WorldWideScience

Sample records for diabetes mellitus complicated

  1. Neuromuscular complications of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Vera

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a modern global epidemic, with steadily increasing prevalence rates related to lifestyle such that 27% of individuals aged 65 years or older have diabetes mellitus, 95% of whom have type 2. This article reviews the effects of diabetes mellitus on the neuromuscular system. Diabetes mellitus leads to diverse forms of peripheral neuropathy as the major neuromuscular complication. Both focal and diffuse types of neuropathy can develop, with the most common form being diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Small fibers are damaged early in the development of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and are not assessed by nerve conduction studies. Small fiber damage occurs even in the prediabetes stage. No disease-modifying therapy for diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy is available at this time, but this complication can be limited in patients who have type 1 diabetes mellitus with strict glycemic control; the same outcome is not clearly observed in patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, the evidence base for symptomatic treatments of painful diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy underwent systematic review. Effective evidence-based treatments include some anticonvulsants (eg, pregabalin, gabapentin), antidepressants (eg, amitriptyline, duloxetine), opioids (eg, morphine sulfate, oxycodone), capsaicin cream, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. This article reviews the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and discusses recent consensus opinion on the objective confirmation needed for the diagnosis in the clinical research setting. The evidence from clinical trials shows that intensive glycemic control reduces prevalence of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, but variable outcomes are observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Finally, despite the lack of disease-modifying treatment, effective evidence-based therapy can

  2. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W

    2015-04-15

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema.

  3. Oral Manifestations and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y.; Al-Sudairy, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as periodontal disease, fungal infection and salivary dysfunction while other complications are mentioned briefly. PMID:21969888

  4. Knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, F.; Afridi, A.K.; Rahim, F.; Ashfaq, M.; Khan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Results: Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 ± 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 ± 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Conclusions: Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus. (author)

  5. Diabetes mellitus complicating β-thalassemia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of beta-thalassemia major complicated by diabetes mellitus in a Fiji national is presented. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this complication are highlighted. Keywords: β-thalassemia, diabetes mellitus, iron overload. Annals of African Medicine Vol.2(1) 2003: 36-38 ...

  6. COMPLICATIONS AND OUTCOMES OF PREGNANCY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bondar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the complications and examine the outcomes of pregnancy in women with compensated gestational diabetes mellitus.We studied outcomes and complications of pregnancy in 50 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, the effects of gestational diabetes on the fetus.The average age of pregnant women was (33.7 ± 5.7 years. The incidence of gestoses and placental insufficiency in compensated gestational diabetes mellitus was 84%, polyhydramnios – 36%, the fetus fetopathy – 48% of cases. Births in period occurred in 96% of cases, the frequency of fetal malformations consistent with population-based indicators.Gestational diabetes mellitus affects the development of gestosis and fetoplacental insufficiency, even when the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism after the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  7. Visual complications in diabetes mellitus: beyond retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Petropoulos, I N; Ponirakis, G; Malik, R A

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetes mellitus; however, other causes of visual impairment/loss include other retinal and non-retinal visual problems, including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and cataracts. Additionally, when a person with diabetes complains of visual disturbance despite a visual acuity of 6/6, abnormalities in refraction, contrast sensitivity, straylight and amplitude of accommodation should be considered. We review and highlight these visual problems for physicians who manage people with diabetes to ensure timely referral and treatment to limit visual disability, which can have a significant impact on daily living, especially for those participating in sports and driving. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus : prevention of macrovascular complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwisse-Pasterkamp, Susanne H; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects a rapidly increasing number of patients. Most patients with Type 2 diabetes will develop vascular complications. This may be microvascular disease, such as nephropathy, retinopathy or polyneuropathy, and also macrovascular disease, such as coronary

  9. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  10. Neglected-Noncompliant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdal .

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiabetes mellitus (DM tipe 1 merupakan kelainan sistemik akibat terjadinya gangguan metabolisme glukosayang ditandai oleh hiperglikemia kronis. Keadaan ini disebabkan oleh proses autoimun yang merusak sel βpankreas sehingga produksi insulin berkurang bahkan terhenti, penderitanya akan memerlukan asupan insulineksogen. Penyakit ini menimbulkan komplikasi kronik sehingga memerlukan manajemen pengobatan yangberkelanjutan dan edukasi pada pasien serta keluarganya. Penyakit yang tidak terkontrol akan menimbulkanberbagai komplikasi metabolisme, gangguan makrovaskular dan mikrovaskular yang menyebabkan penurunankualitas dan harapan hidup penderita.Kata Kunci : Diabetes melitus tipe 1, makrovaskular, mikrovaskularAbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM type 1 is a result of the systemic disorder of glucose metabolism disorder characterized bychronic hyperglycemia. This situation is caused by the autoimmune processes that destroy pancreatic β cellsresulting in the production of insulin is reduced even halted, the sufferer will require exogenous insulin intake. Thisraises the complications of chronic disease that requires ongoing medication management and education forpatients and their families. Uncontrolled disease will cause various metabolic complications, macrovascular andmicrovascular disorders that cause loss of quality and life expectancy of the patient.Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, macrovascular, microvascular

  11. Relation of retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to other diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation between systemic complications and diabetic retinopathy in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: Seven hundred and two hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes were included. All patients were divided into two groups according to with or without retinopathy: NDR group and DR group. DR group was divided into group non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRand group proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR. The relation between DR and other complications of diabetes, including diabetic macrovascular complications, diabetic nephropathy(DN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN, peripheral vascular disease of diabetes mellitus(PVD, diabetic foot(DF, diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA, was analyzed.RESULTS: The development of DR was related to hypertension, hyperlipemia, carotid atherosclerosis and plaque, lower extremity arteriosclerosis and plaque, DN, DPN, DF and PVD. PDR was closely associated with hypertension and DPN. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DR increased in the diabetic patients with systemic complications, especially, the increase of prevalence of PDR in the patients with hypertension and DPN. Vascular endothelial injury and microcirculatory disturbance are the common pathologic base for DR and other complications. Therefore, it is important to carry out the regular fundus examination in the diabetic patients, especially in those with systemic complication, in order to decrease the rate of blindness.

  12. Serum metabolite signatures of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Xie, Guoxiang; Ni, Yan; Liu, Tao; Yang, Ming; Wei, Huafeng; Jia, Wei; Ji, Guang

    2015-01-02

    A number of metabolic conditions, including hypoglycemia, high blood pressure (HBP), dyslipidemia, nerve damage and amputation, and vision problems, occur as a result of uncontrolled blood glucose levels over a prolonged period of time. The different components of diabetic complications are not independent but rather interdependent of each other, rendering the disease difficult to diagnose and control. The underlying pathogenesis of those components cannot be easily elucidated because of the heterogeneous, polygenic, and multifactorial nature of the disease. Metabonomics offers a snapshot of distinct biochemical variations that may reflect the unique metabolic phenotype under pathophysiological conditions. Here we report a mass-spectrometry-based metabonomic study designed to identify the distinct metabolic changes associated with several complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The 292 patients recruited in the study were divided into five groups, including T2DM with HBP, T2DM with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), T2DM with HBP and NAFLD, T2DM with HBP and coronary heart disease (CHD), and T2DM with HBP, NAFLD, and CHD. Serum differential metabolites were identified in each group of T2DM complication, mainly involving bile acid, fatty acid, amino acid, lipid, carbohydrate, steroids metabolism, and tricarboxylic acids cycle. These broad-spectrum metabolic changes emphasize the complex abnormalities present among these complications with elevated blood glucose levels, providing a novel strategy for stratifying patients with T2DM complications using blood-based metabolite markers.

  13. Ketosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: complication or compensatory mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kruljac

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exact clinical role of diabetic ketosis in patients presenting to emergency departments with hyperglycemic crises is largely unknown. The aim of this brief review is to provide insights into possible mechanisms and clinical impact of diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crises and clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Patients with T2DM have impaired ketogenesis and lower blood ketone levels. High insulin, low glucagon, IGF-I, ghrelin and adiponectin levels are associated with suppressed ketogenesis. Adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme expressed in skeletal muscle and seems to have pivotal role in impaired ketogenesis. An increase in ketogenesis is associated with weight loss, increase in insulin sensitivity and serum IGF-I levels, which have beneficial effects on glycemia but also on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Ketone bodies are far more efficient fuel sources than glucose, especially in diabetics with heart failure and kidney disease. In theory, ketogenesis in patients with T2DM can be improved by low- carbohydrate and low-calorie diet, physical activity, moderate alcohol use, metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors. SGLT-2 inhibitors are the most potent inducers of ketogenesis. They induce profound glycosuria with a consequent shift to fatty acid metabolism and increased ketogenesis. This could potentially explain how SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin lowers cardiovascular mortality and slowers progression of kidney disease. Therefore, we believe that diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crisis may be a compensatory mechanism, rather than a complication itself. Further prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  14. Ketosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: complication or compensatory mechanism?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kruljac; Miroslav Ćaćić; Petra Ćaćić; Milan Vrkljan

    2016-01-01

    The exact clinical role of diabetic ketosis in patients presenting to emergency departments with hyperglycemic crises is largely unknown. The aim of this brief review is to provide insights into possible mechanisms and clinical impact of diabetic ketosis in patients with hyperglycemic crises and clinical features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM have impaired ketogenesis and lower blood ketone levels. High insulin, low glucagon, IGF-I, ghrelin and adiponectin levels are ...

  15. Sarcopenia: a chronic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Heloísa; Kisielewicz, Gabrielle; Hoffmann Jonasson, Thaísa; Rasmussen Petterle, Ricardo; Aguiar Moreira, Carolina; Zeghbi Cochenski Borba, Victória

    2018-01-01

    Diabetics are at increased risk for impaired mobility and strength, frequently related to the disease control. Sarcopenia is the reduction of muscle mass associated with the decrease in muscle strength and/or performance, resulting in worse morbidity in chronic diseases. The objectives of this paper was to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and determine its association with diabetes characteristics, progression, and complications, as well as changes in bone mineral density. The sample consisted of patients with T2DM followed at the outpatient clinics of the Serviço de Endocrinologia e Metabologia do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, from March to August 2016. Participants were men and women above 18 years with T2DM diagnosed at least 1 year earlier. Individuals with chronic diseases, users of any drug that modifies body composition, patients with body mass index (BMI) > 35 or exam in a dual energy absorptiometry (total body; spine and femur (total and neck)), a handgrip test by manual dynamometer, and an evaluation of the abdominal circumference (AC). The medical records were reviewed seeking diabetes data and laboratory test results. Patients were matched for sex, age, and race with healthy controls [Control Group (CG)]. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was conducted according to the criteria of the Foundation for National Institute of Health. The final sample consisted of 83 patients in the DG and 83 in the CG. The DG had higher BMI, WC, past history of fractures and lower calcium and healthy diet intake (p < 0.005), compared to the CG. The DG presented a higher frequency of abnormal BMD (osteopenia in 45 (53%), and osteoporosis in 14 (19%)) and comorbidities than the CG (p < 0.005). Pre-sarcopenia was not different between groups, but muscle weakness was present in 25 diabetics (18 women) and only in 5 controls (4 men) (p = 0.00036). Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 13 (16

  16. Prevention of cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles-James, Candi; James, Erskine A; Sowers, James R

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen million Americans have type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) while another 40 million have impaired glucose tolerance. Atherosclerotic heart disease is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to the increased risk for CardioVascular Disease (CVD), patients with diabetes have a worse prognosis than nondiabetics when they suffer an ischemic event. Insulin resistance is increasingly recognized as a chronic, low-level, inflammatory state. Hyperinsulinemia has been proposed as the forerunner of hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and altered glucose tolerance, linking all these abnormalities to the development of coronary vascular disease. Atherosclerosis and insulin resistance share similar pathophysiological mechanisms, due to the actions of proinflammatory cytokines. The dynamic inflammatory milieu found in diabetes explains the susceptibility of diabetics to CVD and the potential mechanism by which aspirin may prevent CVD in diabetics. Aspirin decreases the risk for CVD in diabetic patients by a variety of established and novel mechanisms. Therapeutic strategies that lesson the CVD risk in diabetic patients, including the use of aspirin for primary and secondary prevention, are potentially very important. This review article addresses the antiatherosclerotic effects of aspirin, the potential anti-diabetic effects of aspirin, and the clinical trial evidence for CVD prevention by aspirin in diabetics. We also present recommendations for the use of aspirin in the diabetic population and the current guidelines put forth by the American Heart Association and by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Placental lipases in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Barrett

    Full Text Available Infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are more likely to be born large for gestational age with a higher percentage body fat. Elevated maternal lipids may contribute to this. Placental lipases such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL, endothelial lipase (EL and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL are involved in transferring lipids from mother to fetus. Previous studies of expression of these lipases in placentae in women with diabetes in pregnancy have reported divergent results. Intracellular lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, and HSL are central to lipid droplet metabolism. The activities of these lipases are both influenced by Perilipin 1, and ATGL is also activated by a co-factor comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58 and inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (GS02. None of these modifying factors or ATGL have been examined previously in placenta. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the expression of ATGL, HSL, LPL, EL, as well as Perilipin 1, GS02 and CGI-58 in term pregnancies complicated by GDM. mRNA and protein expression of the lipases were measured in placentae from 17 women with GDM and 17 normoglycaemic pregnancies, matched for maternal BMI and gestational age of delivery. ATGL mRNA expression was increased and HSL mRNA expression reduced in placentae from GDM although there was no differences in protein expression of any of the lipases. All lipases were localised to trophoblasts and endothelial cells. The expression of Perilipin 1 and CGI-58 mRNA was increased and GS02 not altered in GDM. These results suggest that there is no difference in expression in these four lipases between GDM and normoglycaemic placentae, and therefore altered lipid transfer via these lipases does not contribute to large for gestational age in infants of women with GDM.

  18. Placental Lipases in Pregnancies Complicated by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Helen L.; Kubala, Marta H.; Scholz Romero, Katherin; Denny, Kerina J.; Woodruff, Trent M.; McIntyre, H. David; Callaway, Leonie K.; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2014-01-01

    Infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are more likely to be born large for gestational age with a higher percentage body fat. Elevated maternal lipids may contribute to this. Placental lipases such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), endothelial lipase (EL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) are involved in transferring lipids from mother to fetus. Previous studies of expression of these lipases in placentae in women with diabetes in pregnancy have reported divergent results. Intracellular lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and HSL are central to lipid droplet metabolism. The activities of these lipases are both influenced by Perilipin 1, and ATGL is also activated by a co-factor comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (GS02). None of these modifying factors or ATGL have been examined previously in placenta. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the expression of ATGL, HSL, LPL, EL, as well as Perilipin 1, GS02 and CGI-58 in term pregnancies complicated by GDM. mRNA and protein expression of the lipases were measured in placentae from 17 women with GDM and 17 normoglycaemic pregnancies, matched for maternal BMI and gestational age of delivery. ATGL mRNA expression was increased and HSL mRNA expression reduced in placentae from GDM although there was no differences in protein expression of any of the lipases. All lipases were localised to trophoblasts and endothelial cells. The expression of Perilipin 1 and CGI-58 mRNA was increased and GS02 not altered in GDM. These results suggest that there is no difference in expression in these four lipases between GDM and normoglycaemic placentae, and therefore altered lipid transfer via these lipases does not contribute to large for gestational age in infants of women with GDM. PMID:25118138

  19. Clustering of microvascular complications in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Hulman, Adam; Charles, Morten; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2018-04-01

    To describe to what extent microvascular complications exhibit clustering in persons with Type 1 diabetes, and to assess whether the presence of one complication modified the strength of the association between the other two. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the electronic medical records of 2276 persons with Type 1 diabetes treated in a specialized care hospital in Denmark in 2013. We used log-linear analysis to describe associations between diabetic kidney disease, neuropathy and retinopathy and logistic regression models to quantify the magnitude of associations adjusting for potential confounders. The median duration of diabetes was 24 years and median HbA1c was 63 mmol/mol (7.9%). We found strong indication of clustering and found no evidence that presence of one complication modified the association between the other two. In models adjusted for diabetes duration and HbA 1c , persons with neuropathy had an OR of 2.15 (95% CI: 1.73-2.66) for concurrent diabetic kidney disease. Those with retinopathy had an OR of 2.49 (1.92-3.24) for diabetic kidney disease and of 2.66 (1.94-3.64) for neuropathy. Microvascular complications in persons with Type 1 diabetes exhibit strong clustering. However, the association between any pair of complications is not modified by the presence of the third. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  1. Clustering of microvascular complications in Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Hulman, Adam; Charles, Morten

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To describe to what extent microvascular complications exhibit clustering in persons with Type 1 diabetes, and to assess whether the presence of one complication modified the strength of the association between the other two. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the electronic...... duration and HbA1c, persons with neuropathy had an OR of 2.15 (95% CI: 1.73-2.66) for concurrent diabetic kidney disease. Those with retinopathy had an OR of 2.49 (1.92-3.24) for diabetic kidney disease and of 2.66 (1.94-3.64) for neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular complications in persons with Type 1...... medical records of 2276 persons with Type 1 diabetes treated in a specialized care hospital in Denmark in 2013. We used log-linear analysis to describe associations between diabetic kidney disease, neuropathy and retinopathy and logistic regression models to quantify the magnitude of associations...

  2. Micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of complications was associated with hypertension, duration of diabetes, dyslipidemia, microalbuminuria, 24-hour proteinuria, body mass index and HbA1c. Diabetic neuropathy was neither associated to HbA1c nor microalbuminuria. HbA1c was conversely but not significantly associated with the number of DC ...

  3. Investigation of role of plasma endothelin in diabetes mellitus patients complicated with angiocardiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Jingbo; Wang Zhihua; Niu Aijun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of plasma endothelin in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients complicated with angiocardiopathy. Methods: Plasma endothelin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 34 diabetics, 27 diabetics complicated with angiocardiopathy and in 30 controls. Results: Plasma endothelin levels in both diabetic groups were significantly higher than those in normal subjects (p < 0.01); plasma endothelin levels in DM patients complicated with angiocardiopathy were significantly higher than those in patients with diabetes only (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Plasma endothelin was of important role in the pathogenesis of DM complicated with angiocardiopathy and could be used as an early and sensitive marker

  4. Diabetes complications in 1952 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients managed in a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Jamal S.; Suliman, R.; Tarif, N.; Al-Suwaida, A.; Hammad, D.; Al-Asaad, H.; Al-Harbi, A.; Al-Mohaya, S.; Alam, A.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is no recent update on the state of diabetes and its concomitant applications in Saudi Arabia, we undertook a study of the prevalence of health complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to our institution. We conducted a retrospective review of medical results of adult Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes who were seen in clinics or admitted to the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1989 and January 2004. Of 1952, 943 (48.3%) were males. For the whole study population the mean age at enrollment was 58.4+-14.2 years, the mean age at the onset of diabetes was 48.1+-12.8 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 10.4+-7.5 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 7.9+-4.6 years. Nephropathy was the most prevalent complication, occurring in 626 patients (32.1%). Acute coronary syndrome occurred in 451 (23.1%), cataracts in 447 (22.9$), retinopathy in 326 (16.7%), and myocardial infarction in 279 (14.3%), Doubling of serum ceartinine was seen in 250 (12.8%) and 79 (4.0%) went into dialysis. Hypertension was present in 1524 (78.1%) dyslipidemia in 764 (39.1%). Overall mortality was 8.2%. Multiple complications were frequent. Males had higher prevalence of complications than females (P<.05). Mortality was significantly higher in males 92 (9.8%) than females 69 (6.8%) (P=.024). The prevalence of complications significantly increased with duration of diabetes and age (P<.05). Among Saudis, the prevalence of concomitant diabetic complications is high, with cardiovascular and renal complications the most frequent. Many patients had multiple complications. Early and frequent screening in patients with type 2 diabetes is desirable to identify patients at high risk for concomitant complications and to prevent disabilities. (author)

  5. [Doppler velocimetry measurement in pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M Y

    1992-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on fetoplacental circulation, Doppler velocimetry was carried out in diabetic pregnant women (n = 21) and normal pregnant controls (n = 20) every 2 weeks from the 20th week of gestation till term. Blood flow wave form of umbilical artery (Um) and uterine artery (Ut) were measured and the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) of Um and Ut calculated. The results showed that the Um and Ut S/D ratio of diabetic mothers with AGA babies (n = 15) and normal controls were not different. The S/D ratio of diabetic women with LGA newborns (n = 6) elevated after the 30th week of gestation, and the time of elevation was in accordance with the accelerating growth stage of LGA fetus. It is suggested that the elevation of S/D ratio may be related to the increasing requirement of blood supply for LGA babies in DM mother.

  6. DIABETES INDUCED BILATERAL UPPER LIMB MYONECROSIS, AN UNUSUAL COMPLICATION OF CHRONIC TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil; Vinayak; Devavrat; Rohit; Joglekar

    2015-01-01

    : Diabetic myonecrosis, one of the complications of chronic, inadequately controlled diabetes mellitus is seen more commonly in lower extremities and in females. We report a case of diabetic myonecrosis in upper extremities, an underreported complication of diabetes in a male from a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Diabetic myonecrosis usually responds to conservative management, but the long-term prognosis of the condition is poor. Identification and correct diagnosis of diabeti...

  7. RAGE receptor and its soluble isoforms in diabetes mellitus complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Isfer Anghebem Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia, which is present in all types of diabetes, increases the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. The interaction of AGEs with receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE initiates a cascade of pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant processes that result in oxidative stress, stimulating the formation and accumulation of more AGE molecules. This cyclic process, denominated metabolic memory, may explain the persistency of diabetic vascular complications in patients with satisfactory glycemic control. The RAGE found in several cell membranes is also present in soluble isoforms (esRAGE and cRAGE, which are generated by alternative deoxyribonucleic acid splicing or by proteolytic cleavage. This review focuses on new research into these mediators as potential biomarkers for vascular complications in diabetes.

  8. Periodontal disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus: associations with glycemic control and complications: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajita, Meenawat; Karan, Punn; Vivek, Govila; S, Meenawat Anand; Anuj, Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of periodontal disease in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and its relationship with diabetic metabolic control, duration and complications. A comparison was made of periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding index, pocket depth and attachment loss) in a group of diabetic patients versus a group of non-diabetics (n=20). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal parameters and degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease and the appearance of complications. Diabetics had greater bleeding index (pdiabetes for shorter duration of time (4-7 years) showed bleeding index-disease severity correlation to be 1.760 ± 0.434. Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased periodontal disease susceptibility. Periodontal inflammation is greatly increased in subjects with longer disease course, poor metabolic control and diabetic complications. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Skiadopoulos, Dionysios

    2013-01-01

    This theses on Diabetes Mellitus aims at giving an insight at various aspects of this chronic disease and the risk factors that lead to it; the varius ways it develops in the human body; the old and new approaches to treatment, both from a pharmacological and a non- pharmacologiacal point of view; ways to prevent and to manage the diabetes complications; how to improve the live of the diabetic patients who are faced with not only physical but also psychological problems; statistical data from...

  10. Periodontal disease and type I diabetes mellitus: Associations with glycemic control and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenawat, Ajita; Punn, Karan; Srivastava, Vivek; Meenawat, Anand S; Dolas, R S; Govila, Vivek

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate periodontal health status in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and to establish a correlation between metabolic control and periodontal health status. Periodontal health parameters namely plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded in 28 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and 20 healthy controls. Diabetes history was recorded based on the information provided by the physician and it included date of diagnosis, duration, age of diagnosis, latest values of glycosylated haemoglobin and existing diabetic complications. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal parameters and degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease and the appearance of complications. The periodontal health in the diabetic group was compromised and they had greater bleeding index (P diabetes for shorter duration of time (4-7 years) showed bleeding index-disease severity correlation to be 1.760 ± 0.434. Periodontal disease was more evident in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and periodontal inflammation is greatly increased in subjects with longer disease course, poor metabolic control and diabetic complications.

  11. Periodontal disease and type I diabetes mellitus: Associations with glycemic control and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajita Meenawat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate periodontal health status in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and to establish a correlation between metabolic control and periodontal health status. Materials and Methods: Periodontal health parameters namely plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment loss (CAL were recorded in 28 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and 20 healthy controls. Diabetes history was recorded based on the information provided by the physician and it included date of diagnosis, duration, age of diagnosis, latest values of glycosylated haemoglobin and existing diabetic complications. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal parameters and degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease and the appearance of complications. Results: The periodontal health in the diabetic group was compromised and they had greater bleeding index (P < 0.001, probing pocket depth (P < 0.001 and clinical attachment level (P = 0.001. Patients diagnosed for diabetes for shorter duration of time (4-7 years showed bleeding index-disease severity correlation to be 1.760 ΁ 0.434. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more evident in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and periodontal inflammation is greatly increased in subjects with longer disease course, poor metabolic control and diabetic complications.

  12. The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen W.; Azuma, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free amino acid found ubiquitously in millimolar concentrations in all mammalian tissues. Taurine exerts a variety of biological actions, including antioxidation, modulation of ion movement, osmoregulation, modulation of neurotransmitters, and conjugation of bile acids, which may maintain physiological homeostasis. Recently, data is accumulating that show the effectiveness of taurine against diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and its complications,...

  13. Prophylactic role of taurine and its derivatives against diabetes mellitus and its related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Poulami; Basak, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sumit; Kundu, Mousumi; Sil, Parames C

    2017-12-01

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid present in the body in free form. Mammalian taurine is synthesized in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation are two main properties through which it exerts its therapeutic effects. Many studies have shown its excellent therapeutic potential against diabetes mellitus and related complications like diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, hematological dysfunctions, reproductive dysfunctions, liver and pancreas related complications etc. Not only taurine, a number of its derivatives have also been reported to be important in ameliorating diabetic complications. The present review has been aimed to describe the importance of taurine and its derivatives against diabetic metabolic syndrome and related complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is There an Association between Vitamin D Level and Microvascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Simsek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and the development of Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.The aim of this study was to compare the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D levels between Type 2 diabetic patients with and without microvascular complications and healthy subjects to identify any possible associations with vitamin D levels and microvascular complications. Methods: One hundred and one patients with microvascular complications (nephropathy, retinopathy or neuropathy, 102 patients without microvascular complications and 81 healthy subjects were compared in terms of serum levels of 25-OH-vitamin-D, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. Results: No significant differences were found among the three groups with respect to serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels, and no correlation was identified between HbA1c and 25-OH-vitamin D levels. The healthy group had higher vitamin D levels than both diabetic groups, while the vitamin D levels were similar in the diabetic groups. Conclusion: Although vitamin D deficiency is more common in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus than healthy subjects, no relationship between vitamin D deficiency and microvascular complications of diabetes was found.

  15. Direct cost of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus healthcare and its complications in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeikienė, Auksė; Vaivadaitė, Justina; Ivanauskienė, Rugilė; Padaiga, Žilvinas

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the annual direct healthcare cost of type 2 diabetes mellitus healthcare and its complications in Lithuanian population. The study uses a prevalence-based top-down approach. The random sample of study participants was formed using the database of the National Health Insurance Fund under the Lithuanian Ministry of Health. 762 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 data were analyzed in this research. The data on healthcare costs was recorded between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. Ambulatory care cost mean per patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in 2011 was EUR 156.14 (95% CI, 147.05-165.24). 34.4% patients had at least one hospitalization during the 2011 year. Mean annual cost per patients of hospitalization was EUR 1160.16 (95% CI, 1019.60-1300.73). Covered drugs and diabetes supplies annual direct cost mean per patients was EUR 448.34 (95% CI, 411.14-485.54). The more expensive treatment was with oral and non-insulin injectable hypoglycemic medications (Pdiabetes-related chronic complications. Average annual cost per person, increased gradually with the numbers of complications from EUR 671.94 (95% CI, 575.03-768.86) in patients without complications to EUR 1588.98 (95% CI, 1052.09-2125.86) in patients with 3 and more complications (Pdiabetes mellitus healthcare composes hospital inpatient care and covered drugs expenditures. In our study we observed that the presence of microvascular, macrovascular chronic complication increased the direct cost per patient, compared with patients without complications. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus without overt complications of diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Internal audit of an aspect of a disease at repeated intervals helps in predicting the new emerging trends. This study was planned to assess the profile of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM without overt complications. Materials and Methods: Patients with HbA1c between 6% and 9% on oral hypoglycemic agents and who did not have clinically overt complications of diabetes were recruited from outpatient clinic of Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS from April 2009 to October 2011. Results: A total of 91 patients (53 males and 38 females were recruited over 3 years of period. Their mean age was 49.65 ± 11.22 years (range in years and mean duration of diabetes was 48.09 ± 41.44 (range: 1-180 months. Biochemical evaluation revealed mean fasting blood sugar (FBS: 126.69 ± 25.80 mg/dl and mean HbA1c: 7.12 ± 0.81%. Family history of DM was present in 60.43% of patients, 6.59% were active smokers and 46.15% were obese (waist circumference ≥90 cm in males and ≥80 cm in females. All but 6.59% (n = 6 of patients were dyslipidemic and only 25 of these were on antidyslipidemic treatment. Isolated low HDL was most common abnormality (25.27%, n = 23, followed by combination of low HDL and raised LDL (17.58%, n = 16. Evaluation of complications showed retinopathy in just one patient, nephropathy in 17.68%, and neuropathy in 10.97%. MINI neuropsychiatric scale for depression was positive in four patients and four patients were on antidepressants. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have very high prevalence of dyslipidemia even in patients with good glycemic control. This study allowed us to realize lacunae in our clinical practice regarding need for better care of lipid parameters.

  17. Male Reproductive Complications of Diabetes Mellitus and Possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    watermelon) in ratio 2:2:1:1, in correcting reproductive dysfunction in male diabetic rats. MTEC was reported to improve all testiculo- somatic indices that were .... diabetes type 2: Correlation with glycemic control. Int J Impot Res. 2010; 22: 36-39. 16. Moore CR, Wang R. Pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic erectile ...

  18. Diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Junichiro; Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that the pancreas is low sensitive to radiation. In this chapter, the effect of radiation on the pancreas is discussed in the light of the radiosensitivity of the pancreas in animal experiments and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in A-bomb survivors. In an experiment on the whole-body irradiation with 800 rad using rats, a decrease in insulin secretion itself has not been noted, although a decrease in blood insulin and an increase in glucagon were associated with transiently increased blood glucose. In other studies, there was neither histologically nor endocrinologically abnormal findings due to several hundreds rad of radiation in the acute stage. For A-bomb survivors, blood levels of insulin tended to be slightly increased in the 40-59 age group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1.5 km than those exposed at ≥3.0 km; and in the other age groups, there was no tendency for decreased blood levels of insulin. The ABCC-RERF Adult Health Study data (1958-1960) has revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and A-bomb radiation; nor has this been noted in any other study. Neither the prevalence of diabetes mellitus nor its complications is found to be independent upon distance from the hypocenter. (N.K.)

  19. Assessment of serum lipids in nigerians with type-2 diabetes mellitus complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idogun, E.S.; Unuigbe, E.I.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with complicated type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM): Hypertensive diabetics and diabetic nephropathy. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 52 type 2 DM patients and 20 healthy controls were studied. The patients' population consisted of 23 normotensive diabetics, 16 hypertensive diabetics and 13 patients with diabetic nephropathy. The serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed in patients and controls, using standardized assay methods. The mean serum total cholesterol was higher in patients than controls. The normotensive diabetic patients had the lowest total cholesterol among the patients groups 4.01+-0.82 mmol/L compared to the hypertensive diabetics 6.01+-0.93 mmol/L and the diabetic nephropathy patients 6.90+-1.20 mmol/L, (P <0.0001). The prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the patients was between 25% - 69%, lowest in the normotensive diabetics and highest in the diabetic nephropathy patients. We hope that these findings will draw specific attention to the management of dyslipidaemia in patients with complicated type 2 DM especially diabetic nephropathy and hypertensive diabetics. (author)

  20. Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus: interference of vascular and neurological complications in occupational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Bertazo Viêro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with complications. It is considered a chronic degenerative disease. Objective: This study aimed to identify which areas of human occupation suffered performance changes as a result of vascular and neurological complications of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This is a quantitative study with exploratory approach. The data collection occurred in a University Hospital located in a city in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, and used a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. Data were analyzed by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 15.0 (SPSS. Results: The sample consisted of 10 people with vascular and neurological complications resulting of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, with 80% men and 20% women. The most frequently cited occupational performance problems were in self-care activities (feeding, bathing and mobility, while the most affected productivity tasks were cooking and leisure activities such as walking and socializing. Conclusion: The data alert us to the work of occupational therapists caring for people with diabetes in all health care levels.

  1. Bilirubin levels determine vascular complications in diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Pankratova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP. Diabetes, bilirubin and amputations: is there a link? Diabetologia. DOI 10.1007/s00125-013-2840-1

  2. Diabetes mellitus: The linkage between oxidative stress, inflammation, hypercoagulability and vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingueti, Caroline Pereira; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant'Ana; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; de Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Gomes, Karina Braga; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Vascular complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These vascular abnormalities result of a chronic hyperglycemic state, which leads to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. This review addresses the relationships among endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability and inflammation and their biomarkers in the development of vascular complications in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability are correlated to each other, playing an important role in the development of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Moreover, it has been observed that several endothelial, inflammatory and pro-coagulant biomarkers, such as VWF, IL-6, TNF-α, D-dimer and PAI-1, are increased in diabetic patients who have microvascular and macrovascular complications, including nephropathy or cardiovascular disease. It is promising the clinical and laboratory use of endothelial, inflammatory and pro-coagulant biomarkers for predicting the risk of cardiovascular and renal complications in diabetic patients and for monitoring these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotenoids in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications: A mechanistic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Karimi, Gholamreza; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2017-07-01

    Carotenoids are a large class of natural antioxidants that occur in many vegetables, foods and other natural sources. To date, a large number of biological properties have been reported from carotenoids, particularly protective effects against diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer, and neurodegenerative, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies including clinical evidences, have shown that carotenoids play a role in the treatment of diabetes via enhancing insulin sensitivity. They are also able to protect the body from long-term consequences of diabetes including infectious diseases, nephropathy, neuronal and eye abnormalities. In this review, we try to discuss the mechanisms behind the biological effects of carotenoids for the prevention and treatment of DM and its complications. The authors believe that carotenoids will have a prominent place in the treatment of DM and its complications in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Prevention of cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus: hospital emergency department involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo Villa, Teresa; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esther; Caurel Sastre, Zaida; Martín Martínez, Alfonso; Merinero Palomares, Raúl; Alvarez Rodríguez, Virginia; Portero Sánchez, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the risk profile of patients with diabetes who seek care from hospital emergency departments and emergency department involvement in preventing cardiovascular complications in these patients. Cross-sectional analysis of case series from 2 Spanish hospital emergency departments. We included all patients with a history or final diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who were treated in the emergency department between November 1, 2010, and June 30, 2011. Each patient's cardiovascular risk profile was analyzed. The main outcome was the appropriate of prescribed treatment to prevent cardiovascular complications according to the 2012 guidelines of the American Diabetes Association on the patient's discharge from emergency care. A total of 298 patients were included; 275 (92%) had type II diabetes. Ninety percent of the series (269 patients) had at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor and 147 (49%) had prior target organ damage; target organ damage was newly diagnosed in 41 (14%). Fifty-eight percent (172 patients) were discharged home from the emergency department. Although 215 patients (72%) were not adhering to at least 1 previously prescribed preventive treatment and 30 (10%) were not adhering to any prescribed treatment, drug prescriptions were modified only in 1.1% to 3.3% of patients and no follow-up was recommended in 42 cases (24%). Although diabetic patients treated in emergency departments are at high risk for cardiovascular complications, their visit is not used to optimize preventive treatment for these complications or ensure appropriate follow-up.

  5. Anorexia nervosa complicated by diabetes mellitus: the case for permissive hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carrie; Mehler, Philip S

    2014-09-01

    The coexistence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and anorexia nervosa results in an increased incidence of known diabetic complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy, presumably because blood glucose is difficult to control within the throes of comorbid anorexia nervosa. In addition, even when a diabetic patient with anorexia nervosa has committed to resolving his or her eating disorder, glucose control is again difficult and fraught with complexity and peril as will be highlighted in the following case report. Prudence dictates that strict glucose control is not indicated for the relatively short period of time that constitutes the early stage of refeeding in a patient with severe anorexia nervosa. Rather, "permissive hyperglycemia" may be the more optimal course to pursue, as a clinical strategy which is considerate of both the criticality of the refeeding treatment plan and of the long-term nature of the diabetic illness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. COAGULATION PROFILE IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Shankar Mishra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study intends to assess the changes in the simple routine coagulation parameters in diabetes mellitus and to investigate whether any relationship exists among changes in these coagulation parameters and development of microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Period of study was from 2010-2012. It was done in M.K.C.G. Medical College with the approval from Berhampur University. It is a case control study. 50 diabetic patients and 50 age and sex matched non-diabetic patients were randomly selected. Simple coagulation parameters like Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT, Prothrombin Time (PT, serum fibrinogen, platelet count and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 were measured. Statistical study was done using unpaired t-test and analysis and calculations were done using GraphPad software. RESULTS Serum fibrinogen was found to be increased in diabetic patients when compared to non-diabetic patients (mean 278 ± 26.9 v/s 232.52 ± 16.5, P value - 0.009, significant. PAI-1 levels was found to be higher among the diabetics when compared to nondiabetics (47.64 ± 8.82 v/s 31.06 ± 7.12, the two-tailed P value is <0.0001, considered extremely significant. Platelet count through within normal limits. It was found to be decreased in diabetic patient when compared to non-diabetic (2.25 ± 0.18 v/s 2.33 ± 0.03, P value - 0.022. Prothrombin Time (PT (13.15 ± 0.52 v/s 13.04 ± 0.49, P value - 0.28 and PTT (33.04 ± 1.31 v/s 32.99 ± 1.29, P value 0.85, found to be statistically insignificant. Among 50 diabetic patients, 24 had neuropathy, 20 had nephropathy, 10 had retinopathy and 21 had none of these complications. On comparing diabetic patients with microvascular complications and without microvascular complications, significant age difference was observed (59.55 ± 5.06 v/s 51.00 ± 3.31, P=0.003. This probably was a reflection of increase in microvascular complications with increasing duration

  7. Transsphenoidal surgery and diabetes mellitus: An analysis of inpatient data and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Morgan J; Raikundalia, Milap D; Svider, Peter F; Baredes, Soly; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-10-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) has emerged as the standard approach for pituitary resection due to its minimally invasive nature. There has been little analysis examining the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on patients undergoing TSS. In this study, we characterize DM's association with postoperative TSS complications. In addition to analysis of associated charges and patient demographics, we performed comparison of complication rates between DM and non-DM patients who have undergone TSS in recent years. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database encompassing nearly 8 million inpatient hospitalizations, was evaluated for patients undergoing TSS from 2002 to 2010. Of 12,938 TSS patients, 2,173 (16.8%) had a DM diagnosis. The non-DM cohort was younger (50.1 y ± 16.6SD vs. 56.8 y ± 14.1; P diabetes insipidus (P diabetics when compared to non-DM blacks. DM is associated with greater length of stay and hospital charges among TSS patients. DM patients undergoing TSS have a significantly greater incidence of pulmonary and fluid/electrolyte complications among patients under the age of 60, and greater risk for urinary/renal complications across all ages. Despite a theoretical concern due to an impaired wound-healing in DM patients, association with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea was only noted among black diabetics. 2C. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. [Application of microbiological and immunological enteral nutrition in patients with gastrointestinal cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Yang, Cheng-gang; Liu, Xin; Yang, Dao-gui

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of microbiological and immunological enteral nutrition using composition of probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and peptisorb on patients with gastrointestinal cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus. From January 2007 to October 2010, 67 patients with gastrointestinal cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus were admitted to the Liaocheng People's Hospital of Shandong Province and were randomized into the treatment group(n=33, enteral nutrition with probiotics, glutamine, and fish oil) and the routine group(n=34, regular enteral nutrition). Fasting blood glucose(FBG), insulin(FINS), number of lymphocytes(including CD3(+)T cell, CD4(+)T cell, CD8(+)T cell, CD4(+)/CD8(+)) and natural killer (NK) cells of the two groups were detected on the day before surgery and postoperative day 3 and 7. Insulin resistance index (InHOMA-IR) was calculated by using the homeostasis model assessment(HOMA). The incidence of nosocomial infections and intestinal function recovery time, and length of hospital stay were collected. On postoperative day 7, FINS[(8.4±3.7) mU/L vs. (13.7±5.4) mU/L, P0.05] and intestinal function recovery time[(69.3±9.5) h vs. (70.1±11.6) h, P>0.05] between the two groups. However, the length of hospital stay [(17±3.8) d vs. (21±4.2) d, P<0.05] was significantly shorter in the treatment group. For patients with gastrointestinal cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus, microbiota enteral nutrition can reduce insulin resistance, improve the immune status, and promote postoperative recovery.

  9. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy complicating non-diabetic renal disease among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Li; Zou, Guming; Li, Wenge; Lu, Jianhua; Ren, Wenwen

    2013-02-22

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) have risen rapidly in the past few decades and have become an economic burden to the healthcare system in China. DN is a major complication of DM and is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The occurrence of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) in diabetic patients has been increasingly recognized in recent years. It is generally believed that it is difficult to reverse DN, whereas some cases of NDRD are readily treatable and remittable. However, DN is known to co-exist with NDRD in a poorly defined population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study estimated the prevalence of co-existing DN and NDRD in Chinese patients. Data were retrospectively analyzed from 244 patients with T2DM who had undergone a renal biopsy between January 2003 and December 2011 at the Nephrology Department, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, China. Male patients numbered 151 (61.9%) of the study population. The biopsies were performed because urinary abnormalities or renal function were atypical of a diagnosis of DN. Biopsy samples were examined using light, immunofluorescence (IF) and electron microscopy (EM). Clinical parameters were recorded for each patient at the time of biopsy. Nineteen of 244 diabetic patients (7.8%) had co-existing DN and NDRD. These patients showed clinical features and pathologic characteristics of DN, including a high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (89.5%), a long duration of diabetes, increased thickness of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and mesangial expansion. However, they also presented with clinical findings which were inconsistent with DN, such as hematuria, rapidly progressive renal failure and marked proteinuria. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy was apparent in 10 out of the 19 patients (52.6%), tubulointerstitial lesions were found in four patients (21.1%), membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in three patients (15.8%) and

  10. Cognitive Disorders, Depressive Status and Chronic Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Mirela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Depression and cognitive disorders were reported more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Our aim was to analyze the association of cognitive disorders and depression association with chronic complications of DM in a group of Romanian patients. Materials and methods: The data was analyzed from 181 patients, with a mean age of 58,3 years to whom we applied the MMSE (Mini- Mental State Examination and MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale questionnaires. We also analyzed the presence of chronic DM complications, HbA1c and lipid profile. Results: Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM had mild cognitive impairment (92%, more common in the age group 50-59 years. Chronic macrovascular complications were present in 74.58%, while chronic microvascular complications were present in 61.87% of patients with T2DM who associated mild and moderate cognitive impairment (p = 0.013. The most common form of depression was mild depression (90.2%, present in most patients with DM, regardless of progression and type of treatment. MADRS depression test scores were statistically significant correlated with the presence of peripheral artery disease - PAD (p <0.001, ischemic heart disease - IHD (p <0.001 and chronic kidney disease - CKD (p =0.05. We did not find a statistically significant correlation with HbA1c and serum lipid values (p˃0,05. Conclusion: Chronic diabetes macrovascular complications (PAD, IHD and CKD were more frequently associated with cognitive disorders and depression in patients with T2DM independent of the degree of metabolic control.

  11. Diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahdi, M.; Gerdes, V. E.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Meesters, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are over 740,000 patients with diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands, and this number will increase further in the coming years. Approximately 90% of patients has type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol

  12. Role of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger on the development of diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yan-Ming [Department of Cardiac Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Su, Ying [Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Jia; Tian, Ye [Department of Cardiac Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Lan-Feng, E-mail: wlfccu@126.com [Department of Cardiac Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NHE protect against intracellular hydrogen overload. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NHE protect {beta}-cells against strong acidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NHE inhibitors improve myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. -- Abstract: Micro- and macrovascular complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger (NHE) is a family of proteins which exchange Na{sup +} for H{sup +} according to their concentration gradients in an electroneutral manner. The exchanger also plays a key role in several other cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal organization. Since not much is known on the relationship between NHE and diabetes mellitus, this review outlines the contribution of NHE to chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, such as diabetic nephropathy; diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  13. Role of the Na+/H+ exchanger on the development of diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yan-Ming; Su, Ying; Li, Jia; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lan-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NHE protect against intracellular hydrogen overload. ► NHE protect β-cells against strong acidification. ► NHE inhibitors improve myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. -- Abstract: Micro- and macrovascular complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes mellitus. The Na + /H + exchanger (NHE) is a family of proteins which exchange Na + for H + according to their concentration gradients in an electroneutral manner. The exchanger also plays a key role in several other cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and cytoskeletal organization. Since not much is known on the relationship between NHE and diabetes mellitus, this review outlines the contribution of NHE to chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, such as diabetic nephropathy; diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  14. Obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus affect complication rate of different nephrectomy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X; Ying-Ying, C; Zu-Jun, F; Gang, X; Zu-Quan, X; Qiang, D; Hao-Wen, J

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) would increase post-nephrectomy complication rates using standardized classification method. We retrospectively included 843 patients from March 2006 to November 2012, of whom 613 underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 229 had partial nephrectomy (PN). Modified Clavien classification system was applied to quantify complication severity of nephrectomy. Fisher's exact or chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between complication rates and obesity, hypertension, as well as DM. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and DM was 11.51%, 30.84%, 8.78%, respectively. The overall complication rate was 19.31%, 30.04%, 35.71% and 36.36% for laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN), open-RN, LPN and open-PN respectively. An increasing trend of low grade complication rate as BMI increased was observed in LRN (P=.027) and open-RN (PObese patients had greater chance to have low grade complications in LRN (OR=4.471; 95% CI: 1.290-17.422; P=0.031) and open-RN (OR=2.448; 95% CI: 1.703-3.518; PObesity, hypertension, and DM were closely associated with increased post-nephrectomy complication rates, mainly low grade complications. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Overweight, obesity and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in patients attending Diabetic Centre, Teaching Hospital, Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujanitha, V; Sivansuthan, S; Selvakaran, P; Parameswaran, P

    2015-09-01

    To find out the association of Body Mass Index (BMI) with chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. A descriptive study was carried out on 8401 diabetic patients registered in the Diabetic Centre, Teaching Hospital of Jaffna, Sri Lanka from May 2009 to November 2013. BMI was categorised according to WHO Southeast Asia classification. Complications were identified from the summary sheets. Retinopathy was assessed with retinal images, peripheral neuropathy was assessed clinically with monofilament and biothesometer in selected patients. Nephropathy was assessed with urine microalbumin. Ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular accidents were assessed from medical records. Of the 8401 patients 51.1% were males and 48.9% were females. The mean age of males was 61.49 years and females 60.42 years. The mean BMI was 23.70 kg/m2. There was no significant difference in BMI according to gender. According to BMI 7.4% were underweight (BMIoverweight and 33.8% were obese. Rate of complications were ischaemic heart disease 21.1%, cerebrovascular accidents 3.9%, retinopathy 12.0%, peripheral neuropathy 34.1% and nephropathy 39.5%. There was no significant difference in complication rates according to BMI categories except for hypertension. BMI was not associated with complications of diabetes. There was association between hypertension and BMI.

  16. Macrovascular Complications and Prevalence of Urgency Incontinence in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Dogo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Sakai, Takenori; Niiya, Tetsuji; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Miyake, Teruki; Yamamoto, Shin; Kanzaki, Sayaka; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Tanaka, Keiko; Ueda, Teruhisa; Senba, Hidenori; Torisu, Masamoto; Minami, Hisaka; Onji, Morikazu; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Macrovascular diseases and urgency incontinence are common among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, little evidence exists regarding the association between stroke and urgency incontinence among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the associations between macrovascular complications and urgency incontinence among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The study subjects were 818 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Urgency incontinence was defined as present when a subject answered "once a week or more" to the question: "Within one week, how often do you leak urine because you cannot defer the sudden desire to urinate?" We adjusted our analyses for sex, age, body mass index, duration of type 2 diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycated hemoglobin, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Results The prevalence of urgency incontinence was 9.2%. Stroke was independently positively associated with urgency incontinence, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.95). The associations between ischemic heart disease or peripheral artery disease and the prevalence of urgency incontinence were not significant. Conclusion In Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke, but not ischemic heart diseases or peripheral artery disease, was independently positively associated with urgency incontinence.

  17. The FTO variant is associated with chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in Czech population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Dlouha, Dana; Klementova, Marta; Lanska, Vera; Neskudla, Tomas; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2018-02-05

    Genome-wide association studies have resulted in the identification of the FTO gene as an important genetic determinant of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to confirm the role of this gene in the development of DM in the Czech-Slavonic population and to analyse whether this gene is associated with common DM complications. Two groups of patients (814 with T1DM and 848 with T2DM) and a group of healthy controls (2339 individuals) - both of Czech origin - were genotyped for the FTO rs17817449 SNP. ANOVA and logistic regression were used for the statistical evaluations. The frequency of the GG genotype was significantly higher in T2DM (25.4% vs. 16.7%, Pdiabetic nephropathy was observed both for T1DM patients (GG vs. TT homozygotes, Pdiabetic neuropathy (GG vs. TT comparison; Pretinopathy was detected. All presented values are after adjustment for age, sex, BMI and duration of diabetes. We confirm the association between the FTO rs17817449 SNP and susceptibility to T2DM in the Czech-Slavonic population. The same variant is associated with a spectrum of chronic complications in both types of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors. PMID:27159875

  19. Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; Pacini, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women. Generally, large sex-ratio differences across countries are observed. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status impact differences between males and females in predisposition, development, and clinical presentation. Genetic effects and epigenetic mechanisms, nutritional factors and sedentary lifestyle affect risk and complications differently in both sexes. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Thus, endocrine imbalances relate to unfavorable cardiometabolic traits, observable in women with androgen excess or men with hypogonadism. Both biological and psychosocial factors are responsible for sex and gender differences in diabetes risk and outcome. Overall, psychosocial stress appears to have greater impact on women rather than on men. In addition, women have greater increases of cardiovascular risk, myocardial infarction, and stroke mortality than men, compared with nondiabetic subjects. However, when dialysis therapy is initiated, mortality is comparable in both males and females. Diabetes appears to attenuate the protective effect of the female sex in the development of cardiac diseases and nephropathy. Endocrine and behavioral factors are involved in gender inequalities and affect the outcome. More research regarding sex-dimorphic pathophysiological mechanisms of T2DM and its complications could contribute to more personalized diabetes care in the future and would thus promote more awareness in terms of sex- and gender-specific risk factors.

  20. Glucose counterregulation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan, B.E. de; Hoekstra, J.B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Glucose counterregulatory failure and hypoglycaemia unawareness frequently complicate treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially when aiming for intensive metabolic control. Since tight metabolic control reduces microvascular long-term complications in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the integrity

  1. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of curcumin on diabetes mellitus and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. It can severely impair people's quality of life and affects patients all over the world. Since it is a serious, chronic metabolic disease, it can bring about many kinds of complications, which can in turn increase mortality. In recent decades, more and more studies have shown that oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions play critical roles in the pathogenesis of DM. There is an increasing demand for natural antidiabetic medicines that do not have the same side effects as modern drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical found in the spice turmeric, has been used in India for centuries, and it has no known side effects. It has been shown to have some beneficial effects against various chronic illnesses. Many of these therapeutic actions can be attributed to its potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In view of the oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms of DM, curcumin can be considered suitable for the prevention and amelioration of diabetes. In this review, we summarize the nosogenesis of DM, giving primary focus to oxidative stress and inflammation. We discuss the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin in DM and its ability to mitigate the effects on DM and its associated complications in detail.

  2. Pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Thiruchelvam, Kaeshaelya; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Clavarino, Alexandra M; Mamun, Abdullah A; Kairuz, Therese

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy complications, mental health-related problems, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysian women. A case-control study of women with T2DM (n=160) matched by age range to controls without T2DM (n=160). Data were collected in the Negeri Sembilan and PutraJaya regions in Malaysia, from two hospital outpatient clinics, PutraJaya Hospital and Tuanku Jaa'far Hospital Seremban, and one health clinic at Seremban. Validated, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain the data. The unadjusted and adjusted estimates were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Neither depression (RR 0.74, 95% CI: 0.39-1.41) nor anxiety (RR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53-1.88) symptoms increased the risk of T2DM significantly. However, gestational diabetes (RR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.02-1.79), and ≥3 pregnancies (RR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79) were significant risk factors for the development of T2DM. T2DM was not a significant risk factor for either depression (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.91-1.74) or anxiety symptoms (RR 1.13, 95% CI: 0.59-2.19). In this study, T2DM is not a significant risk factor for depression and anxiety; similarly, neither are depression and anxiety significant risk factors for T2DM. Although prevalence of depression and anxiety is not alarming, the findings reported here should alert clinicians to screen and treat anxiety and depression in people with diabetes and also note the importance of monitoring women with complications in pregnancy for risk of later T2DM. Copyright © 2013 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative imaging biomarkers for the evaluation of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Li, Debiao; Carr, James C

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent condition in aged populations. Cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of death and disability in patients with T2DM. Traditional strategies for controlling the cardiovascular complications of diabetes primarily target a cluster of well-defined risk factors, such as hyperglycemia, lipid disorders and hypertension. However, there is controversy over some recent clinical trials aimed at evaluating efficacy of intensive treatments for T2DM. As a powerful tool for quantitative cardiovascular risk estimation, multi-disciplinary cardiovascular imaging have been applied to detect and quantify morphological and functional abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. Quantitative imaging biomarkers acquired with advanced imaging procedures are expected to provide new insights to stratify absolute cardiovascular risks and reduce the overall costs of health care for people with T2DM by facilitating the selection of optimal therapies. This review discusses principles of state-of-the-art cardiovascular imaging techniques and compares applications of those techniques in various clinical circumstances. Individuals measurements of cardiovascular disease burdens from multiple aspects, which are closely related to existing biomarkers and clinical outcomes, are recommended as promising candidates for quantitative imaging biomarkers to assess the responses of the cardiovascular system during diabetic regimens. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anemia and microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahboobeh Sadat; Rostami, Zohreh; Saadat, Alireza; Saadatmand, Sayyed Mehdi; Naeimi, Effat

    2014-07-01

    Although chronic kidney disease-induced anemia is more prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), anemia is a common finding prior to manifestation of kidney disease. In presence of some risk factors at the time of diagnosing DM, microvascular complications must be considered. The effect of anemia as a risk factor on progression of DM complications is still unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and its association with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 DM. This cross-sectional study was performed in the outpatient endocrinology clinic at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Study was done from February 2011 to February 2012. Patients with type 2 DM without any obvious symptom or sign of anemia were included in study. A total of 93 patients (30.4%) had anemia including 46 (15.1%) with normochromic normocytic, 44 (14.4%) with hyperchromic microcytic, and 3 (1%) with hyperchromic macrocytic anemias. There was a positive correlation between duration of DM and anemia. Microvascular complications were more frequent with normocytic or microcytic anemias. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was higher in patients without anemia; moreover, nephropathy was less frequent among them. Among patients with anemia, 43% had GFR of more than 90 mL/min and 19.4% had normoalbuminuria. Neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy had strong association with anemia (odds ratio of 1.99, 1.7, and 1.5, respectively). Anemia is a common complication of DM and is associated with duration of disease and microvascular complications.

  5. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  6. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  7. Hamilton rating scale for depression-24 (HAM-D24) as a novel predictor for diabetic microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuo; Liu, Zhong-Wei; Shi, Shuang; Ma, Xun; Song, Wen-Qian; Guan, Gong-Chang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shun-Ming; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Bo; Tang, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jun-Kui; Lv, Ying

    2017-12-01

    The study was designed to investigate whether the hamilton rating scale for depression (24-items) (HAM-D 24 ) can be used to predict the diabetic microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. 288 hospitalized patients with T2DM were enrolled. Their diabetic microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic foot as well as demographic, clinical data, blood samples and echocardiography were documented. All the enrolled patients received HAM-D 24 evaluation. The HAM-D 24 score and incidence of depression in T2DM patients with each diabetic microvascular complication were significantly higher than those in T2DM patients without each diabetic microvascular complication. After the adjustment of use of insulin and hypoglycemic drug, duration of T2DM, mean platelet volume, creatinine, albumin, fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin type A1C, left ventricular ejection fraction, respectively, HAM-D 24 score was still significantly associated with diabetic microvascular complications (OR = 1.188-1.281, all P HAM-D 24 score for the prediction of diabetic microvascular complication was 0.832 (0.761-0.902). 15 points of HAM-D 24 score was considered as the optimal cutoff with the sensitivity of 0.778 and specificity of 0.785. In summary, HAM-D 24 score may be used as a novel predictor of diabetic microvascular complications in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Administration of Traditional Chinese Blood Circulation Activating Drugs for Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an important complementary strategy for treating diabetes mellitus (DM in China. Traditional Chinese blood circulation activating drugs are intended to guide an overall approach to the prevention and treatment of microvascular complications of DM. The core mechanism is related to the protection of the vascular endothelium and the basement membrane. Here, we reviewed the scientific evidence underpinning the use of blood circulation activating drugs to prevent and treat DM-induced microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN, and diabetic retinopathy (DR. Furthermore, we summarized the effects and mechanism of TCM on improving blood rheology, inhibiting aggregation of platelet, forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, regulating oxidative stress, reducing blood fat, and improving lipid metabolism. The paper provides a new theoretical basis for the clinical practice of TCM in the prevention and treatment of DM and its microvascular complications.

  9. Red blood cell count as an indicator of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhan-Sheng Wang,1,2 Zhan-Chun Song,1 Jing-Hui Bai,1 Fei Li,3 Tao Wu,1 Ji Qi,2 Jian Hu11Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 2Second Department of Cardiology, Fourth People's Hospital of Shenyang, Shenyang, 3Department of Cardiology, Shenzhou Hospital of Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Rheological disorders of red blood cells (RBC and decreased RBC deformability have been involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM.Methods: This study involved 369 patients with T2DM: 243 with one or more microvascular complications and 126 without microvascular complications. Anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed in an automated blood cell counter. The presence of risk factors for microvascular complications was determined.Results: The proportion of patients with microvascular complications increased as the RBC count decreased (P < 0.001. After adjustment for known risk factors for microvascular complications by logistic regression analysis, lower quartiles of RBC count were associated with a higher risk of microvascular complications compared with the reference group composed of the highest quartile (first quartile, odds ratio 4.98, 95% confidence interval 1.54–6.19, P = 0.008; second quartile, odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17–5.28, P = 0.024.Conclusion: A decreased RBC count is associated with microvascular complications in Chinese patients with T2DM. The RBC count is a potential marker to improve further the ability to identify diabetic patients at high risk of microvascular complications.Keywords: red blood cell count, microvascular complication, type 2 diabetes

  10. THE CHOICE OF SURGICAL TREATMENT METHOD FOR DIABETES MELLITUS DEPENDS ON DESEASE ACTIVITY AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Shraer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the treatment of 227 patients suffering from diabetes of I type on early stage, we consider a distal venous splenorenal anastomosis (DVSRA to be an appropriate treatment method. Changing hormone regulation and influencing on metabolic processes, the given treatment is based on the research results. 2-nd (with nephritic syndrome and 3-d (with progressive diabetic nephropathy stages of diabetic nephropathy is the indication for kidney transplantation (KT. Combined KT and DVSRA proved to additionally improve a diabetes mellitus. GFR and creatinine level is not the only indication for KT, cardiovascular system failure, preliminary, is a major risk factor. 

  11. Relationship between lipoprotein (a) and micro/macro complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a forgotten target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Rocio; Segura, Eduardo; Nuñez-Cortes, Jesús Millan; Pedro-Botet, Juan Carlos; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Mangas, Alipio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increased lipoprotein (a) serum concentrations seems to be a cardiovascular risk factor; this has not been confirmed in extracoronary atherosclerosis complications. We therefore wished to gain a deeper insight into relationship between the plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) and the micro- and macro-vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to identify possible differences in this association. Methods This is a descriptive observational cross-sectional study. Two-hundred and seventeen elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included from the internal medicine outclinic. Anthropometric data, analytical data (insulin reserve, basal and postprandial peptide C, glycosylated hemoglobin, renal parameters, lipid profile and clinical data as hypertension, obesity, micro- and macrovascular complications were collected. Results Patients were grouped according to the type 2 diabetes mellitus time of evolution. The mean plasma concentration of lipoprotein (a) was 22.2 ± 17.3 mg/dL (22.1 ± 15.9 mg/dL for males, and 22.1 ± 18.4 mg/dL for females). Patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular accident, microalbuminuria and proteinuria presented a statistically significant increased level of lipoprotein (a). Similarly, the patients with hyperlipoprotein (a) (≥ 30 mg/dL) presented significantly increased levels of urea and total cholesterol. In the multivariate regression model, the level of lipoprotein (a) is positively correlated with coronary heart disease and diabetic nephropathy (P < 0.01 and P < 0.005, respectively). Conclusions The elevation of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) are associated with the development of coronary heart disease and diabe tic nephropathy. Therefore, we consider that the determination of lipoprotein (a) may be a prognostic marker of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25870610

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), perinatal complications and long-term morbidity is gaining increased attention. However, the global burden of GDM and the existing responses are not fully understood. We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize...

  13. duration diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration diabetes mellitus. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: 987-992. found in 45.5% and nephropathy in 29.8% of cases.1O. In a recent reportlJ of an audit of primary health care servi es in Cape Town, a high prevalence of complications was fount; however ...

  14. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  15. [Impact of physical activity on metabolic control and the development of chronic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Gutiérrez Manzanedo, José Vicente; Ayala Ortega, Carmen; García Calzado, Concepción; Silva Rodríguez, Juan José; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Together with a balanced diet, regular physical activity is one of the pillars of diabetes mellitus (DM) management. Physical activity theoretically provides the same advantages in people with DM as in the general population and also has some beneficial effects in controlling metabolic factors, such as improving blood glucose levels and insulin sensitivity. In this article, we analyze the main clinical studies published to date that evaluate the impact of physical activity on metabolic control or the development of chronic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, most of the evaluated studies show that regular physical activity favorably affects metabolic control in DM (or at least does not have adverse effects). However, there is insufficient information about the impact of physical activity on the development and progression of chronic complications. 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction, management, and complications of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Shin, Jun-Seop; Min, Byoung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Je; Kim, Jung-Sik; Yoon, Il-Hee; Jeong, Won-Young; Lee, Ga-Eul; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Ju-Eun; Jin, Sang-Man; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) model using streptozotocin (STZ) which induces chemical ablation of β cell in the pancreas has been widely used for various research purposes in non-human primates. However, STZ has been known to have a variety of adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and even mortality. The purpose of this study is to report DM induction by STZ, toxicity associated with STZ and procedure and complication of exogenous insulin treatment for DM management in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that are expected to be transplanted with porcine islets within 2 months. Streptozotocin (immediately dissolved in normal saline, 110 mg/kg) was slowly infused via central catheter for 10 minutes in 22 rhesus monkeys. Clinical signs, complete blood count and blood chemistry were monitored to evaluate toxicity for 1 week after STZ injection. Monkey basal C-peptides were measured and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to confirm complete induction of DM. Exogenous insulin was subcutaneously injected to maintain blood glucose in diabetic rhesus monkeys and the complications were recorded while in insulin treatment. Severe salivation and vomiting were observed within 1 hour after STZ injection in 22 rhesus monkeys. One monkey died at 6 hours after STZ injection and the reason for the death was unknown. Pancreatitis was noticed in one monkey after STZ injection, but the monkey recovered after 5 days by medical treatment. Serum total protein and albumin decreased whereas the parameters for the liver function such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased (PMonkey fasting C-peptide levels after STZ injection were monkeys, but 0.34, 0.22, 0.16 ng/mL in three monkeys, respectively. The value of daily insulin requirement was 0.92±0.26IU/kg/d (range=0.45-1.29) in the monkeys. Diabetic ketoacidosis was observed in one rhesus monkeys, but the monkey recovered after 24 hours by fluid

  17. [Diabetes mellitus as a rare complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowska-Kalisz, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Szałapska-Zawodniak, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl was hospitalized in a local hospital with bloody diarrhoea, vomitus and abdominal pain. Because of acute abdominal symptoms she underwent appendectomy after which convulsions and acute respiratory distress were noticed. The child was transferred to the intensive care unit. During the examination she was unconscious, pale, oedematous with scattered ecchymoses, severe hypertension and urine output diminished to several ml per day. Routine blood tests showed microangiopathic anaemia, thrombocytopenia (52000/ul.) and uremia. Proteinuria and hematuria were revealed on urine examination. Among coagulation parameters kaolin-kefalin time (69 s) and D-dimers (2000-4000/ul.) were abnormal. On the strength of history, clinical and laboratory investigation the diagnosis of D-positive hemolytic uremic syndrome was established. Controlled artificial respiration (for 10 weeks), total parenteral alimentation (TPN), antihypertensive treatment and diuretics (furosemide, dopamine) were introduced. Daily temporary access hemodialyses were performed for 4 weeks. Subsequently peritoneal dialysis was started for 2 weeks. Despite the appropriate TPN glucose blood levels were unexpectedly high from first days from admission (200-330 mg%). Intensive intravenous insulin therapy was performed for 50 days. The child was discharged after 72 days with moderate renal function impairment (blood urea-53 mg%, creatinine-1,2 mg%), mild hypertension and proteinuria. Additional factor prone to thrombotic events was the 4G/4G genotype responsible for increased PAI-1 blood concentration, which may result in intensified fibrinolysis inhibition. Diabetes mellitus as a rare immunological complication of haemolytic uremic syndrome was suspected on the following evidence: positive anti-GAD antibodies (ELISA), elevated levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c, three-fold reduction of blood C-peptide concentration, negative family history for diabetes. After 12 y of follow up glucose and C

  18. Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and disability: What is the contribution of diabetes risk factors and diabetes complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Maryam; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Söderberg, Stefan; Koye, Digsu N; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Timol, Maryam; Joonas, Noorjehan; Sorefan, Ameena; Gayan, Praneel; Alberti, K George M M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Magliano, Dianna J

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and disability in Mauritius and to assess the extent to which the effect of diabetes is explained by diabetes risk factors and concomitant complications. Data from a national survey in the multiethnic nation of Mauritius, which comprises South Asians and African Creoles, were analyzed. Disability was measured using the Katz activities of daily living questionnaire in participants aged >50 years. Among 3692 participants, 487 (13.2%) had some level of disability. Diabetes was associated with significantly higher risk of disability (odds ratio [OR] 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-2.08). After adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and metabolic factors, as well as comorbidities, disability was significantly associated with diabetes among African Creoles (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.16-3.56), but not South Asians (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.98-1.66). Obesity explained much of the association between diabetes and disability (excess percentage of risk: 26.3% in South Asians and 12.1% in African Creoles). Obesity, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), asthma-like symptoms, and depression together explained 46.5% and 29.0% of the excess risk in South Asians and African Creoles, respectively. Diabetes is associated with a 67% increased risk of disability. Diabetes risk factors and comorbidities explain more of the association between diabetes and disability among South Asians than Africans. Obesity and history of CVD explained the largest percentage of the relationship between diabetes and disability, indicating that weight and CVD management may be helpful in controlling disability related to diabetes. © 2018 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Fetal pancreatic beta-cell function in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus: relationship to fetal acidemia and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, D R; Brudenell, J M; Proudler, A J; Crook, D; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-05-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between fetal pancreatic beta-cell function and fetal acidemia and macrosomia in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study at the Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, London, was performed. In 32 pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus cordocentesis was performed at 36 to 39 weeks' gestation for the measurement of umbilical venous blood pH, PO2, PCO2, lactate, and glucose concentration; plasma insulin immunoreactivity; and insulin/glucose ratio. A reference range for plasma insulin and insulin/glucose ratio was constructed by studying fetal blood samples from 80 women who did not have diabetes mellitus. Mean umbilical venous blood pH was significantly lower and plasma insulin immunoreactivity and insulin/glucose ratio were significantly higher than the appropriate normal mean for gestation. There were significant associations between (1) maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001), (2) fetal blood glucose and plasma insulin immunoreactivity (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), (3) fetal plasma insulin immunoreactivity and blood pH (r = -0.39, p < 0.05), and (4) fetal insulin/glucose ratio and degree of macrosomia (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Fetal pancreatic beta-cell hyperplasia is implicated in the pathogenesis of both fetal acidemia and macrosomia.

  20. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Diabetes Mellitus with Severe Retinal Complications in a Sardinian Population, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Antonio; Contini, Emma Luigia; Carru, Ciriaco; Solinas, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, with a high prevalence in Sardinia, Italy. Evidence indicates that G6PD-deficient patients are protected against vascular disease. Little is known about the relationship between G6PD deficiency and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare G6PD deficiency prevalence in Sardinian diabetic men with severe retinal vascular complications and in age-matched non-diabetic controls and ascertain whether G6PD deficiency may offer protection against this vascular disorder. Methods: Erythrocyte G6PD activity was determined using a quantitative assay in 390 diabetic men with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 390 male non-diabetic controls, both aged ≥50 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes with severe retinal complications. Results: G6PD deficiency was found in 21 (5.4 %) diabetic patients and 33 (8.5 %) controls (P=0.09). In a univariate conditional logistic regression model, G6PD deficiency showed a trend for protection against diabetes with PDR, but the odds ratio (OR) fell short of statistical significance (OR=0.6, 95% confidence interval=0.35-1.08, P=0.09). In multivariate conditional logistic regression models, including as covariates G6PD deficiency, plasma glucose, and systemic hypertension or systolic or diastolic blood pressure, G6PD deficiency showed no statistically significant protection against diabetes with PDR. Conclusions: The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in diabetic men with PDR was lower than in age-matched non-diabetic controls. G6PD deficiency showed a trend for protection against diabetes with PDR, but results were not statistically significant. PMID:24324368

  1. [Impact of antidiabetic therapy on the risk of cardiovascular diseases and their complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ametov, A S; P'ianykh, O P; Chernikova, N A

    2010-01-01

    In Russia, diabetes mellitus afflicts 8 million people, 90% of them had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this figure is growing steadily. At the same time there is a rise in the incidence of macrovascular events (unstable angina pectoris, myocardial infarction). Coronary heart disease and its attack are a major cause of death in the developed countries, including Russia. To prevent chronic complications of DM is likely to be the most urgent task of not only modern diabetology, but also medical science as a whole. In this connection, of great value are the results of a few large international randomized controlled studies, the main objective of which was to evaluate the impact of the rate of blood glucose control on the incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular diseases in patients with T2DM

  2. Disease and Economic Burden of Hospitalizations Attributable to Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: A Nationwide Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Quarti Machado Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with a significant burden globally. The costs of diabetes-related hospitalizations are unknown in most developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the total number and economic burden of hospitalizations attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications in adults from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System in 2014. Data sources included the National Health Survey (NHS and National database of Hospitalizations (SIH. We considered diabetes, its microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy and macrovascular complications (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease, respiratory and urinary tract infections, as well as selected cancers. Assuming that DM patients are hospitalized for these conditions more frequently that non-DM individuals, we estimated the etiological fraction of each condition related to DM, using the attributable risk methodology. We present number, average cost per case, and overall costs of hospitalizations attributable to DM in Brazil in 2014, stratified by condition, state of the country, gender and age group. In 2014, a total of 313,273 hospitalizations due to diabetes in adults were reported in Brazil (4.6% of total adult hospitalization, totaling (international dollar Int$264.9 million. The average cost of an adult hospitalization due to diabetes was Int$845, 19% higher than hospitalization without DM. Hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases related to diabetes accounted for the higher proportion of costs (47.9%, followed by microvascular complications (25.4% and DM per se (18.1%. Understanding the costs of diabetes and its major complications is crucial to raise awareness and to support the decision-making process on policy implementation, also allowing the assessment of prevention and control strategies.

  3. Link between retinopathy and nephropathy caused by complications of diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarsky, Pavel; Bolotin, Arkady; Dorfman, Karina; Knyazer, Boris; Lifshitz, Tova; Levy, Jaime

    2015-02-01

    While the correlation and chronology of appearance of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy is well known in diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 patients, in DM type 2 this correlation is less clear. A retrospective study including 917 patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was diagnosed based on fundus photographs taken with a non-mydriatic camera. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was diagnosed based on urinary albumin concentration in a morning urine sample. Statistical analysis was performed with a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model. Our SUR model is statistically significant: the test for "model versus saturated" is 2.20 and its significance level is 0.8205. The model revealed that creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have strong influence on albuminuria, while body mass index (BMI) and HbA1c have less significant impact. DR is affected positively by diabetes duration, insulin treatment, glucose levels, and HbA1c, and it is affected negatively by GFR, triglyceride levels, and BMI. The association between DR and DN was statistically significant and had a unidirectional correlation, which can be explained by chronological order; that is, DN precedes DR. The present study indicates that the level of renal impairment is proportional to the level of damage to the eye. Furthermore, such an association has a chronological aspect; the renal injury precedes retinal damage.

  4. Variability of Basal Rate Profiles in Insulin Pump Therapy and Association with Complications in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Laimer

    Full Text Available Traditionally, basal rate profiles in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy are individually adapted to cover expected insulin requirements. However, whether this approach is indeed superior to a more constant BR profile has not been assessed so far. This study analysed the associations between variability of BR profiles and acute and chronic complications in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus.BR profiles of 3118 female and 2427 male patients from the "Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation" registry from Germany and Austria were analysed. Acute and chronic complications were recorded 6 months prior and after the most recently documented basal rate. The "variability index" was calculated as variation of basal rate intervals in percent and describes the excursions of the basal rate intervals from the median basal rate.The variability Index correlated positively with severe hypoglycemia (r = .06; p<0.001, hypoglycemic coma (r = .05; p = 0.002, and microalbuminuria (r = 0.05; p = 0.006. In addition, a higher variability index was associated with higher frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (r = .04; p = 0.029 in male adult patients. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, duration of disease and total basal insulin confirmed significant correlations of the variability index with severe hypoglycemia (β = 0.013; p<0.001 and diabetic ketoacidosis (β = 0.012; p = 0.017.Basal rate profiles with higher variability are associated with an increased frequency of acute complications in adults with type 1 diabetes.

  5. Assessment of the Direct Medical Costs of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simten Malhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To estimate the direct annual medical costs of Type 2 diabetes and its complications in diagnosed patients in Turkey. Material and Method: A cost-of-illness model was developed. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes was derived from the Turkish Diabetes Epidemiology Study, estimated as 13.7% in adults, with one-third of patients previously undiagnosed. Complication costs were extracted from the records of 7095 patients at a Turkish tertiary care hospital in 2009. For each modelled complication, acute phase costs were applied to globally derived incidence rates, and one-year follow-up costs were applied to globally derived prevalence rates. Costs and frequencies of ongoing antihyperglycaemic treatment and disease management were derived from treatment guidelines and Turkish hospital records. Parameter variation was performed. Results: The cost of Type 2 diabetes in diagnosed patients was estimated at between 11.4 to 12.9 billion Turkish Lira, 1% of Gross Domestic Product. Cardiovascular complications comprised the largest share of total medical costs (between 24.3% and 32.6%, followed by renal complications-related costs (between 25% and 28.3% and concomitant cardiovascular and antihypertensive medication costs (between 14.2% and 16%. Antihyperglycaemic medications and screening costs comprised between 10.9% to 12.3% and between 4.4% to 5% of total costs, respectively. Discussion: Type 2 diabetes is a disease burden and economic burden in Turkey; the complications cost is higher than the cost of disease control. For preventing complications, any activities effect positively limited resources and also quality of life. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 39-43

  6. Chronic complications in newly diagnosed patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Sosale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of diabetes is on an increase in India, currently there is limited nation-wide data regarding the prevalence of chronic complications in diabetic patients at diagnosis. This information will help health-care professionals approach management more aggressively to prevent complications. Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic complications in newly-diagnosed Type 2 diabetic (T2D patients in India. Design and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of T2D patients, diagnosed within 3 months of their first visit to the centers doing the survey. Each patient was screened for diabetic complications, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and body mass index. Family history was recorded. Standard protocols were used to make the diagnosis of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Data analysis was carried out using the standard statistical techniques. Results: Of the total 4,600 (males 67%, females 33% newly diagnosed patients with T2D, majority were from the age group 41-50 years (40%. 13.15% of newly detected India T2D had neuropathy 6.1% had retinopathy and 1.06% had nephropathy. Risk factors of macro vascular complication such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia were observed in 23.3%, 26%, and 27% of patients respectively. Ischemic heart disease was noticed in 6%. Conclusion: High prevalence of micro vascular complications was present at diagnosis along with association of CV cardiovascular risk factors among Indian T2D. In view of this, screening must be instituted for all diabetics for complications at the time of diagnosis itself.

  7. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nessim Dayan, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    ¿Qué es la diabetes?/¿Cuantos tipos o formas de diabetes existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes?/¿cuál es la causa de la diabetes?/¿Quién tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la diabetes?/¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes?/¿Cuándo y cómo se controlan los niveles de glicemia?/¿Cuáles son las complicaciones de la diabetes?/Recomendaciones actuales y futuro de la diabetes.

  8. "Dead in bed": a tragic complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, M

    2010-12-01

    "Dead in bed" is a tragic description of a particular type of sudden death in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients are typically found dead in the early morning, lying in an undisturbed bed, having been well the previous evening. The incidence of "dead in bed" syndrome is not known but studies suggest figures of between 4.7 and 27.3% of all unexplained deaths in type 1 DM. The pathogenesis is unclear but patients typically have a preceding history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. We describe two cases of "dead in bed" syndrome which occurred at our institution within a 12-month period.

  9. [Costs of temporary disability in Spain related to diabetes mellitus and its complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M Teófila; Terradillos García, M Jesús; Capdevila García, Luisa M; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M Victoria; López-González, Angel Arturo

    2013-10-01

    To ascertain the socioeconomic impact of diabetes, it is essential to estimate overall costs, including both direct and indirect costs (premature retirements, working hours lost, or sick leaves). This study analyzed indirect costs for temporary disability (TD) due to diabetes and its complications in Spain in 2011 by assessing the related ICD-9 MC codes. For this purpose, the number of TD processes and their mean duration were recorded. The indirect costs associated to loss of working days were also estimated. In 2011, diabetes and its complications were related to 2.567 TD processes, which resulted in the loss of 154.214 days. In terms of costs, this disease represented for Spanish public health administrations an expense of 3,297.095.3 €, with an estimated cost per patient and year of 141 €. These data suggest an urgent need to devise plans for prevention and early diagnosis of diabetes and its complications, as well as programs to optimize the available health care resources by creating multidisciplinary teams where occupational medical services assume an important role. A decrease in absenteeism would result in benefits for diabetic patients, society overall, and companies or public institutions. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular complications of black patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerchman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity has been shown to be associated with micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes in European and North American populations. We analyzed the contribution of ethnicity to the prevalence of micro- and macrovascular complications in Brazilian subjects with type 2 diabetes attending the national public health system. Data from 1810 subjects with type 2 diabetes (1512 whites and 298 blacks were analyzed cross-sectionally. The rates of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, distal sensory neuropathy, and diabetic retinopathy were assessed according to self-reported ethnicity using multiple logistic regression models. Compared to whites, black subjects [odds ratio = 1.72 (95%CI = 1.14-2.6] were more likely to have ischemic heart disease when data were adjusted for age, sex, fasting plasma glucose, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, smoking habit, and serum creatinine. Blacks were also more likely to have end-stage renal disease [3.2 (1.7-6.0] and proliferative diabetic retinopathy [1.9 (1.1-3.2] compared to whites when data were adjusted for age, sex, fasting plasma glucose, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, and smoking habit. The rates of peripheral vascular disease, stroke and distal sensory neuropathy did not differ between groups. The higher rates of ischemic heart disease, end-stage renal disease and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in black rather than in white Brazilians were not explained by differences in conventional risk factors. Identifying which aspects of ethnicity confer a higher risk for these complications in black patients is crucial in order to understand why such differences exist and to develop more effective strategies to reduce the onset and progression of these complications.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    T Radhika; Ranganathan Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of dia...

  12. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus cases are at higher risk for diabetic related complications. In low-income African countries, patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus account for 75% of diabetes cases. Psychiatric disorders have a greater impact on the global burden of diseases and disability associated with ...

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...... that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt...

  14. Changes of serum leptin and their relationships with insulin resistance in patients with simple obesity and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Changzhou Wujin People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou; Shi Linlin; Lu Dan; Zhang Lei; Wang Qing; Yao Wenhua

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum leptin in patients with simple obesity and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity in order to explore the relationship of leptin and insulin resistance and the role of leptin in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 60 cases of simple obesity, 60 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 cases of normal control were included according to the diagnostic criteria of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. the levels of fasting serum leptin, fasting serum insulin, fasting glucose, fasting blood lipid were measured in all cases. The body mass index (BMI) and insulin action index were calculated. Results: The level of BMI, serum leptin, serum insulin, blood lipid were significantly higher in patients with simple obesity and with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity than in normal control cases, while (IAI) was significantly lower. The levels of free serum leptin, serum insulin, free glucose, and blood lipid were significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity than in patients with simple obesity, while IAI was significantly lower. The level of serum leptin was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.48, P<0.55) and fasting serum leptin (r=0.55, P<0.05) and negatively correlated with IAI (r=-0.47, P<0.05) in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with obesity. Conclusion: The overexpression of serum leptin may play an important role in the occurrence of the insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obesity patients. (authors)

  15. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  16. Assessment of the direct medical costs of diabetes mellitus and its complications in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelkerke Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE and is well recognized as a major and increasing burden to the country's resources due to its severe, long term debilitating effects on individuals, families and the society at large. The aim of the study was to estimate the direct annual treatment costs of DM and its related complications among patients in Al-Ain city, UAE. Methods A sample of 150 DM patients were enrolled during 2004-2005, and their medical costs over the ensuing 12 months was measured, quantified, analyzed and extrapolated to the population in Al-Ain and UAE, using conventional and inference statistics. The costs were converted from UAE Dirhams to US Dollar, using the official conversion rate of US$ (1 USD = 3.68 AED. Results The total annual direct treatment costs of DM among patients without complications in Al Ain-UAE, was US $1,605 (SD = 1,206 which is 3.2 times higher than the per capita expenditure for health care in the UAE (US$ 497 during 2004 (WHO, 2004. However, this cost increased 2.2 times with the presence of DM related complications for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.4 times for patients with macrovascular complications and 9.4 times for patients with both micro and macrovascular complications. Likewise, the annual direct hospitalization costs of DM patients increased by 3.7 times for patients with microvascular complications, by 6.6 times for patients with macrovascular complications and by 5 times for patients with both micro and macrovascualr complications. Overall, costs increased with age, diabetes duration and were higher for patients treated with insulin compared to those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or with diet control only. Conclusions DM direct treatment costs increased with the presence and progression of chronic DM related complications. Hospitalisation costs constituted a large proportion and were increasingly higher with

  17. Preventive and Protective Properties of Zingiber officinale (Ginger in Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Complications, and Associated Lipid and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber officinale (ginger has been used as herbal medicine to treat various ailments worldwide since antiquity. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Data from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials has demonstrated the antihyperglycaemic effect of ginger. The mechanisms underlying these actions are associated with insulin release and action, and improved carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, gingerols, and shogaol. Ginger has shown prominent protective effects on diabetic liver, kidney, eye, and neural system complications. The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and the safety issues of ginger are also discussed in this update.

  18. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among palestinians with T2DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad; Davidovitch, Nadav; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Palestinians. METHODS: 1308 diagnosed T2DM attending four main Primary Health Care Clinics on the Southern West Bank of Palestine examined by a Mobile Diabetes Clinic team. All diabetes...... patients visiting the clinics during a one-month period for each clinic were included. Interviews, anthropometric measurements, physical examination, and laboratory tests: HbA1c, lipid profile, and kidney function tests analyzed in a central laboratory were obtained RESULTS: 1308 diabetes patients......, including 839 females (64%), with a mean age of 57 years (SD=8.7), and mean diabetes duration 7.1 years(SD=6.25), participated. 95.3% presented as overweight (BMI >25kg/m2) or obese (BMI>30kg/m2) with mean BMI of 33.46 (SD=5.95). The mean HbA1c (tested in 1221 patients) was 9.21(SD=2). Only 16.1% had HbA1c...

  19. Relationship between MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Emirati population

    OpenAIRE

    El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah W.; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Al Mahmeed, Wael A.; Tay, Guan K.; Odama, Unini O.; Elghazali, Gehad E.B.; Al Safar, Habiba S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes with clinical consequences giving rise to chronic multiple organ complications. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms are genetic variations that have been linked to T2DM, and micro/macrovascular complications. The link between MTHFR and T2DM however is strongly dependent on the ethnic group studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between two MTHFR polymorp...

  20. Age ≥ 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon How; Ghazali, Sazlina Shariff; Ismail, Mastura; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Bujang, Mohd Adam

    2013-05-01

    Providing effective medical care for older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that may contribute to their active aging has always been challenging. We examined the independent effect of age ≥ 60 years on disease control and its relationship with diabetes-related complications in patients with T2D in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from the electronic diabetes registry database Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). A total of 303 centers participated and contributed a total of 70,889 patients from May 2008 to the end of 2009. Demographic data, details on diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and their treatment modalities, various risk factors and complications were updated annually. Independent associated risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses. Fifty-nine percent were female. Malay comprised 61.9%, Chinese 19% and Indian 18%. There were more Chinese, men, longer duration of diabetes and subjects that were leaner or had lower BMI in the older age group. Patients aged ≥ 60 years achieved glycemic and lipid targets but not the desired blood pressure. After adjusting for duration of diabetes, gender, ethnicity, body mass index, disease control and treatment, a significantly higher proportion of patients ≥ 60 years suffered from reported diabetes-related complications. Age ≥ 60 years was an independent risk factor for diabetes-related complications despite good control of cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings caution against the currently recommended control of targets in older T2D patients with more longstanding diseases and complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Intron 4 Polymorphism in the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene in Diabetes Mellitus and its Chronic Complications, Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-Diabetic Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Železníková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR significantly affects calcium-phosphate metabolism in kidneys, and it is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM due to its expression in pancreatic F-cells. The role of CaSR as one of the players in pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has been speculated. Methods: 158 Type 2 diabetic patients divided into three groups according to occurrence and type of kidney complications, 66 nondiabetic patients CKD, and 93 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study to analyze the role of two CaSR polymorphisms (in the codon 990 and in the intron 4 in ethiopathogenesis of DM and CKD. The Type 2 diabetic groups consisted of 48 patients without any kidney abnormalities, 58 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN, and 52 patients with nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies was studied using PCR with the TaqMan Discrimination Assay or followed by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method, respectively. Results: We have found that the intron 4 polymorphism is a risk factor for the development of DM and CKD, except DN, while the codon 990 does not show any disease association. Conclusion: We conclude that CaSR is a general factor in pancreas and kidney pathologies. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. : Diabetes mellitus 1. type and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prouza, Michal

    2014-01-01

    1 Abstrakt Name of thesis Diabetes mellitus I. type and physical activity Aim of thesis The bachelor's thesis deals with diabetes mellitus I. type, the opportunity of compensation by adequate physical aktivity and diet and consecutive complications of diabetes. Methodology Collecting of the data from available literature and internet's resources. There is no personal interviews in this work. Results General description of the diabetes mellitus I. type, question of the physical aktivity with t...

  3. Impact of pregnancy on complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, M A; Miodovnik, M; Mimouni, F

    1988-10-01

    The effects of pregnancy on acute metabolic complications of diabetes may have important consequences for both mother and fetus. The consequences of pregnancy for chronic complications of diabetes, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and hypertension, are not clear. Recent data are reviewed so that health care providers will be able to provide reasonable advice to insulin-dependent diabetic women contemplating pregnancy both for problems that may potentially arise during gestation and those that may affect long-term health and survival. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon problem that arises during gestation. Acute alterations in pH and electrolyte concentrations as well as hyperglycemia, however, may have important consequences for mother and fetus, including perinatal asphyxia and reduced fetal oxygen delivery. Hypoglycemia, on the other hand, may result in maternal coma or seizures and, when frequent, has been associated with infant respiratory distress syndrome. Background retinopathy often worsens during gestation, with regression common postpartum. Data suggest that progression of background disease is related to both glycemic control and the acute institution of intensive insulin therapy with those patients with poor control requiring more aggressive therapeutic intervention most adversely affected. The course of proliferative retinopathy is more variable, with both progression and regression reported. Preconception photocoagulation may prevent progression. Preconceptional ophthalmologic evaluation with frequent assessments during pregnancy is advised. Increases in 24-hour protein excretion are common during gestation in patients with preexisting renal disease and resolve in many patients postpartum. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance increase during the first trimester and generally do not change during the remainder of pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The Relationship between Smoking as a Modifiable Risk Factor and Chronic Complications on Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indang Trihandini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a variable that can be changed through a specific intervention activity. Recently in Indonesia, research related to chronic complication among elderly with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM was not available. This research has objective in exploring the risk of smoking towards chronic complication among elderly with type 2 DM. This research was using Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas in 2007. Riskesdas is a representative Indonesia Health Survey. 1,565 elderly (aged 60++ years with type 2 DM have selected by random. 70-80% of the elderly have Chronic Complications and 32.11% of the sample is smokers. The elderly who smoke more than 24 cigarettes per day have risk 2.5 (95% CI, 1.54-3.97, smoker 1-12 cigarettes per day, and smoker 13-24 cigarettes per day have risk 1.3 and 1.6 respectively to get chronic complication compared with those who do not smoke, controlled by age, obesity, and physical activity. The proportion of smokers among elderly with type 2 DM is high, most of them are low education, low socioeconomic status, lack of access to the health services, low of physical activity, and low consume vegetables and fruit. Smoking increases the risk of chronic complication of type 2 DM.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin -6 as diagnostic markers of diabetic complications in children with type I diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, N.A.; Moawad, A.T.; Nassar, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of cellular auto immunity and its humoral mediators in pathogenesis and following up of type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM). Therefore, serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), glycemic control, body mass index, duration of the disease and microalbuminuria in children with TIDM were evaluated. This study was conducted on 30 patients suffered from type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM), 14 males and 16 females with mean age of 11.40 ±3.67 years and 20 apparently healthy children served as control (10 male and 10 female). Children with TIDM were classified according to duration: diabetic children for 5 years or less duration (n= 15, duration means: 2.74 ± 1.34 years) and diabetic children > 5 years (n=15, duration means: 7.35 ± 1.49 years); according to glycemic control: children with good glycemic control (n=16, HbAIc: 7.82 ± 2.70) and diabetic children with poor glycemic control (n=14, HbAIc: 10.49 ± 2.72) and according to complication: diabetic children without complications (n= 20) and diabetic children with microvascular or neurological complications (n= 10, nephritic, retinal or neurological complications). Patients and controls were subjected to careful history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The following investigations were done for all children; random blood glucose, Glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc %), microalbuminuria and kidney function tests. Serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured using immuno-enzymometric assay (ELISA). Patients with TIDM with duration more than 5 years, with poor glycemic control and with complications had higher serum glucose levels, higher HbAIc%, higher level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, microalbuminuria and elevated serum TNF-alpha (p<0.0001) and IL-6 (p<0.0001) in comparison to the same diabetic patients with 5 years duration or less, with good glycemic control

  6. Diabetes Mellitus amp Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KusumaNeela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

  7. Diabetes Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

  8. To determine the patterns of dyslipidaemia amongst the macrovascular complications of type - II diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.A.; Fayyaz, M.; Jamil, A.; Sharif, N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the characteristics of dyslipidaemia amongst the type 2 diabetic patient with macrovascular complications like ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease and to compare the variables of dyslipidemia in male and female subjects under study. Design: A prospective observational analytic study. Setting and place of Study: Study was conducted in medical unit-III of Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur, over a period of 6 months from July, 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008. Procedure: A total of hundred patients of type 2 diabetes were randomly selected for study. Those who had hyperlipidaemia due to secondary causes e.x. nephrotic syndrome, drugs, hypothyroidism etc. were excluded. Blood samples were taken for serum sugar fasting and random and fasting lipid profile. For statistical analysis student t.test at 5% level of significance was used. All mean values were presented as mean +- SD (Standard Deviation). Majority of patients presented in middle and old age category, and they had poor glycemic control. The female patients had uncontrolled hyper glycemic and hypertensive (BP = 145 +- 25.72 / 85.6 +- 76 mm/Hg) than males and their mean random serum sugar was 246.64 +- 105 mg% High percentage of complications were observed in patients of middle age group with great frequency of cardiovascular complications like coronary heart diseases and hypertension (52%) followed by cerebrovascular complications (30%) and peripheral vascular disease (18%). The lipid profile was in high risk range in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In patients with CHD, the mean +SD concentration of cholesterol was 207.08 +- 27.94 mg/dl, HDL - C was 34.8 +- 6.27 mg/dl and TC : HDLC ratio > 6, (normally TC:HDLC ratio should be 40 mg/dl). In patients with CVA, HDL - C was 35.09 +- 6 mg/dl and triglycerides was 146.9 +- 50.70 mg/dl and these variables meet the definition of isolated low HDL - C (defined as TG < 150 mg% and HDL

  9. [Eating disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, S; Petrak, F; Kruse, J; Kulzer, B; Lange, K; Albus, C

    2006-08-01

    Adolescent and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus demonstrate a more than random coincidence with bulimia nervosa. However, the prevalence of eating disorders that do not fulfil the criteria of bulimia nervosa is also raised in women of this age group yet without diabetes mellitus. The comorbidity of type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder poses a risk factor in the development of diabetic follow-up diseases. Patients with an eating disorder and type 1 diabetes are characterized by an insufficient metabolic control and the early development of diabetic complications such as a retinopathy. The binge eating disorder, according to research aspects initially a new eating disorder entity, may especially be observed in overweight and obesity. Even if a binge eating disorder in persons with a type 2 diabetes does not occur more frequently than in those metabolically healthy persons, it does depict a risk factor for an accelerated weight gain which as rule involves an increase of insulin resistance.

  10. Uveitis and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Michels, R. P.; Kijlstra, A.

    1988-01-01

    Of 340 patients with anterior uveitis, 20 (6%) had diabetes mellitus. This is significantly higher than the prevalence of 1.4% in the normal Dutch population (P less than .001). Of 128 patients with idiopathic anterior uveitis, 16 (12.5%) had diabetes mellitus compared to only four (1.9%) of 212

  11. Pharmacogenomics in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Dawed, Adem Y.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the multifactorial aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the multiple subtypes of monogenic diabetes mellitus. In this Review, we discuss the existing pharmacogenetic evidence in both monogenic diabetes mellitus and T2DM...... future pharmacogenomic findings could provide insights into treatment response in diabetes mellitus that, in addition to other areas of human genetics, facilitates drug discovery and drug development for T2DM.......Genomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the multifactorial aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the multiple subtypes of monogenic diabetes mellitus. In this Review, we discuss the existing pharmacogenetic evidence in both monogenic diabetes mellitus and T2DM....... We highlight mechanistic insights from the study of adverse effects and the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The identification of extreme sulfonylurea sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus owing to heterozygous mutations in HNF1A represents a clear example of how pharmacogenetics can direct...

  12. Assessment of factors relating to screening of diabetes complications in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during follow up: A descriptive study in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N.D Perera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a growing epidemic disease in the world and the associated micro and macrovascular complications cause significant morbidity and mortality. We conducted a descriptive cross sectional study to evaluate the adequacy of screening and to identify the factors relating to poor diabetes complication screening in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM patients during follow ups. We have included patients with type 2 DM, admitted to a medical unit in a tertiary care center. Study was conducted from September 1 to October 31, 2012. The study participants were interviewed using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Patients were examined to assess microvascular complications, macro vascular complications, BMI and blood pressure. All patients had FBS, lipid profile, Urine albumin estimation and renal function testing. Screening performed during their follow up was assessed during the interview. There were 147 patients (81 males and 66 females with an average age of 58.5 ± 9yrs. There were 97 (65.9% patients who followed up at National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL. Majority (n=133, 90.5% were given disease education during follow up. Out of the total, 23(15.6% were using SMBG while only 69(46.9% had at least one HbA1c performed in the preceding year. Patients following up at NHSL had lower BMI, better glycaemic control, better lipid values and had received better microvascular complication screening. Follow up at a hospital other than NHSL was associated with poor microvascular complication screening. Female gender and increasing age was associated with poor retinopathy screening. Microvascular complication screening is suboptimal and the adherence to guidelines depends on the healthcare facility of follow up, sex and age of the patient. There is an urgent need to educate medical practitioners and patients on proper diabetes care.

  13. Enhanced Apoptosis of Monocytes from Complication-Free Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 May Be Ameliorated by TNF-α Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Myśliwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with an enhanced apoptosis of different cells and tissues, accelerating occurrence of diabetic microvascular complications. The aim of our study was to determine spontaneous apoptotic potential of the monocyte subsets in juvenile-onset complication-free diabetes mellitus type 1 and to compare them with the corresponding values of the healthy. Moreover, we wanted to assess effects of TNF-R1 blocking agents and those of general TNF-α blocker (Infliximab on spontaneous apoptosis of monocytes. Sixty randomly selected DM1 patients (14.5 ± 3.2 years and 30 healthy (13.5 ± 2.8 years volunteers were enrolled in the study. Our results indicate that three monocyte subsets are distinguishable in the groups of young diabetic patients and the healthy, similarly to in the blood of adults. DM1 patients were characterized by higher values of apoptotic monocytes than the healthy. The manipulation with drugs inhibiting TNF-R1 expression diminished the pool of CD16+ apoptotic monocytes. Infliximab reduced the apoptotic CD16− cells. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus type 1 is associated with greater apoptosis of three monocyte subsets which may contribute to the development of microvascular complications. TNF-α modifiers appear to ameliorate monocyte apoptosis. They may be useful for controlling excessive monocyte apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  14. False diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and its complications in Wolfram syndrome--is it the reason for the low number of reported cases of this abnormality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Katarzyna; Stefański, Adam; Zmysłowska, Agnieszka; Molęda, Piotr; Bryśkiewicz, Marta Ewa; Majkowska, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), also known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness), is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome (1/770,000 in the United Kingdom), characterised by juvenile onset of diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, diabetes insipidus, sensorineural deafness, renal tract and neurological abnormalities, and primary gonadal atrophy. WS is caused mainly by biallelic mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes wolframin. Wide tissue distribution of wolframin and many mutations in the wolframin gene resulting in Wolfram syndrome may contribute to different phenotypes and the unusual combinations of clinical features. We describe a female patient with Wolfram syndrome diagnosed at the age of 25, with a previous false diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus and misdiagnosed diabetic complications. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for two novel mutations in exon 8 of WFS1 gene: a 2-bp deletion AT at nt 1539 leading to a frameshift (Y513fs) and a single-base substitution 1174C > T resulting in a stop codon (Q392X). A detailed analysis of the patient's medical history and a review of the literature suggest that many cases of Wolfram syndrome may remain undiagnosed due to misdiagnosis as type 1 diabetes mellitus and incorrect interpretation of clinical symptoms of neurodegenerative abnormalities, especially in their early stages.

  15. Analysis of Medical Status of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Impact on the Development of Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Tkachenko

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions. The situation can be improved by providing medical care to patients with diabetes mellitus according to the multidisciplinary principle in a structured team, which should be coordinated by primary care physician, working in close collaboration with specialists and providing high-quality preventive care and teaching patients self-control. In order to optimize the quality of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, we have developed and implemented a schedule for monitoring the quality of diabetes care to patients in primary care health centres of Kyiv region.

  16. Microvascular complications and prevalence of urgency incontinence in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The dogo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Sakai, Takenori; Niiya, Tetsuji; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Miyake, Teruki; Yamamoto, Shin; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Ueda, Teruhisa; Senba, Hidenori; Todo, Yasuhiko; Torisu, Masamoto; Minami, Hisaka; Onji, Morikazu; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes was significantly positively associated with urgency incontinence in several epidemiological studies. We examine the association between diabetic neuropathy, which we defined based on neuropathic symptoms, the absence of the Achilles reflex, and/or abnormal vibration perception, and urgency incontinence among Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study subjects were 742 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 19-70 years, who had undergone blood tests at our institutions. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on the variables under study. Urgency incontinence was defined as present when a subject answered "once a week or more" to the question: "Within one week, how often do you leak urine because you cannot defer the sudden desire to urinate ?". Diabetic neuropathy was diagnosed if the patients showed two or more of the following three characteristics: neuropathic symptoms, the absence of the Achilles reflex, and/or abnormal vibration perception. Adjustment was made for sex, age, body mass index, duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus, current smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycated hemoglobin, stroke, coronary artery disease, insulin therapy, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic neuropathy. The prevalence of urgency incontinence was 8.6%. Diabetic neuropathy was independently positively associated with urgency incontinence: the adjusted OR was 2.20 (95%CI: 1.16-4.36). Associations between diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy and the prevalence of urgency incontinence were not significant. In Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, only diabetic neuropathy was independently positively associated with urgency incontinence. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:1024-1027, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assessment of coronary plaque characteristics by optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian; Yundai, Chen; Lian, Chen; Zhijun, Sun; Changfu, Liu; Jun, Guo; Hongbin, Liu

    2010-12-01

    Diabetic patients are characterised by poorer prognosis and more cardiovascular complications compared with non-diabetic patients, which may be due to metabolic abnormalities and atherosclerotic plaque characteristics. Patients with unstable angina pectoris were enrolled in the study and divided into diabetes mellitus (DM) (patients, n=25; plaques, n=42) and non-DM (patients, n=53; plaques, n=65) groups according to their DM history. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examinations were performed on all patients, and images were analysed by two independent investigators. Fibrous cap thickness was measured at the thinnest point of each plaque. The presence of plaque disruption, dissection, erosion, thrombosis and calcification were also noted. Calcified plaques in the DM group were significantly greater than those in the non-DM group (42.9% vs. 23.1%; p=0.03). Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) were detected, and no significant difference was found in the frequencies (42.9% vs. 52.3%; p=0.34) and fibrous cap thickness (57.08 ± 6.20 μm vs. 56.11 ± 9.23 μm, p=0.74) between the DM and non-DM groups. Thrombus and plaque erosion were similar in the two groups, but the frequency of dissection in the DM group was greater than that in the non-DM group (21.4% vs. 7.7%, p=0.04). The high sensitivity C-reactive protein between the two groups was similar (0.44 ± 0.20mg/dl vs. 0.46 ± 0.15 mg/dl, p=0.83). Higher calcification and dissection were detected in diabetic patients with unstable angina pectoris, and the difference in coronary plaque characteristics can explain the difference in clinical prognoses between DM and non-DM patients. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old, DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is "go slowly and individualize" to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin.

  19. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğrul, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major worldwide health problem. Its prevalence is 1.5-2 times higher in diabetic population than that in non-diabetic individuals. Its pathogenesis depends on diabetic nephropathy in type 1, whereas may be multifactorial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are most widely preferred in the treatment of hypertension because of their numerous desirable effects. In this article, the most recent data are presented on the relationshi...

  20. A RETROSPECTIVE CASE CONTROL STUDY OF SERUM ZINC (Zn LEVEL IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH COMPLICATIONS OF DM IN THANJAVUR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Magesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Zn is an essential trace mineral directly involved in the physiology and action of insulin. Insulin is stored as Zn crystals in the β cells of the pancreas. It has been suggested that abnormal Zn metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and some of its complications. Zn depletion has several potential clinical implications. It is speculated that Zn repletion could improve insulin sensitivity in patients with DM and reduce the severity of certain complications of this disease. In order to understand the underlying pathobiochemical interrelationships of the late complications of diabetics in more detail, this study was undertaken. The aim of the study is to- 1. Detect serum zinc level in patients with diabetes mellitus. 2. Compare the serum zinc level in newly-diagnosed diabetic patients and in those with complications. 3. Find out the relationship between zinc deficiency and complications of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Centre- Thanjavur Medical College and Hospital. Study Duration- 6 months. Study Design- Retrospective case control study. Sample Size- 100 patients (cases and 50 controls. RESULTS There was no significant statistical variation in serum zinc levels between the various macrovascular complications. There was a significant negative correlation between HbA1c and serum zinc levels. It was also found in our study that compared to the newly-diagnosed patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus had lower levels of zinc. Also, patients with poor glycaemic control had lower zinc levels compared to the subjects with a better glycaemic control. CONCLUSION Diabetic individuals have significantly lower levels of zinc when compared to normal healthy individuals. Patients with longstanding DM have lower zinc levels than those who are newly diagnosed. Patients with poor glycaemic control have lower zinc levels compared to the subjects with a better glycaemic control. Zinc supplementation may have a

  1. Prevalence and complications of diabetes mellitus in Northern Africa, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Manouk; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is increasingly becoming a major chronic disease burden all over the world. This requires a shift in healthcare priorities and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and impact of diabetes in all regions of the world to help plan and prioritize health programs. We systematically reviewed the

  2. Retinal vascular fractals predict long-term microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Rebecca; Rasmussen, Malin L; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fractal analysis of the retinal vasculature provides a global measure of the complexity and density of retinal vessels summarised as a single variable: the fractal dimension. We investigated fractal dimensions as long-term predictors of microvasculopathy in type 1 diabetes. METHODS......: We included 180 patients with type 1 diabetes in a 16 year follow-up study. In baseline retinal photographs (from 1995), all vessels in a zone 0.5-2.0 disc diameters from the disc margin were traced using Singapore Institute Vessel Assessment-Fractal image analysis software. Artefacts were removed...... by a certified grader, and fractal dimensions were calculated using the box-counting method. At follow-up (in 2011), diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy were assessed and related to baseline fractal dimensions in multiple regressions adjusted for sex and baseline age, diabetes duration...

  3. Multiple diabetic complications, as well as impaired physical and mental function, are associated with declining balance function in older persons with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong XF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiufang Hong,1,2 Xujiao Chen,2 Jiaojiao Chu,2 Shanshan Shen,2 Qichen Chai,2 Gaobo Lou,2 Lingyan Chen2 1Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 2Department of Geriatrics, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate whether there is a difference in balance function between older persons with and without diabetes mellitus (DM, and to identify whether mediating factors, such as diabetic complications, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL score, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, as well as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, are associated with balance function in older persons with DM.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 208 older persons were divided into a DM group (n=80 and a control group who did not have DM (n=128. Balance function was evaluated with the Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA, which includes balance and gait subscales. Activities of daily living (ADL, IADL, and the MMSE were also measured. Fall incidents in last 12 months, the use of walking aids, fear of falling, comorbidities, and polypharmacy were recorded. Diabetic complications were recorded, and HbA1c, FPG, TC, TG, and LDL were measured in the patients of the DM group.Results: Fall incidents in last 12 months were higher in the DM group than in the control group (P<0.01. POMA score as well as ADL and IADL scores were lower in the diabetic group than the control group (P<0.05. Within the diabetic group, the POMA score was positively related to the ADL score (odds ratio [OR], 11.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.076–44.497; P<0.01, IADL score (OR, 16.286; 95% CI, 4.793–55.333; P<0.01, and MMSE score (OR, 10.524; 95% CI, 2.764–40.074; P<0.01, but was negatively related to age (OR, 7.707; 95% CI, 2.035–29.185; P<0.01 and diabetic complication (OR, 6.667; 95% CI, 2.279–19

  4. Prevalence of pre-diabetes and unreported diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unreported diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance have substantial clinical importance. Glucose intolerance precedes diabetes mellitus and it is associated with cardiovascular complications. Subjects with prediabetes have near normal glycated haemoglobin and may only be detected when oral glucose ...

  5. Ultrasound measurements of umbilical cord transverse area in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrygal, Marek; Brazert, Jacek; Wender-Ozegowskal, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Brazert, Maciej; Dubiel, Mariusz; Gudmundsson, Saemundur

    2014-11-01

    A voluminous umbilical cord has been described in diabetic pregnancies. The aim of this studywas to see if measurements of cord diameters might be of value in the evaluation of diabetic pregnancies and especially those suspected of a large for gestational age (LGA) fetus. In an observational, prospective study umbilical cord areas and vessel diameters were measured between gestational age of 22 and 40 weeks in transverse ultrasound images of the central part of the cord in 141 normal and 135 diabetic pregnancies of which 30 were suspected of being LGA. Wharton's jelly area was calculated by subtracting the vessel area from the total transverse cord area. Normal reference curves were constructed for gestational age. Umbilical cord and Wharton's jelly areas increased with gestation. The vessel area leveled out at 32-33 weeks of gestation and the umbilical vein area decreased after 36 weeks of gestation. The umbilical cord parameters in diabetic pregnancies did not differ from controls. Cord areas were enlarged in 1/3 of the LGA fetuses. Umbilical cord area measurements are of limited value for the evaluation of diabetic pregnancies suspected having a LGA-fetus.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Radhika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.

  7. Periodontitis and risk of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit; Jadhav, Varsha

    2011-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with varying degrees of systemic and oral complications. The periodontium is also a target for diabetic damage. Diabetes is a pandemic in both developed and developing countries. In recent years, a link between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus has been postulated. The oral cavity serves as a continuous source of infectious agents that could further worsen the diabetic status of the patient and serve as an important risk factor deterioration of diabetes mellitus. The present review highlights the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. The potential mechanisms involved in the deterioration of diabetic status and periodontal disease are also discussed. © 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy and the Risk of Vascular Complications in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ai-Lin; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With an increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), evidence of long-term benefit with adjunctive TCM treatment is limited. This study investigated whether the concurrent TCM treatment reduces the risk of vascular complications in T2DM patients by using a large population from National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 33,457 adult patients with newly diagnosed T2DM using anti-diabetic agents from a random sample of one million beneficiaries in the NHIRD between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011. We recruited 1049 TCM users (received TCM over 30 days with a diagnosis of T2DM) and randomly selected 4092 controls as the non-TCM cohort at a ratio of 1:4 frequency-matched by age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and index year. We investigated the prescription pattern of TCM and conducted a Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke, chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and diabetic foot between the 2 cohorts. In the TCM cohort, the prescription pattern of TCM was different between insulin and noninsulin patients. The most common herbs were Dan-Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) in noninsulin group and Da-Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) in insulin group. The most common formulae were Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in noninsulin group and Yu-Quan-Wan in insulin group. Although no significant reduction in the hazard ratio of CKD and diabetic foot, the incidence rate of stroke was 7.19 per 1000 person-years in the TCM cohort and 10.66 per 1000 person-years in the control cohort, respectively. After adjustment of age, sex, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and antidiabetes agent use (including sulfonylureas, α-glucosidase, metformin, meglitinide, thiazolidinediones, and insulin), TCM cohorts were found to have a 33% decreased risk of stroke (95% CI = 0.46–0.97; P < 0.05). This population-based retrospective study showed that the complementary TCM therapy might

  9. Protective Effect of Flowerbuds of Lonicera Japonica Extract on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Associated Vascular Complications in STZ-HFD Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiragkumar Amrutlal Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of Lonicera Japonica Alcoholic Extract (LJALE on Diabetes Mellitus  II (DM and associated vascular complications.Methods: Induction of Diabetes Mellitus II with 35 mg / kg STZ-HFD leads to excessive level of 11β-HSD1 enzyme. It has been found that flower buds of Lonicera Japonica (LJ has also been traditionally indicated for treatment of diabetes. Chlorogenic Acid (CA is a major bioactive component in the flower buds of LJ has received more attention because of its 11β-HSD1 inhibitory action.11β-HSD1 regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. Elevated glucocorticoids are a key risk factor for metabolic diseases. LJALE was prepared with help of Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE method.  STZ-HFD-induced diabetic rats were treated with LJALE (200 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and Metformin (50 mg/kg. It was given for 4 weeks.Result: LJALE treated Diabetic rats showed significant decreased in blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, serum cortisol as well significant increased hepatic glycogen, 11β-HSD1 index compare to diabetic control rats. LJALE (500 mg/kg treatment showed the return of islets close to good vascular pattern. LJALE treatment restored endothelium dysfunction.Conclusions: From all results it is reasonable to conclude that LJALE (500 mg/kg may be used in treatment of diabetes and diabetes associated vascular dysfunction.Keywords:  Diabetes Mellitus, 11β-HSD1, CA, LJALE

  10. Pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: x0 erosis (44%, diabetic dermopathy (36%, skin tags (32%, cutaneous infections (31%, and seborrheic keratosis (30%. Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year.

  11. The Biochemical Role of Macro and Micro-Minerals in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus and its Associated Complications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiti Kibiti, Cromwell; Jide Afolayan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic physiological glucose metabolic disorder. Its high prevalence globally has a significant impact on the quality of life. The management of diabetes includes non-pharmacological and glucose lowering agents. Although these methods are effective, they have drawbacks. This has led to a search for alternative therapy in macro and micro-minerals from dietary foods and plants. There is therefore a need to review, identify and classify their modes of action in diabetes mellitus therapy. This review was carried out using comprehensive literature reports on the use of mineral elements in the management of diabetes. Empirical online searches were conducted for different elements that have been studied for their anti-diabetic potentials both in vivo and in vitro. The University of Fort Hare's online database was also used. The results indicate that magnesium, molybdenum, zinc, vanadium and manganese facilitate glucose catabolism. Chromium, vanadium, zinc, molybdenum and magnesium can enhance insulin activity while molybdenum, manganese and zinc stimulate lipogenesis. Zinc and iron can modulate glucose, metabolizing enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and limit oxidative stress, respectively. These agents have similar mechanisms to conventional drugs in ameliorating diabetic status and other associated complications. The mechanisms of these elements are well known, however, the synergetic effects of their combinations are still obscure. Literature on their safe dose(s) is still scanty. Evaluation of other useful macro and micro-minerals should also be undertaken. It is envisaged that the use of mineral supplements will promote good health in diabetics.

  12. Movimentos respiratórios fetais em gestações com diabetes mellitus pré-gestacional Fetal breathing movements in pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o padrão dos movimentos respiratórios fetais (MRF em gestantes diabéticas no terceiro trimestre de gestação. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 16 gestantes com diabetes mellitus pré-gestacional e 16 gestantes normais (grupo controle, com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: gestação única entre a 36ª e a 40ª semana, ausência de outras doenças maternas e ausência de anomalias fetais. No perfil biofísico fetal (PBF, foram avaliados os parâmetros: freqüência cardíaca fetal, MRF, movimentos corpóreos fetais, tônus fetal e índice de líquido amniótico. Os MRF foram avaliados por 30 minutos, período em que o exame foi integralmente gravado em fita de vídeo VHS para posterior análise do número de episódios de MRF, do tempo de duração dos episódios e do índice de movimentos respiratórios fetais (IMR. O IMR foi calculado pela fórmula: (intervalo de tempo com MRF/tempo de observação x 100. No início e no final do PBF foi dosada a glicemia capilar materna. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney U e teste exato de Fisher, adotando-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: as glicemias demonstraram média significativamente superior nas diabéticas (113,3±35,3 g/dL em relação às gestantes normais (78,2±14,8 g/dL, pPURPOSE: to analyze the pattern of fetal breathing movements (FBM in diabetic pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: sixteen pregestational diabetic and 16 nondiabetic (control group pregnant subjects were included fulfilling the following criteria: singleton, between 36-40 weeks of gestation, absence of other maternal diseases and absence of fetal anomalies. The fetal biophysical profile (FBP was performed to evaluate the following parameters: fetal heart rate, FBM, fetal body movements, fetal tone and amniotic fluid index. The FBM was evaluated for 30 minutes, period when the examination was integrally recorded in VHS video for posterior analysis

  13. Health-related quality of life and health preference of Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus managed in primary care and secondary care setting: decrements associated with individual complication and number of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fangfang; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Gangwani, Rita; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-06-13

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and health preference of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are essential in health economic evaluations but data on Chinese population is rare. This study aims to evaluate HRQoL and health preference of diabetic patients with different diabetic complications in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1275 patients with DM, including 518 subjects with various DM-related complications. HRQoL and health preference were estimated using SF-12 and SF-6D questionnaires, respectively. Disease status of DM and complications were identified from documented clinical diagnosis. Multivariable regression was used to investigate the effects of specific complications on HRQoL and health preference, adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical parameters. The presence of any diabetic complication was associated with lower physical component summary (-3.81 points, P < 0.01), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) showed greatest reduction (-7.05 points, P < 0.01). Mental component summary and mental health (MH) scores were not decreased in any of the diabetic complications. The health preference score for diabetic subjects without complications was 0.882 (95% CI, 0.778 to 0.989). The reductions of health preference score were significant for stroke (-0.042, 95% CI -0.072 to -0.012), ESRD (-0.055, 95% CI -0.093 to -0.017), and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) (-0.043, 95% CI -0.075 to -0.010), while heart disease had an insignificant reduction (-0.017, 95% CI -0.042 to 0.008). The presence of any of the four major diabetic complications (heart disease, stroke, ESRD and STDR) was associated with lower HRQoL and health preference scores. Findings of this study facilitated the cost-effectiveness studies of alternative management strategies for prevention of diabetic complications in Chinese population.

  14. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes.

  15. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related atherosclerotic complications in Korea: a National Health Insurance Database Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Koo

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database from 2007-2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population.T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD, and peripheral artery disease (PAD were defined according to ICD-10 codes. We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by HIRA to identify associated procedures or surgeries. When calculating incidence, we excluded cases with preexisting T2DM within two years before the index year. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating 95% confidence intervals for prevalence and incidence rates.The prevalence of T2DM in Korean adults aged 20-89 years was 6.1-6.9% and the annual incidence rates of T2DM ranged from 9.5-9.8/1,000 person-year (PY during the study period. The incidence rates of T2DM in men and women aged 20-49 years showed decreasing patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001; by contrast, the incidence in subjects aged 70-79 years showed increased patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001. The incidence rates of CAD and CVD in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were 18.84/1,000 PY and 11.32/1,000 PY, respectively, in the year of diagnosis. Among newly diagnosed individuals with T2DM who were undergoing treatment for PAD, 14.6% underwent angioplasty for CAD during the same period.Our study measured the national incidences of T2DM, CAD, CVD, and PAD, which are of great concern for public health. We also confirmed the relatively higher risk of CAD and CVD newly detected T2DM patients compared to the general population in Korea.

  16. Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Gimenez-Perez, Gabriel; Mauricio, Didac

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether diet, physical activity or both can prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in at-risk people is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess...... the effects of diet, physical activity or both on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing T2DM. SEARCH METHODS: This is an update of the Cochrane Review published in 2008. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP...... RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs randomising 5238 people. One trial contributed 41% of all participants. The duration of the interventions varied from two to six years. We judged none of the included trials at low risk of bias for all 'Risk of bias' domains.Eleven trials compared diet plus physical activity...

  17. Patient characteristics related to metabolic disorders and chronic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized at the Qingdao Endocrine and Diabetes Hospital from 2006 to 2012 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhu; Gao, Weiguo; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Jia; Hammar, Niklas; Cabrera, Claudia S; Wu, Xiaoli; Qiao, Qing

    2017-01-01

    To study the clinical characteristics related to metabolic disorders and complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized in the Qingdao Endocrine and Diabetes Hospital from 2006 to 2012 in Qingdao, China. Data from 14,289 (51% males) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized between 2006 and 2012 were collected and analysed. Information on patients' demographic, anthropometric, laboratory and disease histories were extracted from electronic medical records. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years, with median diabetes duration of 9.0 years. Mean haemoglobin A1c was 8.4%, where 2.6 mmol/L and 31.9% had hypertriglyceridaemia. Retinopathy was diagnosed in 51.1% of patients, nephropathy in 21.6%, neuropathy in 50.4%, hypertension in 77.4%, coronary heart disease in 27.6% and peripheral vascular disease in 58.6%. Once hospitalized, 71.1% of patients underwent insulin injection treatments, either mono-therapy or combined with other anti-diabetic drugs. Metformin was prescribed to 36.9% of patients, followed by acarbose 29.9%, thiazolidinediones 18.1%, meglitinides 14.8% and sulfonylureas 10.7%. Inadequate control of hyperglycaemia, poor metabolic profiles and diabetic complications were common challenges for long-term diabetes management in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Polychronis, Sotirios; Wilson, Heather; Giordano, Beniamino; Ferrara, Nicola; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-04-06

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is associated with Parkinson-like pathology in people without Parkinson disease and to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on markers of Parkinson pathology and clinical progression in drug-naive patients with early-stage Parkinson disease. We compared 25 patients with Parkinson disease and diabetes mellitus to 25 without diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients with diabetes mellitus and no Parkinson disease to 14 healthy controls (people with no diabetes mellitus or Parkinson disease). The clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by 2 consecutive fasting measurements of serum glucose levels >126 mL/dL. Over a 36-month follow-up period, we then investigated in the population with Parkinson disease whether the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression or cognitive decline. The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with higher motor scores ( p Parkinson disease. In patients with diabetes but without Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with lower striatal dopamine transporter binding ( p Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression (hazard ratio = 4.521, 95% confidence interval = 1.468-13.926; p Parkinson-like pathology, and when present in patients with Parkinson disease, can induce a more aggressive phenotype. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. [Factors influencing cardiac complications in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus and silent myocardial ischaemia: five-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamcarz, Arturi; Chmielewski, Marek; Braksator, Wojiech; Syska-Sumńska, Joanna; Janiszewski, Maciej; Król, Jarosław; Kuch, Marek; Kuch, Jerzy; Dłuiniewski, Mirosław

    2004-12-01

    Silent myocardial ischaemia (SMI), a common disorder, has been studied by different research groups for the last 25 years. It is known that SMI is more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) than in the general population, even though pathological mechanisms responsible for SMI are unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the role of SMI and other conditions in predicting adverse outcome in patients with type 2 DM during five years of follow-up. 67 males with type 2 DM were enrolled into the study group. 55-healthy men were used as a control group (CG). Precise clinical examinations (medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests) were conducted. Coronary risk factors and the level of diabetes control were assessed. Noninvasive cardiological tests: ETT, 24 h ECG and echocardiography were performed. The prevalence of the following complications: ischaemia, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, death and need for invasive procedures was recorded for five years. Parameters responsible for the complications were analyzed with the use of univariate logistic regression test; odds ratio was calculated. The silent myocardial ischaemia was found in 32.8% of patients with type 2 DM and in 9.1% men in control group (p < 0.001). The complications were observed in 24% of men with DM and in 16% in control group (NS). It was found that 25 parameters in the studied group and 16 parameters in the control group were statistically significant for the prediction of complications (among analyzed 92 parameters). The most important of them in type 2 DM group are: duration of diabetes (years) OR--1.18 (p < 0.01), fasting glucose (mg/dl) OR--1.017 (p < 0.01), SMI episodes (ETT) OR--4.72 (p < 0.01), diastolic dysfunction (E/A), OR--0.003 (p < 0.02) and left ventricle hypertrophy OR--3.86 (p < 0.05), whereas in CG--SMI episodes, OR--17.72 (p < 0.002). (1) The silent myocardial ischaemia is common in patients with type 2 DM. It was diagnosed

  20. The Thai DMS Diabetes Complications (DD.Comp.) project: prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in Thai patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsareejit, Amporn; Potisat, Somkiat; Krairittichai, Udom; Sattaputh, Charnvate; Arunratanachote, Woranut

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Thailand and their associated risk factors. A cross-sectional, multi-sites, hospital-based study was carried out between June and December 2006. Diabetic patients from the outpatient department of seven public hospitals (3 tertiary, 2 secondary and 2 community hospital) in Thailand were performed by retinal specialist. One thousand seven of 1,120 diabetic patients received retinal examination using indirect ophthalmoscope. Patients were divided into two groups (absent and present DR). Most patients in both groups were female (72.7 and 68.0%). The prevalence of DR was 24.0% (n = 242), mild NPDR 9.4% (n = 95), moderate NPDR 10.5% (n = 106), severe NPDR 1.3% (n = 13), and proliferative (PDR) 2.8% (n = 28). Age at onset, duration of DM, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, Triglyceride (TG), alcohol consumption, foot ulcer, and proteinuria were recorded. Metformin and insulin taking were statistically, significantly different among these groups. There is more prevalent NPDR and PDR in insulin-taking than non-insulin-taking groups. The grading of diabetic retinopathy is associated with the duration of diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, associated risk factors of DR patients were the duration of DM, HbA1c levels, and proteinuria. Diabetic retinopathy was present in about one fourth of type 2 diabetic patients in this study. Associated risk factors of DR were the duration of DM, HbA1c levels, and proteinuria. Regular screening for DR especially in T2DM with associated risk factor should be done for early treatment.

  1. Diabetes Mellitus and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisson, Rosa; Pacheco, José

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with absolute or relative blood insulin deficit that results in hyperglicemia and glycosuria, increase in protein and fat catabolism and tendency to ketoacidosis. During pregnancy carbohydrate metabolism is affecter by the fetus (who cosumes maternal glucose and aminoacids), placental hormones (IICS, estrogens, progesterone) and cortisol, all having antiinsulinic effects. Gestational diabetes occurs in 3 to 6 per cent of pregnancies and is asso...

  2. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, H David; Jensen, Dorte M; Jensen, Richard C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes related to elevated fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) in a Danish pregnancy cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational cohort study including 1,516 women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by Danish criteria...

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktün, Hale Lebriz; Uyan, Derya; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    To verify the usefulness of the World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women and its effectiveness in the prevention of maternal and neonatal adverse results in women younger than 35 years without apparent risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a retrospective study based on population involving 1360 pregnant women who delivered and who were followed-up in a university hospital in Istanbul. All women underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test screening, usually in between the 24(th)-28(th) weeks of pregnancy. In all cases, the identification of gestational diabetes mellitus was determined in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Approximately 28% of the pregnant women aged younger than 35 years with no risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test in this study. In the gestational diabetes mellitus group, the primary cesarean section rate was importantly higher than that in the non-gestational diabetes mellitus group. Preterm delivery was also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal respiratory problems didn't showed any significant deviation between the groups. There was a moderate association between gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolic complications. Pregnant women with no obvious risk factors were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus using the World Health Organization criteria. The treatment of these women potentially reduced their risk of adverse maternal and neonatal hyperglycemia-related events, such as cesarean section, polyhydramnios, preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, large for gestational age, and higher neonatal weight.

  4. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and its influence on microvascular complications in the Indian population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Rajiv

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metabolic syndrome (MS consists of central obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, low high density lipoproteins, high triglycerides and hypertension. Different studies have observed that MS causes microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of MS in the Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus in relation to gender, duration of diabetes, and to evaluate the influence of MS and its individual components on microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. Methods A population-based cross sectional survey was conducted with 1414 patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria were used to identify the metabolic syndrome. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using the stereoscopic digital fundus photography. Neuropathy was assessed by measuring the vibration perception threshold through a sensitometer. Nephropathy was diagnosed by the presence of microalbuminuria in the first morning urine sample. Results The age and gender adjusted prevalence of MS, using the IDF criteria, in the South Indian population was 73.3%. The prevalence was higher in women (83.3%, compared to men (65.3%. In subjects with diabetes mellitus, without and with MS, the prevalence of retinopathy was 21.3% and 16.9% (p = 0.057; prevalence of nephropathy was 20.5% and 18.0% (p = 0.296, and prevalence of neuropathy was17.2% and 19.4% (p = 0.353 respectively. Overall and in women, the clustering of MS components led to an increase in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The prevalence of retinopathy and neuropathy in MS subjects, who had diabetes for Conclusions The association of MS with microangiopathies decreased with an increase in the duration of diabetes. MS behaved differently in men and women. It may need to be managed differently in the two groups.

  5. Estimation of the economic and health impact of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the autonomous community of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Francisco; Rubio-Terrés, Carlos; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío; Magaña, Ana; Piñera, Marbella; Iglesias, Pedro; Nogales, Pedro; Calañas, Alfonso; Novella, Blanca; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio; Debán, Carlos; Zamarrón, Isabel; Mora, Gustavo; Balsa, José Antonio; Vázquez, Clotilde

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the economic and health impact of chronic complications (macrovascular and microvascular) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the autonomous community of Madrid (Spain) (ACM). The number of expected complications was obtained from a descriptive, cross-sectional study on a cohort of 3,268 patients with T2DM from the ACM. Cost of complications (€, 2012) was assessed both at hospitals and in primary care. The number of medical visits in primary care and drug treatment for complications were collected by a panel of 21 physicians experienced in treatment of T2DM. Population and epidemiological data and healthcare costs were obtained from Spanish sources. Univariate sensitivity analyses were performed. It is estimated that there are 390,944 patients with T2DM in the ACM, and that they experience 172,406 and 212,283 macrovascular and microvascular complications respectively during their lifetimes. Mean cost of T2DM complications per patient is estimated at € 4,121.54 (66% due to macrovascular complications). The economic impact of T2DM complications in the ACM would be € 1,611 million (1,065 and 545 millions from macrovascular and microvascular complications respectively). The economic impact would range from € 1,249 and 2.509 million euro depending on T2DM prevalence. Complications of T2DM have a great health and economic impact in ACM. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with the development of renal complications of diabetes mellitus in São Paulo city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.G. Ferreira

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetic end-stage renal failure (ESRF varies worldwide and risk factors have been demonstrated in several populations. The objective of the present study was to identify possible factors associated with the risk of development of ESRF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. Two groups of diabetic subjects were included in a case-control study: 1 one group was submitted to renal replacement therapies, attending dialysis centers in São Paulo city and 2 the same number of controls without clinical nephropathy (two negative dipstick tests for urine protein, matched for duration of DM, were obtained from an outpatient clinic. A standardized questionnaire was used by a single investigator and additional data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. A total of 290 diabetic patients from 33 dialysis centers were identified, and 266 questionnaires were considered to contain reliable information. Male/female ratios were 1.13 for ESRF and 0.49 for the control group. A higher frequency of men was observed in the ESRF group when compared with controls (53 vs 33%, P<0.00001, although logistic regression analysis did not confirm an association of gender and diabetic nephropathy (DN. Similar proportions of non-white individuals were found for both groups. Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM were less common than patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, particularly in the control group (3.4 vs 26.3%, P<0.00001, for controls and ESRF patients, respectively; this type of DM was associated with a higher risk of ESRF than NIDDM, as determined by univariate analysis or logistic regression (OR = 4.1. Hypertension by the time of the DM diagnosis conferred a 1.4-fold higher risk of ESRF (P = 0.04, but no difference was observed concerning the presence of a family history. Association between smoking and alcohol habits and increased risk was observed (OR = 4.5 and 5.9, respectively, P<0.001. A 2

  7. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar; Department of Cardioscience, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, UAEAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in the presence of intensive glycemic control. Substantial clinical and experimental evidence suggest that both diabetes and insulin resistance cause a combination of endothelial dysfunctions, which may diminish the anti-atherogenic role of the vascular endothelium. Both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction appear to precede the development of overt hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction may be a critical early target for preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria is now considered to be an atherosclerotic risk factor and predicts future cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients, in elderly patients, as well as in the general population. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients with essential hypertension. A complete biochemical understanding of the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes vascular functional and structural changes associated with the diabetic milieu still eludes us. In recent years, the numerous biochemical and metabolic pathways postulated to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease have been distilled into several unifying hypotheses. The role of chronic hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic microvascular complications and in neuropathy has been clearly established. However, the biochemical or cellular links between elevated blood glucose levels, and the vascular lesions remain

  8. The relationship between microvascular complications and depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who use insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Eren

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the relationshipbetween Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM and its complicationswith the severity of depression.Methods: Eighty diabetics under the age of 65 usinginsulin were enrolled and clinical and biochemical datawere recorded. The severity of neuropathy was determinedby the “United Kingdom neuropathy screeningscore” (UKNS whereas the severity of depression wasdetermined by the “Beck depression scale” (BDS. Nephropathyand retinopathy were assessed by the microalbumin-creatinine ratio in spot urine samples and by detailedexamination of the retina with an ophthalmoscope,respectively.Results: There were more patients who has high neuropathyseverity in the group with the highest Beck depressionscale score (p<0.001. In the correlation analyses,positive correlation was found between the severity ofdepression determined by the BDS and UKNS (r=0.231,p=0.039. No relationship was found between nephropathy,retinopathy and severity of depression.Conclusion: There was significant relationship betweenthe severity of neuropathy and that of depression. Hence,cases with a diagnosis of Type 2 DM require screening interms of neuropathy and the presence of depression. Appropriateapproach towards such conditions associatedwith each other may be crucial in the context of increasingthe quality of life. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1: 34-39Key words: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; neuropathy, nephropathy; retinopathy; depression

  9. Investigating the association between diabetes mellitus, depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the risk of depression as a result of a sense of threat of debilitating complications or because of associated lifestyle changes. Depression may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes as a result of poor health behaviours. Objective. To determine the association between ...

  10. Association between Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Cardiovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Ook Chung; Dong Hyeok Cho; Dong Jin Chung; Min Young Chung

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but high cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus patients is not completely explained by clustering traditional risk factors. Recently, associations between diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and macrovasculopathy have been suggested. We aimed to assess associations between DPN and cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Microvascular and cardiovascular complications were ev...

  11. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda; Jovanovič, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications.

  12. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  13. Serum ADEPONECTIN Level In Children And Adolescents With Type I Diabetes Mellitus And Its Association With Microvascular Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOAWAD, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipo cytokine, is secreted from the adipose tissue and plays an important role in obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the concentration of serum adiponectin in type I diabetic children and to establish its association with microvascular complications. For this reason, weight (kg), height (m), body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), random blood sugar, HbAIc, kidney functions, urinary microalbuminuria, lipid profiles and serum adiponectin were assessed in 25 children (11 males, 14 females) with type I diabetes and twenty healthy control children. Careful history, clinical examination, acetomorphine and pirbuterol assessment were done for all patients and controls. The diabetic patients were stratified depending on the pubertal stage into pre-pubertal group and pubertal group, and according to gender into male group and female group. The results obtained displayed significant elevated values for random blood glucose (P<0.001), HbAIc (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.05), low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P<0.05), BUN (P<0.001), creatinine (P<0.05), urinary microalbuminuria (P<0.001) and serum adiponectin (P<0.001) in diabetic children and control. In patients suffering from microvascular diabetic complications as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, serum adiponectin level showed high significant increase in patients with diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy than without. On the other hand, patients with retinopathy had no significant increase in serum adiponectin as compared with patients without retinopathy but this result may be due to small sample size. Positive significant correlation was detected between serum adiponectin and HbAIc, total cholesterol and urinary microalbuminuria in the same patients. Negative significant correlation was observed between serum adiponectin level and body mass index (BMI). It could be concluded that serum adiponectin which increased in diabetic children than healthy control

  14. Attitude, complications, ability of fasting and glycemic control in fasting Ramadan by children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Asma; Al Qahtani, Nabras; Akle, Mariette; Singh, Himanshi; Assadi, Rifah; Attia, Salima; Al Suwaidi, Hana; Hussain, Tara; Naglekerke, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Sick individuals and children are exempted from fasting Ramadan. Fasting by type 1 diabetes patients might predispose to acute complications. There are no guidelines on fasting safety or its impact on diabetes control in children and adolescents. We aim to assess patients' attitude towards fasting, frequency of complications and impact on glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. 65 children with type 1 diabetes were enrolled. The study involved 2 hospital visits. Questionnaires were filled in each visit and HbA1c was recorded. Log books indicating symptomatic hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia leading to breaking fast were obtained. Majority of subjects were willing to fast and 75% were encouraged by parents to do. 57% and 26% fasted more than half and all through the month respectively. 52% had, at least, one episode of hypoglycemia and 29% had hyperglycemia with one episode of ketoacidosis. All patients broke fast in response to symptomatic hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia. There was no significant difference between the frequency of complications in the pump or the Multiple Daily Injection (MDI) groups. Mean HbA1c increased from 70mmol/mol to 73mmol/mol. The difference was not statistically significant. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes are keen to fast Ramadan and they are able to fast a significant number of days. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are not uncommon with no difference between Pump or in MDI users. Breaking fast on occurrence of complications makes fasting safe. Glycemic control might deteriorate during the month and the following Eid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Baan (Caroline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has

  16. Clinical and scientific results in perinatal care of pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelmis, J

    1998-01-01

    At the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perinatal Unit for Diabetes and Fetal Growth, School of Medicine, Zagreb, perinatal care of pregnancies complicated with insulin dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM), has been performed for more than 36 years. The intention of this review is to show our own results in the management of IDDM pregnancies and the latest clinical advances in perinatal care of such pregnancies. Pregnancy complicated with IDDM is at risk because of numerous maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Recent advances in medicine, especially in diabetology and perinatology, helps clinician avoid or lessen antenatal or perinatal complications in IDDM pregnancies. The main result of improved perinatal care is that today fetal and neonatal mortality in IDDM pregnancy is almost equal to that of healthy pregnant population. Intensive preconceptual care and optimal regulation of IDDM have resulted not only in decreased perinatal mortality but also in a decreased rate of congenital malformation. Tight glycemia control during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on fetal growth. Intensive control of fetal growth, verification of lung maturation at term by amniocenthesis, and control of fetal oxygenation will result in delivery of a mature eutrophic newborn with the lowest rate of neonatal complications possible. Perinatal mortality of less than 2% in IDDM pregnancy can be obtained by planned delivery between 38 and 39 weeks of gestation by either vaginal route or cesarean section, depending on indications. After delivery, intensive care of the newborn is necessary.

  17. Periodontitis as a possible early sign of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Kosho, Madeline X. F.; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Loos, Bruno G.

    2017-01-01

    The early diagnosis of (pre)diabetes mellitus is essential for the prevention of diabetes complications. It has been suggested that gum disease (periodontitis) might be an early complication of diabetes and may be a useful risk indicator for diabetes screening. Therefore, a dental office could be a

  18. The influence of physical activity on vascular complications and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, J I; Chow, C K; Zoungas, S; Woodward, M; Patel, A; Poulter, N R; Marre, M; Harrap, S; Chalmers, J; Hillis, G S

    2013-11-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the association between physical activity and vascular complications, particularly microvascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes. From the 11 140 patients in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial, the effect of physical activity, categorized as none, mild, moderate or vigorous, and the number of sessions within a week, was examined in multivariable regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The study end-points were major cardiovascular events, microvascular complications and all-cause mortality. Forty-six percent of participants reported undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity for >15 min at least once in the previous week. During a median of 5 years of follow-up, 1031 patients died, 1147 experienced a major cardiovascular event and 1136 a microvascular event. Compared to patients who undertook no or mild physical activity, those reporting moderate to vigorous activity had a decreased risk of cardiovascular events (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.88, p physical activity is associated with a reduced incidence of cardiovascular events, microvascular complications and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgård; Overgaard, Charlotte; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca

    Title: Early detection of diabetes after pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes Background: Women whose pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes have a 7-fold higher risk of developing diabetes, primarily type 2. 40% of women with a history gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM...... of health consequences for women. Aims: Examine the extent of participation in follow-up screening in the Danish Region of North Jutland, and the possible consequences of nonattendance. Methods: A register based study. In Danish national registers 2171 birthing women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM...

  20. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Norimasa; Sowa, Etsuji; Fujii, Satoru; Seki, Junichi; Wada, Masahisa

    1975-01-01

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200μCi of 75 Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of 75 Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of 75 Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arteriosclerosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions. (auth.)

  1. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  2. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram T; Darwish, Hisham M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development. PMID:26131326

  3. Cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is associated with elevated blood glucose level, abnormal abdominal fat deposition, insulin resistance and a number of complications including embryopathy, cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, microangiopathy and retinopathy. Complications extending to the central nervous ...

  4. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  5. Radiation retinopathy in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, S.P.; Joshi, A.V.; Banerjee, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    A case of radiation retinopathy in a diabetic individual who received a total dose of 45 Gy for lymphoblastic lymphoma of the orbit is reported. The relationship between radiation retinopathy and diabetes mellitus is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes by comparing the therapeutic effects of intensive and standard treatment in patients with type II diabetes.METHODS: A total of 107 patients with type II diabetes were randomly assigned into intensive and standard treatment groups. Patients in the intensive treatment group received preterax (perindopril/ indapamide to control blood pressure, and gliclazide (diamicron MR to control blood glucose. Patients in the standard treatment group received routine medications or placebo. Urinary microalbumin (UMA, urinary creatinine (UCR, the UMA/UCR ratio, and visual acuity were monitored according to the study design of the ADVANCE trial. Direct ophthalmoscopy and seven-field stereoscopic retinal photography were used to examine the fundi at baseline, and repeated after 5 years of treatment.RESULTS: The characteristics of patients in both groups were well balanced at baseline. After 5 years of treatment, visual acuity was found to be decreased in the standard group (P=0.04, but remained stable in the intensive group. The severity of diabetic retinopathy had not progressed in patients in the intensive group, but had deteriorated in the standard group (P=0.0006. The UMA/UCR ratio was not obviously changed in patients in the intensive group, whereas it was significantly increased in the standard group (P=0.00.CONCLUSION: Intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure can decrease the incidence or slow the progression of microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes, and maintain stable vision.

  7. Real Life Cancer Comorbidity in Greek Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Followed Up at a Single Diabetes Center: An Unappreciated New Diabetes Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Thanopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined cancer comorbidity in patients with diabetes followed up at a single Greek academic clinic and investigated the potential related factors. Cancer comorbidity was prospectively recorded for all patients with type 2 (T2DM, n=759 or type 1 (T1DM, n=134 diabetes of at least 10-year duration examined during one year. Patient characteristics, diabetes age of onset, duration, treatment, control, and complication rates were compared between subjects with and without cancer. Moreover, a retrospective collection of data from similar patients examined for the first time during the last 25 years, but lost to follow-up, after at least one-year’s regular visits, was performed. In regularly followed-up T2DM patients cancer comorbidity was 12.6%. Patients with cancer were older and more frequently smokers. Prostate cancer was the most frequent (24.0% type. In T1DM cancer comorbidity was 3.0%. Similar rates of comorbidity and types of cancer were observed in lost to follow-up patients. In conclusion, our patients with T2DM of at least 10-year’ duration show high cancer comorbidity. No specific characteristics discriminate patients with cancer. Therefore presymptomatic cancer detection and prevention strategies may have to be incorporated into the annual systematic evaluation of our patients.

  8. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Montagnani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporotic fractures are major causes of mortality and morbidity in older subjects. Recent reports have revealed close association between fracture risk and DM types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of these diseases in the elderly and examine certain etiopathogenetic aspects of DM associated osteoporosis, which could be useful in management of diabetic patients. Materials and methods: We searched the Embase and PubMed databases using diabetes, osteoporosis, and bone mineral density (BMD as search terms and 1989-2009 as publication dates. Discussion: The risk of fractures seems to be increased in both types of DM although DM2 seems to be associated with normal-high BMDs compared with the normal population. This apparent paradox could reflect greater bone frailty in diabetic patients that are unrelated to adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, deposition of advanced glycosylation end products in collagen, reduced serum IGF-1 levels, hypercalciuria, renal failure, microangiopathy, and/or inflammation. Diabetic patients’ propensity to fall and multiple comorbidities might also explain their higher fracture rates. The effects of drugs that inhibit bone resorption in diabetic patients are probably similar to those obtained in nondiabetics although there is little information on this issue. In general, effective treatment of diabetes has positive effects on bone metabolism. Metformin acts directly on bone tissue, reducing AGE accumulation, and insulin has direct effects on osteoclast activity. In contrast, the thiazolidinediones seem to have negative effects since they orient mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation toward adipose rather than bone tissue. Incretin therapy is a newer approach that appears to modify interactions between nutrition and bone turnover (e.g., postprandial suppression of bone resorption. Conclusions: Better understanding of how

  9. Diabetes Mellitus in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime E

    2015-01-01

    Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction of a comprehensive health care network for early referral in order to prevent, detect, and treat diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Durmuş

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. Studies on the presence of a generalized osteoporosis related to diabetes mellitus (DM are few and controversial. Factors associated with osteoporosis diabetes in which may account for the patogenesis of diabetic bone loss have been studied. This article will review the relevant litarature relating to diabetes and osteoporosis including cellular and animal models. These studies include vascular and neuropathic mechanism, poor glisemic control, abnormalities of calcium and vitamin D metabolism and hypercalciuria with secondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion, the role of insülin and insülin like growth factor I. It appears that there is a great deal of variability in the bone mineral density and fracture rates in both type I and type II DM. This may reflect multiple factors such as the population, age, duration of diabetes and insülin use. There is need for further longitudinal studies, including the incidence and risk factors for osteoporosis in DM.

  11. Diabetes Mellitus and Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Engin Eser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is an important disease caused by insulin deficiency or insulin receptor resistance and characterized by hyperglycemia. The prevalence rate of DM is increasing rapidly worldwide and its associated complications affect the quality of life of patients adverse­ly. In addition, high medical costs for its treatment bring significant economic load on countries. Epigenetics is the reversible modifications on the genome, which lead to changes in gene expression without any alteration in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications can easily be affected by environmental factors and abnormalities in these modifications have been linked to many diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will summarize the relationship of DM and its complications with DNA and RNA methylation, which are among the most important modifications.

  12. Family Support Increasing the Diet Compliance Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Inpatient Ward of Kediri Baptist Hospital Ward

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Meilina; Sulistyarini, Tri

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease that can not be cured. A balanced diet is one of way in management of Diabetes Mellitus. Constraint of Diabetes Mellitus diet handling is burnout of patients to follow dietary therapy and lack of family support, if there is no family support, Diabetes Mellitus patients will not obey implement diet, so uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and complications occur. The research objective to analyzes of family support improve patient compliance of Diabetes Mellitus diet. ...

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  14. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Among Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a common condition which can lead to medical complications and can have an adverse effect on oral health and health-care. It has been reported that individuals with poor sugar control loose more teeth, have increased incidence of dental anomalies and diseases including periodontitis, dental caries ...

  15. [Obesity and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron'ko, N D; Zak, K P

    2013-12-01

    New literature data and the results of own researches concerning the role of excessive body weight and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are presented in the analytical review. Inaccordance with current insights, obesity and type 2 diabetes are considered diseases of inflammatory nature, characterized by systemic chronic low-grade inflammation, where different kinds of cytokines are cardinally involved. Unfavourable life style, i.e. excessive, high-energy, and irrational nutrition--an excessive consumption of animal fats and foods containing the high amount of glucose and starch with an insufficient use of high fiber vegetables, fish and vitamin D, and also sedentary, inactive life style leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and migration of M1 macrophages into the adipose tissue (AT). As a result, there is a low-grade inflammation accompanied by an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), adipokines (leptin, resistin, visfatin etc.) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL26 and CX3C). Under the influence of these cytokines, on the one hand, IR "is emerged", and on the other--there is apoptosis of the β-cells, that should be followed by the occurrence of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes. However, there is also the opposite system in humans, protecting the organism from the development of type 2 diabetes, and including an increase in the formation of M2 macrophages and the increased formation of secretion of antidiabetic cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, etc.) and adiponectin.

  16. [Abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1: Liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, C; Pietsch, C; Gottschalk, U; Barreiros, A P; Teufel, A; Cui, X W; Dietrich, C F

    2015-04-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, abdominal ultrasonography is the appropriate diagnostic technique to detect and to follow-up secondary and accompanying diseases of the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas, the gastrointestinal tract and of abdominal vessels. Moreover, pancreatic and hepatic diseases may be realized which are of etiological importance for diabetes mellitus. Based on a systematic survey of the published literature, this review in 3 parts will describe the value of abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1 deals with the diagnostic relevance and particular findings of ultrasonographic methods in hepatic manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Prevalence of Cutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a non- communicable disease with an increasing prevalence in developing countries. Skin manifestations in this condition are due to metabolic derangements or chronic degenerative complications. Skin manifestations are commonly observed after developing clinical diabetes mellitus, but ...

  18. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...

  19. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...

  20. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  1. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  2. Blink reflex in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkholy, Saly H; Hosny, Hanan M; Shalaby, Nevein M; El-Hadidy, Reem A; Abd El-Rahim, Noha T; Mohamed, Manal M

    2014-12-01

    An evaluation of the extent of damage of the central nervous system in diabetes mellitus is of high value in current research. Electrophysiological abnormalities are frequently present in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic cranial neuropathy is one of the complications of the disease. Blink reflex is used to diagnose subclinical cranial neuropathy. The objective is to test the utility of blink reflex in detecting subclinical cranial nerve involvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged from 30 to 60 years examined clinically and neurologically. Blink reflex and nerve conduction studies for the upper and lower limbs were performed and compared with 20 matched normal controls. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy showed significant prolonged distal latency and reduced amplitudes of the R2C response compared with the control, patients without peripheral neuropathy showed insignificant changes. Alteration of R2 correlated with the type of treatment and the duration of the disease. In patients without peripheral neuropathy, ulnar sensory distal latencies showed significant positive correlation with R2I latency, whereas its Conduction Velocity (CV) showed significant positive correlation with R2C amplitudes and negative correlation with R2C latency. R2C is the most sensitive parameter in the blink reflex, which can help in the diagnosis of subclinical diabetic cranial neuropathy.

  3. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  4. Periodontitis as a possible early sign of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Kosho, Madeline X. F.; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Loos, Bruno G.

    2017-01-01

    The early diagnosis of (pre)diabetes mellitus is essential for the prevention of diabetes complications. It has been suggested that gum disease (periodontitis) might be an early complication of diabetes and may be a useful risk indicator for diabetes screening. Therefore, a dental office could be a good location for screening for (pre)diabetes in patients with periodontitis using a validated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) dry spot analysis. A total of 313 individuals from a university dental cli...

  5. Urineweginfecties bij vrouwen met diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; Meiland, R.; Hoepelman, I. M.

    2001-01-01

    Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) more frequently than women without DM. For type 1 diabetes mellitus, risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria include a longer duration of diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and macroalbuminuria.

  6. A survey of the management, control, and complications of diabetes mellitus in patients attending a diabetes clinic in Blantyre, Malawi, an area of high HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Danielle B; Allain, Theresa J; Glover, Simon; Chimbayo, Daniel; Dzamalala, Helen; Hofland, Helma W C; Banda, Ndaziona P K; Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current status of diabetes care in an urban diabetes clinic in Malawi and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in this population, investigating possible associations between HIV and diabetes. A systematic prospective survey of patients attending the diabetes clinic at a teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi was conducted. Six hundred twenty patients were assessed. Seventy-four percent had glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) > 7.5%. Systolic blood pressure was > 140 mm Hg in 52% of patients. Hypertension was more common in patients with raised creatinine (P < 0.003), retinopathy (P = 0.01), and stroke (P < 0.0002). Microvascular complication rates were high, specifically nephropathy (34.7%), retinopathy (34.7%), and neuropathy (46.4%). HIV seroprevalence was 13.7%. HIV-positive subjects had a lower body mass index (BMI) and lower fasting blood sugar, and they were more likely to have albuminuria (48.0% versus 33.3%; P < 0.05). Control of glycemia and hypertension were poor, and microvascular complications were common. Nephropathy in diabetic patients may be affected by HIV status.

  7. Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kalpana; Mohan, Roshni; Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Panneerselvam, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes frequently use complimentary and alternative medications including Ayurvedic medications and hence it is important to determine their efficacy and safety. Objectives To assess the effects of Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 10, 2011), MEDLINE (until 31 August 2011), EMBASE (until 31 August 2011), AMED (until 14 October 2011), the database of randomised trials from South Asia (until 14 October 2011), the database of the grey literature (OpenSigle, until 14 October 2011) and databases of ongoing trials (until 14 October 2011). In addition we performed hand searches of several journals and reference lists of potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials of at least two months duration of Ayurvedic interventions for diabetes mellitus. Participants of both genders, all ages and any type of diabetes were included irrespective of duration of diabetes, antidiabetic treatment, comorbidity or diabetes related complications. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated as indicated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Main results Results of only a limited number of studies could be combined, in view of different types of interventions and variable quality of data. We found six trials of proprietary herbal mixtures and one of whole system Ayurvedic treatment. These studies enrolled 354 participants ( 172 on treatment, 158 on controls, 24 allocation unknown). The treatment duration ranged from 3 to 6 months. All these studies included adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. With regard to our primary outcomes, significant reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS) or both were observed with Diabecon, Inolter and Cogent DB compared to placebo or no additional treatment, while no significant hypoglycaemic response was found

  8. Diagnosis dan Kelasifikasi Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad H. Asdie, Ahmad H. Asdie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented the main recommendations for the definition and classification.of diabetes mellitus and of impaired glucose intolerance in non-pregnant adults.Diabetes mellitus is not a disease in the classical sense but is more probably a syndrome best characterized as a state of chronic hyperglycemia of various etiology. It may present with acute symptoms that include polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss and these can progress to life threatening ketoacidosis or hyperosmola...

  9. A link between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, A.; Petrovski, B.E; Petrovski, G.

    2016-01-01

    and the Danish National Patient Register. Results A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period 1996–2012 were included. The overall incidence rates of new-onset glaucoma were 0.07 and 0.36 per 1,000 person-years for the reference population and for diabetes mellitus, respectively. Patients treated with anti-diabetic...... of glaucoma overall, while treatment with β-blocker and RAS, in combination, are associated with a significantly lower risk (HR = 0.87). Conclusions Use of anti-diabetic drugs is strongly associated with use of anti-glaucomatous drugs. Diabetic complication as well as concomitant antihypertensive medications......Purpose To determine the effect of anti-diabetic medication on glaucoma. Furthermore, to investigate if diabetic comorbidities and concomitant medications are associated with glaucoma in patients treated with anti-diabetic medication. Methods Retrospective nationwide cohort study, spanning a 16...

  10. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Children: Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture for the postgraduate medical education system analyzes the etiology, species, key links in pathogenesis, manifestations of diabetes mellitus and its complications in children. Case problems and multiple choice tests are given.

  11. Relation of serum magnesium level to microvascular complications and the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M Yossef

    2017-01-01

    Hypomagnesemia is prevalent in diabetic patients. It is associated with diabetic complications and poor glycemic control. High plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, creatinine level, albuminuria, HbA1c, FBS, and 2-h PPBS are independent correlates of hypomagnesemia.

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and the Musculoskeletal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monu, Johnny V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease with systemic manifestations. Occurrence is increasing worldwide from 153m to 347m from 1980 to 2011. Traditionally there are two main types: Insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes and non-insulin dependent or Maturity onset or insulin resistant diabetes. Gestational diabetes the second type of diabetes is increasingly seen in young patients and it evolves into insulin dependence. Obesity is causally related to type II diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus affects appendicular and peripheral structures more commonly – ankle and feet. Diabetes in the MSK System effects manifested as congenital problems, Peripheral neuropathy, Peripheral vasculopathy Infections and Connective tissue changes. The disease target Structures like Cardio-vascular system, Central nervous system (brain, eyes) and peripheral nerves, Reticulo-endothelial system, Kidneys and Musculoskeletal system. Osteomyelitis fractures including fragmentation of bones and disorganization of joints – neuropathic changes. Diabetic Myopathy occurs predominantly in long-standing, poorly controlled type 1 diabetics often have other vascular or end organ complications. Etiology related to microvascular disease leads to muscle ischemia and infarction eventual muscle atrophy

  13. [Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliz, Monika; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies confirm correlation between periodontitis and systemic diseases such as: arteriosclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, diseases of the respiratory system, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, premature birth and low birth weight. The interaction between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus is described, based on the literature.

  14. Diabetes mellitus, maar welk type?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, J. B.; de Koning, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    In three patients with an unusual presentation of diabetes mellitus, the classification of their diabetes was troublesome. An adolescent male with slightly elevated blood-glucose levels turned out to have excellent glycaemic control on sulphonylurea derivatives only. When he was 40 years of age, his

  15. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus at secondary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) account for the majority of cases of Diabetes complicating pregnancy. It is amenable to risk reduction measures and if properly managed, complications leading to poor pregnancy outcome can be prevented. However, this requires a good knowledge of the disease by the ...

  16. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. The complications exemplified by renal ... Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria with the majority of the patients having combined .... at the chemical pathology laboratory of NAUTH. Nnewi. The lipid assays were done ...

  17. Relationship between MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Emirati population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj Chehadeh, Sarah W; Jelinek, Herbert F; Al Mahmeed, Wael A; Tay, Guan K; Odama, Unini O; Elghazali, Gehad E B; Al Safar, Habiba S

    2016-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes with clinical consequences giving rise to chronic multiple organ complications. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms are genetic variations that have been linked to T2DM, and micro/macrovascular complications. The link between MTHFR and T2DM however is strongly dependent on the ethnic group studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between two MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and T2DM and specifically examine if there are any associations with clinical and demographic characteristics among patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study included 169 T2DM patients and 209 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped using TaqMan real-Time PCR assays for the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. There were no significant differences in genotype and haplotype distributions observed between groups. A significant association was observed between the C677T polymorphism and history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (p = 0.0330), history of nephropathy (p = 0.0280) and levels of LDL cholesterol (p = 0.0409). Also, the A1298C polymorphism was associated with hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.0305) in T2DM patients. These findings demonstrate that the MTHFR gene polymorphisms are not related to T2DM in the Emirati population. However, these polymorphisms can be used as risk markers for CVA, nephropathy, high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in T2DM patients and allow timely treatment.

  18. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance or frank diabetes mellitus is known to occur more frequently in patients with pancreatic cancer than in the general population. At the time of the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, more than 70% of patients taking the glucose tolerance test show diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (1). Relationship among diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer is vague but sure, although neither the nature nor the sequence of the possible cause – effect relationship has been established. The reason for the high frequency of glucose intolerance in patients with pancreatic cancer remains controversial. (author)

  19. [Diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, Zh Z; Samoĭlov, A N

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an up-to-date review of scientific data. Diabetes mellitus (DM), due to its epidemic prevalence and high occurrence of associated disability, is now one of the priority medical and social problems. Incapacitating manifestations of diabetes include visual impairment. Thus, diabetic retinopathy (DR), a late nonspecific vascular complication of DM, is the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population. The basic principle of DR treatment is optimal compensation of diabetes and concomitant conditions, such as arterial hypertension, nephropathy, and hyperlipidemia. Tight glycemic control is the main method for preventing and slowing the progression of preproliferative DR to later stages. Currently, the optimal and the most promising method of insulin injection to diabetes patients is insulin pump, as it enables accurate imitation of physiological secretion of insulin, provides the possibility of tight glycemic control, considerably decreases the risk for acute and late complications of diabetes, etc.

  20. Cardiovascular burden of diabetes mellitus: a review | Dodiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is rapidly on the increase worldwide and is gradually becoming a major public health problem for developing nations. Diabetes in all its forms is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of death in diabetic patients ...

  1. Rehabilitation of tendon problems in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, Jonathan; Gaida, Jamie E.; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Zwerver, Johannes; Anthony, Joseph S.; Scott, Alex; Ackermann, PW; Hart, DA

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is crucial in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. However, individuals with diabetes have a heightened risk of musculoskeletal problems, including tendon pathologies. Diabetes has a significant impact on the function of tendons due to the accumulation of

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Nils; Hardt, Philip D

    2013-11-14

    Diabetes secondary to pancreatic diseases is commonly referred to as pancreatogenic diabetes or type 3c diabetes mellitus. It is a clinically relevant condition with a prevalence of 5%-10% among all diabetic subjects in Western populations. In nearly 80% of all type 3c diabetes mellitus cases, chronic pancreatitis seems to be the underlying disease. The prevalence and clinical importance of diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis has certainly been underestimated and underappreciated so far. In contrast to the management of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, the endocrinopathy in type 3c is very complex. The course of the disease is complicated by additional present comorbidities such as maldigestion and concomitant qualitative malnutrition. General awareness that patients with known and/or clinically overt chronic pancreatitis will develop type 3c diabetes mellitus (up to 90% of all cases) is rather good. However, in a patient first presenting with diabetes mellitus, chronic pancreatitis as a potential causative condition is seldom considered. Thus many patients are misdiagnosed. The failure to correctly diagnose type 3 diabetes mellitus leads to a failure to implement an appropriate medical therapy. In patients with type 3c diabetes mellitus treating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, preventing or treating a lack of fat-soluble vitamins (especially vitamin D) and restoring impaired fat hydrolysis and incretin secretion are key-features of medical therapy.

  3. Podocyte injury in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Bobkova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of podocyte injury and their correlation with metabolic and haemodynamic disorders in diabetes mellitus are considered in detail; the results of the last experimental and clinical studies on this problem are presented in this review. Authors shined the biomarkers, reflecting expressiveness of podocytopathy and structural and functional glomerular changes at diabetic nephropathy. Modern possibilities of treatment for their correction to prevent diabetic nephropathy progression are discussed.

  4. Variant rs2237892 of KCNQ1 Is Potentially Associated with Hypertension and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in A Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.75. Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24–3.15 and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57–3.95 were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P = 0.015, prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.037, and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00–4.45 were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population.

  5. Variant rs2237892 of KCNQ1 Is Potentially Associated with Hypertension and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in A Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanlin; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Niu, Qing; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.75). Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24-3.15) and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57-3.95) were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P=0.015), prevalence of hypertension (P=0.037), and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00-4.45) were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis--cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, L J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus--as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being "brittle" as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health.

  8. Analysis of correlations between the placental expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4 and GLUT-9 and selected maternal and fetal parameters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pyzlak, Michał; Abdalla, Nabil; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-16

    The aim of the study was to analyze the correlations between the expression of glucose transporters GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 in human term placenta and selected maternal and fetal parameters in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM). Placental samples were obtained from healthy control (n = 25) and diabetic pregnancies, including diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG1) (n = 16), insulin-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDMG2) (n = 6), and pregestational DM (PGDM) (n = 6). Computer-assisted quantitative morphometry of stained placental sections was performed to determine the expression of selected glucose transporter proteins. For the purposes of correlation analysis, the following parameters were selected: type of diabetes, gestational age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, third trimester glycated hemoglobin concentration, placental weight, fetal birth weight (FBW) as well as ultrasonographic indicators of fetal adiposity, including subscapular (SSFM), abdominal (AFM), and midthigh (MTFM) fat mass measurements. In the PGDM group, the analysis demonstrated positive correlations between the placental expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 and FBW, AFM, and SSFM measurements (p GLUT-4 expression, FBW and SSFM were observed (p GLUTs expression (p GLUT-1 expression (p GLUT-1, GLUT-4, and GLUT-9 may be involved in the intensification of the fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by GDM/PGDM.

  9. Patterns of diabetic complications at Jimma University Specialized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is common metabolic disease worldwide. Its complications in the Ethiopian care setup has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to assess the pattern and distribution of dia-betic complications among patients having follow-up at Jimma University specialized Hospital ...

  10. DIABETES MELLITUS IN NEUROENDOCRINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Trigolosova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many endocrine diseases accompanied by development of secondary diabetes mellitus (sDM. The features of the development and course of sDM in acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, and growth hormone (GH deficiency are of particular interest as the prevalence of sDM associated with these pathologies is higher than that in the population. The main risk factors for sDM in acromegaly are age, female gender, arterial hypertension, family history of type 2 DM (T2DM, acromegaly activity, and duration and certain treatment methods of acromegaly. The differences of the sDM pathogenesis from pathogenesis of T2DM in the population are due to the opposite effect of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 on glucose metabolism as well as to effect of acromegaly treatment on the mechanisms of diabetes development. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with GH deficiency, especially against the background of GH replacement therapy, is slightly higher than that in population. However, some studies have shown that GH replacement therapy may lead to normalization of the impaired glucose metabolism. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome (43% and visceral obesity in the GH deficiency are the causes of the development of lipotoxicity (free fatty acids excess and insulin resistance.In Cushing’s syndrome, the prevalence of early carbohydrate metabolism disturbances may reach 70%. In Cushing’s disease, chronic glucocorticoid excess determines insulin resistance and reduces insulin secretion, which results in hyperglycaemia. Currently, the recommendations for the treatment of sDM in acromegaly, hypercortisolism, and GH deficiency are the same as for the treatment of T2DM. However, as the pathogenesis is different in sDM and T2DM, the new algorithms for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment need to be developed. Prevention and timely treatment based on pathological principals will slow down the development of micro- and macrovascular complications leading to

  11. The relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; Lalla, Evanthia; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Taylor, George W

    2008-10-01

    The term "diabetes mellitus" describes a group of disorders characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood and abnormalities of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with diabetes mellitus, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes. The authors reviewed the literature to identify oral conditions that are affected by diabetes mellitus. They also examined the literature concerning periodontitis as a modifier of glycemic control. Although a number of oral disorders have been associated with diabetes mellitus, the data support the fact that periodontitis is a complication of diabetes. Patients with long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes are at risk of developing oral candidiasis, and the evidence indicates that periodontitis is a risk factor for poor glycemic control and the development of other clinical complications of diabetes. Evidence suggests that periodontal changes are the first clinical manifestation of diabetes. Diabetes is an important health care problem. The evidence suggests that oral health care providers can have a significant, positive effect on the oral and general health of patients with diabetes mellitus.

  12. Bartter's Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting See

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of Bartter's syndrome in a 35-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with leg weakness, fatigue, polyuria and polydipsia. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and high renin and aldosterone concentrations were present, but the patient was normotensive. Gitelman's syndrome was excluded because of the presence of hypercalciuria, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bilateral nephrocalcinosis. The patient's condition improved upon administration of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor (acemetacin, oral potassium chloride and potassium-sparing diuretics. Five months later, the patient discontinued acemetacin because of epigastric discomfort; at the same time, severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia developed. Glucagon stimulation and water deprivation tests were performed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was diagnosed. To avoid further gastrointestinal complications, the patient was treated with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor. This case serves as a reminder that Bartter's syndrome is associated with various metabolic derangements including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, nephrocalcinosis and diabetes mellitus. When treating Bartter's syndrome, it is also prudent to remember that the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and potassium-sparing diuretics may result in serious adverse reactions.

  13. Diabetic ketoacidosis complicating pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, S N; Herrera, C L; Nelson, D B; Cunningham, F G

    2017-01-01

    Although diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pregnancy can result in significant adverse consequences for both mother and fetus, the response to treatment, time course of recovery, and perinatal outcomes have not been well studied in pregnancy. We examined the precipitating factors, laboratory abnormalities, treatment strategies, and clinical recovery in pregnancies complicated by DKA. This is a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies complicated by DKA between October 1999 and June 2015. The diagnosis was verified by hyperglycemia; anion gap >12 mEq/L, pH diabetes (67%), and almost all presented with nausea and vomiting (97%). Over half had poor compliance with prescribed insulin. The initial mean blood glucose was 380 mg/dL, within 6 hours, it was <200 mg/dL. By 12 hours, the acidosis had resolved in 90% of patients. Nausea and vomiting is a prominent presenting feature of DKA in pregnancy. With aggressive insulin and resuscitation, hyperglycemia and acidosis improve rapidly. With current treatment, good perinatal outcomes can be expected.

  14. Relation between diabetes mellitus and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify if there is any relation between diabetes mellitus and male infertility. Methods: the spermograms of 43 non-diabetic subjects and 12 diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 aged 20-60 years were compared. Spermiological findings in diabetic patients were compared with those of normal individuals of the same age. Serum testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulant hormone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were assayed in diabetic patients. Rresults: Six diabetic patients (four type 1 and two type 2 presented chronic complications attributed to neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. No difference was observed in the semen characteristics (odor, color, viscosity and pH between the control group and the diabetic patients. There were no differences between seminal concentrations and percentage of motile spermatozoa during the first hour of observation in the two groups (p < 0.05. Impotence was reported by four diabetic patients (33.3%. Erectile failure was associated with diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. There were no controls with impotence. No significant hormonal changes were found in the diabetic patients. Cconclusions: The present results suggest that neuropathy and vascular insufficiency  may be  implicated in sexual dysfunction in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, without significantly affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  15. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-06-26

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  16. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Ying; Xiao, E; Graves, Dana T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25857702

  17. Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus: an epidemiology and physiopathology review

    OpenAIRE

    de Macedo, Geisa Maria Campos; Nunes, Samanta; Barreto, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complications and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)?e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advan...

  18. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Followin...

  19. Bone disease and diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarph-Morawski, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Osteoporosis (OP) frequently co-exist with advanced age and imply large health challenges worldwide. The last decades there has been a growing interest regarding fracture risk in DM. Currently used screening methods (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and FRAX) underestimate fracture risk in diabetes patients. New methods for risk assessment are needed. In my thesis, we have studied the significance of neuropathy, the IGF-system and metabolic cont...

  20. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  2. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  3. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children and adolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescents is unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases among children. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistent forms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestations and complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents. Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  4. Alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes patients; the EURODIAB Prospective Complications study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Kruidhof, J.S.; Grobbee, D.E.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy) in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. METHODS: The EURODIAB Prospective

  5. Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypomagnesemia is reported in type 2 diabetes; magnesium deficiency may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and altered insulin function. Objective: To assess the incidence of hypomagnesemia among noncritically ill patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the relation of hypomagnesemia to glycemic control and various long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty, noncritically ill (APACHE score < 10 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, who were admitted in the Departments of Medicine and Endocrinology, GMCH for uncontrolled hyperglycemia and/or various diabetic complications were studied. Serum magnesium was assessed at admission and rechecked in those found to be deficient. Results: Hypomagnesemia (Se magnesium < 1.6 mg/dl was documented in 17 (11.33% patients with a female:male ratio of 9:8. Mean HbA1c was 11.9% in the hypomagnesemic patients compared with 9.8% in controls (P =0.0016. Retinopathy, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, foot ulceration, and neuropathy was present in 64%, 47%, 17.64%, 58.8%, and 82.35%, respectively, of the patients with hypomagnesemia as compared with 45.8% (P =0.118, 38.34% (P =0.704,15.03% (P =0.566, 22.55% (P =0.011 and 82.7% (P =0.976 without hypomagnesemia. Coronary artery disease was less common in the hypomagnesemia group (17.6% vs 39%, but comparable in the subgroup < 50 years (27% vs 25% (P =0.796. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia in diabetes was associated with poorer glycemic control, retinopathy, nephropathy, and foot ulcers.

  6. Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrke, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical data from the last 2 decades have shown that the prevalence of heart failure in diabetes is very high, and the prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Experimental data suggest that various mechanisms contribute to the impairment in systolic and diastolic function in patients with diabetes, and there is an increased recognition that these patients develop heart failure independent of the presence of coronary artery disease or its associated risk factors. In addition, current clinical data demonstrated that treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. This review article summarizes recent data on the prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies to treat patients with diabetes and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular Complications of Diabetes and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Vieira-Potter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease defined by elevated blood glucose (BG. DM is a global epidemic and the prevalence is anticipated to continue to increase. The ocular complications of DM negatively impact the quality of life and carry an extremely high economic burden. While systemic control of BG can slow the ocular complications they cannot stop them, especially if clinical symptoms are already present. With the advances in biodegradable polymers, implantable ocular devices can slowly release medication to stop, and in some cases reverse, diabetic complications in the eye. In this review we discuss the ocular complications associated with DM, the treatments available with a focus on localized treatments, and what promising treatments are on the horizon.

  8. Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetal programming and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lara J; Norman, Jane E; Rice, Gregory E; Illanes, Sebastián E

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined by new-onset glucose intolerance during pregnancy. About 2-5% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancies and the prevalence has increased considerably during the last decade. This metabolic condition is manifested when pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to compensate for increased insulin resistance during pregnancy, however, the pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown. Gestational diabetes is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome as well as with long-term adverse effects on the offspring which likely occurs due to epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. In the current review we address gestational diabetes and the short and long term complications for both mothers and offspring focusing on the importance of fetal programming in conferring risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnosing diabetes mellitus in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne L.; Bygum, Anette; Hother-Nielsen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    comorbidities and treatments concerning patients with porphyria cutanea tarda complicate diagnosing these patients with diabetes mellitus. HbA1c, fasting glucose, or oral glucose tolerance are the current available tests, with HbA1c as first choice. Measuring HbA1c requires no fasting, however HbA1c can......The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in patients with porphyria cutanea tarda. Different tests are available for diagnosing and screening for type II diabetes mellitus, however choosing the most suitable test is challenging. The pitfalls in the different tests along with the interfering...... if the patient has no clinical symptoms of diabetes. Diagnosing diabetes mellitus is important for the purpose of early intervention, and this review provides the knowledge needed to diagnose this special patient group properly....

  11. Adolescents’ knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Al-Hussaini; Seham Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in Kuwait. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and the knowledge of diabetes in adolescent about the disease which, will be of a great help to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and its complications. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was done to evaluate the general knowledge of diabetes. The survey was introduced randomly to the students of 30 secondary public and private schools in Kuwait. The question...

  12. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  13. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. DESIGN: A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities...

  14. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. Design A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. Results Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities, and lack...

  15. A Rare and Lethal Complication: Cerebral Edema in the Adult Patient with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Meaden, Christopher W.; Kushner, Beth J.; Barnes, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Commonly seen in the emergency department, diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially lethal sequela of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. In the adult population, a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis is cerebral edema. This case report discusses a 26-year-old male with new onset diabetes mellitus who developed cerebral edema leading to death.

  16. Assessment of sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexual dysfunction is a known complication of diabetes mellitus that negatively affects the life of the patient. Most times physicians do not consider it during consultation with diabetics. Its prevalence, types and pattern as well as risk factors have been reported elsewhere including some parts of Nigeria but these ...

  17. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  18. Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy: An Update on the Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: Classification of diabetes in pregnancy has been revised to reflect the various aetiological factors. Also, the diagnostic value of fasting plasma glucose has been lowered to mark the point at which dramatic increase in the microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus occurs. Morbidity and mortality associated ...

  19. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Recent Research Trends in Korean Medicine Treatment of Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han-sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to analyze the directions of Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods : We reviewed the 52 studies about diabetes mellitus which had been published from 2000 to 2007. We selected those studies from the search engine of the web site of five journals. Those were the Journal of Korean Oriental Medical Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology, the Journal of Korean Acupuncture & Moxibustion Society, Korean Journal of Oriental Internal Medicine and the Journal of Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Results : 1. The types of diabetes mellitus model in studies were the model used Alloxan(2cases, the model used Streptozotocin(41cases, NOD mice(1case, ob/ob mice(1case, db/db mice(5cases and rats fed highfat diet(2cases. 2. The types of method in studies were pharmacopuncture(8cases, herbal medcine(47case and both pharmacopuncture and herbal medcine(3cases. the types of materials in studies were single herb(24cases, multiple herbs(32cases and both single and multiple herbs(4cases. 3. The types of evaluation criteria in studies were glucose, pancreas, liver, kidney, serum lipid, oxidative stress, nervous system, vascular system and immunity. Conclusions : There have been reported many studies of diabetes mellitus in Korean Medicine. It requires to study further types of diabetes mellitus, kinds of herbs and complications of diabetes mellitus for Korean Medicine treatment of diabetes mellitus was covered the ground.

  1. Study on the exchangeable body sodium in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Chatel, Rudolf; Barna, Istvan; Krasznai, Istvan

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with diabetes mellitus, apperently free of any complications of diabetes and of hypertension, had a significantly (p<0.01) increased exchangeable body sodium compared to 10 sex-matched control subjects of comparable age, body weight and height, and blood pressure. Exchangeable sodium correlated significantly (p<0.01) with supine mean blood pressure in the diabetic patients (r=0.822) but not in the control subjects (r=0.276). It is suggested that the early increase of exchangeable body sodium in diabetes mellitus might play a part in the high incidence of hypertension in such patients. (author)

  2. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    to subsequent development of diabetes and also to identify predictive factors for the development of overt diabets in these women. A follow-up study of diet treated GDM women diagnosed during 1978 to 1985 at the Rigshospital, Copenhagen was performed. Glucose tolerance was evaluated in 241 women (81% of the GDM...... of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... to subsequent development of diabetes and also to identify predictive factors for the development of overt diabets in these women. A follow-up study of diet treated GDM women diagnosed during 1978 to 1985 at the Rigshospital, Copenhagen was performed. Glucose tolerance was evaluated in 241 women (81% of the GDM...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...

  4. Bile salt and cholesterol metabolism in diabetes mellitus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-van Waarde, Willemijntje Maria

    2006-01-01

    W.M. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is associated with microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (cardiovascular disease). Macrovascular disease is the major cause of death in patients with DM1. The mortality rate due to coronary artery

  5. A review of peripheral arterial disease in diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an unrelenting global increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) with its attendant cardiovascular complications. Macrovascular complications such as peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are major consequences of DM. This review briefly summarizes the broader literature on the burden of ...

  6. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dyslipidemia has been noted to play an integral role in the pathogenesis and progression of micro and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. The complications exemplified by renal vascular and cardiovascular disease cause the most morbidity and mortality in this group of patients.

  7. The History of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been recognised since antiquity. The first description that resembles the features of the disease is found in Ebers papyrus (1550 BC. The term ";diabetes"; was first coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Galen described it as a disease specific to the kidneys because of a weakness in their retentive faculties. Word mellitus was added by Thomas Willis in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians, Chinese and Japanese. He later noticed that some urine samples were sweet (diabetes mellitus whereas others were tasteless (diabetes insipidus. Later Cullen and John Rollo confirmed these two types. It was only in 1776 that Dobson firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. Claude Bernard discovered in 1857 that liver releases a substance i.e. glycogen which affects blood sugar level. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski in 1889. In 1909, Jean De Meyer named glucose lowering hormone as insulin whose existence was hypothetical at that time. Banting and Macleod got Noble prize for isolating insulin in 1923. Discovery of insulin for the treatment of diabetes represents one of the major humanitarian and scientific milestones of the 20th century. Oral hypoglycemic drugs were introduced later. Today researchers are working on insulin patch, implantable pump, insulin-sensitizers, pancreatic or islet cell transplantation and oral insulin solution.

  8. Diabetes and the brain: Cognitive performance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, A.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with altered brain function, a complication referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. The issues surrounding the cognitive and emotional status in chronic, older diabetic patients remain complex. The literature shows contrasting findings and

  9. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy: a study of fifty cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M. S.; Moin, S.; Shoaib, F.

    2003-01-01

    To review and critically evaluated the incidence, epidemiology, clinical pattern, diagnosis, management, complications and outcome of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy in hospital based study. Results: Total number of women delivered were 11271. Fifty cases of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy were studied. Mostly the patients were more than 30 years of age, multiparous ladies with gestational diabetes in 80% of cases, Type-II diabetes in 16% and only in 4% Type-I diabetes was reported. Insulin was required in 40% of patients. Eight women out of 50 had spontaneous miscarriage, 5 underwent preterm delivery while 36 reached term with one intrauterine death. Total number of babies delivered alive were 41. There was one stillbirth and 3 neonatal deaths. Conclusion: Management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy involves teamwork of obstetricians, physicians and neonatologists. (author)

  10. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent ...

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study.

  12. Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sergeevna Michurova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have a 2- to 4-times higher risk of developing cardiovascular complications compared with non-diabetic controls. Hyperglycemia activates pathophysiological mechanisms that damage the endothelium. According to the current views, circulating progenitor cells derived from bone marrow repair the damage. These cells, known as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, maintain endothelial homeostasis and contribute to the formation of new vessels. Many clinical studies have reported that EPC population is dysfunctional and declines in numbers in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. In addition, bone marrow doesn’t respond adequately to mobilizing stimuli in DM. Therefore, EPC alterations might have a pathogenic role in the complications of DM. In this review, EPC alterations will be examined in the context of macrovascular and microvascular complications of DM, highlighting their roles and functions in the progression of the disease.

  13. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D

    2017-01-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM...... and T2DM, bone turnover is decreased and the bone material properties and microstructure of bone are altered; the latter particularly so when microvascular complications are present. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetes mellitus are complex, and include hyperglycaemia......-induced hypoglycaemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism (such as thiazolidinediones), as well as an increased propensity for falls, all contribute to the increased fracture risk in patients with diabetes mellitus....

  14. [Association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan-xin

    2007-02-18

    This paper focused on the relationship between periodontitis and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is an abundance of evidence that diabetes mellitus play important etiological roles in periodontal diseases. In addition, periodontal diseases have powerful and multiple influences on the occurrence and severity of systemic conditions and diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and pregnancy complications. The relationship of periodontitis and diabetes has been supported by sufficient evidences in the past twenty years: (1) diabetes is an independent risk factor of chronic periodontitis; (2) metabolic control will improve the prognosis of chronic periodontitis; (3) the treatment of chronic periodontitis will improve the metabolic level. Our recent investigation on periodontal status in the families of type 2 diabetes mellitus further confirmed the relationship. It was showed that the periodontal index such as probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL) and numbers of tooth loss in diabetes family members were significantly higher than non-diabetes family members, while no difference of periodontal parameters was found between well control family members and non diabetes family members. In the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its complications, the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptors were to be recognized as important factors. The distributions of AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) are highly consistent in various tissues. One study in our laboratory demonstrated that RAGE was strongly expressed in gingival tissues gathered from T2DM patients with periodontitis compared with systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients, the expression of RAGE was positively correlated with the expression of TNF-alpha, indicating that AGE-RAGE pathway was involved in the development of periodontitis in T2DM patients. It is known that inflammation could induce the prediabetic status characterized by

  15. Correlates of time to microvascular complications among diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of time to microvascular complications among diabetes mellitus patients using parametric and non-parametric approaches: a case study of Ayder referral hospital, Ethiopia. ... A retrospective follow up study was conducted on diabetic patients during this treatment period of 3 years. Using simple random sampling ...

  16. Comparative Healthcare: Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mohammed Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the third in this series of ‘comparative healthcare’ medical practitioners explore the approach to diabetes inBangaldesh and Australia respectively. The social and medical consequences of this chronic conditionare highlighted through the approach to patients at various stages of the disease from two nationalperspectives. An astonishing 7% of the 153 million people are reported to have diabetes in Bangladesh. Manyremain undiagnosed. Delays in diagnosis or management of diabetes have life limiting consequences for thosewho can ill afford private health care in the poorer nation. Screening and early intervention appear to bedenied to many in the developing country. The context is very different with Australians very fortunate to havea coordinated primary health care sector. The outlook for Bangladeshis with uncontrolled diabetes or withtreatable sequela would be unacceptable in Australia. At every stage in the disease trajectory the doctorsemphasise the importance of life style modification, a particular challenge in affluent Australia with its growingincidence of life style related pre morbid conditions in an increasingly sedentary population. A corner stone ofthe support of people with diabetes is the role of nurses and allied health professionals. With a fundedcommitment to multidisciplinary care in the community people with diabetes in Australia have access tosupport closer to home whereas those in Bangladesh remain heavily dependent on specialist, hospital basedservices. One can only speculate how Bangladesh will cope as its population ages and there are an everincreasing proportion of people who require urgent and expensive medical interventions. At the very leastthere is a strong case for greater investment in primary care especially to limit the economic consequences ofdiabetes and other chronic conditions. Finally as in other articles in this series we would like to emphasise that,the views expressed are those of the authors and do

  17. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per; Hansen, Klavs; Gæde, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster......The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...

  18. Intensive Blood Pressure Control Affects Cerebral Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C. A. T.; Truijen, Jasper; Stok, Wim J.; Secher, Niels H.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic

  19. 76 FR 34130 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...-0144] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 77 FR 74271 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...-0349] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 76 FR 25769 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...-0103] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 76 FR 71112 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-0300] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-0025] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 78 FR 79062 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-0193] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 78 FR 22599 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...-0016] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 78 FR 16032 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...-0014] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-0192] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in...

  8. 77 FR 5870 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-0381] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  9. 77 FR 46149 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-0020] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  11. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 78 FR 38435 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-0181] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 77 FR 36333 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...-0162] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  17. 78 FR 26419 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...-0277] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  19. 78 FR 7852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  1. 78 FR 1923 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0350] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 77 FR 56258 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-0163] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...

  5. 78 FR 1927 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0351] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 77 FR 10612 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-0382] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster...

  8. RENOPROTECTION IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Nephrology and the International Diabetes Federation) have put in place programmes that emphasise the importance of early detection of DN. This article focuses on key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of. DN and concentrate on the traditional and novel therapies that prevent overt renal disease in DM. Pathophysiology ...

  9. Association between microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) and micro- and macrovascular complications in long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, S L; Schlosser, A; Green, A

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) as a marker of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 203 persons with a long duration of type 1 diabetes from a population-based cohort ascertained...... in the former Funen County, Denmark. Detection of plasma-MFAP4 (pMFAP4) was performed by the AlphaLISA Technique. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was graded in accordance with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study adaptation of the modified Airlie House classification. A monofilament test was used to test...... for neuropathy, and nephropathy was evaluated in a single spot urine sample. Data describing macrovascular disease were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: Median age and duration of diabetes were 58.7 and 43 years, respectively, and 61% were males. High levels of pMFAP4 were found...

  10. Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Gimenez-Perez, Gabriel; Mauricio, Didac; Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Richter, Bernd

    2017-12-04

    The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether diet, physical activity or both can prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in at-risk people is unknown. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity or both on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing T2DM. This is an update of the Cochrane Review published in 2008. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP Search Portal and reference lists of systematic reviews, articles and health technology assessment reports. The date of the last search of all databases was January 2017. We continuously used a MEDLINE email alert service to identify newly published studies using the same search strategy as described for MEDLINE up to September 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a duration of two years or more. We used standard Cochrane methodology for data collection and analysis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence using GRADE. We included 12 RCTs randomising 5238 people. One trial contributed 41% of all participants. The duration of the interventions varied from two to six years. We judged none of the included trials at low risk of bias for all 'Risk of bias' domains.Eleven trials compared diet plus physical activity with standard or no treatment. Nine RCTs included participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), one RCT included participants with IGT, impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG) or both, and one RCT included people with fasting glucose levels between 5.3 to 6.9 mmol/L. A total of 12 deaths occurred in 2049 participants in the diet plus physical activity groups compared with 10 in 2050 participants in the comparator groups (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.50 to 2.50; 95% prediction interval 0.44 to 2.88; 4099 participants, 10 trials; very low-quality evidence). The definition of T2DM incidence

  11. Diabetes Mellitus in the Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil ePeev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. New onset diabetes mellitus after transplant (NODAT has been described in approximately 30 percent of non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients many years post transplantation. DM in patients with kidney transplantation constitutes a major comorbidity, and has significant impact on the patients and allografts’ outcome. In addition to the major comorbidity and mortality that result from cardiovascular and other DM complications, long standing DM after kidney transplant has significant pathological injury to the allograft, which results in lowering the allografts and the patients’ survivals. In spite of the cumulative body of data on diabetic nephropathy (DN in the native kidney, there has been very limited data on the DN in the transplanted kidney. In this review, we will shed the light on the risk factors that lead to the development of NODAT. We will also describe the impact of DM on the transplanted kidney, and the outcome of kidney transplant recipients with NODAT. Additionally, we will present the most acceptable data on management of NODAT.

  12. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Victoria L; Tahrani, Abd A

    2017-01-01

    Victoria L Fisher,1 Abd A Tahrani2–4 1School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, 2Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, 4Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common and often-underdiagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). CAN is associated with inc...

  13. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...... aldosterone system. Reduction in albuminuria during antihypertensive treatment is indicative of renal and cardiovascular protection. Thus, if the level of albuminuria remains high, the treatment should be intensified, even in the light of achieved BP goals. Options for intensification are dual blockade...

  14. Assessment of serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease after telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy on serum lipid metabolism index and cytokine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 106 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease who were treated in our hospital between September 2013 and October 2016 were collected and then divided into the control group (n=55 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug treatment and the observation group (n=51 who received conventional treatment + lipid-lowering drug + telmisartan treatment after the therapies were reviewed. Before and after treatment, serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were compared between two groups of patients. Results: Before treatment, the differences in serum levels of lipid metabolism indexes, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients. After treatment, serum TG and LDL-C levels in observation group were lower than those in control group while HDL-C level was higher than that in control group; serum inflammatory mediators IL-6, IL-8, HMGB1 and TNF-α levels were lower than those in control group; serum oxidative stress indexes MDA and ROS levels were lower than those in control group while GSH-Px level was higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Telmisartan combined with lipid-lowering drug therapy can effectively optimize the lipid metabolism and reduce the systemic inflammatory response and oxidative stress response in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by coronary heart disease.

  15. Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merashli, M; Chowdhury, T A; Jawad, A S M

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are increasing significantly worldwide. Whilst vascular complications of diabetes are well recognized, and account for principle mortality and morbidity from the condition, musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes are common and whilst not life threatening, are an important cause of morbidity, pain and disability. Joints affected by diabetes include peripheral joints and the axial skeleton. Charcot neuroarthropathy is an important cause of deformity and amputation associated with peripheral neuropathy. A number of fibrosing conditions of the hands and shoulder are recognized, including carpal tunnel syndrome, adhesive capsulitis, tenosynovitis and limited joint mobility. People with diabetes are more prone to gout and osteoporosis. Management of these conditions requires early recognition and close liaison between diabetes and rheumatology specialists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Actuality of problem of coexistent diabetes mellitus and pulmonary tuberculosis in patients, when surgical treatment is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasenko, M S; Levanda, L I; Kononenko, V A; KYimenko, V I; Tereshkovych, O V; Kalenychenko, M I; Konik, V M; Obrems'ka, O K; Demus, R S; Kshanovs'kyĭ, O E

    2013-10-01

    Actual issue, concerning coexistent pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus, was studied. The data about the rate of various types of diabetes mellitus in phthysiosurgery were adduced. The results of surgical treatment of 116 patients, suffering pulmonary tuberculosis on the diabetes mellitus background, were summarized. Total efficacy of the treatment have constituted 96.0%. The surgical complications rate was 12.2%.

  17. Reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus is determined by increased renal clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, B.A.J.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Blom, H.J.; Smits, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine are related to the development of vascular complications. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for the development of these complications. Several factors determine plasma total homocysteine including renal function.

  18. Skin autofluorescence and risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus-a multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M J; Mulder, D.J.; Oomen, P H N; Brouwer, T; Jager, J; Castro Cabezas, M; Lefrandt, J D; Smit, Andries

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive marker of advanced glycation end product accumulation. In a previous study, skin autofluorescence correlated with and predicted micro- and macrovascular complications in Type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting. The present cross-sectional study aims to

  19. 77 FR 10607 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-2011-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The...). [[Page 10608

  20. Zinc and type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis – a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparani, D S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing rapidly worldwide, making it a huge health pressure on society in both the developed and developing countries. During the last thirty years, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia is proving itself to be fatal. Periodontitis was considered as one of the main, oral health problems encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. There exists a direct relation between the risk of complications of diabetes and periodontitis over time. The present review gives an outline of the features that govern the interrelationship between zinc and diabetes mellitus with periodontal disease, including the physiologic mechanisms and clinical studies, and presents scientific evidences. The disturbance in the zinc micronutrient and increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes may bring about insulin resistance and the creation of diabetic complications. The progression of diabetes mellitus may bring about perturbation in micronutrient metabolism and status.

  1. Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tentang Diet Diabetes Mellitus Di Rsup Haji Adam Malik Medan 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri Devi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease caused by decreased insulin production by pancrease or ineffectiveness of insulin in reducing blood sugar level. This condition will increase the blood glucose level until it causes complication. Diabetic diet plays an important role in controlling the sugar level of blood. The reason of these study is to determine the level of knowledge and attitude about diabetic diet among patients in Poly-Endocrine, Department of Internal Medicine, H...

  2. Diabetes mellitus and associated oral manifestations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, V A

    1985-04-01

    Oral research concerning diabetes mellitus has revealed a number of clinical implications. These include, among others, the need for more intense management of the diabetic patient with periodontal disease because tissue destruction may be accelerated, the need for rapid control of oral infection in these patients in order to prevent exacerbation of the existing metabolic imbalance, and the desirability of performing a screening for diabetes mellitus on all patients exhibiting asymptomatic parotid enlargement. Despite the explosion of knowledge concerning diabetes mellitus that has occurred since the discovery of insulin, its definitive etiology continues to elude the scientific community and its treatment remains in the realm of clinical management rather than in that of prevention and cure. In the past, research on diabetes has focused on the role of insulin in seeking the fundamental etiology of diabetes and its complications. With the progression of research, it has become apparent that the initiation and progression of the disease probably involve the interplay of a multiplicity of factors. Hereditary and immunologic factors, as suggested earlier, appear to be operated on by environmental factors, subsequently altering the body's metabolic milieu with widespread primary and secondary effects. Fertile areas for future oral research in diabetes mellitus will include, therefore, genetics, immunology, enzymology, and basement membrane pathology. On the cellular and molecular levels, particularly, the oral cavity and associated structures comprise a somewhat under-investigated area in diabetes mellitus research and, thus, hold great promise for increasing our knowledge of this complex disease.

  3. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male attendees of primary health care centres in Eastern Saudi Arabia. ... incidence of morbidity and mortality. ... characteristics, misconceptions of PHCC attendees about DM regarding the aetiology, general concepts, diabetic diet, treatment and herbal treatment.

  4. Rheumatological manifestations of diabetes mellitus - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strongly associated with diabetes mellitus including limited joint mobility, specific arthropathies of the hand (carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupytrens contracture, flexor tenosynovitis and diabetic sclerodactyly), shoulder (adhesive capsulitis-frozen shoulder, and calcific periarthritis) and spontaneous infarction of skeletal muscle.

  5. Retinal vascular fractals predict long-term microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus: the Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broe, Rebecca; Rasmussen, Malin L; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Olsen, Birthe S; Mortensen, Henrik B; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    2014-10-01

    Fractal analysis of the retinal vasculature provides a global measure of the complexity and density of retinal vessels summarised as a single variable: the fractal dimension. We investigated fractal dimensions as long-term predictors of microvasculopathy in type 1 diabetes. We included 180 patients with type 1 diabetes in a 16 year follow-up study. In baseline retinal photographs (from 1995), all vessels in a zone 0.5-2.0 disc diameters from the disc margin were traced using Singapore Institute Vessel Assessment-Fractal image analysis software. Artefacts were removed by a certified grader, and fractal dimensions were calculated using the box-counting method. At follow-up (in 2011), diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy were assessed and related to baseline fractal dimensions in multiple regressions adjusted for sex and baseline age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, BP, BMI, vibration perception threshold, albuminuria, retinopathy and vessel diameters. Mean baseline age and diabetes duration were 21.0 and 13.4 years, respectively, and of patients 50.0% were males. The mean fractal dimension was 1.3817. The 16 year incidences of neuropathy, nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy were 10.8%, 8.0% and 27.9%, respectively. Multiple regression analyses showed a lower fractal dimension to significantly predict incident neuropathy (OR 1.17 per 0.01 fractal dimension decrease [95% CI 1.01, 1.36]), nephropathy (OR 1.40 per 0.01 fractal dimension decrease [95% CI 1.10, 1.79]) and proliferative retinopathy (OR 1.22 per 0.01 fractal dimension decrease [95% CI 1.09, 1.37]). The retinal vascular fractal dimension is a shared biomarker of diabetic microvasculopathy, thus indicating a possible common pathogenic pathway. Retinal fractal analysis therefore is a potential tool for risk stratification in type 1 diabetes.

  6. Hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus: epidemiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Brian M

    2014-12-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a frequent adverse effect of treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin and sulphonylureas. Fear of hypoglycaemia alters self-management of diabetes mellitus and prevents optimal glycaemic control. Mild (self-treated) and severe (requiring help) hypoglycaemia episodes are more common in type 1 diabetes mellitus but people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus are also exposed to frequent hypoglycaemic events, many of which occur during sleep. Hypoglycaemia can disrupt many everyday activities such as driving, work performance and leisure pursuits. In addition to accidents and physical injury, the morbidity of hypoglycaemia involves the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Whereas coma and seizures are well-recognized neurological sequelae of hypoglycaemia, much interest is currently focused on the potential for hypoglycaemia to cause dangerous and life-threatening cardiac complications, such as arrhythmias and myocardial ischaemia, and whether recurrent severe hypoglycaemia can cause permanent cognitive impairment or promote cognitive decline and accelerate the onset of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people with diabetes mellitus. Prevention of hypoglycaemia is an important part of diabetes mellitus management and strategies include patient education, glucose monitoring, appropriate adjustment of diet and medications in relation to everyday circumstances including physical exercise, and the application of new technologies such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring, modified insulin pumps and the artificial pancreas.

  7. TGF-β1 serum concentrations and receptor expressions in the lens capsular of dogs with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Neumann; Jens Linek; Gerhard Loesenbeck; Julia Schüttler; Sonja Gaedke

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis as complication of diabetes mellitus is known in humans. Because TGF-?1induces fibrosis and is elevated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus we measured this growth factor in serum of dogs with diabetes mellitus and compared it with healthy dogs and those with fibrotic diseases. Further we measured the expression of TGF-?1receptor on lens capsule to investigate possible association between diabetes mellitus and cataract associated alterations. TGF-?1 was measured in seru...

  8. Onychogryphosis Complicated with Ingrown Toenail in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Features of a Comprehensive Surgical Treatment and Deviations of Certain Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vergun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pathogenetic links leading to increased risk of occurrence and development of feet mycosis and onychomycosis in diabetic patients include the cardiovascular and nervous system pathology, glycolysis disorders, resulting in lower energy supply of skin cells and changes in metabolism, skin dysfunction, determining rapid progression and chronic mycosis. Objective: to research certain peculiarities of mycosis-associated pathology and treatment, including surgical removal of nails for patients with onychogryphosis and recurrent ingrown with underlying diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and methods. During five-year period we examined and treated 38 patients with onychogryphosis. The paper provides the research of the features of the pathological process to create the optimal scheme of complex treatment of patients with abnormal ingrowing of the nail plate with underlying diabetes mellitus type 2. Surgery was performed in 23 patients (14 males and 9 females aged 55–80 years old with ingrown onychogryphosis and underlying diabetes mellitus, diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy (prospective material, treatment group, and onychogryphosis and recurrent incarnation of toe nail (hallux and multiple destructive mycotic lesions of other nail plates of both feet. Other 15 people with onychogryphosis of the toe (hallux and fungus of other nails were included into the control group. The duration of clinically-manifesting nail mycotic process in all studied cases exceeded 5 years. Results. On one side the subungual hyperkeratosis and dermatophytosis caused compression of the central part of the nail, epionychium edges ingrew to periungual walls thus recurrent ingrown nail was formed; on the other side, constant compression caused destruction of the central part of the nail bed; this process is typical for 32 (84.32 % cases. Conglomerate of nail plate and subungual hyperkeratosis and trichophytosis calcinated completely, forming onychogryphosis with

  9. Effects of antidiabetic drugs on the incidence of macrovascular complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a new perspective on sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelić, Dario; Javor, Eugen; Lucijanić, Tomo; Skelin, Marko

    2017-02-01

    Elevated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) values correlate with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of developing macrovascular events. Treatment of T2DM should be based on a multifactorial approach because of its evidence regarding reduction of macrovascular complications and mortality in T2DM. It is well known that intensive glucose control reduces the risk of microvascular complications in T2DM, but the effects of antidiabetic drugs on macrovascular complications and mortality in T2DM are less clear. The results of recent trials have demonstrated clear evidence that empagliflozin and liraglutide reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in T2DM, an effect that is absent in other members of antidiabetic drugs. Empagliflozin is a member of a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Two ongoing randomized clinical trials involving other SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, will provide additional evidence of the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in T2DM population. The aim of this paper is to systematically present the latest evidence regarding the usage of antidiabetic drugs, and the reduction of macrovascular complications and mortality. A special emphasis is put on the novel class of antidiabetic drugs, of SGLT2 inhibitors. Key messages Macrovascular complications and mortality are best clinical trial endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The first antidiabetic drug that demonstrated a reduction in mortality in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. SGLT2 inhibitors are novel class of antidiabetic drugs that play a promising role in the treatment of T2DM.

  10. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...... aldosterone system. Reduction in albuminuria during antihypertensive treatment is indicative of renal and cardiovascular protection. Thus, if the level of albuminuria remains high, the treatment should be intensified, even in the light of achieved BP goals. Options for intensification are dual blockade......, supramaximal doses of ACE-I or ARB, or addition of aldosterone or renin-blocking agents. Long-term data are awaited regarding the optimal strategy for combination therapy. Patients on intensive antihypertensive treatment should be monitored regularly....

  11. Oral health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Sørensen, B; Feilberg-Jørgensen, N

    2000-01-01

    To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes....

  13. El control de la diabetes mellitus y sus complicaciones en Medellín, Colombia, 2001-2003 Controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications in Medellín, Colombia, 2001-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Villegas Perrasse

    2006-12-01

    28,2. El promedio del número de medicamentos utilizados fue de 1,3 para el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2, de 1,9 para la hipertensión arterial y de 0,6 para la dislipidemia. No se encontraron los datos de dislipidemia de colesterol de lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL en 44,8% de las historias clínicas y de colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL en 16,4%. Las complicaciones oculares fueron las más frecuentes (31,8%; IC95%: 30,1 a 33,5%, seguidas de las afecciones renales (25,9%; IC95%: 24,4 a 27,5% y las cardiovasculares (22,5%; IC95%: 21,1 a 23,8%. El cumplimiento de las metas de control del colesterol de LDL, los triglicéridos y el colesterol de HDL fue insuficiente (14,2%, 36,9% y 47,4%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: En la población estudiada, las tres complicaciones crónicas que más influyen en el pronóstico y el costo de salud en los diabéticos fueron la nefropatía, la retinopatía y la dislipidemia. El gran subregistro de datos encontrado en las historias clínicas se puede reducir si se toman medidas para estandarizar las historias clínicas y se realizan evaluaciones periódicas de la calidad de las mismas.OBJECTIVES: To identify the principal sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of patients participating in diabetic care programs in the city of Medellín, Colombia, and to evaluate progress toward the goal of metabolic control and diabetic care standards. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was done, analyzing the clinical records of patients who had been participating for at least 6 months in the diabetic care programs of nine health care centers in Medellín. The study period ran from January 2001 to December 2003. The following data were collected: sociodemographic (age and sex, clinical (time since disease onset, diabetes type and treatment, and concurrent illnesses and their treatment, lifestyle habits (exercise routine, smoking, and sugar and fat consumption, chronic complications, and

  14. Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, still changing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The management of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus places a significant burden on healthcare systems. Sig- nificant global changes have been proposed with regard to the diagnosis and management of women with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. The study aims were to document the contemporary ...

  15. Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Seino, Yutaka; Nanjo, Kishio; Tajima, Naoko; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Araki, Eiichi; Ito, Chikako; Inagaki, Nobuya; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Kasuga, Masato; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Haneda, Masakazu; Ueki, Kohjiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Concept of Diabetes Mellitus: Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long‐term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from be...

  16. Autoanticuerpos dirigidoscontra productos de glicación avanzada en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    González R,Margarita; Paquién M,Christine; Asenjo M,Sylvia; Gleisner E,Andrea; Kirsten L,Lilian; Bustamante C,Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Background: Advanced glycation end products are associated with chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. This glycation process renders many proteins immunogenic. Aim: To detect the presence of antibodies against albumin, collagen and low density lipoprotein glycation products in boys and teenagers with diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: Thirty one patients with diabetes mellitus type I, aged 11±3.8 years and with a mean duration of disease of 3.7±2.7 years and 31 healthy controls ag...

  17. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Monogenic Diabetes (Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus & MODY) The most common forms of diabetes, ... from each parent. What are monogenic forms of diabetes? Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  18. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aleksandrovich Sklyanik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an analysis of clinical and experimental studies related to post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM – a specific complication after solid organ transplantation.A search of the databases eLibrary, PubMed and Scopus using the keywords «posttransplantation diabetes mellitus», «new onset diabetes after transplantation», «transplantation» and «immunosuppression» yielded in 523 results, including four from Russian literature (one original research manuscript. The analysis included original research, reviews, meta-analyses and monographs published not before 2005 in Russian and English. A total of 60 relevant original researches and reviews were included in this review.Diagnostic criteria, disease risk factors and potential pathogenic mechanisms were all considered. The mechanisms of the diabetogenic effect of modern immunosuppressive drugs were analysed. The principles of pre- and post-transplantation screening for PTDM and optimal management strategies for patients with PTDM are presented. The current controversial issues concerning the various aspects of PTDM are discussed.

  19. Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Turhan İyidir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Experimental evidence also supported the idea that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM. Additionally, it has been reported that vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of developing DM in long term period. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the immune system and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D may also have a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 89-94

  20. Diabetes mellitus und endotheliale Dysfunktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripolt N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 betrifft heute bereits ca. 300 Millionen Menschen weltweit und die Prognosen für die nächsten Jahre sagen noch einen deutlichen Anstieg voraus. Das Risiko für kardiovaskuläre Ereignisse ist bei Typ-2-Diabetikern deutlich gesteigert und stellt somit die Haupttodesursache in diesem Patientenkollektiv dar. Die endotheliale Dysfunktion ist eine frühe Stufe auf dem Weg zum atherothrombotischen Ereignis und ein potenziell reversibler Zustand. Dieser Artikel soll einen Überblick über die Pathogenese, die Möglichkeiten der Messung sowie die therapeutischen Optionen zur Verbesserung der Endothelfunktion bei Diabetikern geben.

  1. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  2. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 143 Danish women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 143 controls with a similar risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Sørensen, B; Feilberg-Jørgensen, N

    2000-01-01

    To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes.......To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic pregnancies with an otherwise similar risk profile and to study the association between different anti-diabetic treatments and fetal outcomes....

  4. Diabetes Care: 10 Ways to Avoid Diabetes Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes care: 10 ways to avoid complications Diabetes care is a lifelong responsibility. Consider 10 strategies to prevent diabetes complications. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes is a serious disease. Following your ...

  5. Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.S. Biliaieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data concerning the problem of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1. A correlation between vitamin D deficiency and compensation of the disease is shown. The examination of adolescent patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus found a connection between levels of vitamin D, duration and the degree of type 1 diabetes compensation. Further studies are focused on studying the impact and the correction of vitamin D status in children with diabetes mellitus type 1, on improving the glycemic control and quality of life of a patient.

  6. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2013-09-03

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched several electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2013), combined with handsearches. No language restrictions were used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sweet potato with a placebo or a comparator intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently selected the trials and extracted the data. We evaluated risk of bias by assessing randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria: these investigated a total of 140 participants and ranged from six weeks to five months in duration. All three studies were performed by the same trialist. Overall, the risk of bias of these trials was unclear or high. All RCTs compared the effect of sweet potato preparations with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at three to five months with 4 g/day sweet potato preparation compared to placebo (mean difference -0.3% (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -0.04); P = 0.02; 122 participants; 2 trials). No serious adverse effects were reported. Diabetic complications and morbidity, death from any cause, health-related quality of life, well-being, functional outcomes and costs were not investigated. There is insufficient evidence about the use of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to improvement in trial methodology

  7. Mortality patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: People living with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to varied forms of complications which often lead to their premature death. The vulnerability has the greatest impact in type 2 DM because of larger numerical strength, insidious onset and late recognition especially in resourcepoor nations like Nigeria. This study ...

  8. Screening for diabetes mellitus in a Nigerian family practice population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide. Most of the increase in prevalence is projected to be in the developing countries. As it is recognised that the onset of the disease and its complications predate the symptoms, it is expedient that screening procedures are ...

  9. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  10. Diabetes mellitus: a risk factor in patients with Graves' orbitopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmann, R.; Mourits, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and to investigate the complications of surgery for GO in these patients. METHODS: The records of 482 consecutive patients with GO referred in a 5 year period were

  11. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  12. Screening for diabetes mellitus in a Nigerian family practice population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide. Most of the increase in prevalence is projected to be in the developing countries. As it is recognised that the onset of the disease and its complications predate the symptoms, it is expedient that screening procedures are ...

  13. IMPROVEMENT IN OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER DUODENOJEJUNOSTOMY IN AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    WIETZYCOSKI, Cacio Ricardo; MARCHESINI, João Caetano Dallegrave; AL-THEMYAT, Sultan; MEYER, Fabiola Shons; TRINDADE, Manoel Roberto Maciel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a multifactorial syndrome with severe complications. Oxidative stress is accepted as a causal factor of chronic complications Aim: To demonstrate alterations in oxidative stress after metabolic surgery. Methods: Twenty-four 2-day-old Wistar rats were used. In 16, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was induced by 100 mg/kg streptozotocin injection. The development of diabetes was confirmed after 10 weeks using an oral glucose tolerance test. Eight diab...

  14. SKIN MANIFESTATIONS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Adepu Sumitra Devi; Banoth Mohan Lal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin changes of diabetes mellitus (DM) appear subsequent to the progression of the disease, they can be the sign that appear first in some cases and in others they may present years after the primary disease. AIMS To study the skin manifestations in diabetic patients and to know the incidence of skin manifestations of diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was undertaken at our hospital, MGM Hospital, Warangal, Telangana for a period of one year from ...

  15. Coexistence of diabetes mellitus type 1 with diffuse systemic sclerosis - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielosz, Ewa; Kurowska, Maria; Suszek, Dorota; Majdan, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic sclerodactyly is a frequently recognized skin finding that may occur in patients with diabetes mellitus but coexistence of diabetes and systemic sclerosis is rare. We describe a case of coexistence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and systemic sclerosis in 42-year-old man with the history of Raynaud's phenomenon, progressive diffuse hardening of the skin and sclerodactyly, slowly worsening with time. The medical history included type 1 diabetes since childhood with microvascular complications. The patient presented a typical capillaroscopic scleroderma-like pattern, antinuclear antibodies and sclerotic lesions in gastrointestinal system. Summing up, our case represents the rare coexistence of autoimmune diseases like diabetes mellitus type 1 and systemic sclerosis.

  16. Pulmonary function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Effect of diabetes on lung capacity has been reported previously but with controversial results. This study will help to reassess whether or not Pulmonary Function Tests should be done in diabetics or not. Aim and Objective: Our study aimed to evaluate pulmonary function testing in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Study Design: Randomized Case control study. Materials and Methods: 50 diabetics and 50 matched apparently healthy volunteers taken for this study. After taking an informed consent, all underwent screening with detailed history, anthropometry, blood sugar (fasting and post parandial, and pulmonary functions (using medspiror. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare PFTs of diabetic and control groups. Frequencies were generated for categorical variables and compared with chi square test. Results: There was significant reduction in all the PFT parameters (FVC%, FEV1% and FEV1/FVC in diabetics as compared to controls. Thus, mixed obstructive-restrictive pattern of pulmonary dysfunction is seen in diabetics. Also strong positive correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar and FEV1/FVC in diabetics. Although body mass index (BMI was more in study group versus control group, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Lungs are indeed effected in patients of diabetes and pulmonary function testing should be mandatory in diabetics in order to prevent complications thereby improving quality of life.

  17. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute (Type 1 DM) or relative (Type 2 DM) deficiency of insulin hormone. World Health Organization estimates that more than 346 million people worldwide have DM. This number is likely to more than double by 2030 without any intervention. The needs of diabetic patients are not only limited to adequate glycemic control but also correspond with preventing complications; disability l...

  19. Oral health management considerations in patients with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kaur; Kirandeep Kaur; Shalu Rai; Rajat Khajuria

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most serious diseases of metabolism. Long-term consequences of hyperglycemia are very heterogeneous and affect partially all tissues and organs of the organism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with DM, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor glycemic control and the development of other clinical complications of diabetes. In this review article, we discuss the relevant information about DM assoc...

  20. [Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bello, Carlos; Capitão, Ricardo Miguel; Sequeira Duarte, João; Azinheira, Jorge; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2017-10-31

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease, affecting up to 13.1% of the Portuguese population. In addition to the known micro and macrovascular complications, drug side effects constitute a major concern, leading to changes in the treatment guidelines, which favor safety over efficacy. Metformin is the first-line pharmacological treatment for most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, it has been associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in up to 30% of treated patients. The authors describe the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in a diabetic population and explore the possible underlying factors. Retrospective, observational study. Clinical and laboratory data of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients whose vitamin B12 status was evaluated in the last decade (2005 - 2016) were analyzed. Patients with known malabsorptive syndromes or having undergone bariatric surgery were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis of the data was done and the results were considered statistically significant at p values 2.2 years and 11 ± 10.4 years of type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. These patients had a high prevalence of complications: diabetic renal disease 47.7%, neuropathy 9.2%, retinopathy 14.9%, coronary artery disease 8.4%, cerebrovascular disease 10.9%, and peripheral arterial disease 5.5%. Vitamin B12 deficiency (21.4% of the population and this subgroup was older (68.4 vs 65.8 years, p = 0.006), had a longer type 2 diabetes mellitus duration (13.35 vs 10.36 years; p = 0.001), higher prevalence of retinopathy (20.9% vs 13.3%; p = 0.005) and thyroid dysfunction (34% vs 23.7%; p = 0.002). Vitamin B12 deficiency was also more frequent in patients treated with metformin (24.7% vs 15.8%; p = 0.017), antiplatelet agents (25.4% vs 16.2%, p 26.8% vs 18.2%; p = 0.001). After adjustment for possible confounders, the variables associated with B12 deficiency were: metformin, hypothyroidism, age and type 2 diabetes mellitus duration. Despite the retrospective design

  1. Diabetes mellitus: a predictor for late radiation morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, David M.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Given the high frequency of diabetes, as well as prostate cancer in the elderly population, we sought to determine whether diabetic patients treated with three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy (3DCRT) had an increased risk of late gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) complications. Methods and Materials: Nine-hundred forty-four prostate cancer patients were treated between April 1989 and October 1996 using 3DCRT. Median patient age was 69 years (range 48-89), median center of prostate dose was 7211 cGy (range 6211-8074) and median follow-up was 36 months (range 2-99). Patients were evaluated every 6 months with digital rectal examinations, serum PSAs and symptom questionnaires. Radiation morbidity was quantified using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and modified Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force (LENT) scales. Patients with a preexisting history of either Type I or Type II diabetes mellitus were coded as diabetics. Results: One hundred twenty-one patients had diabetes (13% of total). Rates of acute morbidity did not differ between diabetics and nondiabetics; however, diabetics experienced significantly more late grade 2 GI toxicity (28% vs. 17%, p = 0.011) and late grade 2 GU toxicity (14% vs. 6%, p 0.001). There was a trend toward increased late grade 3 and 4 GI complications in diabetics, but not for late grade 3 and 4 GU complications; however, the total number of recorded events for these categories was small. Examining the onset of late toxicity, diabetics developed GU complications earlier than nondiabetics (median: 10 months vs. 24 months, p = 0.02). Considering age, dose, rectal blocking, field size, and history of diabetes in a stepwise multivariate regression model for late grade 2 GI toxicity, dose (p 0.0001), diabetes (p = 0.0110), and rectal blocking (p = 0.0163) emerged independently predictive for complications. For late grade 2 GU toxicity, only the presence of diabetes remained independently significant

  2. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  3. Increased mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Coşkun Yenigün

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Platelet functions have important roles in the development of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Platelets with increased volume have increased activity compared to smaller ones; therefore, mean platelet volume (MPV is used as a marker for platelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated MPV in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM and its associations with diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Methods: Consecutive type II diabetic patients were screened from outpatient clinic of Internal Medicine Department of Diskapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Education and Researsch Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 48 patients with type II DM and 30 age and gender matched healthy subjects constituted the study population. For all subjects a complete blood count including MPV, fasting blood glucose level and lipid parameters were studied. In diabetic patients, duration of diabetes and HbA1C level, presence of microvascular and macrovascular complications were noted additively. Mean platelet volume was compared between diabetic patients and healthy counterparents. Then, among diabetic patients, MPV was compared between the ones with and without microvascular and macrovascular complications. Results: Mean platelet volume was found significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic healthy subjects. Diabetic patients with at least one of the microvascular complications had significantly higher MPV than those without microvascular damage.Higher MPV levels have also been shown in diabetics with macrovascular complications compared to the ones without macrovascular disease. Conclusion: Mean platelet volume was found to be higher in type II diabetics and those having any of microvascular or macrovascular diabetic complications.

  4. Frequency of diabetic retinopathy in patients after ten years of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Yakta, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a leading cause of blindness not only in Pakistan but also worldwide. So we conducted this study to record the frequency of diabetic retinopathy in known diabetic patients ten years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan for a period of 1 year from January 2008 to January 2010. The study group comprised of 200 patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the medical clinic. All patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus since ten years duration were included in the study. Retinopathy was graded into background, pre proliferative and proliferative retinopathy. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed using the WHO criteria. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS-11. Results: Diabetic retinopathy was found in 25.5% of the total Type 2 patients after ten years of diagnosis, and of these 4% of patients had proliferative retinopathy. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic patients should be screened as early as possible to prevent permanent visual loss by timely management of diabetic retinopathy because diabetes is one of most common preventable cause of blindness in the world. (author)

  5. Diabetes mellitus and its relevance to the practice of dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark H; Fitzpatrick, John J; McArdle, Neonin S; Stassen, Leo F A

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of abnormal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that results in acute and chronic complications due to the absolute or relative lack of insulin. Globally, it is expected that the number of people with diabetes will increase, and as a result dental practitioners will encounter an increasing number of patients affected by this chronic condition, which may have implications for the provision of safe and appropriate dental treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of diabetes and to discuss aspects of the condition relevant to dentistry. The article also discusses the management of diabetic emergencies in a dental practice setting.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and its relevance to the practice of dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2010-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of abnormal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that results in acute and chronic complications due to the absolute or relative lack of insulin. Globally, it is expected that the number of people with diabetes will increase, and as a result dental practitioners will encounter an increasing number of patients affected by this chronic condition, which may have implications for the provision of safe and appropriate dental treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of diabetes and to discuss aspects of the condition relevant to dentistry. The article also discusses the management of diabetic emergencies in a dental practice setting.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Non-insulin management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates a substantial number of pregnancies. There is consensus that in patients of GDM, excellent blood glucose control, with diet and, when necessary, oral hypoglycemics and insulin results in improved perinatal outcomes, and appreciably reduces the probability of serious neonatal morbidity compared with routine prenatal care. Goals of metabolic management of a pregnancy complicated with GDM have to balance the needs of a healthy pregnancy with the requirements to control glucose level. Medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of therapy for women with GDM. Surveillance with daily self-monitoring of blood glucose has been found to help guide management in a much better way than blood glucose checking in labs and clinics, which tends to be less frequent. Historically, insulin has been the therapeutic agent of choice for controlling hyperglycemia in pregnant women. However, difficulty in medication administration with multiple daily injections, potential for hypoglycemia, and increase in appetite and weight make this therapeutic option cumbersome for many pregnant patients. Use of oral hypogycemic agents (OHAs in pregnancy has opened new vistas for GDM management. At present, there is a growing acceptance of glyburide (glibenclamide use as the primary therapy for GDM. Glyburide and metformin have been found to be safe, effective and economical for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Insulin, however, still has an important role to play in GDM. GDM is a window of opportunity, which needs to be seized, for prevention of diabetes in future life. Goal of our educational programs should be not only to improve pregnancy outcomes but also to promote healthy lifestyle changes for the mother that will last long after delivery. Team effort on part of obstetricians and endocrinologists is required to make " the diabetes capital of the world" into " the diabetes care capital of the world".

  8. Stress and adjustment in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Singh, S B

    1999-01-01

    Stress and adjustment in diabetics is studied in order to know the influence of maladjustment and stress in the causation of the disease. The sample of study consists of 100 diabetics patients, 100 nonpsychosomatic and 100 normal person. Results obtained are discussed in detail. It is concluded that maladjustment and stress are important contributing factors in' diabetes mellitus.

  9. Antioxidant plants and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing rapidly and it is expected to increase by 2030. Other than currently available therapeutic options, there are a lot of herbal medicines, which have been recommended for its treatment. Herbal medicines have long been used for the treatment of DM because of the advantage usually having no or less side-effects. Most of these plants have antioxidant activities and hence, prevent or treat hard curable diseases, other than having the property of combating the toxicity of toxic or other drugs. In this review other than presenting new findings of DM, the plants, which are used and have been evaluated scientifically for the treatment of DM are introduced.

  10. Oral manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Obradors, E; Estrugo-Devesa, A; Jané-Salas, E; Viñas, M; López-López, J

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes Mellitus has become a global epidemic and presents many complications, usually proportional to the degree and duration of hyperglycemia. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the different oral manifestations associated with Diabetes Mellitus. A MEDLINE search for "Diabetes Mellitus and oral manifestations" was performed. A further search was conducted for "diabetes" and its individual oral manifestation. Inclusion criteria were as follows: human clinical studies with a minimum of 30 patients; studies published in relevant scientific journals between January 1998 and January 2016. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed, assessing the strength of scientific evidence according to recommendations made by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford (OCEBM), which permits adequate assessment of prevalence studies. A total 3,712 patients (2,084 diabetics) were included in the studies reviewed. Of the 19 studies analyzed, 4 were longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional studies. Periodontal disease, periapical lesions, xerostomia and taste disturbance were more prevalent among diabetic patients. An association between diabetes and caries and mucosal lesions proved positive in 5 out of 10 studies. Despite multiple oral manifestations associated with DM, awareness of the associations between diabetes, oral health, and general health is inadequate. It is necessary for doctors and dentists to be aware of the various oral manifestations of diabetes in order to make an early diagnosis.

  11. Knowledge of diabetic patients regarding eye complications related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many people worldwide. It causes degenerative changes that result in many complications including eye diseases that may lead to blindness. However, these eye conditions could be prevented or minimized through regular eye examinations, correct treatment and self ...

  12. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  13. 77 FR 65931 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-0347] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of applications from 12 individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes...

  14. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...-0013] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  15. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...-0194] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  16. Diabetes insipidus: main aspects and comparative analysis with diabetes mellitus Diabetes insipidus: principais aspectos e análise comparativa com diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lúcia Abreu Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by the excess of sugar in the blood and urine. The two most common types of diabetes are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, both presenting glycemic regulation-damage caused by insulin. Nevertheless, there is another type of diabetes that is less known but not less important, the diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by a problem with the synthesis, secretion or action of the ADH (anti-diuretic hormone that can result in polyuric syndromes with increased excretion of hypotonic urine. Physiologically, variations in the osmotic pressure activate osmoceptors that stimulate the ADH secretion, increasing water reabsorption in the kidney collection tubes. This article intends to revise a wide-ranging study on diabetes insipidus, aiming at a comparative analysis of the incidence, diagnosis, causes, types, treatment and consequences between diabetes insidipus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus and insipidus are two different pathologies with a single similarity that is the diabetes itself, that is, the polyuria established. The knowledge of the significant differences between the pathologies studied is important once diabetes insipidus is less known, but can lead to serious complications if not properly treated. O diabetes mellitus é uma doença caracterizada pelo excesso de açúcar no sangue e na urina. Os dois tipos mais comuns de diabetes são diabetes mellitus insulino-dependente e diabetes mellitus insulino – resistente, e que ambos apresentam comprometimento da regulação da glicemia por ação da insulina. No entanto, existe outra forma de diabetes menos conhecida, mas não menos importante, o diabetes insipidus, que é caracterizado por um distúrbio na síntese, secreção ou ação do ADH (hormônio antidiurético, que pode resultar em síndromes poliúricas com excreção aumentada de urina hipotônica. Fisiologicamente, variações na press

  17. β-cell transplantation in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pellegrini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus suffer either from destruction of pancreatic β-cells or progressive deterioration of their function. Thus, transplantation of an intact β-cell population fully capable of insulin secretion is the only means to cure this disease. Despite glycemic benefits and decrease in risks for late complications, islet transplantation or complete pancreatic grafting in humans remains a challenge due to necessity of lifetime immunosuppression and increasingly sparse donor resources. Current paper presents a review of modern endeavours to obtain a limitless source for glucose-sensitive insulin secreting cells. We discuss, in particular, complex aspects of β-cell proliferation and/or neogenesis in vivo, issues with xenogenous pancreatic islets, and latest advances in controlled differentiation of embryonic and induced polypotent stem cells – the most promising and relevant source of β-cells.

  18. [Diabetes mellitus in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes increase in the elderly. Ageing is one of the most important factors contributing to development of glucose intolerance (insuline resistance). NHANES II data showed that in the poppulation over 65 years 18.7% has got overt diabetes and 22.8% glucose intolerance. Similar data were obtained among ageing inhabitants of the city of Bialystok (downtown). The criteria of diagnosis of diabetes in the elderly are the same like in the younger population. However, in the elderly the clinical symptoms are not characteristic and scanty (limited). The period without symptoms is long. Very often, the diabetes is diagnosed for the first time in patient with the heart infarct, brain stroke, diabetic foot or even hyperosmolar coma. There may occur two critical situations in the elderly diabetic persons, namely non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and hypoglycameia. The non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma is a result of a considerable elevation in the blood concentration of glucose, sodium and urea. This, in turn, is a consequence of osmotic diuresis which is non balanced by elevation in the volume of water intake. Factors facilitating development of the coma include: nontreated diabetes, infirmity, inadequate care, diuretics, stroke, hyperthermia. Hypoglycaemia in the elderly is a very serious problem. It can cause arrhythmia, a rise in the blood pressure, unconsciousness, falls and injuries. The most often reason of hypoglycaemia in the elderly are: long-acting derivatives of sulphonylurea, treatment with insulin and irregular meals. The major aims of treatment of diabetes in the elderly are: reduction of hyperglycaemia, reduction in the development of complications and minimizing of the risk of hypoglycaemia. An elderly patient with diabetes should have each year a check-up which would include examination of the eyes, kidneys, feet. The elderly patient with diabetes is often crippled, indolent and lives often alone. Therefore, such a patient should be taken care of

  19. Caracterização de pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 do sul do Brasil: complicações crônicas e fatores associados Characterization of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in southern Brazil: chronic complications and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana C. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de complicações crônicas vasculares e fatores associados em pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM tipo 1. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com pacientes DM tipo 1 atendidos no Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à presença de complicações crônicas vasculares. RESULTADOS: Avaliamos 573 pacientes, idade média de 33 anos. A presença de retinopatia diabética (RD foi observada em 43,3%, o tempo de DM [RC: 1,07; IC95% 1,03-1,11; P 100 mg/dl. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos elevadas prevalências de complicações microvasculares e de HAS. A duração do DM, HAS e presença de ND foram associados à RD. HAS e dislipidemia foram associados à ND. A maioria dos pacientes encontrava-se fora dos alvos desejados de controle glicêmico, pressórico e lipídico. Maiores esforços são necessários para intensificar o controle metabólico e pressórico de pacientes com DM tipo 1.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of chronic vascular complications and associated factors in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM. METHODS: Cross sectional study with type 1 DM patients attending the Endocrine Division, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre. Patients were evaluated for presence of chronic vascular complications. RESULTS: We evaluated 573 patients, mean age of 33 years. The presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR was observed in 43.3%, diabetes duration [OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.11, P 100 mg/dl. CONCLUSION: We observed a high prevalence of microvascular complications and HPT. Duration of DM, HPT and presence of DN were associated with DR. HPT and dyslipidemia were associated with DN. Most patients did not meet the desired glycemic control, blood pressure and lipid targets. Greater efforts are needed to intensify the pressure and metabolic control of patients with type 1 DM.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Individuals with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus ... Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is ...

  1. Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis: a tale of two common interrelated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Evanthia; Papapanou, Panos N

    2011-06-28

    Diabetes mellitus (a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia) and periodontitis (a microbially induced inflammatory disorder that affects the supporting structures of teeth) are both common, chronic conditions. Multiple studies have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Findings from mechanistic studies indicate that diabetes mellitus leads to a hyperinflammatory response to the periodontal microbiota and also impairs resolution of inflammation and repair, which leads to accelerated periodontal destruction. The cell surface receptor for advanced glycation end products and its ligands are expressed in the periodontium of individuals with diabetes mellitus and seem to mediate these processes. The association between the two diseases is bidirectional, as periodontitis has been reported to adversely affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and to contribute to the development of diabetic complications. In addition, meta-analyses conclude that periodontal therapy in individuals with diabetes mellitus can result in a modest improvement of glycemic control. The effect of periodontal infections on diabetes mellitus is potentially explained by the resulting increase in levels of systemic proinflammatory mediators, which exacerbates insulin resistance. As our understanding of the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis deepens, increased patient awareness of the link between diabetes mellitus and oral health and collaboration among medical and dental professionals for the management of affected individuals become increasingly important.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Vale; Paula Manuel; Eurico Oliveira; Ana Rita Oliveira; Eloisa Silva; Vitor Melo; Marta Sousa; João Carlos Alexandre; Isabel Gil; Amparo Sanchez; Edite Nascimento; António Simões Torres

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is convincing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Objectives: Analyze the prevalence of OSA in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Evaluate the influence of OSA on glycemic control. Methods: The adult patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) followed in the department of internal medicine were referred to our Sleep Unit. A home respiratory polygraphy was then performed on all patients with body mass in...

  3. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Singh; T K Ray; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...

  4. Obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillarón, J J; Benaiges, D; Mañé, L; Pedro-Botet, J; Flores Le-Roux, J A

    2015-03-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) traditionally had a low body mass index and microangiopathic complications were common. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, published in 1993, demonstrated that therapy aimed at maintaining HbA1c levels as close to normal as feasible reduced the incidence of microangiopathy. Since then, the use of intensive insulin therapy to optimise metabolic control became generalised, with two main side effects: a higher rate of severe hypoglycaemia and increased weight gain. Approximately 50% of patients with T1DM are currently obese or overweight, which reduces or nullifies the benefits of good metabolic control, and which has other negative consequences; therefore, strategies to achieve weight control in patients with T1DM are necessary. At present, treatment with GLP-1 and SGLT-2 inhibitors has yielded promising short-term results that need to be confirmed in studies with larger numbers of patients and long-term follow-up. It is possible that, in coming years, the applicability of bariatric surgery in obese patients with T1DM will be similar to that of the general population or T2DM.

  5. Profile and analysis of diabetes chronic complications in Outpatient Diabetes Clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri J.E. Tarigan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic complications of diabetes mellitus have a significant role in increasing morbidity, mortality, disability, and health cost. In the outpatient setting, the availability of data regarding to the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes is useful for evaluation of prevention, education, and patient’s treatment. This study aimed to describe the characteristic of type 2 diabetes chronic complications in outpatient diabetes clinic.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using 155 patients in Outpatient Diabetes Clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM, Jakarta in 2010. Secondary data were used from medical record based on history taking, physical examination, diabetic foot assessment, laboratory, neurologic, cardiology, opthalmology, ankle brachial index, and electrography of the patients. Characteristic profiles of the subjects, prevalence of the chronic complications, and its association with diabetes risk factors, such as glycemic control using HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, duration of diabetes, and LDL cholesterol were analyzed using chi square test.Results: Among 155 subjects participated in the study, most of them were women (59% and elderly (46%. The prevalence of diabetes chronic complications was 69% from all subjects. These chronic complications included microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and mixed complications, with prevalence of 56%, 7% and 27% respectively. Microangiopathy included nephropathy (2%, retinopathy (7%, neuropathy (38% and mixed complications (53%. Macroangiopathy included coronary heart disease (46%, peripheral arterial disease (19%, stroke (18%, and mixed complication (17%. From the analysis, we found significant association between duration of diabetes and diabetic neuropathy (p = 0.003.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes chronic complications in Outpatient Diabetes Clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, mainly dominated by microvascular-related complications including nephropathy, retinopathy

  6. Machine Learning Methods to Predict Diabetes Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagliati, Arianna; Marini, Simone; Sacchi, Lucia; Cogni, Giulia; Teliti, Marsida; Tibollo, Valentina; De Cata, Pasquale; Chiovato, Luca; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2018-03-01

    One of the areas where Artificial Intelligence is having more impact is machine learning, which develops algorithms able to learn patterns and decision rules from data. Machine learning algorithms have been embedded into data mining pipelines, which can combine them with classical statistical strategies, to extract knowledge from data. Within the EU-funded MOSAIC project, a data mining pipeline has been used to derive a set of predictive models of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complications based on electronic health record data of nearly one thousand patients. Such pipeline comprises clinical center profiling, predictive model targeting, predictive model construction and model validation. After having dealt with missing data by means of random forest (RF) and having applied suitable strategies to handle class imbalance, we have used Logistic Regression with stepwise feature selection to predict the onset of retinopathy, neuropathy, or nephropathy, at different time scenarios, at 3, 5, and 7 years from the first visit at the Hospital Center for Diabetes (not from the diagnosis). Considered variables are gender, age, time from diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hypertension, and smoking habit. Final models, tailored in accordance with the complications, provided an accuracy up to 0.838. Different variables were selected for each complication and time scenario, leading to specialized models easy to translate to the clinical practice.

  7. Prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity has always been thought to be a risk factor for diabetes; however, some studies in India have reported that even lean people are prone to diabetes. We conducted this study to see if this holds true for this part of the country. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM in Manipur. Materials and Methods: All recently diagnosed type 2 DM patients, within a period of 24 weeks, who attended the endocrine clinic of RIMS from Jan to Dec 2012 are included in the study. Exclusion criteria are patients with chronic diseases. Results: Out of the 181 recently diagnosed diabetics 3.9% had a BMI of <19 kg/m 2 of which five are females (5.4% of female patients and two are males (2.2% of male patients. Mean age of Lean diabetics is 54.86 ± 15.32, mean fasting glucose is 212 ± 105.5 mg% and mean postprandial glucose is 351.57 ± 167.79 mg%. DM complications were observed in 28.6% of the Lean diabetics. Conclusion: Our study shows a low prevalence rate of Lean DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM.

  8. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shovan; Ghosh, Kusagradhi

    2013-05-01

    To describe maternal complications and neonatal outcomes caused by gestational diabetes mellitus a descriptive observational study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratisthan and Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Kolkata, over a period of one year from July 2009 to June 2010. Women diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test as gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled as study subjects and were followed regularly at outpatient department. Blood glucose levels controlled by diet or with insulin. Foetal well-being was assessed by ultrasonography, foetal kick count and cardiotocography. Time and mode of delivery were decided on admission depending upon the complications encountered. Intrapartum blood glucose level was monitored and foetal monitoring was done. After delivery all the babies were assessed by the paediatrician. After discharge patients were advised oral glucose tolerance test at 6 weeks postpartum. Out of 644 women delivered, 58 (9%) were diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus and were studied. Mean age was 30 years and 55.2% were multigravida; 50% were obese (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2); 60.3% required insulin therapy to achieve glycaemic control. Most common maternal and neonatal complications observed were premature prelabour rupture of membrane (10.3%) and jaundice (29.3%) respectively. Caesarean section was done in 60.3% gestational diabetas mellitus mothers. A total of 57 babies (98.2%) were delivered alive.

  9. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with higher levels of myeloperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jacobijne J.; Meuwese, Marijn C.; van Miert, Joram N. I.; Kastelein, Arnoud; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Piek, Jan J.; Trip, Mieke D.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is linked to augmented endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. Myeloperoxidase plays an important role in the initiation, progression, and the complications of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether myeloperoxidase levels are increased in

  10. Identification and treatment of eating disorders in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E; Fikkan, Janna; Connell, Alexa; Vangsness, Laura; Anderson, Barbara J

    2002-01-01

    A series of case reports in the early 1980s and prevalence studies in the 1990s highlighted the serious medical consequences of coexisting eating disorders and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes-specific treatment issues, such as the need to carefully monitor diet, exercise, and blood glucose, may contribute to the development of eating disorder symptoms among women with diabetes mellitus. The attention to food portions and bodyweight that is part of routine diabetes mellitus management parallels the rigid thinking about food and body image found in women with eating disorders who do not have diabetes mellitus. Additionally, intensive insulin management of diabetes mellitus, the current standard of care, has been shown to be associated with bodyweight gain. Following from this, it may be that the very goals of state-of-the-art diabetes mellitus care increase the risk for developing an eating disorder. Once an eating disorder and recurrent insulin omission becomes entrenched, a pattern develops which is hard to break - one of chronic hyperglycemia, depressed mood, fear of bodyweight gain, and frustration with diabetes management. Eating disorders predispose women with diabetes mellitus to many complex medical risks. For example, insulin omission and reduction, eating disorder symptoms unique to diabetes mellitus, are strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and with microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy. For this reason, it is critical that diabetes mellitus clinicians understand more about eating disorders so as to improve the likelihood of early detection, appropriate treatment, and prevention of acute and long-term medical complications within this high-risk group of women.

  11. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Hira Abdul; Harbi, Alya; Shelpai, Wael; Qawas, Ahmad

    2017-09-20

    Background/ Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease which has become a major global public health issue. This systematic review summarized epidemiological studies related to the prevalence, risk factors, complications, incidence, knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among Arab population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). PubMed, Scopus databases, Science direct, Wiley online library, and other local journals were searched to identify relevant literature using appropriate keywords to retrieve studies conducted in the UAE. Search limits were restricted to studies in English language, between 2007 and 2016, and on UAE population (both citizens and expatriates). Electronic database search yielded 24 studies about the prevalence, incidence, complications, risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and practices of diabetes, including cross sectional studies (n =18), population-based survey (n = 1), retrospective cohort studies (n = 3), qualitative (n=1), and randomized controlled trial (n = 1). Countrywide prevalence estimates of Diabetes Mellitus were reported to be high. The major determinants of Diabetes Mellitus involved hypertension, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet. Even though past evidences have promulgated the role of numerous causative factors, the epidemiological implications of some of the risk factors including family history, educational level, and the use of alcohol remains elusive. This systematic review signifies epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates and suggests that extra efforts are needed for preventive and curative strategies in order to decrease the burden of this non-communicable disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Future risk of diabetes in mother and child after gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Damm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity. However, significant long-term morbidity also exists for the mother and offspring. Women with previous GDM have a very high risk of developing overt diabetes, primarily type 2...... diabetes, later in life. Moreover, the risk of the metabolic syndrome is increased 3-fold in these women. Their offspring have an 8-fold risk of diabetes/prediabetes at 19-27 years of age. Thus, GDM is part of a vicious circle which increases the development of diabetes in the coming generations....

  13. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  14. Quantifying the hidden healthcare cost of diabetes mellitus in Australian hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahalios, Amalia; Somarajah, Gowri; Hamblin, Peter S; Karunajeewa, Harin; Janus, Edward D

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus in hospital inpatients is most commonly present as a comorbidity rather than as the primary diagnosis. In some hospitals, the prevalence of comorbid diabetes mellitus across all inpatients exceeds 30%, which could add to complexity of care and resource utilisation. However, whether and to what extent comorbid diabetes mellitus contributes indirectly to greater hospitalisation costs is ill-defined. To determine the attributable effect of comorbid diabetes mellitus on hospital resource utilisation in a General Internal Medical service in Melbourne, Australia. We extracted data from a database of all General Internal Medical discharge episodes from July 2012 to June 2013. We fitted multivariable regression models to compare patients with diabetes mellitus to those without diabetes mellitus with respect to hospitalisation cost, length of stay, admissions per year and inpatient mortality. Of 4657 patients 1519 (33%) had diabetes mellitus, for whom average hospitalisation cost (AUD9910) was higher than those without diabetes mellitus (AUD7805). In multivariable analysis, this corresponded to a 1.22-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.33, P diabetes was 8.2 days versus 6.8 days for those without diabetes, with an adjusted 1.19-fold greater odds (95% CI 1.06-1.33, P = 0.001) of staying an additional day. Number of admissions and mortality were similar. Comorbid diabetes mellitus adds significantly to hospitalisation duration and costs in medical inpatients. Moreover, diabetes mellitus patients with chronic complications had a greater-still cost and hospitalisation duration compared to those without diabetes mellitus. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine whether gastrointestinal symptoms are more frequent in persons with diabetes mellitus compared with age and sex-matched controls, and to assess the association of these symptoms with blood sugar control. Methods: Hospital-based case control study. Study was carried out in the diabetic clinic of ...

  16. Associations Between General and Abdominal Adiposity and Mortality in Individuals With Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Montonen, Jukka; Pischon, Tobias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Berentzen, Tina L.; Overvad, Kim; Arriola, Larraitz; Ardanaz, Eva; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Beulens, Joline W.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Hedblad, Bo; Rolandsson, Olov; Franks, Paul W.; Noethlings, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus are advised to achieve a healthy weight to prevent complications. However, fat mass distribution has hardly been investigated as a risk factor for diabetes complications. The authors studied associations between body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip

  17. 5'-Monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK improves autophagic activity in diabetes and diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM, an endocrine disorder, will be one of the leading causes of death world-wide in about two decades. Cellular injuries and disorders of energy metabolism are two key factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes, which also become the important causes for the process of diabetic complications. AMPK is a key enzyme in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and has been implicated in the activation of autophagy in distinct tissues. An increasing number of researchers have confirmed that autophagy is a potential factor to affect or induce diabetes and its complications nowadays, which could remove cytotoxic proteins and dysfunctional organelles. This review will summarize the regulation of autophagy and AMPK in diabetes and its complications, and explore how AMPK stimulates autophagy in different diabetic syndromes. A deeper understanding of the regulation and activity of AMPK in autophagy would enhance its development as a promising therapeutic target for diabetes treatment.

  18. Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health problem. Guidelines for diabetic care recommend management of lifestyle and risk factors (glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol), as well as regular screening for complications associated with treatment of the conditions related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% from 2001 to 2013. According to the diabetes fact sheet 2015, the proportion of patients with diabetes treated with antihypertensive medications increased from 56.0% to 62.5% from 2006 to 2013, and 49.5% of those with diabetes were being treated with lipid-lowering medications in 2013, a 1.8-fold increase since 2006. According to the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 45.6% of patients with diabetes achieved a hemoglobin A1c level of diabetes had good control of all three of these parameters. Despite improvements in health promotion efforts, the rates of adherence to medication and risk-factor control are low. Therefore, a systematic approach to managing diabetes, including self-management education, is needed to prevent or delay complications. The government needs to establish a long-term policy to address the growing burden of diabetes.

  19. The burden of diabetes mellitus in KwaZulu-Natal's public sector: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes data are routinely collected from all public health facilities ... Diabetes mellitus (DM), together with its devastating complications, has a huge impact on both the patients it affects and the ... Data on the number of diabetes visits, DM patients that were initiated on treatment, defaulters and DM-related amputations were.

  20. Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Muhammad, Z.; Qayum, I.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycaemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus of this area. This descriptive study was conducted in medical out patient door of District Headquarter Hospital Battgram from January 2008 to July 2008. A total of 350 diabetic (types 1 and 2) patients over 15 years of age attending the medical OPD of DHQ Hospital were examined in detail for skin manifestations of the disease. Three hundred and fifty diabetic (type-1 and type-2) patients (193 females and 157 males) enrolled in this study. Mean age of the patients was 54+-8.53 years. Duration of diabetes was between 1-12 years; 320 patients had type-2 and 30 patients had type-1 diabetes mellitus. Patients with uncontrolled disease were 327 and 23 patients showed adequate glycaemic control. Seventy-six percent of patients had cutaneous manifestations. The skin manifestations observed were: skin infections 30.9%, foot gangrene and ulcers 12.9%, pruritus 7.1%, vitiligo 5.7%, yellow skin 4.2%, diabetic dermopathy 4.2%, skin tags 3.7%, acanthosis nigricans 2.9%, eruptive xanthomas 2.6%, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 1.4%, diabetic bullae 0.6%, and pigmented purpuras in 0.3% patients. Cutaneous manifestations were quite Common in the diabetics of this area. (author)

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS: NEW TREATMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Morgunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In economically developed countries, cirrhosis is one of the six leading causes of death at the age of 35–60 years and ranges from 14 to 30 cases per 100000 population. In the world 40 million people die of cirrhosis each year. At 6% of the population of the Russian Federation there is a diabetes mellitus. The combination of diabetes mellitus in patients with cirrhosis of the liver is a common comorbid pathology. Diabetes mellitusis a risk factor for the development of liver cirrhosis, and the incidence of combination of both diseases is quite high, although the frequency of occurrence varies. About 80% of patients with LC may have impaired glucose metabolism, and 30% have diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies have shown that diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing hepatic complications and death in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of complications of liver cirrhosis of any etiology (varicose veins of the esophagus, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic-cell insufficiency and subsequent survival. The incidence, frequency of hospitalizations and mortality from this combined pathology are very high. There are common mechanisms that provoke metabolic and autoimmune disorders in the development of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, leading to steatosis, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and the development of diabetes mellitus. There are certain features of the evaluation of the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, anemia and impaired protein metabolism. Effective control of glycemia can have a beneficial effect on the treatment of these patients. However, few studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drugs and the effect of diabetes treatment on morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Previously it was believed that in the presence of cirrhosis the only treatment remains insulin. At present, in

  2. 76 FR 1495 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-2010-0355] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). [[Page 1496

  3. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P diabetic rat model.

  4. Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of life and to prevent chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, intensive lifestyle modification and proper medication are needed from the early stage of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. When using the first medication for diabetic patients, the appropriate treatment should be selected considering the clinical characteristics of the patient, efficacy of the drug, side effects, and cost. In general, the use of metformin as the first treatment for oral hypoglycemic monotherapy is recommended because of its excellent blood glucose-lowering effect, relatively low side effects, long-term proven safety, low risk of hypoglycemia, and low weight gain. If metformin is difficult to use as a first-line treatment, other appropriate medications should be selected in view of the clinical situation. If the goal of achieving glycemic control is not achieved by monotherapy, a combination therapy with different mechanisms of action should be initiated promptly.

  5. Psychosocial determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Amin, M.K.; Ahmad, I.; Amer, H.; Shoaib, H.; Ibrahim, H.; Tayyab, M.; Hassan, M.; Javaid, M.A.; Rehman, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 , formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency1. The development of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is associated with multiple risk factors, co-morbid medical conditions as well as psychosocial determinants. These psychosocial factors, which differ from population to population, can be identified and controlled to reduce the incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To identify various psychosocial factors associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration: Diabetic clinic and Medical Units Mayo Hospital Lahore . July to December, 2012. Subjects and Methods: A population based case-control study with 1:1 case to control ratio was conducted. A total of 100 subjects (50 cases and 50 controls) having age above 35 years were recruited in the study. Selection was made on laid down criteria from patients coming to Mayo Hospital Lahore after taking consent. Interviews were conducted through a pretested questionnaire. Data was collected, compiled and analyzed through IBM SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 100 study subjects 67% were males and 33% were females. Among cases of Diabetes mellitus type 2, 64% were males, 70% in the age group 35-50 years, 96% were married, 36% were illiterates. Mean age was found 49.24, standard deviation 10.915. In bivariate analysis, Diabetes Mellitus type II was found significantly associated with Anxiety(OR: 5.348, 95% CI: 2.151-13.298) Depression(OR: 5.063, 95% CI: 1.703-15.050), High fat diet, (OR: 2.471, 95% CI: 1.100-5.547) Sedentary Lifestyle(OR: 4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508) and Psychological Stress(OR:4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508). However, in multivariate analysis while controlling all other risk factors, Anxiety(OR: 6.066, 95% CI: 1.918-19.191), High fat diet(OR: 3.648, 95% CI: 1

  6. Characterisation of advanced glycation endproducts in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min-Sung; Jankowski, Vera; Montag, Susanne; Zidek, Walter; Henning, Lars; Schlueter, Hartmut; Tepel, Martin; Jankowski, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop increased advanced glycation endproducts causing local complications and increased overall morbidity and mortality. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were determined in saliva of 52 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus and 47 age-matched healthy control subjects. Resonance spectra showed specific peaks at 2.3, 7.3, and 8.4 ppm in saliva from patients with diabetes mellitus. These peaks could be generated by incubation of saliva from healthy control subjects with hypochloric acid in vitro, indicating the presence of advanced glycation endproducts. The presence of advanced glycation endproducts in patients with diabetes mellitus was associated with approximal plaque index, indicating increased periodontal damage. The study indicates that increased advanced glycation endproducts are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications

  7. Radionuclide study of the liver macrophage system in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver macrophage system (MS) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze the functional disturbances depending of the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients was studied. The obtained data suggest the necessity of radionuclide study of the liver MS with the purpose to reveal pre-clinical disturbances and administer timely treatment

  8. Extracellular vesicles in obesity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Fabián; Villalobos-Labra, Roberto; Sobrevia, Bastián; Toledo, Fernando; Sobrevia, Luis

    2018-04-01

    Cell-to-cell communication happens via diverse mechanisms including the synthesis, release and transfer to target cells of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs include nanovesicles (i.e., exosomes) and microvesicles, including apoptotic bodies. The amount and cargo of released EVs, which consist of microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, proteins, DNA, among other molecules, are altered in obesity and diabetes mellitus. EVs from these diseases show with altered cargo including several miRNAs and the enrichment with molecules involved in inflammation, immune efficiency, and cell activation. The role of EVs in obesity regards with adipocytes-released vesicles that may end in a systemic insulin resistance. In diabetes mellitus, the exosomes cargo may signal to transform a normal phenotype into a diabetic phenotype in endothelial cells. The evidence of EVs as modulators of cell function is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether exosomes or microvesicles are a trustable and useful marker for the diagnose or early detection of obesity or diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarise the reported information regarding EVs involvement in obesity, T1 and T2 diabetes mellitus, and gestational diabetes mellitus. We emphasise the fact that studies addressing a potential effect of obesity or diabetes mellitus on cell function and the severity of the diseases are done in patients suffering simultaneously with both of these diseases, i.e., diabesity. Unfortunately, the lack of information regarding the biological effects and the potential involved mechanisms makes difficult to understand the role of the EVs as a marker of these and perhaps other diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LEAN DIABETICS AND MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN COMPARISON WITH NORMAL WEIGHT AND OBESE TYPE 2 DIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder showing an alarming increase in developing countries, particularly in India. In contrast to developed countries, we find that the clinical profile of diabetes mellitus is different in India. Most of the patients are not obese. Hence it is worth comparing the clinical profile of lean diabetics with normal and obese type 2 diabetic patients. OBJECTIVE: To screen the occurrence and pattern of micro vascular complications in lean type 2 diabetic patients compared to normal weight and obese diabetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS : An observational study of 1070 patients was conducted in our hospital between June 2011 to July 2013. We have selected patient ’ s aged 30 years and older diabetics from outpatient and inpatient medicine department of our hospital and compared the urine protein creatinine ratio (PCR, monofilament testing and ophthalmoscopy findings in three groups (Lean, Normal weight and obese diabetics. RESULTS : Among the micro vascular complications, nephropathy was observed in 52.2% of lean diabetics compared to 44.5% and 39.2% of normal weight and obese diab etics respectively (p value - 0.035. Neuropathy was observed in 46% of lean diabetics compared to 29.8% and 34.1% in normal weight and obese diabetics respectively (p value - 0.003. Retinopathy was observed in 45.1% of lean diabetics compared to 32.3 % and 30.8% of normal weight and obese diabetics respectively . (p value - 0.014. CONCLUSION: Among diabetic patients who were screened for micro vascular complications in outpatient and inpatient medicine departments, lean diabetics were more prone for micro vascular complications when compared with normal weight and obese diabetics.

  10. Diabetes mellitus statistics on prevalence and mortality: facts and fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, Paul; Alberti, K George; Magliano, Dianna J; Bennett, Peter H

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important public health challenges of the twenty-first century. Until the past decade, it has been seriously underrated as a global health threat. Major gaps exist in efforts to comprehend the burden nationally and globally, especially in developing nations, due to a lack of accurate data for monitoring and surveillance. Early attempts to obtain accurate data, discussed in this article, seem to have been cast aside so, at present, these needs remain unmet. Existing international efforts to assemble information fall far short of requirements. Current estimates are imprecise, only providing a rough picture, and probably underestimate the disease burden. The methodologies that are currently used, and that are discussed in this Perspectives article, are inadequate for providing a complete and accurate assessment of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. International consensus on uniform standards and criteria for reporting national data on diabetes mellitus prevalence as well as for common complications of diabetes mellitus and mortality need to be developed.

  11. Dynamic role of microparticles in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2009-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cerebro/cardiovascular events, since this disease leads to the development of premature atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis associated with diabetes accelerates diabetic macroangiopathy. Microparticles (MPs) released from cells (MPs) may play a role in the normal hemostatic response to vascular injury and a role in clinical diseases because they express phospholipids, which function as procoagulants. MPs were first observed as released vesicles from platelets following adhesion to vessel walls. Currently, the number of clinical disorders associated with elevated MPs is increasing. A few studies on the potential role of platelet-derived MPs in diabetic complications can been reported. MPs are elevated in diabetic patients however studies have found differences in the MP profile in relation to disease type and the presence or absence of MPs. Levels of platelet-derived MPs and monocyte-derived MPs have been shown to correlate with diabetic complications or the extent of diabetic retinopathy, which is associated with microvascular damage. Elevated endothelial cell-derived MP levels are predictive for the presence of coronary artery lesions, and it is a more significant independent risk factor than length of diabetic disease, lipid levels or presence of hypertension. Interestingly, elevated endothelial cell-derived MP levels are predictive in identifying a subpopulation of diabetic patients without typical anginal symptoms who have angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease. We will present evidence for a dynamic role of MPs in type 2 diabetes.

  12. [Direct service costs of diabetes mellitus hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Zapata, Leonardo; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Nieto-López, Emmanuel Salvador

    2016-08-02

    To estimate the direct costs related to hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus and its complications in the Mexican Institute of Social Security METHODS: The hospital care costs of patients with diabetes mellitus using diagnosis-related groups in the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security) and the hospital discharges from the corresponding E10-E14 codes for diabetes mellitus were estimated between 2008-2013. Costs were grouped according to demographic characteristics and main condition, and were estimated in US dollars in 2013. 411,302 diabetes mellitus discharges were recorded, representing a cost of $1,563 million. 52.44% of hospital discharges were men and 77.26% were for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The biggest cost was attributed to peripheral circulatory complications (34.84%) and people from 45-64 years of age (47.1%). Discharges decreased by 3.84% and total costs by 1.75% in the period analysed. The complications that caused the biggest cost variations were ketoacidosis (50.7%), ophthalmic (22.6%) and circulatory (18.81%). Hospital care for diabetes mellitus represents an important financial challenge for the IMSS. The increase in the frequency of hospitalisations in the productive age group, which affects society as a whole, is an even bigger challenge, and suggests the need to strengthen monitoring of diabetics in order to prevent complications that require hospital care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of hypertension in type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: 1 To study the prevalence of hypertension in Type-2 diabetic patients. 2 To study the association with hypertension and diabetic complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 diabetic patients coming to Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital and College, Bellary were studied and evaluated for blood pressure (BP, and macrovascular and microvascular complication. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Sample Size: 250. Inclusion Criteria: All Type-2 diabetic patients who are on treatment for diabetes. Exclusion Criteria: a. Newly diagnosed diabetes, b. Seriously ill patients, c. Refused to be a part of the study, d. Pregnancy, e. Type-1 diabetes mellitus. Results and Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension noted in 64 (25.6% patients. BP was normal in 55 (22%, 131 (52.4% patients were prehypertensive, 45 (18% patients were in stage-1 hypertension, and 19 (7.6% had stage-2 hypertension. Macrovascular complications noted in 120 (48% and microvascular complications noted in 60 (24% patients.

  14. Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspriello, S D; Zizzi, A; Tirabassi, G; Buldreghini, E; Biscotti, T; Faloia, E; Stramazzotti, D; Boscaro, M; Piemontese, M

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies have appeared about diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis, few have compared periodontitis inflammatory markers between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and information regarding this issue is scarce and contradictory. We evaluated the levels of plasma C-reactive protein and of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid in two groups of subjects affected by T1DM and T2DM, in order to identify possible differences between the two classes in the inflammatory mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis. Plasma C-reactive protein and gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in periodontitis patients affected by type 1 (P-T1DM, n = 24) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM, n = 24). Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in P-T1DM subjects were significantly higher than in P-T2DM subjects. In P-T1DM subjects, we found significant negative correlations between the duration of diabetes mellitus and IL-1β and between the duration of diabetes mellitus and TNF-α. This study shows that IL-1β and TNF-α levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus: actual problems of pathogenesis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rebrov А.P.; Kunitsyna М.А.; Kashkina E.I.; Arkhangelskaya Е.Е.

    2012-01-01

    We have presented the review of literature devoted to the problem of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus. We have found up that prevalence of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus needs to be adjusted. In analyzed literature the influence of localization of structural changes of pancreatic tissue on risk of diabetes mellitus development is studied insufficiently. In the result of our literature analysis we have detected that treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus up to date is not unified and ...

  16. A relação entre polifarmácia, complicações crônicas e depressão em portadores de Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 Relación entre polifarmacia, complicaciones crónicas y depresión en portadores de Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 The relationship between polipharmacy, chronic complications and depression in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bulgarelli do Nascimento

    2010-03-01

    medicamentos/día o más; todos hicieron como mínimo tres tomas diarias, el 60% presentaba entre 1 y 3 complicaciones de la DM2 y el 22,5% presentaba 3 o más. La correlación entre los indicadores de depresión (IDB y CORT y el número de medicamentos y de complicaciones de la DM2 no fue estadísticamente significativa. Sin embargo, hubo correlación positiva entre CORT y la cantidad de tomas diarias de medicamentos (Spearman, r=0.319, p=0.019.The objectives of this study were: to characterize the polipharmacy in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2 and to verify the correlation between polipharmacy and number of medications for DM2 complications with depression indicators (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and urinary cortisol (CORT levels. A sample composed of 40 patients with DM2 from the Diabetes League of HCFM-USP was analyzed for depression indicators (CORT and BDI in addition to evaluation for polipharmacy and number of DM2 complications. The results showed oral hypoglycemic agents, insulins, antihypertensives, diuretics, lipid-lowering drugs and thrombolytics are the most frequent medications used. In this sample, 75% used from 5 to 8 medicines daily and 12.5% used more than eight medicines/day; all of them used to take each medication at least 3 times daily. Between 1 and 3 DM2 complications were observed in 60% of the individuals and 22.5% showed more than 3 DM2 complications. No significant correlations were observed between depression indicators (BDI and CORT, number of medications and DM2 complications. However, positive correlation was observed between CORT and daily frequency of medication (Spearman, r=0.319, p=0.019.

  17. MANIFESTASI RONTGENOGRAFI DIABETES MELLITUS DI RONGGA MULUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelia Boel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common disease, described as a systemic disease of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a realtive or absolute deficiency of insulum. This condition is characterized by hyperglyecemia, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, pruritis, and weight loss. Diabetes mellitus in itself does not cause periodontal disease, however diabetes or patients with an increased blood glucose concentration (>200mg/dl tend to gave increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Patient with diabetics above 50 years old (3 cases radiographically can be seen as alveolar bone loss in maxilla and mandible. Alveolar bone loss is seen larger in the posterior maxilla region. The vascular alteration in diabetics may enhance the susceptibility of periodontium to become periodontitis and serve as an etiology factor in pathologic bone resorption.

  18. Periodontal findings in individuals with newly identified pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; Cheng, Bin; Burkett, Sandra; Lalla, Evanthia

    2014-11-01

    To assess the periodontal status and number of missing teeth in patients with newly identified pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus. A total of 1097 subjects with previously undiagnosed diabetes were available for study, and were categorized into normoglycaemic, potentially pre-diabetes or potentially diabetes groups based on a point-of-care (POC) HbA1c test. In fully adjusted models, significant differences were observed between all groups for the per cent of teeth with at least one site with a probing depth of ≥5 mm. For bleeding on probing, there were significant differences between diabetes and pre-diabetes (p = 0.001), and between diabetes and normoglycaemic groups (p = 0.002). For missing teeth, there were significant differences between the pre-diabetes and normoglycaemic groups (p = 0.034), and the diabetes and normoglycaemic groups (p = 0.004). Individuals with previously unidentified pre-diabetes demonstrate a level of periodontal destruction between that observed for normoglycaemic individuals and persons with diabetes. These data emphasize the association of oral findings to dysglycaemia, and suggest that periodontal disease and tooth loss can be early complications of diabetes mellitus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. TNF Receptor 1/2 Predict Heart Failure Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zhang; Aiqun, Ma; Jiwu, Li; Liang, Shao

    2017-04-06

    Inflammation plays an important role in heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Traditional serum markers have limited predictive value in heart failure and diabetes. TNFR1 and TNFR2 (TNFR1/2) have been proven to be strongly associated with heart failure and diabetes complications. This study aimed to assess the association of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels and incidental HF risk in diabetes patients.We detected the mRNA, protein, and serum expression of TNFR1/2, their downstream signaling pathway protein NF-kB, and JNK expression and some traditional serum inflammatory markers in a heart failure group without diabetes mellitus or abnormal glucose tolerance (n = 84), a diabetes mellitus group without heart failure (n = 86), and a heart failure with diabetes mellitus group (n = 86).TNFR1/2 were significantly higher in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus based on mRNA expression to protein expression and serum expression. However, there were no differences in mRNA, protein, and serum levels of TNFR1/2 between the HF group and DM group. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups in some traditional serum inflammatory markers.This study demonstrated higher expressions of TNFR, NF-kB, and JNK in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Compared with traditional serum markers, TNFR1 and TNFR2 are associated with heart failure risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy | Abourawi | Libyan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will briefly review the changes in the carbohydrate metabolism that characterise normal pregnancy and will focus on a practical approach to the care of patients with pre-existing diabetes as well as GDM. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, ...

  1. Control and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in an outpatient atention center in Medellín, Colombia, 1998-2001 Control y complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus en el Centro de Atención Ambulatorio central, Instituto de Seguro Social 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Bedoya Gómez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus control requires a constant, continuous and strict evaluation of many factors that inherently affect its course, not only from the point of view of glycemia, but also from other aspects of the metabolic disorder produced by diabetes itself, by other diseases associated with it and by health habits that influence its control and the appearance of complications derived from it. In order to identify this particular situation in the Diabetes Program of the outpatient attention center of the Instituto de Seguro Social (ISS, we evaluated diabetes control, the presence of associated diseases, health habits, chronic complications and the degree of control of many parameters. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional trial in which, from the total of 1.450 medical charts of patients attending such program and by means of simple randomization and replacement, 304 medical charts were selected of patients that met the inclusion criteria from January 1998 to December 2001. A structured form was applied to all the selected charts in order to evaluate the main clinical features, the presence of associated disease (hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity, the most significant health habits, the presence of complications and the relationship of control parameters with international standards. Data were registered using Epi-Info 6.0; we processed data obtaining absolute and relative frequencies, and in order to do estimates of association we used contingency tables using Pearson’s chi square with a p significance of < 0.05. Results: of the 304 medical charts reviewed, 91% were from type 2 diabetics and 64% were from women. Diseases associated to diabetes were hypertension 69%, dyslipidemia 64%, obesity 37%. Patients’ life style were as follows: 55% were exercising, 41% were former smokers, 12% were active smokers, 27% ate sugar, 51% ate fat and 8% performed selfmonitoring of blood glucose levels. Chronic complications

  2. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  3. Diabetes mellitus and metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Koji; Iwama, Hisakazu; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Tani, Joji; Oura, Kyoko; Tadokoro, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Teppei; Nomura, Takako; Morishita, Asahiro; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Diabetes mellitus, a risk factor for cancer, is also globally endemic. The clinical link between these two diseases has been the subject of investigation for a century, and diabetes mellitus has been established as a risk factor for HCC. Accordingly, metformin, a first-line oral anti-diabetic, was first proposed as a candidate anti-cancer agent in 2005 in a cohort study in Scotland. Several subsequent large cohort studies and randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated significant efficacy for metformin in suppressing HCC incidence and mortality in diabetic patients; however, two recent randomized controlled trials have reported positive data for the tumor-preventive potential of metformin in non-diabetic subjects. The search for biological links between cancer and diabetes has revealed intracellular pathways that are shared by cancer and diabetes. The signal transduction mechanisms by which metformin suppresses carcinogenesis in cell lines or xenograft tissues and improves chemoresistance in cancer stem cells have also been elucidated. This review addresses the clinical and biological links between HCC and diabetes mellitus and the anti-cancer activity of metformin in clinical studies and basic experiments.

  4. 78 FR 12821 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...-2012-0350] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  5. 78 FR 12819 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...-2012-0351] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  6. 78 FR 65754 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-2013-0183] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor...-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement...

  7. 77 FR 20874 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  8. 75 FR 70077 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  9. 75 FR 64394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  10. 75 FR 65056 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  11. 75 FR 50797 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  12. 75 FR 27616 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... vehicle if that person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus...

  13. 76 FR 71111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-2011-0194] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and...

  14. 77 FR 43417 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...-2012-0109] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  15. 76 FR 32015 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...-2011-0080] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  16. 77 FR 43901 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...-2012-0108] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  17. 77 FR 7232 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...-2011-0327] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  18. 76 FR 69795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...-2011-0193] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  19. 76 FR 47288 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ...-2011-0125] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. [[Page... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving...

  20. 76 FR 47290 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ...-2011-0144] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  1. 76 FR 26792 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...-2011-0058] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The...

  2. 76 FR 17475 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...-0058] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the...

  3. 76 FR 22940 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...-2011-0025] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  4. 76 FR 27376 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-2011-0040] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  5. 77 FR 536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0301] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  6. 76 FR 22941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...-2011-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and...

  7. 78 FR 35088 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...-2013-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  8. 77 FR 65929 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-2012-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  9. 78 FR 64267 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...-0184] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  10. 77 FR 17116 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-2011-0381] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  11. 78 FR 76397 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0187] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  12. 77 FR 532 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0300] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... included in this notice. Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established...

  13. 78 FR 1926 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-2012-0347] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  14. 76 FR 61139 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...-2011-0192] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  15. 76 FR 79759 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-2011-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  16. 78 FR 77784 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...-2013-0184] [4910-EX-P] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY...-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement...

  17. 78 FR 5559 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-2012-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  18. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-0183] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  19. 77 FR 33264 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...-2012-0044] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  20. 76 FR 44650 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-2011-0143] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  1. 78 FR 37272 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...-2013-0017] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  2. 77 FR 25227 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-2011-0383] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  3. 76 FR 72031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...-0301] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  4. 78 FR 37273 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...-2013-0016] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  5. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-2012-0282] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  6. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  7. 77 FR 38383 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-2012-0107] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  8. 78 FR 7855 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-2012-0349] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  9. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  10. 78 FR 60014 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...-2013-0020] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  11. 78 FR 26422 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-2013-0012] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  12. 78 FR 65034 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-0190] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  13. 77 FR 51845 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...-2012-0163] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  14. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-2011-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  15. 76 FR 9867 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-2010-0427] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  16. 77 FR 70529 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-2012-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  17. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  18. 77 FR 17111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-0042] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  19. 77 FR 75492 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-2012-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  20. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...-0043] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria...

  1. 76 FR 53707 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ...-2011-0145] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  2. 77 FR 64585 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-2012-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  3. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-0182] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  4. 78 FR 16758 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-0012] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in...

  5. 77 FR 29446 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-2012-0043] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... vehicle if that person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus...

  6. 78 FR 39825 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-2013-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' [49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)]. FMCSA... Congress on the Feasibility of a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to...

  7. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...-0217] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  8. 77 FR 59450 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-2012-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  9. 78 FR 50140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...-2013-0019] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  10. 78 FR 76400 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0189] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor...-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement...

  11. 78 FR 76398 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0188] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  12. 78 FR 65031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-2013-0182] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  13. 77 FR 46791 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-2012-0162] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  14. Association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2; a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Cano, Eduardo; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; Reyes-Ramos, Emilio; Gonzalez-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Juarez-Castro, Isela; López-Narváez, Maria Lilia; Fresan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent conditions throughout the world and have significant impact on health outcomes. It has been estimated that diabetes mellitus type 2 affects about 246 million people in the world; nevertheless, incidence varies among countries. There is evidence that depression is associated with a poor metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that present other health problems (such as hypertension and obesity). The aim of this study protocol is to determine if obesity increases the risk for depression in patient with diabetes type 2. The analysis will be reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA).The studies suitable for inclusion will be assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to determine their methodological quality. To identify the studies of interest, we will search on PubMed and EBSCO databases. We will use the following keyword combinations: "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND obesity AND depression", "depression AND Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2 AND body mass index cross sectional study", "depression AND obesity cross-sectional study". Causes for exclusion will be publications that studied patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1; articles that focused on the treatment and complications of diabetes mellitus type 2; publications that have studied other clinical or psychiatric conditions (for instance, seizure disorder or history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic symptoms or dementia). The results of this study will form the basis for a better understanding of the association between obesity and depression in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, and will allow development of prediction tools and better interventions. It is evident that several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes among population. Currently, evidence for the deleterious effects

  15. Eating disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, A; Catino, M; De Luca, F A; Morgese, G; Chiarelli, F

    1999-06-01

    Although the causes of eating disorders remain unclear, epidemiological evidence suggests that peripubertal changes in body shape and weight predispose young women to develop unhealthy eating attitudes. A psychiatric diagnosis of an eating disorder can be made in up to 10% of young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes). Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, pose a particularly serious risk to health in young diabetic people. Several features associated with type 1 diabetes and its treatment, such as weight gain, dietary restraint and food preoccupation, may predispose young diabetic women to develop a clinical or subclinical eating disorder. The coexistence of these conditions could lead to poor metabolic control and an increased risk of microvascular complications.

  16. Glycogenic Hepatopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycogenic hepatopathy is a rare cause of high transaminase levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This condition, characterized by elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly, is caused by irreversible and excessive accumulation of glycogen in hepatocytes. This is a case report on a 19-year-old male case, diagnosed with glycogenic hepatopathy. After the diagnosis was documented by liver biopsy, the case was put on glycemic control which led to significant decline in hepatomegaly and liver enzymes. It was emphasized that, in type 1 diabetes mellitus cases, hepatopathy should also be considered in the differential diagnoses of elevated liver enzyme and hepatomegaly.

  17. Diabetes Mellitus en el adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Godínez, Juan; Barragán-Vigil, Ana; Navarro-Macias, Carmen; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Uribe-González, Paul; Sánchez-Cruz, Martha

    2017-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus, una enfermedad crónica que afecta a todo el mundo siendo nuestro país México, el primer lugar con esta enfermedad, su incidencia aumenta junto con la edad hasta un 20% en personas mayores de 60 años todos ellos susceptibles a síndromes geriátricos, con posibles repercusiones ya sea por falta de control de niveles de glicemia o por un exceso en el control. El objetivo de esta revisión no sistemática es concientizar a la población general de la diabetes mellitus y el conte...

  18. Manejo preoperatorio de pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar J,Claudio; Herrera F,Christian; González A,Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus es una condición crónica de hiperglicemia que afecta al 9,4% de la población chilena. Estudios han encontrado que los pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tienen mayor probabilidad de requerir cirugía en comparación a la población general. La hiperglicemia que presentan los pacientes se ha relacionado al desarrollo de complicaciones infecciosas y cardiovasculares en el período postoperatorio. Se ha demostrado que el adecuado control glicémico preoperatorio contribuye a disminu...

  19. Catarata e diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzol,Melissa Manfroi Dal; Esteves,Jorge Freita; Sccoco,Caio Augusto; Roggia,Murilo Felix; Rosa,Carolina Maurente da; Lambert,José Humberto Franco; Canani,Luís Henrique

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata e seus fatores de risco em uma população portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). MÉTODOS: Estudo de casos e controles de um banco de dados de 181 pacientes (362 olhos) com diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Os pacientes foram classificados como casos quando apresentavam diagnóstico de catarata. As variáveis estudadas foram a presença ou não de retinopatia diabética, tratamento com panfotocoagulação, presença de hipertensão arterial sistêm...

  20. Thyroid Function In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Srinidhi; Kumar J, Ashok; K, Prajna; Shetty, Shobith Kumar; Rai, Tirthal; Shrinidhi; Begum, Mohamedi; Shashikala

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic patients have higher prevalence of thyroid disorders than the general population which may have an influence on diabetic management. The present study compared the levels of thyroid hormones, serum creatinine, glycated haemoglobin and urine microalbumin between type 2 diabetics without any complications, type 2 diabetics with nephropathy and age and sex matched normal controls. Result: The mean serum T3 level in type 2 diabetics without any complications was 91.27 ± 14.56 ng/dl , in type 2 diabetics with nephropathy was 88.5320 ± 30.87 ng/dl and in controls was 134.98 ± 28.55 ng/dl. The mean serum T4 level in type 2 diabetics without any complications was 7.73 ± 1.42 μg/dl, in type 2 diabetics with nephropathy was 7.25 ± 2.72 μg/dl and in controls was 8.61 ± 1.73 μg/dl. The mean serum TSH level in type 2 diabetics without any complications was 3.99 ± 1.87 μIU/ml, in type 2 diabetics with nephropathy was 4.27 ± 1.62 μIU/ml and in controls was 2.07 ± 1.09 μIU/ml. Correlations between T3, T4, TSH with serum creatinine, glycated haemoglobin were not statistically significant in type 2 diabetes without any complications and diabetic nephropathy. We found a statistically significant correlation between T3 and urine microalbumin in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Failure to recognize the presence of abnormal thyroid hormone levels may be a primary cause of poor management of diabetes mellitus type 2. Therefore there is a need for the routine assay of thyroid hormones in type 2 diabetics and diabetic nephropathy in order to improve the quality of life and reduce the morbidity. PMID:24086845

  1. [Pancreatic exocrine function in diabetes mellitus. Determination of fecal elastase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla A, Carla; Hurtado H, Carmen; Tobar A, Eduardo; Orellana N, Ivonne; Pineda B, Pedro; Castillo M, Iván; Ledezma R, Rodrigo; Berger F, Zoltán

    2006-04-01

    One of the complications of diabetes mellitus is the development of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. To study pancreatic exocrine function in diabetics patients. Seventy two diabetic patients were included in the protocol, but two were withdrawn because an abdominal CAT scan showed a chronic calcified pancreatitis, previously undiagnosed. Fecal elastase was measured by ELISA and the presence of fat in feces was assessed using the steatocrit. Mean age was 60+/-12 years and 67 (96%) patients had a type 2 diabetes. Fecal elastase was normal (elastase >200 microg/g) in 47 (67%) patients, mildly decreased (100-200 microg/g) in 10 (14%) and severely decreased in 13 (19%). There was a significant association between elastase levels and time of evolution of diabetes (p=0.049) and between lower elastase levels and the presence of a positive steatocrit (p=0.042). No significant association was found between elastase levels and other chronic complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, microangiopathy or with insulin requirement. One third of this group of diabetic patients had decreased levels of fecal elastase, that was associated with the time of evolution of diabetes. Patients with lower levels of elastase have significantly more steatorrhea. Among diabetics it is possible to find a group of patients with non diagnosed chronic pancreatitis.

  2. Genetic Counseling for Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephanie A.; Maloney, Kristin L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Most diabetes is polygenic in etiology, with (type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or without (type 2 diabetes, T2DM) an autoimmune basis. Genetic counseling for diabetes generally focuses on providing empiric risk information based on family history and/or the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on pregnancy outcome. An estimated one to five percent of diabetes is monogenic in nature, e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), with molecular testing and etiology-based treatment available. However, recent studies show that most monogenic diabetes is misdiagnosed as T1DM or T2DM. While efforts are underway to increase the rate of diagnosis in the diabetes clinic, genetic counselors and clinical geneticists are in a prime position to identify monogenic cases through targeted questions during a family history combined with working in conjunction with diabetes professionals to diagnose and assure proper treatment and familial risk assessment for individuals with monogenic diabetes. PMID:25045596

  3. Imaging in syndrome complex diabetes mellitus. Current standards and future perspectives; Bildgebung im Syndromkomplex Diabetes mellitus. Stellenwert und Chancen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetterich, H.; Schafnitzel, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Bamberg, F. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent multisystemic disorder with numerous potential complications and substantial socioeconomic consequences. In many cases, the patient history, physical examination and laboratory tests are not sufficient for a comprehensive evaluation of complicating disorders. Imaging modalities, such as sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are of major significance in the evaluation of complicating disorders of diabetes according to current guidelines. Examples include assessment of coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke and diabetic foot syndrome. Technical developments allow a substantial reduction in radiation dose and scan time in CT and MRI, respectively and could therefore justify a broader application in this patient population. In the future CT and MRI could also be used for the early detection of diabetic complications. Furthermore, they could also be used for risk stratification, e.g. measurement of hepatic fat content and evaluation of atherosclerosis in whole body MRI. Prior to widespread application of advanced imaging techniques in this patient population, improved outcomes with respect to survival, quality of life and cost-effectiveness need to be demonstrated. Diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of the syndrome complex of diabetic disorders should be used according to the current guidelines but the use is predicted to increase given the high potential in this population. (orig.) [German] Diabetes mellitus ist eine hochpraevalente Multisystemerkrankung mit zahlreichen Komplikationen und bedeutenden soziooekonomischen Konsequenzen. Die Folgeerkrankungen koennen oft nicht abschliessend mittels Anamnese, koerperlicher Untersuchung und laborchemischen Verfahren evaluiert werden. Radiologische Verfahren wie die Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) haben gemaess verschiedener Leitlinien einen festen Stellenwert bei der

  4. The importance of weight management in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Wilding, J P H

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic is driving the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the vast majority of patients with T2DM are overweight or obese. Excess body weight is associated with the risk of cardiometabolic complications, which are major causes of morbidity and mortality in T2DM. Aims To review evidence about effects of weight loss in pre-diabetes and established T2DM. Results In prediabetes, weight loss has been shown to delay the onset or decrease the risk of...

  5. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011. Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic.

  6. Platelets Express Activated P2Y12 Receptor in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Chang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhai, Lili; Zhang, Shenghui; Qi, Zhiyong; Yan, Hongmei; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xinping; Zhang, Si; Wang, Yiping; Kunapuli, Satya P; Ye, Hongying; Ding, Zhongren

    2017-08-29

    Platelets from patients with diabetes mellitus are hyperactive. Hyperactivated platelets may contribute to cardiovascular complications and inadequate responses to antiplatelet agents in the setting of diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying mechanism of hyperactivated platelets is not completely understood. We measured P2Y 12 expression on platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and on platelets from rats with diabetes mellitus. We also assayed platelet P2Y 12 activation by measuring cAMP and VASP phosphorylation. The antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of AR-C78511 and cangrelor were compared in rats. Finally, we explored the role of the nuclear factor-κB pathway in regulating P2Y 12 receptor expression in megakaryocytes. Platelet P2Y 12 levels are 4-fold higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects. P2Y 12 expression correlates with ADP-induced platelet aggregation (r=0.89, P diabetes mellitus is constitutively activated. Although both AR-C78511, a potent P2Y 12 inverse agonist, and cangrelor have similar antiplatelet efficacy on platelets from healthy subjects, AR-C78511 exhibits more powerful antiplatelet effects on diabetic platelets than cangrelor (aggregation ratio 36±3% versus 49±5%, respectively, P diabetes mellitus than cangrelor (thrombus weight 4.9±0.3 mg versus 8.3±0.4 mg, respectively, P diabetes mellitus. Platelet P2Y 12 receptor expression is significantly increased and the receptor is constitutively activated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which contributes to platelet hyperactivity and limits antiplatelet drug efficacy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries. PMID:24360398

  9. Assessment of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic complications of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Christina; Brock, Birgitte; Pedersen, Anne Grave

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing; arguably as a consequence of changes in diet, lifestyle and the trend towards urbanization. Unsurprisingly, the incidence of both micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes mirrors this increasing prevalence. Amongst the complications...... with the highest symptom burden, yet frequently under-diagnosed and sub-optimally treated, is diabetic autonomic neuropathy, itself potentially resulting in cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal (GI) tract dysmotility. The aims of this review are fourfold. Firstly to provide an overview...... of the pathophysiological processes that cause diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Secondly, to discuss both the established and emerging cardiometric methods for evaluating autonomic nervous system function in vivo. Thirdly, to examine the tools for assessing pan-GI and segmental motility and finally, we will provide...

  10. Manifestações musculoesqueléticas em diabetes mellitus Musculoskeletal disorders in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Barreto Gameiro Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus está associado a uma grande variedade de manifestações musculoesqueléticas. Muitas delas são subclínicas e correlacionadas com tempo de evolução e controle inadequado da doença, e devem ser reconhecidas e adequadamente tratadas, pois sua abordagem melhora a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Nesta revisão são discutidas as principais manifestações musculoesqueléticas encontradas em diabetes mellitus.Diabetes mellitus is associated with a great variety of musculoskeletal manifestations, many of which are subclinical and correlated with disease duration and its inadequate control. They should be recognized and treated properly, because their management improves the patients' quality of life. This review discusses the major musculoskeletal manifestations found in diabetes mellitus.

  11. Musculoskeletal Complications in Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, Mary E.; Barnie, Annette; Braffett, Barbara H.; Cleary, Patricia A.; Diminick, Lisa; Harth, Judy; Gatcomb, Patricia; Golden, Ellen; Lipps, Janie; Lorenzi, Gayle; Mahony, Carol; Nathan, David M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of periarticular thickening of skin on the hands and limited joint mobility (cheiroarthropathy) is associated with diabetes and can lead to significant disability. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of cheiroarthropathy in the well-characterized Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort and examine associated risk factors, microvascular complications, and the effect of ...

  12. Cutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Luiza; Illing, Tanja; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread endocrine disease with severe impact on health systems worldwide. Increased serum glucose causes damage to a wide range of cell types, including endothelial cells, neurons, and renal cells, but also keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Skin disorders can be found in about one third of all people with diabetes and frequently occur before the diagnosis, thus playing an important role in the initial recognition of underlying disease. Noninfectious as well as infectious diseases have been described as dermatologic manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy may also affect the skin. Pruritus, necrobiosis lipoidica, scleredema adultorum of Buschke, and granuloma annulare are examples of frequent noninfectious skin diseases. Bacterial and fungal skin infections are more frequent in people with diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy are responsible for diabetic foot syndrome and diabetic dermopathy. Furthermore, antidiabetic therapies may provoke dermatologic adverse events. Treatment with insulin may evoke local reactions like lipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy and both instant and delayed type allergy. Erythema multiforme, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, drug eruptions, and photosensitivity have been described as adverse reactions to oral antidiabetics. The identification of lesions may be crucial for the first diagnosis and for proper therapy of diabetes.

  13. Efektivitas Media Leafleat dan Media Brosur Terhadap Peningkatan Pengetahuan dan Sikap Pasien Dalam Perawatan Diabetes Mellitus di RSUD Dr. R. M Djoelham Binjai Tahun 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Taufiq, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the health service. Patients with diabetes mellitus risk of various complications that can threatened life of human being. The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus is due to lack of knowledge and attitudes about a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of health promotion using the media leaflets and brochures on the knowledge and attitudes of patients with diabetes mellitus in the treatment of diabetes m...

  14. The prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in treated HIV-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Il Joon; Kotler, Donald P

    2011-06-01

    HIV-associated morbidity and mortality have declined significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These developments have allowed an increased focus on associated adverse metabolic effects, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other adverse outcomes. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the metabolic changes are complicated and not yet fully elucidated due to the difficulty of separating the effects of HIV infection from those of HAART, co-morbidities, or individual patient vulnerabilities. This article reviews studies concerning the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and HIV, HIV-specific effects on diabetes mellitus complications, and HIV-specific diabetes mellitus treatment considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Animal models of obesity and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2018-01-01

    More than one-third of the worldwide population is overweight or obese and therefore at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to mitigate this pandemic, safer and more potent therapeutics are urgently required. This necessitates the continued use of animal models to discover...... available animal models of obesity and diabetes and highlight the advantages, limitations and important caveats of each of these models....

  16. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease: relationship to different clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco-J; Miralles, Lucía; Llambes, Fernando; Bautista, Daniel; Solá-Izquierdo, Eva; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    This study is designed to evaluate the frequency of periodontal disease in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and how this relates with diabetes metabolic control, duration of diabetes, and presence of diabetic complications. A comparison was made of periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding index, pocket depth and attachment loss) in a group of diabetic patients (n=90) versus a group of non-diabetics (n=90). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate relationship between periodontal parameters and degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease, and the appearance of complications. Diabetics had greater bleeding index (pperiodontal pockets (pperiodontal attachment loss (pdiabetics. Deficient metabolic control and presence of diabetic complication were associated with higher bleeding index and pocket depth (pdiabetes appear to show increased periodontal disease susceptibility, particularly those with poorer metabolic control or with diabetic complications.

  17. Oral health management considerations in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most serious diseases of metabolism. Long-term consequences of hyperglycemia are very heterogeneous and affect partially all tissues and organs of the organism. A number of oral diseases and disorders have been associated with DM, and periodontitis has been identified as a possible risk factor for poor glycemic control and the development of other clinical complications of diabetes. In this review article, we discuss the relevant information about DM associated oral conditions and role of dental practitioners to take the responsibility to develop programs to educate the public about the oral manifestations of diabetes and its complications on oral health in order to promote proper oral health and to reduce the risk of oral diseases.

  18. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Clinical features of diabetes mellitus in Japan as observed in a hospital outpatient clinic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Sunao; Toda, Shintaro; Omori, Yoshiaki; Yamakido, Michio; Blackard, W.G.

    1963-04-18

    A university diabetes clinic in Japan was characterized by age at examination, age at onset, sex ratio, microangiopathies, atherosclerotic complications, weight, heredity, and diet. The findings in this clinic, along with those from other diabetes clinics in Japan, were compared with studies on Western diabetics. The similarities between the 2 diabetic populations far outnumbered the dissimilarities. However, diabetes mellitus in Japan is distinguished by infrequent occurrence of juvenile diabetes and ketosis, relative lack of atherosclerotic complications, and reversal of the sex ratio. 39 references, 7 tables.

  20. [Eating behavior in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, I E; Tarlovskaia, E I; Vedenskaia, T P

    2012-01-01

    To study the specific features of eating behavior (EB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). One hundred and seventy-eight patients, including 128 with type 2 DM and 50 with type 1 DM, were examined. Questionnaire survey, general clinical, and laboratory studies were conducted. The patient groups did not differ in educational level and gender. In the patients with type 1 DM, the duration of the disease was longer and the incidence of complications was higher than in those with type 2 DM. Carbohydrate metabolism was decompensated in the majority of the patients with types 1 and 2 DM. A higher normative score if only by one of the disordered EB (DEB) scales (according to the DEBQ), was found in 68 and 78.9% with type 1 and type 2 DM, respectively. The patients with type 2 DM were more frequently ascertained to have restrictive EB. The patients with type 2 DM and restrictive EB were more aware of the disease, more often checked blood glucose levels themselves, and were better compensated. The proportion of patients with external and emotiogenic EB did not differ between the groups, the latter type was registered less frequently. Disordered EBs were detected in many patients with DM. The found features of EB may be taken into account while teaching the patients.