents tended to externalise responsibility, highlighting their life circumstances in general and/or their experiences of migrating to Britain in accounting for their diabetes (or the behaviours they saw as giving rise to it), white respondents, by contrast, tended to emphasise the role of their own lifestyle 'choices' and 'personal failings'. In seeking to understand these differences, we argue for a conceptual and analytical approach which embraces both micro- (i.e. everyday) and macro- (i.e. cultural) contextual factors and experiences. In so doing, we provide a critique of social scientific studies of lay accounts/understandings of health and illness. We suggest that greater attention needs to be paid to the research encounter (that is, to who is looking at whom and in what circumstances) to understand the different kinds of contexts researchers have highlighted in presenting and interpreting their data.

  3. Predictors of low diabetes risk perception in a multi-ethnic cohort of women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, G; Kainth, S; Pendrith, C; Lowe, J; Feig, D S; Banerjee, A T; Wu, W; Lipscombe, L L

    2016-10-01

    To determine what proportion of women with gestational diabetes underestimate their diabetes risk and identify factors associated with low diabetes risk perception. Participants included pregnant adult women with gestational diabetes between 2009 and 2012 across seven diabetes clinics in Ontario, Canada. Data were collected through chart review and a survey that included a diabetes risk perception question. Of the 614 of 902 women (68% response rate) with gestational diabetes, 89% correctly responded that gestational diabetes increases the risk for developing diabetes. However, 47.1% of women perceived themselves to be at low risk for developing diabetes within 10 years. On multivariable analysis, BMI ethnicity, high-risk ethnicity (Aboriginal, Latin American, West Indian, South Asian, Middle Eastern, Filipino, Black, Pacific Islander) [odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% CI 1.30-3.31] and East and South East Asian ethnicity (OR 2.01; 1.10-3.67) were associated with low diabetes risk perception. After further adjustment for immigration, only high-risk ethnicity remained a predictor of low diabetes risk perception (OR 1.86; 1.09-3.19), whereas East and South East Asian ethnicity did not (OR 1.67; 0.86-3.22). Although the majority of women recognized gestational diabetes as a risk factor for diabetes, almost half underestimated their personal high diabetes risk despite prenatal care. Furthermore, women from high-risk ethnic groups were more likely to underestimate their risk, even after adjusting for immigration. Interventions tailored to these groups are necessary to enhance perceived diabetes risk. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  4. Design of a modified adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system classifier for medical diagnosis of Pima Indians Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagir, Abdu Masanawa; Sathasivam, Saratha

    2017-08-01

    Medical diagnosis is the process of determining which disease or medical condition explains a person's determinable signs and symptoms. Diagnosis of most of the diseases is very expensive as many tests are required for predictions. This paper aims to introduce an improved hybrid approach for training the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system with Modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm using analytical derivation scheme for computation of Jacobian matrix. The goal is to investigate how certain diseases are affected by patient's characteristics and measurement such as abnormalities or a decision about presence or absence of a disease. To achieve an accurate diagnosis at this complex stage of symptom analysis, the physician may need efficient diagnosis system to classify and predict patient condition by using an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) pre-processed by grid partitioning. The proposed hybridised intelligent system was tested with Pima Indian Diabetes dataset obtained from the University of California at Irvine's (UCI) machine learning repository. The proposed method's performance was evaluated based on training and test datasets. In addition, an attempt was done to specify the effectiveness of the performance measuring total accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. In comparison, the proposed method achieves superior performance when compared to conventional ANFIS based gradient descent algorithm and some related existing methods. The software used for the implementation is MATLAB R2014a (version 8.3) and executed in PC Intel Pentium IV E7400 processor with 2.80 GHz speed and 2.0 GB of RAM.

  5. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among North Indian adolescents using Adult Treatment Panel III and pediatric International Diabetic Federation definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Childhood obesity is an important risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome (MS in children and adolescent. Because of high prevalence of insulin resistance and MS in Indian adult population, studies are needed to identify the prevalence of these metabolic abnormalities in the adolescent population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of MS using pediatric International Diabetic Federation (IDF definition and compare it with estimates of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III definition among adolescents in Northern India. Materials and Methods: At a total of 899 adolescents attending school (aged 10-18 years participated in this population-based prospective study. All the clinical and biochemical assessment were done after proper consent. The MS was determined by the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III definition modified for age and pediatric IDF definition. Results: The prevalence of MS was 3.5% according to ATP III criteria and 1.5% based on IDF criteria. No significant gender difference was observed in the distribution of MS. Hypertriglyceridemia was the most common and abdominal obesity the least common constituent of MS. Conclusion: This study provides the first estimates of MS using pediatric IDF definition in the adolescent population from Northern India.

  6. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Paramasivam; Rome, Sophie; Sathishkumar, Chandrakumar; Aravind, Sankaramoorthy; Mahalingam, Balakumar; Shanthirani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Gastebois, Caroline; Villard, Audrey; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p) in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  7. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Prabu

    Full Text Available Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  8. Prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Asian Indian patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Nanaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It was formerly believed that since fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD is a secondary form of diabetes, specific diabetic complications were uncommon. This is no longer considered to be true. Our objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN in patients with FCPD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on consecutive male patients with FCPD was performed. Using an automated CAN System Analyzer, heart rate response to deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, standing and blood pressure response to standing were measured. The standard Ewing′s criteria were used to define normal, borderline, and abnormal values. Prevalence rates were calculated and the patients were defined to have normal autonomic function, parasympathetic, sympathetic, and combined dysfunction. Results: The prevalence of CAN in this study population was 63.3%. Isolated parasympathetic dysfunction (42.3% was the most common abnormality. Combined sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction was noted in 13.3% of patients. Isolated borderline dysfunction was noted among 13.3% of patients. CAN was detected in six patients with a duration of diabetes of less than 1 year after diagnosis. Patients with autonomic dysfunction were found to have a lower body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol when compared to those with normal autonomic functions, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of abnormal cardiac autonomic function is as high as 63.3% in the present study population which warrants regular screening of patients with FCPD for autonomic dysfunction. Patients with FCPD and autonomic dysfunction were found to have a lower BMI and lower LDL-cholesterol, which may be indicators of malnutrition in the group with autonomic dysfunction. Whether this malnutrition contributes to autonomic dysfunction needs further exploration.

  9. The role of hip and chest radiographs in osteoporotic evaluation among south Indian women population: a comparative scenario with DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Ashok; Anburajan, M

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is recognized as a worldwide skeletal disorder problem. In India, the older as well as postmenopausal women population suffering from osteoporotic fractures has been a common issue. Bone mineral density measurements gauged by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. (1) To evaluate osteoporosis in south Indian women by radiogrammetric method in a comparative perspective with DXA. (2) To assess the capability of KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula in the prediction of total hip bone mineral density (T.BMD) with estimated Hologic T.BMD. In this cross-sectional design, 56 south Indian women were evaluated. These women were randomly selected from a health camp. The patients with secondary bone diseases were excluded. The standard protocol was followed in acquiring BMD of the right proximal femur by DPX Prodigy (DXA Scanner, GE-Lunar Corp., USA). The measured Lunar Total hip BMD was converted into estimated Hologic Total hip BMD. In addition, the studied population underwent chest and hip radiographic measurements. Combined cortical thickness of clavicle has been used in KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula to predict T.BMD and compared with estimated Hologic T.BMD by DXA. The correlation coefficients exhibited high significance. The combined cortical thickness of clavicle and femur shaft of total studied population was strongly correlated with DXA femur T.BMD measurements (r = 0.87, P Hologic T.BMD (r = 0.88, P < 0.01) in total studied population. The empirical formula was identified as better tool for predicting osteoporosis in total population and old-aged population with a sensitivity (88.8 and 95.6 %), specificity (89.6 and 90.9 %), positive predictive value (88.8 and 95.6 %) and negative predictive value (89.6 and 90.9 %), respectively. The results suggest that combined cortical thickness of clavicle and femur shaft using radiogrammetric method is significantly correlated with DXA. Moreover, KJH; Anburajan

  10. Satellite-tracked drifting buoy observations in the south equatorial current in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    two buoys moved north and the third moved south. Over the open sea regime the buoys moved with a speed of approximately 30 cm/s at an angle of about 35 degrees to the left of the wind. The overall tendencies seen in the buoy drift are similar to those...

  11. Review on herbal remedies used by the 1860 South African Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of these plants needs to be noted. In line with the 150 year commemoration of the 1820 settlers, this paper reviews some of the ayurvedic plants being currently utilized and which were brought to South Africa along with the settlers. Key words: Ayurveda, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tulsi, Moringa oleifera, Melia azederach, ...

  12. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed

  13. South Indian "Solkattu" and Western Music Pedagogy: Creating New Rhythmic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brandon Keith

    2013-01-01

    Part of the classical music tradition of South India, "solkattu" reinforces the statement "If you can say it, you can play it." This system of percussive syllables can help young musicians approach rhythm training in a way not usually available to students in Western countries. This article offers applications for a music…

  14. On the Waterfront. Water Distribution, Technology and Agrarian Change in a South Indian Canal Irrigation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    This book analyses the struggle over water in a large-scale irrigation system in Raichur District, Karnataka, South India. It looks at water control as a simultaneously technical, managerial and socio-political process. The triangle of accommodation of different categories of farmers (head-enders

  15. Liraglutide therapy beyond glycemic control: An observational study in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes in real world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavadev J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Jothydev Kesavadev, Arun Shankar, Gopika Krishnan, Sunitha JothydevJothydev's Diabetes Research Center, JDC Junction, Trivandrum, Kerala, India 695032Background: Liraglutide is an analog of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and acts as a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Liraglutide is presently used in the treatment of selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of liraglutide in, overweight and obese Indian patients with T2DM.Methods: A single center, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational study for 24 weeks in a real-world setting. Fourteen overweight and obese patients with T2DM who were clinically suitable for liraglutide therapy received liraglutide injections. The starting dose of liraglutide (Victoza injection was 0.6 mg/day for 3 days followed by 1.2 mg for next 10 days and finally 1.8 mg/day for 22 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Adverse events (AE noted during course of therapy were recorded. A repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to assess statistical significance.Results: Fourteen patients were studied for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of liraglutide therapy, mean fasting and postprandial plasma glucose decreased by 48.5 mg/dL and 66.71 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0004 over 24 weeks, respectively. A mean reduction of 2.26% of glycosylated hemoglobin was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks. Mean decrease in body weight of 8.65 kg and mean decrease in body mass index of 3.26 kg/m2 was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks for each parameter. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 15.15 mm of Hg (P = 0.004. Significant improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and serum creatinine was noted. Nine patients reported AEs. The AEs noticed were nausea (n = 6, feeling of satiety (n = 3, and vomiting (n = 1. No serious AE or hypoglycemic episodes were observed.Conclusion: Liraglutide once a day

  16. Diet patterns are associated with demographic factors and nutritional status in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sarah H; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Guntupalli, Aravinda M; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D; Robinson, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) in India is increasing. Diet and body composition 'track' from childhood into adult life and contribute to the development of risk factors for NCD. Little is known about the diet patterns of Indian children. We aimed to identify diet patterns and study associations with body composition and socio-demographic factors in the Mysore Parthenon Study cohort. We collected anthropometric and demographic data from children aged 9.5 years (n = 538). We also administered a food frequency questionnaire and measured fasting blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. Using principal component analysis, we identified two diet patterns. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of snacks, fruit, sweetened drinks, rice and meat dishes and leavened breads. The 'lacto-vegetarian' pattern was characterised by frequent intakes of finger millet, vegetarian rice dishes, yoghurt, vegetable dishes and infrequent meat consumption. Adherence to the 'snack and fruit' pattern was associated with season, being Muslim and urban dwelling. Adherence to the lacto-vegetarian pattern was associated with being Hindu, rural dwelling and a lower maternal body mass index. The 'snack and fruit' pattern was negatively associated with the child's adiposity. The lacto-vegetarian pattern was positively associated with blood folate concentration and negatively with vitamin B12 concentration. This study provides new information on correlates of diet patterns in Indian children and how diet relates to nutritional status. Follow-up of these children will be important to determine the role of these differences in diet in the development of risk factors for NCD including body composition. © 2013 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rautenbach

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 1996 Constitution, and in particular the Bill of Rights as contained in chapter 2 of the 1996 Constitution, is applicable to "non-recognised" Muslim personal law. The answer to this question depends to a large extent on the meaning of "law" as contained in the 1996 Constitution.When the viewpoint of academic writers and the courts are evaluated it seems as if the meaning of law in South Africa is restricted to the common law, customary law and legislation. If such a viewpoint is to be followed, Muslim personal law is excluded from the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. It is, however, inconceivable that there might be certain areas of "law" that are not subject to the scrutiny of the Bill of Rights. In this note it will be argued that Muslim personal law should be regarded as law in terms of the 1996 Constitution, or in the alternative, that Muslim personal law (or at least Muslim marriages should be recognised in terms of section 15 of the 1996 Constitution.Due to the historical resemblance between South Africa and India the meaning of "law" as contained in the 1996 Constitution will be compared with the meaning of "law" as contained in the Constitution of India. Although the Constitution of India indirectly gives recognition to various personal laws in India, these personal laws are not subject to the provisions of the Constitution of India. Therefore, it would be argued that one should approach the Constitution of India with caution when its provisions are

  18. Chikungunya fever: a clinical and virological investigation of outpatients on Reunion Island, South-West Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Boisson, Veronique; Gaudart, Jean; Simon, Fabrice; Flahault, Antoine; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for acute febrile polyarthralgia and, in a proportion of cases, severe complications including chronic arthritis. CHIKV has spread recently in East Africa, South-West Indian Ocean, South-Asia and autochthonous cases have been reported in Europe. Although almost all patients are outpatients, medical investigations mainly focused on hospitalised patients. Here, we detail clinico-biological characteristics of Chikungunya (CHIK) outpatients in Reunion Island (2006). 76 outpatients with febrile arthralgia diagnosed within less than 48 hours were included by general practitioners during the CuraChik clinical trial. CHIK was confirmed in 54 patients and excluded in 22. A detailed clinical and biological follow-up was organised, that included analysis of viral intrahost diversity and telephone survey until day 300. The evolution of acute CHIK included 2 stages: the 'viral stage' (day 1-day 4) was associated with rapid decrease of viraemia and improvement of clinical presentation; the 'convalescent stage' (day 5-day 14) was associated with no detectable viraemia but a slower clinical improvement. Women and elderly had a significantly higher number of arthralgia at inclusion and at day 300. Based on the study clinico-biological dataset, scores for CHIK diagnosis in patients with recent febrile acute polyarthralgia were elaborated using arthralgia on hands and wrists, a minor or absent myalgia and the presence of lymphopenia (<1G/L) as major orientation criteria. Finally, we observed that CHIKV intra-host genetic diversity increased over time and that a higher viral amino-acid complexity at the acute stage was associated with increased number of arthralgia and intensity of sequelae at day 300. This study provided a detailed picture of clinico-biological CHIK evolution at the acute phase of the disease, allowed the elaboration of scores to assist CHIK diagnosis and investigated for the first time the impact of viral intra-host genetic

  19. Hyperglycemic emergencies in Indian patients with diabetes mellitus on pilgrimage to Amarnathji yatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Ganie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS represent two distinct metabolic derangements manifested by insulin deficiency and severe hyperglycemia, with estimated mortality rates of 2.5-9%. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM controlled by diet or oral agents, DKA does not occur unless there is significant severe stress such as severe sepsis, major surgery, trauma, etc. We observed many such emergencies occurring in pilgrims. Objective: We analyzed the data of 13 patients with DM admitted in our endocrine department with hyperglycemic emergencies during 2 years of the annual pilgrimage (yatra to Amarnathji. Materials and Methods: We reviewed and analyzed the case records of 13 yatris with DM who were referred and admitted in our hospital with hyperglycemic emergencies during the yatra season (July-August of 2006 and 2007. Results: Eleven of 13 had DKA and 1 each had HHS and hypoglycemia. After initial clinical assessment and blood sampling for blood counts, electrolytes, blood gases, urinalysis, chest radiography, and electrocardiography, these cases were managed with standard protocol published by American Diabetes Association (ADA for the management of DKA and HHS. Average blood glucose was 466 mg/dl and nine subjects had moderate to severe ketonuria. All the cases, except one, were in stable condition at the time of discharge. Conclusion: High altitude, strenuous exertion of going uphill, withdrawal of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, starvation, sepsis, and alcohol intake were recorded as predisposing factors. Therefore, there is an immense need for institution of a special health education program to all the yatris before taking the endeavor.

  20. Prevalence of Selected Intermediate Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in an Apparently Healthy Indian Community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Ashika; Venter, Christine S; MacIntyre, Una E; Ellis, Suria

    2017-02-01

    South Africa, burdened with the emerging chronic diseases, is home to one of the largest migrant Indian population, however, little data exists on the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of yet undiagnosed selected intermediate risk factors for non-communicable diseases among the Indian population in KwaZulu-Natal. We randomly selected 250 apparently healthy Indians, aged 35-55 years, living in KwaDukuza to participate in this study. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were taken under prescribed clinical conditions using Asian cut-off points. Pearson correlations was used to detect associations between anthropometric and clinical risk markers. A large percentage of participants' systolic blood pressure fell within the normal range. Diastolic blood pressure was >85 mmHg for 61 % of the participants and triglyceride levels were >1.69 mmol/L for 89 % of the participants'; 94 % of the women and 87 % of the men were classified as centrally obese. Raised fasting blood glucose was seen in 39 % of participants'. Waist circumference and body mass index showed statistically significant associations with all clinical risk markers except for diastolic blood pressure. Our findings suggest that the use of ethno specific strategies in the management of the disease profile of South African Indians, will enable the South African health system to respond more positively towards the current trend of increased metabolic and physiological risk factors in this community. Moreover, key modifiable behaviours such as increased physical activity and weight reduction may improve most of these metabolic abnormalities.

  1. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The system is operational since 1953 and was completed in 1968. The area to be irrigated ...

  2. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus in privately- funded diabetic patients attending a rural optometric practice in Malmesbury, South Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Phillips

    2012-12-01

    ment of DM. This study indicates that, despite access to private health care, these subjects level of knowledge of DM and its ocular effects was sub-optimal. It also indicated poor self-management practices of the diabetic patients towards diabetes care and management. Optometrists should form part of a team of health professionals to assist in the management of DM. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(2 70-77

  3. High incidence of persistence of sacral and coccygeal intervertebral discs in South Indians – a cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesha Nayak, B; Ashwini Aithal, P; Kumar, Naveen; George, Bincy M; Deepthinath, R; Shetty, Surekha D

    2016-01-01

    The sacrum, by virtue of its anatomic location plays a key role in providing stability and strength to the pelvis. Presence of intervertebral discs in sacrum and coccyx is rare. Knowledge of its variations is of utmost importance to surgeons and radiologists. The current study focused on the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae in south Indian cadaveric pelvises. We observed 56 adult pelvises of which, 34 (61%) pelvises showed the presence of intervertebral discs between the sacral vertebrae and between the coccygeal vertebrae, while 22 (39%) pelvises did not have the intervertebral discs either in the sacrum or the coccyx. We also found that most of the specimens had discs between S1 and S2 vertebrae (39%), followed by, between S4 and S5 (18%), between S2–S3 (14%) and least being between S3–S4 (13%). In the coccyx it was found that 7% of pelvises had disc between Co1-Co2, 4% of them had between Co2-Co3 and 4% had between Co3-Co4. Knowledge regarding such anatomic variations in the sacro-coccygeal region is important to note because they require alterations in various instrumentation procedures involving the sacrum. PMID:27385838

  4. Screening of indigenous oxalate degrading lactic acid bacteria from human faeces and South Indian fermented foods: assessment of probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi, Sivasamy; Sasikumar, Ponnusamy; Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M S; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  5. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivasamy Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5, 6.71% (AB1, and 9.3% (AB11 which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria.

  6. The morphometric analysis of the mental foramen in adult dry human mandibles: a study on the South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhaya, K; Saraladevi, K V; Sridhar, J

    2013-08-01

    The mental foramen is a small foramen which is located in the antero-lateral aspect of the body of the mandible. It is situated midway between the upper and the lower border of the mandible and it transmits the mental nerve and the vessels. The knowledge on the anatomy of the mental foramen is very important in clinical dentistry and in surgical procedures which involve that area. Our study was conducted on 90 adult dry human mandibles from the south Indian population, irrespective of age and sex. The location, shape, orientation and the presence of the accessory foramen were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the mental foramen were measured by using a digital vernier caliper. The SPSS, version 15 software was used for the statistical analysis, to calculate the minimum, maximum, incidence, mean and standard deviation. In a majority of the mandibles, the mental foramen was located at the level of the root of the 2(nd) premolar, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape. The orientation of the foramen was postero-superior in 83% of the mandibles. The accessory foramens were noted in five mandibles. The knowledge on the variations in the position and size of the mental foramen and the presence of the accessory foramen may be of much use to dental surgeons.

  7. Translation and Adaptation of Five English Language Self-Report Health Measures to South Indian Kannada Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammaiah, Spoorthi; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishna, Rajalakshmi

    2016-04-20

    The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life - 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i) forward translation; ii) common translation synthesis; iii) backward translation; iv) expert committee review; v) pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language.

  8. Translation and adaptation of five English language self-report health measures to South Indian Kannada language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spoorthi Thammaiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to translate and adapt five English self-report health measures to a South Indian language Kannada. Currently, no systematically developed questionnaires assessing hearing rehabilitation outcomes are available for clinical or research use in Kannada. The questionnaires included for translation and adaptation were the hearing handicap questionnaire, the international outcome inventory - hearing aids, the self-assessment of communication, the participation scale, and the assessment of quality of life – 4 dimensions. The questionnaires were translated and adapted using the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS guidelines. The five stages followed in the study included: i forward translation; ii common translation synthesis; iii backward translation; iv expert committee review; v pre-final testing. In this paper, in addition to a description of the process, we also highlight practical issues faced while adopting the procedure with an aim to help readers better understand the intricacies involved in such processes. This can be helpful to researchers and clinicians who are keen to adapt standard self-report questionnaires from other languages to their native language.

  9. Decreasing the Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in South Africa: The Impact of Taxing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Manyema

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes poses an increasing public health burden in South Africa (SA with obesity as the main driver of the epidemic. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs is linked to weight gain and reducing SSB consumption may significantly impact the prevalence of obesity and related diseases. We estimated the effect of a 20% SSB tax on the burden of diabetes in SA.We constructed a life table-based model in Microsoft Excel (2010. Consumption data from the 2012 SA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, previously published own- and cross-price elasticities of SSBs and energy balance equations were used to estimate changes in daily energy intake and its projected impact on BMI arising from increased SSB prices. Diabetes relative risk and prevalent years lived with disability estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study and modelled disease epidemiology estimates from a previous study were used to estimate the effect of the BMI changes on diabetes burden. Diabetes cost estimates were obtained from the South African Council for Medical Schemes. Over 20 years, a 20% SSB tax could reduce diabetes incident cases by 106 000 in women (95% uncertainty interval (UI 70 000-142 000 and by 54 000 in men (95% UI: 33 000-80 000; and prevalence in all adults by 4.0% (95% UI: 2.7%-5.3%. Cumulatively over twenty years, approximately 21 000 (95% UI: 14 000-29 000 adult T2DM-related deaths, 374 000 DALYs attributed to T2DM (95% UI: 299 000-463 000 and over ZAR10 billion T2DM healthcare costs (95% UI: ZAR6.8-14.0 billion equivalent to USD860 million (95% UI: USD570 million-USD1.2 billion may be averted.Fiscal policy on SSBs has the potential to mitigate the diabetes epidemic in South Africa and contribute to the National Department of Health goals stated in the National NCD strategic plan.

  10. Sustaining Upgrading in Agricultural Value Chains? State-Led Value Chain Interventions and Emerging Bifurcation of the South Indian Smallholder Tea Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nylandsted Larsen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Value Chain (GVC approach has emerged as a novel methodological device for analysing economic globalization and international trade. The suitability of the chain metaphor and strategies for moving up the ladder of GVCs (“upgrade” is widely echoed in international development agencies and public agencies in the Global South. Most of the existing GVC studies focus on new forms of firm-to-firm relationships and the role of lead firms and chain governance in defining upgrading opportunities. This paper examines the role of the state and local institutional initiatives in promoting upgrading in agricultural GVCs originating in rural areas of the Global South. The paper draws on research conducted in the South Indian smallholder tea sector. The paper argues that successful forms of state-led chain interventions not only contribute to upgrading of the smallholder-brought leaf factory strand of the GVC originating in the South Indian tea sector, but might also result in increasing bifurcation of smallholders integrated into high-margin markets through prominent bought leaf factories and a mass of “others” outside this tightly coordinated strand of the tea value chain.

  11. Developing a Conceptually Equivalent Type 2 Diabetes Risk Score for Indian Gujaratis in the UK

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    Naina Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To apply and assess the suitability of a model consisting of commonly used cross-cultural translation methods to achieve a conceptually equivalent Gujarati language version of the Leicester self-assessment type 2 diabetes risk score. Methods. Implementation of the model involved multiple stages, including pretesting of the translated risk score by conducting semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of volunteers. Interviews were conducted on an iterative basis to enable findings to inform translation revisions and to elicit volunteers’ ability to self-complete and understand the risk score. Results. The pretest stage was an essential component involving recruitment of a diverse sample of 18 Gujarati volunteers, many of whom gave detailed suggestions for improving the instructions for the calculation of the risk score and BMI table. Volunteers found the standard and level of Gujarati accessible and helpful in understanding the concept of risk, although many of the volunteers struggled to calculate their BMI. Conclusions. This is the first time that a multicomponent translation model has been applied to the translation of a type 2 diabetes risk score into another language. This project provides an invaluable opportunity to share learning about the transferability of this model for translation of self-completed risk scores in other health conditions.

  12. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman′s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman′s correlation test, the

  13. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians – A population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254

  14. Exercise practices among persons with Type-I diabetes in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise is a cornerstone in the management of diabetes mellitus, yet many individuals with diabetes fail to participate in basic physical activity due to secondary diabetic complications or to overcome the perceived barriers in participation in physical activity. Exercise has also been recognized as a possible yet ...

  15. A numerical study of orographic forcing on TC Dina (2002) in South West Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, S.; Chane-Ming, F.; Barbary, D.; Roux, F.

    2013-01-01

    Using the French non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical model Méso-NH, intense tropical cyclone (TC) Dina (2002) is simulated to investigate the forcing caused by the steep orography of Réunion island (20.8° S, 55.5° E) in the southwest Indian Ocean. The model initialised by a bogus vortex derived from Doppler radar observations reproduces quite well the dynamical characteristics of TC Dina approaching the island and provides some clues on the orographic influence on the structure and the evolution of the TC. The presence of the island is observed to stabilise the cyclonic circulation by damping the natural elliptical eyewall rotation and forcing the flow circulation. Initially, the cyclonic flow is blocked upwind of the orography which induces a convergence associated with upward vertical velocities, intense precipitation and maximum horizontal winds along the upwind slopes of the island. A mountain wave, generated over the highest terrains, is associated with downward motions on the lee side. When the strongest winds reach the island, the flow changes its behaviour from passing around to over the island. Non-dimensional flow parameters in agreement with recent theories are calculated to explain TC track.

  16. A numerical study of orographic forcing on TC Dina (2002 in South West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jolivet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the French non-hydrostatic mesoscale numerical model Méso-NH, intense tropical cyclone (TC Dina (2002 is simulated to investigate the forcing caused by the steep orography of Réunion island (20.8° S, 55.5° E in the southwest Indian Ocean. The model initialised by a bogus vortex derived from Doppler radar observations reproduces quite well the dynamical characteristics of TC Dina approaching the island and provides some clues on the orographic influence on the structure and the evolution of the TC. The presence of the island is observed to stabilise the cyclonic circulation by damping the natural elliptical eyewall rotation and forcing the flow circulation. Initially, the cyclonic flow is blocked upwind of the orography which induces a convergence associated with upward vertical velocities, intense precipitation and maximum horizontal winds along the upwind slopes of the island. A mountain wave, generated over the highest terrains, is associated with downward motions on the lee side. When the strongest winds reach the island, the flow changes its behaviour from passing around to over the island. Non-dimensional flow parameters in agreement with recent theories are calculated to explain TC track.

  17. Morphometric and Histological Analysis of 'Spondylosis Deformans' of Thoracic Region in South-Indian Cadaveric Spines

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    Naveen Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteophyte is a bony outgrowth in the vertebral column. Its high prevalence and clinical importance prompted us to conduct this study of thoracic osteophytes. Aim and Objectives: Morphometric and histological study of thoracic osteophytes in the cadaveric vertebral column to understand their development, frequency of occurrence and distribution. Material and Methods: Frequency of occurrence of osteophytes was studied in 50 cadavers of Indian origin over a period of five years. The thoracic part of the vertebral columns were dissected and examined. The vertebral levels of osteophytes, their exact distribution, and morphometric measurements were recorded. A small piece of the osteophyte was removed, processed and stained with Haemetoxylin& Eosin [H & E] stains for histopathological examination. Results: Osteophytes were present in 7 specimens (14%. They were predominantly found on the right side of the lower thoracic vertebral bodies. H & E stained sections of the osteophytes showed features resembling a cancellous bone which strongly indicate that the osteophytes are in development stage, and they develop by the process of endochondral ossification. Conclusion: We found a high incidence of thoracic osteophytes in our study, which mandates further studies in this regard.

  18. Barren Forests. Missing Indian villages on the South Coast of Nueva Galicia during the Colonial Period

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    Ramón Goyas Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis focuses on the disappearance of the Indian villages during the colonial period in the town of Purification belonging to Nueva Galicia. The natural physical characterization of the region was first addressed in order to make the historical man-nature relationship relevant since pre-Columbian times. This relationship highlights the importance of the loss of population during the colonial period as a central research topic. This research not only analyzes historical demography, but also addresses the consequences of the disappearance of these entities from the geographical area in which they were located; furthermore, it is an analysis of the relationship of the people as geospatial entities and their environment. Based on the theoretical premise of so-called "nodes" and "networks" for the construction of a territory, this essay argues that as the indigenous people were disappearing, they failed to socially articulate the emergence of spaces that in theory became part of the government. These areas were ultimately "nobodyareas"; areas not controlled by survivors or new settlers who took centuries to settle in the region of study.

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2007-02-04 to 2007-03-16 (NCEI Accession 0144252)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144252 includes Surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  20. Rajella paucispinosa n. sp., a new deep-water skate (Elasmobranchii, Rajidae) from the western Indian Ocean off South Mozambique, and a revised generic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Simon; Stehmann, Matthias F W; Thiel, Ralf

    2014-08-08

    A new species of the widely in temperate and tropical latitudes distributed skate genus Rajella is described based on an almost adult male specimen from the western Indian Ocean off South Mozambique. The holotype of R. paucispinosa n. sp. was caught during cruise 17 of RV 'Vityaz' along the deep western Indian Ocean in 1988/89. It is the northernmost record of a Rajella specimen in the western Indian Ocean. The new species is the 18th valid species of the genus and the fifth species in the western Indian Ocean. It differs from its congeners in the small maximal total length of about 50 cm and only few thorns on the dorsal surface. The new species has only two thorns on each orbit, one nuchal thorn, one right scapular thorn (left one not detectable, abraded), and one median row of tail thorns. Other species of Rajella typically have half rings of thorns on orbital rims, a triangle of thorns on nape-shoulder region, and at least three rows of tail thorns. Another conspicuous feature of the new species is the almost completely white dorsal and ventral coloration. 

  1. Emotional, behavioral and cognitive profile, and quality of life of Indian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

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    Kriti Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The psychological stress associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D may be higher in children from developing world due to limited health resources. The aims of the study were to assess the quality of life (QoL, emotional well-being, behavioral, and cognitive profile of children/adolescents with T1D diagnosed at least 6 months prior. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine children with T1D, aged 6−18 years were assessed using DAWN Youth QoL questionnaire, WHO-5 Well-Being Index, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, and Malin′s Intelligence Scale for Indian children (MISIC. The association of the scores was studied with age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, frequency of hypoglycemia, HbA1c, and age of onset and duration of T1D. Results: The mean (standard deviation (SD for DAWN QoL, WHO-5, CBCL, and MISIC scores was 24.7 (16.7, 74.6 (19.4, 52.6 (8.8, and 96.0 (11.2, respectively. The significant associations noted were: Elevated HbA1c with poorer emotional well-being; higher negative impact on ′symptoms of disease′ and ′future prospects′ sub-areas of QoL; shorter duration of disease with more behavioral issues; lower maternal education with more ′withdrawn/depressed′ behaviors and ′worry about future prospects′; and lower SES with lower MISIC scores. Earlier onset (age <5 years was associated with fewer behavioral problems and less negative impact on QoL. Conclusion: Children with recent diagnosis, older age at onset, lower maternal educational level, elevated HbA1c, or belonging to lower SES were identified to have higher prevalence of various psychological and cognitive problems. In resource-limited settings, these children should be prioritized for behavioral and cognitive evaluation.

  2. Association of depressive symptomology and psychological trauma with diabetes control among older American Indian women: Does social support matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Noonan, Carolyn; Gonzales, Kelly; Winchester, Blythe; Bradley, Vickie L

    2017-04-01

    Among older American Indian women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we examined the association between mental health and T2DM control and if social support modifies the association. Survey data were linked to T2DM medical record information. Mental health measures were the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale and the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day instrument. T2DM control was all HbA1c values taken post mental health measures. There was not a significant association between depressive symptomatology and higher HbA1c although increased depressive symptomatology was associated with higher HbA1c values among participants with low social support. There was a significant association between psychological trauma and higher HbA1c values 12months [mean 7.5, 95% CI 7.0-8.0 for no trauma vs. mean 7.0, 95% CI 6.3-7.6 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.7-9.1 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)] and 6months later [mean 7.2, 95% CI 6.7-7.7 for no trauma vs. mean HbA1c 6.8, 95% CI 6.2-7.4 for trauma with no symptoms vs. mean 8.4, 95% CI 7.6-9.2 for trauma with ≥1 symptom(s)]. High social support attenuated the association between psychological trauma and HbA1c values. T2DM programs may consider activities that would strengthen participants' social support and thereby building on an intrinsic community strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacological treatment of the pathogenetic defects in Type 2 Diabetes. The randomized multi-centre South Danish Diabetes study (SDDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Jeppe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Grodum, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To determine the effect of treatment with insulin Aspart as compared to NPH insulin, together with metformin/placebo and rosiglitazone/placebo. The hypothesis was that combined correction of major pathogenetic defects in type 2 diabetes would result in optimal glycemic control....... Research Design and Methods: A 2-year investigator driven, randomized, partly placebo controlled, multicenter trial in 371 patients with type 2 diabetes on at least oral antiglycemic treatment. Patients were assigned to one of eight treatment groups in a factorial design with insulin aspart at mealtimes vs...

  4. Incidence of diabetes and its mortality according to body mass index in South Koreans aged 40–79 years

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    Jung HH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hae Hyuk Jung, Ji In Park, Jin Seon Jeong Department of Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, South Korea Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess diabetes incidence and all-cause mortality according to baseline body mass index (BMI and to compare relative risks of mortality associated with incident diabetes across various BMI classes in a cohort of South Korean adults.Patients and methods: Based on data from the National Health Insurance database of Korean individuals aged 40–79 years without preexisting diabetes, we calculated BMI at the baseline health examination. We estimated the relative risk of mortality associated with incident diabetes using time-dependent Cox models and considering the time of diabetes diagnosis.Results: We noted 29,307 incident diabetes cases and 22,940 deaths during an 8-year follow-up of the initial cohort (n=436,692 and 73,756 incident diabetes cases and 57,556 deaths during a 10-year follow-up of the replication cohort (n=850,282. Regarding all-cause mortality, time-dependent Cox models revealed statistically significant interactions between diabetes status and baseline BMI class (P=0.018 and P<0.001 in the initial and replication cohorts, respectively. In separately conducted analyses for each BMI class, diabetes-associated relative risks for BMI values of 16.0–18.4, 18.5–22.9, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–29.9, and 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 were 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–2.07, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.26–1.54, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.08–1.35, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30, and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.74–1.28 in the initial cohort, and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.18–1.74, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.26–1.41, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.16–1.31, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05–1.17, and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.85–1.16 in the replication cohort. The increasing trend of relative risk with decreasing BMI persisted mostly among subgroups stratified according to age or sex and smoking status

  5. Cross tropopause flux observed at sub-daily scales over the south Indian monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, A.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Parameswaran, K.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of deep convection on the thermal structure and dynamics of the tropical tropopause at sub daily scales is investigated using data from radiosondes launched over two sites in the Indian Monsoon region (Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E)) conducted between December 2010 and March 2014. The data from these soundings are classified into 5 convective categories based on the past, present and future cloudiness over the launching region after the radiosonde has reached tropopause altitude. They are denoted as category 1 (no convection), category 2 (convection may occur in any of the next 3 h), category 3 (convection occurred prior 3 h), category 4 (convection terminated within 3 h of launching) and category 5 (convection persistent throughout the considered period). The anomalies from the background in temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are grouped into the aforementioned five different convective categories for both the stations. Cooling and moisture anomalies are found during the active convection (category 5). The horizontal wind speed showed a strong anomaly indicating the presence of synoptic scale features. Vertical wind obtained simultaneously from the MST radar over Gadanki clearly showed strong updraft during the active convection. The ozone profiles from ozonesondes launched during the same period are also segregated according to the above convective categories. During the active convection, high and low ozone values are found in the upper troposphere and the lower troposphere, respectively. The cross tropopause ozone mass flux and vertical wind at the tropopause and convective outflow level estimated from the ozonesonde, and MST radar/ERA-Interim data showed positive values indicating the transport of ozone between troposphere and stratosphere during deep convection. Similarly, the total mass flux crossing the cold point tropopause over Gadanki showed upward flux during the active convection. The variability of

  6. Association of serum antibodies with protection against rotavirus infection and disease in South Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Lopman, Ben; Ramani, Sasirekha; Paul, Anu; Gladstone, Beryl; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Parashar, Umesh; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    Serum antibodies play an important role in natural protection from rotavirus infection and disease, but conflicting estimates of association have emerged from epidemiological studies in different geographical settings. In this study, we aim to assess the relationship between pre-existing serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA titers with protection against rotavirus infection and disease in a birth cohort of Indian children. Children were recruited at birth and followed up for 36 months. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during episodes of diarrhea and serum samples were obtained at least every 6 months. The incidence rate of rotavirus infection and diarrhea was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99) and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.25) episodes per child year, respectively. The risk of rotavirus infection and diarrhea decreased with age, while antibody titers (IgG and IgA) increased with age. After adjusting for age and number of previous infections, higher levels of IgG and IgA were independently associated with reduced risk of rotavirus infection. However, we did not find a clear association of IgG or IgA with rotavirus diarrhea risk or a threshold level of protection. The study supports a correlation of serum antibodies in reducing the risk of rotavirus infections, however the potential of serum antibody titer as a correlate of protection is not clear for children in lower income settings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Phthalate Esters in South Indian Women with Endometriosis

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    with Endometriosis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the possible association between phthalate esters (PEs and the occurrenceof endometriosis. Blood samples were collected from 99 infertile women with endometriosis (studygroup; 135 age-matched women without endometriosis (control group but with infertility relatedto tubal defects, fibroids, polycystic ovaries, idiopathic infertility and pelvic inflammatory diseasesdiagnosed by laparoscopy with no evidence of endometriosis or other gynecological disordersduring laparoscopic sterilization.Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case-control study, which recruited womenundergoing infertility treatment at three collaborating centers (BMMHRC: Bhagwan MahavirMedical Hospital and Research Centre, MHRT: Maternal Health and Research Trust, and OwaisiHospital and Research Center of Reproductive Medicine Hyderabad, which receives cases fromall over the region of Andhra Pradesh, India. The concentrations of Phthalate Esters were measuredby using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC.Evaluation of Phthalate Esters concentrations in women with endometriosis compared with womenwho are free from the disease.Results: Women with endometriosis showed significantly higher concentrations of Phthalate esters(Dimethyl phthalate (DMP, Diethyl phthalate (DEP, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, Butyl benzylphthalate (BBP and Bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP compared with control group. Wefound that (38% of the cases with endometriosis and (21% of the control group. The correlationbetween the concentrations of Phthalate esters and different severity of endometriosis was strongand statistically significant at p<0.05 for all five compounds (DMP: r=+0.57, p<0.0001; DnBPr=+0.39, p<0.0001; BBP: r=+0.89, p<0.0001; DnOP: r=+0.66, p<0.0001 and BEHP: r=+0.33,p<0.0014.Conclusion: This study for the first time from Indian subcontinent demonstrates that possiblyPhthalate Esters might have a role in etiology of endometriosis.

  8. Evaluation of body composition and its association with cardio respiratory fitness in south Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents.

  9. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca K; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    (FPG), 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), 2 h post-load serum insulin (2hSI), HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-S) and secretion (HOMA2-B), and the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) among 120 South Asian and 867 white participants who developed diabetes during.......03) and a higher FPG level at diagnosis (0.27 mmol/l; 95% CI 0.06, 0.48; p = 0.01). They also had higher FSI and 2hSI levels before and at diabetes diagnosis. South Asians had a faster decline and lower HOMA2-S (log e -transformed) at diagnosis compared with white individuals (0.33; 95% CI 0.21, 0.46; p ....001). HOMA2-B increased in both ethnic groups until 7 years before diagnosis and then declined; the initial increase was faster in white individuals. ISI0,120 declined steeply in both groups before diagnosis; levels were lower among South Asians before and at diagnosis. There were no ethnic differences in 2h...

  10. Ethnic differences in C-peptide levels and anti-GAD antibodies in South African patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, R P; Grobbee, D E

    2001-01-01

    To determine differences between Black and White South Africans with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and between Black patients on insulin vs. those on oral agents presenting with DKA, post stabilization fasting C-peptide levels and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies were measured together with serum glucose, acid base and urine ketones on admission. Of 60 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (76 admissions), the 43 Black patients had a higher BMI (23.1 vs. 20.0 kg/m(2), p=0.05) than did the 17 White patients, were more often newly diagnosed (37% vs. 1%, p=0.03), and a greater proportion of Black patients had fasting C-peptide levels >0.3 nmol/l (28% (10/36) vs. 0%, p=0.03). Of these 10 Black patients, eight were anti-GAD-negative. Thirteen Black patients (33%) were anti-GAD-positive vs. 10 (67%) White patients (p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference in anti-GAD positivity between Black patients on oral agents or those on insulin. Most patients (5/7) admitted on oral agents had negative C-peptide levels after stabilization. Our results suggest that in patients presenting with DKA, a quarter of Black South Africans have C-peptide levels regarded as being indicative of type 2 DM and are less frequently anti-GAD-antibody-positive than are White South Africans.

  11. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes melitus and its risk factors among the rural population of Pondicherry, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Ghorpade, Arun Gangadhar

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of type-2 diabetes in rural Pondicherry and to study the determinants of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the rural population of Pondicherry, south Induia. It was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted from November 2010 to January 2012 in two of the field practice villages affiliated to a Medical College in Pondicherry. Sample size was calculated using open source software, Open Epi Version 2.3.10. The sampling frame comprised individuals aged above 25 years and single stage cluster random sampling was carried out. After obtaining the verbal informed consent each of the study participants were interviewed face-to-face using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 16. The age of the study participants ranged from 25 to 98 years with mean of 42.6 (±13.7) and majority of the study participants 339 (32.5%) from the age-group of 30-39 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.8% (60-69 years), 17.1% (40-49 years), 16.8% (50-59 years), and 13.6% (>69 years) among study subjects. In univariate analysis, higher age, being educated, unemployed and poor was associated with higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). Furthermore, a high triglyceride level was significantly associated with increase in the risk of DM (adjusted odds ratio: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.86, 4.86). Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important public health problem in the adults of rural Pondicherry. Among non-modifiable factors, higher age, better socio-educational background and positive family history of diabetes was significantly associated with T2DM.

  12. Effectiveness of a group diabetes education programme in underserved communities in South Africa: pragmatic cluster randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mash Bob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa and prevalence rates as high as 33% have been recorded in Cape Town. Previous studies show that quality of care and health outcomes are poor. The development of an effective education programme should impact on self-care, lifestyle change and adherence to medication; and lead to better control of diabetes, fewer complications and better quality of life. Methods Trial design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial Participants: Type 2 diabetic patients attending 45 public sector community health centres in Cape Town Interventions: The intervention group will receive 4 sessions of group diabetes education delivered by a health promotion officer in a guiding style. The control group will receive usual care which consists of ad hoc advice during consultations and occasional educational talks in the waiting room. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the group diabetes education programme Outcomes: Primary outcomes: diabetes self-care activities, 5% weight loss, 1% reduction in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes: self-efficacy, locus of control, mean blood pressure, mean weight loss, mean waist circumference, mean HbA1c, mean total cholesterol, quality of life Randomisation: Computer generated random numbers Blinding: Patients, health promoters and research assistants could not be blinded to the health centre’s allocation Numbers randomized: Seventeen health centres (34 in total will be randomly assigned to either control or intervention groups. A sample size of 1360 patients in 34 clusters of 40 patients will give a power of 80% to detect the primary outcomes with 5% precision. Altogether 720 patients were recruited in the intervention arm and 850 in the control arm giving a total of 1570. Discussion The study will inform policy makers and managers of the district health system, particularly in low to middle income countries, if this programme can

  13. The association between physical activity and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus of European and South Asian origin: The Oxford Sexual Dysfunction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavige, Lasantha S; Wijesekara, Pabasi; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Levy, Jonathan C

    2015-11-05

    The present study aims to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and sexual dysfunction amongst an ethnic South Asian population living in the United Kingdom and compare the association with that of the native Caucasian population. Twenty-five general practitioner clinics from eight primary care trusts in the United Kingdom collaborated in the Oxford Sexual Dysfunction Study. In each practice, a sample of diabetic and non-diabetic patients of European/Europid and South Asian origin were invited for the study. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was assessed using a five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function. Premature ejaculation (PE) was diagnosed using the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool. Libido was assessed by asking participants to grade their desire for sexual activity. Physical activity during the past week was assessed using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A binary logistic regression analysis was performed in all adults, Europids and South Asians with 'presence of ED' as the dichotomous dependent variable (0 = ED absent; 1 = ED present) and age, diabetes status, physical activity, ethnicity, current smoking and use of antihypertensive medications as the independent variables. Sample size was 510, and mean age was 56.9 ± 9.7 years. There were 63.9 % (n = 326) Europid males in the study population. The prevalence of ED was 64.5 % and it was significantly higher in men with diabetes than in those without diabetes (84.4 vs. 49.0 %, p diabetes 32.6 %, without diabetes 25.8 %; p = 0.109). Reduced libido was reported by 26.9 % of study participants (with diabetes 32.8 %, without diabetes 22.0 %; p physical activity of the study population was 2373 (3612) MET-min/week. In the IPAQ categorical score, 36.8 % (n = 184/434) males were 'highly active', and 17.8 % (n = 89/434) were 'inactive'. In all adults, age (OR: 1.06), South Asian ethnicity (OR: 1.40), physical

  14. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  15. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  16. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  17. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  18. Dietary acid load and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease of diabetic nephropathy in Westernized South Asian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Else; Hospers, Frédérique A P; Navis, Gerjan; Engberink, Marielle F; Brink, Elizabeth J; Geleijnse, Johanna M; van Baak, Marleen A; Gans, Rijk O B; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is now the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries of the world. Despite increasing implementation of preventive treatment, the chance that an individual diabetic patient will reach end-stage renal failure has been increasing rather than decreasing during recent decades. Current dietary habits in The Netherlands and the rest of the Western world are slowly shifting from relatively alkalinizing (e.g., potatoes and vegetables) toward more acidifying (e.g., rice and meat). Moreover, immigrants who consumed traditional diets in their homelands, usually adapt to Western dietary habits. This phenomenon of diet acculturation could, for instance, be involved in the up to 40 times higher chance of development of end-stage renal failure in association with diabetes in South-Asian immigrants compared with whites, in Western countries. High ingestion of nonvolatile acids with food increases susceptibility for progression to end-stage renal failure. These high dietary acid loads lead to compensatory increases in renal acid excretion and ammoniagenesis. The price paid for maintenance of acid-base homeostasis is renal tubulointerstitial injury, with subsequent decline in renal function and induction of hypertension. The tendency for metabolic acidosis that results from the changing dietary habits could be corrected by a shift toward more alkalinizing food. We hypothesize that promoting such a shift can prevent the epidemic of end-stage renal failure in diabetes.

  19. Simulating the characteristics of tropical cyclones over the South West Indian Ocean using a Stretched-Grid Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoyi, Molulaqhooa L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Veitch, Jennifer J.

    2018-03-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating natural phenomena. This study examines the capability of a global climate model with grid stretching (CAM-EULAG, hereafter CEU) in simulating the characteristics of TCs over the South West Indian Ocean (SWIO). In the study, CEU is applied with a variable increment global grid that has a fine horizontal grid resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) over the SWIO and coarser resolution (1° × 1°—2° × 2.25°) over the rest of the globe. The simulation is performed for the 11 years (1999-2010) and validated against the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best track data, global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) satellite data, and ERA-Interim (ERAINT) reanalysis. CEU gives a realistic simulation of the SWIO climate and shows some skill in simulating the spatial distribution of TC genesis locations and tracks over the basin. However, there are some discrepancies between the observed and simulated climatic features over the Mozambique channel (MC). Over MC, CEU simulates a substantial cyclonic feature that produces a higher number of TC than observed. The dynamical structure and intensities of the CEU TCs compare well with observation, though the model struggles to produce TCs with a deep pressure centre as low as the observed. The reanalysis has the same problem. The model captures the monthly variation of TC occurrence well but struggles to reproduce the interannual variation. The results of this study have application in improving and adopting CEU for seasonal forecasting over the SWIO.

  20. Seamount influences on mid-water shrimps (Decapoda) and gnathophausiids (Lophogastridea) of the South-West Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letessier, Tom B.; De Grave, Sammy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Kemp, Kirsty M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2017-02-01

    Maintenance of often-observed elevated levels of pelagic diversity and biomass on seamounts, of relevance to conservation and fishery management, involves complex interactions between physical and biological variables that remain poorly understood. To untangle these biophysical processes we explore factors influencing the distribution of epi- and meso-pelagic (0-1000 m) micronektonic crustaceans (>15 mm; order Lophogastridea, family Gnathophausiidea; and order Decapoda) on and off seamounts along the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR, 27° to 42°S) and on a seamount off the Madagascar Ridge (31.6°S, 42.8°E). Thirty-one species of micronektic crustaceans were caught using mid-water trawls within the study area but there was no apparent latitude-related patterns in species richness or abundance. Species richness predicted by rarefraction curves and numerical abundance was highest in the vicinity (seamounts (species richness: 15 to 21; abundance: 10±2 to 20±1 ind.10-3 m-1) compared with over the abyssal plains and ridge slopes (species richness: 9.2-9.9; abundance: 24±2 to 79±8 ind.10-3 m-1). Multivariate analysis of assemblage composition revealed significant groupings of individual trawl samples with respect to whether the sample was on or off a seamount and hydrographic region, but not with time of sampling relative to diel cycle (day/night or dawn) or depth of sampling (0-500, 500-800, >800 m). The dominant species assemblage comprised the shrimps Systellaspis debilis (37%) and Sergia prehensilis (34%), and was restricted to seamounts on the subtropical SWIR. Our observations suggest that the 'oasis effect' of seamounts conventionally associated with higher trophic levels is also applicable to pelagic micronektic crustaceans at lower trophic levels. We suggest that the enhanced biomass and species richness attributed is due to 'habitat enrichment', whereby seamounts provide favourable habitats for both pelagic and bentho-pelagic mid-water crustaceans.

  1. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Clemma J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

  2. Heat Flow on the South West Indian Ridge at 14°E and the Consequences for Microbiological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, N. E.; Molari, M.; Boetius, A.

    2014-12-01

    During RV POLARSTERN cruise PS81 to the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) at 52°S, 14°E an integrated study was carried out in more than 4000 m water depth employing seismology, geology, microbiology, deep-sea ecology, heat flow and others. Heat flow is supposed to be an indicator for the varying depth of the magma chamber beneath the ridge axis. Bottom observations from previous work on the SWIR are scarce and visual information about geostructures, habitat landscapes, benthic faunal communities and their distribution in this area have so far been missing. Vigorous fluid flow in the form of black smokers or shimmering water could not be detected but enhanced heat flow due to upward pore water migration occurred. This leads to values of very high heat flow (up to 850 mW/m2) and advection rates up to 25 cm/a Darcy velocity. Enhanced biomass and a greater variation of megafauna along those sites of high heat flow could be inferred from reconnaissance observations with a camera sledge. A closer investigation of microbial activity in the material of gravity corers revealed favorable living conditions for microorganisms. We find the inorganic carbon fixation rates, here applied like a proxy of microbial metabolic activity, were significantly higher (up to 7 times higher) in surficial sediments in proximity of the station PS 81/640 compared to other stations along the ridge. Conversely the extracellular enzymatic activities did not show any significant difference in the potential organic matter degradation between the stations investigated. These results suggest an increase of chemosynthetic activities at St PS 81/649, possibly related to increase of availability of reduced compounds (i.e. sulphide, reduced metals) in presence of pore water flow.

  3. Awareness of diabetic foot disease amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the chronic outpatients department at a regional hospital in Durban, South Africa

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    Thea T. Goie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic foot disease (DFD is a major challenge for the healthcare system, with enormous economic consequences for people living with diabetes, their families, and society, affecting both quality of life and quality of care. The study aim was to assess the level of awareness of DFD amongst patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methods: An observational descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic outpatients department of a regional hospital in Durban, South Africa.Results: Two hundred participants with T2DM participated in the study. Ninety-one per cent of participants were either overweight or obese. Ninety-two per cent of participants had concomitant hypertension (57.5%, dyslipidaemia (26.7% and eye disease (7.2%. Seventy-six per cent reported altered sensation in their lower limbs, and 90% reported having no previous DFD education. Only 22.2% of participants reported having examined their feet, but only when they experienced a problem. Participants achieved mediocre scores for knowledge (mean 4.45, standard deviation (s.d. 2.201, confidence interval (CI 4.2–4.7 and practice (mean 11.09, s.d. 2.233, CI 10.8–11.5 on diabetic foot care (DFC. Those who had a higher level of education and who were less than 65 years old had a significantly better score for previous foot care education (p < 0.05.Conclusion: The study demonstrated that awareness of DFD was suboptimal, based on current DFC guidelines. To minimise the burden of DFD, improved screening and prevention programmes as well as patient education should be provided to T2DM patients, whilst maintaining an aggressive approach to risk factor modifications, footwear and identifying the at-risk foot.

  4. Anxiety, depression and psychological well-being in a cohort of South African adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Samantha Ramkisson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM has increased at alarming rates globally. South Africa has the second highest number of people in Africa living with DM, with prevalence rates being among the top five countries in Africa. Accordingly, psychological issues associated with DM have been a growing focus of attention. Studies have found that patients with DM have elevated levels of anxiety and depression, and decreased levels of well-being. In South Africa, there is a paucity of studies on the psychological issues associated with DM. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to explore the prevalence and association of anxiety, depressive features and psychological well-being in patients with Type 2 DM. Method: In a cross-sectional survey, patients with Type 2 DM were recruited from public and private facilities. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and WHO-5 Well-being Index (WHO-5 were administered. Results: Four hundred and one participants completed the questionnaires. On the WHO-5, 277 (69% reported good well-being, while 124 (31% indicated poor well-being and were considered at risk for depressive features. On the HADS, 186 (46% had mild-to-severe depressive features and 128 (32% had mild-to-severe anxiety. There was a strong negative correlation between the WHO-5, HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ scales, which indicated that an increase in anxiety and depressive features decreased psychological well-being. Conclusion: Health-care providers should identify and treat anxiety and depression as a standard part of diabetes care. Patients should also be referred to the appropriate mental health professional as part of the management of diabetes. Keywords: type 2 diabetes; anxiety;depression;psychological well-being; adults

  5. The Management of Diabetes among the Rural Poor in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d) A flush or chemical toilet, e) A telephone in the dwelling or a cellular phone, f ) refuse removal at least once a week .... to eat. I never saw the nurse but I knew it was diabetes then.” “The doctor told me that my problem was diabetes. He said old people have it and young people too but that mine is old people's diabetes.”.

  6. Renal outcome of type 2 diabetes in South Africa - a 12-year follow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are few long-term follow-up studies evaluating renal prognosis in type 2 diabetes. In 1982 Fabre et al.1 reported minimal renal impairment with almost no deaths due to chronic renal failure in type 2 diabetic patients after 0-35 years of follow-up.' As our experience of type 2 diabetes in a developing country did not ...

  7. Environmentally Driven Increases in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Pima Indians and Non-Pimas in Mexico Over a 15-Year Period: The Maycoba Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Romero, Julian; Valencia, Mauro E; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Chaudhari, Lisa S; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Ravussin, Eric; Bennett, Peter H; Schulz, Leslie O

    2015-11-01

    The global epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity have been attributed to the interaction between lifestyle changes and genetic predisposition to these diseases. We compared the prevalences of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians, presumed to have a high genetic predisposition to these diseases, to those in their non-Pima neighbors, both of whom over a 15-year period experienced a transition from a traditional to a more modern lifestyle. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity in Mexican Pimas (n = 359) and non-Pima Mexicans (n = 251) were determined in 2010 using methods identical to those used in 1995. During this 15-year period, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was unchanged in Pima men (5.8% in 1995 vs. 6.1% in 2010) yet increased in non-Pima men from 0.0 to 8.6% (P obesity increased significantly in all groups (6.6 vs. 15.7% in Pima men; 8.5 vs. 20.5% in non-Pima men; 18.9. vs 36.3% in Pima women; 29.5 vs. 42.9% in non-Pima women). Type 2 diabetes prevalence increased between 1995 and 2010 in non-Pima men, and to a lesser degree in women of both groups, but it did not increase in Pima men. Prevalence of obesity increased among Pimas and non-Pimas of both sexes. These changes occurred concomitantly with an environmental transition from a traditional to a more modernized lifestyle. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus in privately- funded diabetic patients attending a rural optometric practice in Malmesbury, South Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Phillips

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patient knowledge about diabetes mellitus (DM and appropriate timely management with respect to the condition are important factors for limiting the complications of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and practices regarding DM, its ocular effects and management protocols among privately-funded diabetic patients. A questionnaire containing questions on these issues and certain demographics was provided to 73 self-funding or privately-funded diabetic patients attending an optometric practice in a rural district of the Western Cape. Respondents ages ranged from 33 to 80 years (mean = 57 ± 11.2 years and included 59% males and 41% females. Above half(56% of the respondents knew that there were two main types of DM. Less than half (46% of the respondents reported having Type 2 DM, 4% reported having Type 1 DM and 49% did not knowwhat type of DM they had. Although 82% of the respondents reported owning a glucometer and 98% knew that controlling their blood sugar levels may help reduce diabetic complications, only 29% measured their blood sugar levels on a daily basis. Most respondents (97% agreed that DM could affect their vision yet only 37% stated that they had annual eye examinations. A significant proportion of the respondents did not know that DM could cause strabismus (57%, colour vision problems (44%, cataracts (41%, retinopathy (37% and contribute to causing glaucoma (63%. Most respondents took their medication regularly and as prescribed (89% and underwent regular medical check-ups (82%. However, a large proportion of the respondents did not exercise regularly (61%, had no regular eye testing (63% nor Body Mass Index (BMI monitoring (84% in their manage-ment of DM. This study indicates that, despite access to private health care, these subjects level of knowledge of DM and its ocular effects was sub-optimal. It also indicated poor self-management practices of the diabetic patients towards diabetes care and

  9. Simulation of the anthropogenic aerosols over South Asia and their effects on Indian summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhenming [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kang, Shichang [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Dongfeng [Shanxi Meteorological Bureau, Taiyuan (China); Zhu, Chunzi [Nanjing University of Information Science Technology, College of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jia; Xu, Ying [National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    A regional climate model coupled with a chemistry-aerosol model is employed to simulate the anthropogenic aerosols including sulfate, black carbon and organic carbon and their direct effect on climate over South Asia. The model is driven by the NCAR/NCEP re-analysis data. Multi-year simulations with half, normal and double emission fluxes are conducted. Results show that the model performs well in reproducing present climate over the region. Simulations of the aerosol optical depth and surface concentration of aerosols are also reasonable although to a less extent. The negative radiative forcing is found at the top of atmosphere and largely depended on emission concentration. Surface air temperature decreases by 0.1-0.5 C both in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. The range and intensity of cooling areas enlarge while aerosol emission increases. Changes in precipitation are between -25 and 25%. Different diversifications of rainfall are showed with three emission scenarios. The changes of precipitation are consistent with varieties of monsoon onset dates in pre-monsoon season. In the regions of increasing precipitation, monsoon onset is advanced and vice versa. In northeast India and Myanmar, aerosols lead the India summer monsoon onset advancing 1-2 pentads, and delaying by 1-2 pentads in central and southeast India. These changes are mainly caused by the anomaly of local Hadley circulations and enhancive precipitation. Tibetan Plateau played a crucial role in the circulation changes. (orig.)

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Seerangan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats.

  11. Investigation of VSX1 sequence variants in South Indian patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anshuman; Das, Manoranjan; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2013-03-18

    The involvement of VSX1 gene for the genetic basis of keratoconus is unclear and controversial. The genetic screening of VSX1 from different ethnic populations can enlighten this subject. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of VSX1 gene in patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus from South India. The VSX1 gene coding regions, including exon-intron boundaries were screened by direct sequencing analysis in 117 sporadic cases of keratoconus. The identified variations were also analyzed in 108 ethnic matched healthy blood donors. In the VSX1 gene screening, no pathogenic mutation was identified, whereas we could find the presence of four reported single nucleotide polymorphisms; c.546A>G (rs12480307), c.627+23G>A (rs6138482), c.627+84T>A (rs56157240) and c.504-24C>T (IVS3-24C). These variations were observed in similar frequency between cases and controls. The lack of VSX1 pathogenic variations in a large number of unrelated sporadic keratoconus patients tend to omit its role, and corroborate the involvement of other genetic, environmental or behavioural factors in the development of this complex disorder.

  12. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L.; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S.

    2015-01-01

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. PMID:26503681

  13. Three bodies of practice in a traditional South Indian martial art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrilli, P B

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes three interconnected conceptions of the body in kalarippayattu, the martial tradition of Kerala, South India. It traces continuities and discontinuities among concepts and practices recorded in classic source texts and contemporary martial practice for each of the three 'bodies of practice'. The first is the fluid body of humors and saps. The second is the body as superstructure composed of bones, muscles, and vital spots (marma-s), which supports the fluid body. The concepts and practices of the first two bodies are based on the regional tradition of Ayurveda. They constitute the external physical body (sthula-śarira). The third, subtle or interior body (suksma-śarira) is thought to be encased within the physical body. It provides an experiential map of practice and is the basis for higher stages of meditation. The long-term practice of the martial art (1) makes the body fluid so that healthful congruence of the humors occurs, (2) establishes an intuitive and practical knowledge of vital points (marma) useful in fighting (prayogam) and in treating injuries, and (3) purifies the subtle body and awakens the internal vital energy (prana-vayu) that is manifest as the power (śakti) of the master in combat or medical practice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the interrelationship between these three concepts of the body in the accomplished practice of the martial practitioner.

  14. Skills, division of labour and economies of scale among Amazonian hunters and South Indian honey collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Demps, Kathryn; Gurven, Michael; Gerkey, Drew; Kaplan, Hillard S

    2015-12-05

    In foraging and other productive activities, individuals make choices regarding whether and with whom to cooperate, and in what capacities. The size and composition of cooperative groups can be understood as a self-organized outcome of these choices, which are made under local ecological and social constraints. This article describes a theoretical framework for explaining the size and composition of foraging groups based on three principles: (i) the sexual division of labour; (ii) the intergenerational division of labour; and (iii) economies of scale in production. We test predictions from the theory with data from two field contexts: Tsimane' game hunters of lowland Bolivia, and Jenu Kuruba honey collectors of South India. In each case, we estimate the impacts of group size and individual group members' effort on group success. We characterize differences in the skill requirements of different foraging activities and show that individuals participate more frequently in activities in which they are more efficient. We evaluate returns to scale across different resource types and observe higher returns at larger group sizes in foraging activities (such as hunting large game) that benefit from coordinated and complementary roles. These results inform us that the foraging group size and composition are guided by the motivated choice of individuals on the basis of relative efficiency, benefits of cooperation, opportunity costs and other social considerations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Studies on isozymic variation among the South Indian species of Sphaerostephanos.

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    Varaprasadham, Irudayaraj; Marimuthu, Johnson

    2011-08-01

    To explore the identity and phylogenetic relationships among the three medicinally important species of Sphaerostephanos from South India using isozymic profile. The young fronds were homogenized with 3.5 mL of ice-cold homogenizing buffer in a pre-chilled pestle and mortar. The supernatant was subjected to electrophoresis as described by Anbalagan poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining solutions for isoperoxidase was prepared as per Smila method for the detection of isoenzymes. A total of six different bands in five different positions with different molecular weight/Rf values and four active zones have been observed in the isoperoxidase enzyme system of Sphaerostephanos. Only one band with MW/Rf 0.399 is common to two different species i.e. Sphaerostephanos arbuscula (S. arbuscula) and Sphaerostephanos unitus (S. unitus). Among the remaining four bands, two bands (Rf. 0.23, 0.47) are present in Sphaerostephanos subtruncatus (S. subtruncatus) and one distinct band has been observed individually in S. arbuscula (Rf. 0.507) and S. unitus (Rf. 0.56). The present preliminary molecular study through isozymic analysis shows the identity of all the three species and the present results confirm distinctness of these three species based on macro-micromorphology, phytochemistry and cytology.

  16. A simple Indian diabetes risk score could help identify nondiabetic individuals at high risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (CURES-117).

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    Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Vamsi, Mamilla; Deepa, Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2012-11-01

    We aim to determine whether a simple Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS) is associated with individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among nondiabetic Asian Indians. Nondiabetic participants (n = 409) were selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Mean age was 40 ± 11.9 years, mean body mass index was 23.2 ± 3.9 kg/m(2), and 224 (54.8%) were women. The IDRS was classified as high (≥60), medium (30-50), and low (<30) risk. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was assessed by high-resolution β mode ultrasonography. To determine the factors associated with NAFLD, a univariate analysis was first done and a stepwise logistic regression analysis was done based on the factors associated with NAFLD. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 24.7% (101/409 participants), and it was significantly higher among those with a high (30.4%) and medium IDRS (21%) compared with the low IDRS group (15.8%; trend chi square; p = .022). In stepwise logistic regression, IDRS was associated with NAFLD with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.78 (95% confidence interval 1.04-3.06), even after adjusting for potential confounders. The IDRS can be used as the initial step to screen individuals at high risk of NAFLD in the community. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Sociocultural and structural perpetuators of domestic violence in pregnancy: A qualitative look at what South Indian women believe needs to change.

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    D'Silva, Sahana; Frey, Sarah; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Manhart, Lisa E; Kaysen, Debra; Andu, Eaden; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    In India, reported rates of domestic violence rise as high as 31%. Abuse against pregnant women in India is associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms, and poor birth outcomes, yet no evidence-based interventions have been tested on this population. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, we sought perspective on South Indian women's concerns about abuse during pregnancy and what they believed would help. Participants cited economic dependence on husbands and sociocultural structures as factors perpetuating domestic violence. Women also described resilience factors that can protect against abuse. Our participants highlighted a requisite for interventions within health and social systems.

  18. Identification, prevalence, and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in patients from a rural area in South Carolina

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    Pruitt III J

    2017-04-01

    -DN received adequate pharmacological agents, though suboptimal as per clinical guidelines. More than 50% of the patients used subtherapeutic doses of their medications. Gabapentin was the most frequently used medication in our population (65.4%. Patients in rural South Carolina had a higher prevalence of DPN and p-DN with >60% undocumented cases of p-DN. More than 95% of treated patients did not receive optimum therapy according to AAN guidelines. Keywords: polysensory neuropathy, pharmacist-led diabetes clinic, diabetes educator, gabapentin, chronic pain free clinic, pain, gabapentin

  19. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to control cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in South Asia: a systematic review

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    Singh, Kavita; Chandrasekaran, Ambalam M; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Gamage, Anuji Upekshika; Silva, Padmal De; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives More than 80% of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) burden now lies in low and middle-income countries. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify and implement the most cost-effective interventions, particularly in the resource-constraint South Asian settings. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of individual-level, group-level and population-level interventions to control CVD and DM in South Asia. Methods We searched 14 electronic databases up to August 2016. The search strategy consisted of terms related to ‘economic evaluation’, ‘CVD’, ‘DM’ and ‘South Asia’. Per protocol two reviewers assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of studies using standard checklists, and extracted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of interventions. Results Of the 2949 identified studies, 42 met full inclusion criteria. Critical appraisal of studies revealed 15 excellent, 18 good and 9 poor quality studies. Most studies were from India (n=37), followed by Bangladesh (n=3), Pakistan (n=2) and Bhutan (n=1). The economic evaluations were based on observational studies (n=9), randomised trials (n=12) and decision models (n=21). Together, these studies evaluated 301 policy or clinical interventions or combination of both. We found a large number of interventions were cost-effective aimed at primordial prevention (tobacco taxation, salt reduction legislation, food labelling and food advertising regulation), and primary and secondary prevention (multidrug therapy for CVD in high-risk group, lifestyle modification and metformin treatment for diabetes prevention, and screening for diabetes complications every 2–5 years). Significant heterogeneity in analytical framework and outcome measures used in these studies restricted meta-analysis and direct ranking of the interventions by their degree of cost-effectiveness. Conclusions The cost-effectiveness evidence for CVD and DM interventions in South Asia

  20. Study on risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South India

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    Senthilvel Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To find the severities status of diabetic retinopathy(DRamong the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the association of the severities of diabetic retinopathy with duration of DR, HbA1C levels, history of hypertension, age and gender in the study population.METHODS:Hospital based cross-sectional studies with sample of 100 patients with DR were selected by using simple random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire was conducted in May to June 2012. The study participants those who with DR aged ≥35 years were included in this study and an oral consent was also collected from the study participants. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed. MS Excel spread sheet was used for data entry and data analysis was done by using SPSS 21.0 version. Statistical significance was taken as PRESULTS:Out of 100 patients, mean age of the patient was found as 53.16±10.81(range 35-78y. By univariate analysis, there was a positive relationship between diabetic retinopathy severity and age(PPPPP>0.05 by Mann Whitney u-test. All these factors were found as independent risk factors with the severity of DR except the factor age.CONCLUSION:This study was concluded that the duration of DM, HbA1C levels, family history of DM, History of hypertension and gender were independently associated with severity of DR. However, the factors like age and HDL weren't significant with severity of DR in multivariate analysis. Therefore, by using the availability of the existing treatment