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Sample records for dfa

  1. Two-dimensional DFA scaling analysis applied to encrypted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Olmos, C.; Murguía, J. S.; Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Mejía Carlos, M.; Rosu, H. C.; González-Aguilar, H.

    2015-01-01

    The technique of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been widely used to unveil scaling properties of many different signals. In this paper, we determine scaling properties in the encrypted images by means of a two-dimensional DFA approach. To carry out the image encryption, we use an enhanced cryptosystem based on a rule-90 cellular automaton and we compare the results obtained with its unmodified version and the encryption system AES. The numerical results show that the encrypted images present a persistent behavior which is close to that of the 1/f-noise. These results point to the possibility that the DFA scaling exponent can be used to measure the quality of the encrypted image content.

  2. Detection of ionospheric scintillation effects using LMD-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadivaka, Raghavendra Vishnu; Paruchuri, Bhanu Priyanka; Miriyala, Sridhar; Koppireddi, Padma Raju; Devanaboyina, Venkata Ratnam

    2017-08-01

    The performance and measurement accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers is greatly affected by ionospheric scintillations. Rapid amplitude and phase variations in the received GPS signal, known as ionospheric scintillation, affects the tracking of signals by GNSS receivers. Hence, there is a need to investigate the monitoring of various activities of the ionosphere and to develop a novel approach for mitigation of ionospheric scintillation effects. A method based on Local Mean Decomposition (LMD)-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has been proposed. The GNSS data recorded at Koneru Lakshmaiah (K L) University, Guntur, India were considered for analysis. The carrier to noise ratio (C/N0) of GNSS satellite vehicles were decomposed into several product functions (PF) using LMD to extract the intrinsic features in the signal. Scintillation noise was removed by the DFA algorithm by selecting a suitable threshold. It was observed that the performance of the proposed LMD-DFA was better than that of empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-DFA.

  3. Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in BRICS under a DFA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP theory in Brazil, Russia, India, Macao-China and South Africa. We examine real exchange rates of these countries for mean reversion. The Hurst exponent is our mean reversion measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA in a rolling window to determine the validity of the PPP theory amongst these countries through time. Our results show persistence in real exchange rates; an indication not supporting the PPP theory in the five countries. The study contributes to the extant literature of the PPP theory in BRICS using the DFA approach in a rolling window through time.

  4. 76 FR 60094 - DFA Investment Dimensions Group Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29820; File No. 812-13943] DFA Investment Dimensions Group Inc., et al.; Notice of Application September 22, 2011. AGENCY... 10% of the acquired company's voting stock to be owned by investment companies and companies...

  5. Club football in Denmark - a game between state policy and the DFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Storm, Rasmus K.; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2018-01-01

    Football in Denmark stands as a very popular game engaging men and women of all ages. Most of them are playing under the wings of the Danish Football Association (DFA). This paper provides a description and understanding of the organisation of football, with a specific focus on the DFA. We ask; how...... is club based football organised in Denmark and how does it reflect state policy? Our study is grounded in an analysis of 21 documents selected due to their importance to the organisation of football. Moreover, an online questionnaire survey was sent to the chairpersons of 1247 grassroots football clubs...... (N:475). To deeper understand the development of and organisations involved in Danish football we include the understanding of society formed by four basic social orders viewed upon as ideal types; civil society, market, state and associations (Pestoff). Our findings show that the organisation...

  6. Automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs using MF-DFA, SVM based on cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Tingxi; Huang, Wei; Wang, Meihong; Li, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disease with transient brain dysfunction that results from the sudden abnormal discharge of neurons in the brain. Since electroencephalogram (EEG) is a harmless and noninvasive detection method, it plays an important role in the detection of neurological diseases. However, the process of analyzing EEG to detect neurological diseases is often difficult because the brain electrical signals are random, non-stationary and nonlinear. In order to overcome such difficulty, this study aims to develop a new computer-aided scheme for automatic epileptic seizure detection in EEGs based on multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and support vector machine (SVM). New scheme first extracts features from EEG by MF-DFA during the first stage. Then, the scheme applies a genetic algorithm (GA) to calculate parameters used in SVM and classify the training data according to the selected features using SVM. Finally, the trained SVM classifier is exploited to detect neurological diseases. The algorithm utilizes MLlib from library of SPARK and runs on cloud platform. Applying to a public dataset for experiment, the study results show that the new feature extraction method and scheme can detect signals with less features and the accuracy of the classification reached up to 99%. MF-DFA is a promising approach to extract features for analyzing EEG, because of its simple algorithm procedure and less parameters. The features obtained by MF-DFA can represent samples as well as traditional wavelet transform and Lyapunov exponents. GA can always find useful parameters for SVM with enough execution time. The results illustrate that the classification model can achieve comparable accuracy, which means that it is effective in epileptic seizure detection.

  7. Identification of a novel DFA I-producing inulin fructotransferase from Streptomyces davawensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Yu, Shuhuai; Huang, Danyang; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a novel gene encoding DFA I-forming inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) from Streptomyces davawensis SK39.001 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified, identified, and characterized. The results showed that this IFTase (DFA I-forming) is a trimer (molecular weight of 125KDa) consisting of three identical subunits (the molecular weight as assayed by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40KDa). At pH 5.5 and 40°C, the maximum specific activity (approximately 100Umg -1 ) was achieved. Moreover, the enzyme was stable up to 70°C. K m and V max were 2.89±0.2mM and 1.94±0.9mMmin -1 , respectively. For exploring putative active sites and probable catalytic mechanisms, homology modelling and molecular docking methods after site-directed mutagenesis were applied to IFTase (DFA I-forming). The results revealed that D183 and E194 were potential catalytic residues of the purified enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing trading strategies based on fractal finance: An application of MF-DFA in the context of Islamic equities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Masih, Rumi; Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath; Masih, A. Mansur. M.

    2015-11-01

    We provide a new contribution to trading strategies by using multi-fractal de-trended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), imported from econophysics, to complement various momentum strategies. The method provides a single measure that can capture both persistency and anti-persistency in stock prices, accounting for multifractality. This study uses a sample of Islamic stocks listed in the U.S. Dow Jones Islamic market for a sample period covering 16 years starting in 1996. The findings show that the MF-DFA strategy produces monthly excess returns of 6.12%, outperforming other various momentum strategies. Even though the risk of the MF-DFA strategy may be relatively higher, it can still produce a Sharpe ratio of 0.164, which is substantially higher than that of the other strategies. When we control for the MF-DFA factor with the other factors, its pure factor return is still able to yield a monthly excess return of 1.35%. Finally, we combine the momentum and MF-DFA strategies, with the proportions of 90/10, 80/20, and 70/30 and by doing so we demonstrate that the MF-DFA measure can boost the total monthly excess returns as well as Sharpe ratio. The value added is non-linear which implies that the additional returns are associated with lower incremental risk.

  9. Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, Carmen Ortiz; Fernández, José M. García

    This review provides an overview of the current status of the chemistry and biology of di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) with a focus on their potential as functional foods. The history of this family of cyclic ketodisaccharides has expanded for almost 100 years and offers a paradigmatic example of artificial synthetic molecules that were identified as natural products later on and finally encountered in our own table. Issued from fundamental investigations on the reactivity of carbohydrates in strongly acidic media, DFAs remained laboratory curiosities for decades. Early reports on their isolation from plants raised doubts, until the formation of some DFA representatives by the action of microorganisms on fructans was reported in the middle 1980s. Since then, research on DFAs has run in parallel in the areas of microbiology and carbohydrate chemistry. Evidence of the potential of these compounds as functional food was accumulated from both sides, with the development of biotechnological processes for mass production of selected candidates and of chemical methodologies to prepare DFA-enriched products from sucrose or inulin. In 1994 a decisive discovery in the field took place in the laboratory of Jacques Defaye in Grenoble, France: the presence of DFAs in a commercial sucrose caramel was evidenced in a quite significant 18% mass proportion! The development of an efficient analytical protocol for DFAs and the stereoselective synthesis of individual standards allowed one to demonstrate that DFAs and their glycosylated derivatives (glycosyl-DFAs) are universally formed during caramelization reactions. They are not potential food products; they have actually always been in our daily food. Most important, they seem to exert beneficial effects: they are acariogenic, low-caloric, and promote the growth of beneficial microflora in the gut.

  10. Faster exact Markovian probability functions for motif occurrences: a DFA-only approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeca, Paolo; Raineri, Emanuele

    2008-12-15

    The computation of the statistical properties of motif occurrences has an obviously relevant application: patterns that are significantly over- or under-represented in genomes or proteins are interesting candidates for biological roles. However, the problem is computationally hard; as a result, virtually all the existing motif finders use fast but approximate scoring functions, in spite of the fact that they have been shown to produce systematically incorrect results. A few interesting exact approaches are known, but they are very slow and hence not practical in the case of realistic sequences. We give an exact solution, solely based on deterministic finite-state automata (DFA), to the problem of finding the whole relevant part of the probability distribution function of a simple-word motif in a homogeneous (biological) sequence. Out of that, the z-value can always be computed, while the P-value can be obtained either when it is not too extreme with respect to the number of floating-point digits available in the implementation, or when the number of pattern occurrences is moderately low. In particular, the time complexity of the algorithms for Markov models of moderate order (0 manage to obtain an algorithm which is both easily interpretable and efficient. This approach can be used for exact statistical studies of very long genomes and protein sequences, as we illustrate with some examples on the scale of the human genome.

  11. A Framework for the Development of Automatic DFA Method to Minimize the Number of Components and Assembly Reorientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhlani; Samadhi, T. M. A. Ari; Ma’ruf, Anas; Setiasyah Toha, Isa

    2018-03-01

    Assembly is a part of manufacturing processes that must be considered at the product design stage. Design for Assembly (DFA) is a method to evaluate product design in order to make it simpler, easier and quicker to assemble, so that assembly cost is reduced. This article discusses a framework for developing a computer-based DFA method. The method is expected to aid product designer to extract data, evaluate assembly process, and provide recommendation for the product design improvement. These three things are desirable to be performed without interactive process or user intervention, so product design evaluation process could be done automatically. Input for the proposed framework is a 3D solid engineering drawing. Product design evaluation is performed by: minimizing the number of components; generating assembly sequence alternatives; selecting the best assembly sequence based on the minimum number of assembly reorientations; and providing suggestion for design improvement.

  12. Global financial crisis and weak-form efficiency of Islamic sectoral stock markets: An MF-DFA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Walid; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-04-01

    This paper estimates the weak-form efficiency of Islamic stock markets using 10 sectoral stock indices (basic materials, consumer services, consumer goods, energy, financials, health care, industrials, technology, telecommunication, and utilities). The results based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) approach show time-varying efficiency for the sectoral stock markets. Moreover, we find that they tend to show high efficiency in the long term but moderate efficiency in the short term, and that these markets become less efficient after the onset of the global financial crisis. These results have several significant implications in terms of asset allocation for investors dealing with Islamic markets.

  13. Examining the efficiency and interdependence of US credit and stock markets through MF-DFA and MF-DXA approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Mensi, Walid; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the power law properties of 11 US credit and stock markets at the industry level. We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) to first investigate the relative efficiency of credit and stock markets and then evaluate the mutual interdependence between CDS-equity market pairs. The scaling exponents of the MF-DFA approach suggest that CDS markets are relatively more inefficient than their equity counterparts. However, Banks and Financial credit markets are relatively more efficient. Basic Materials (both CDS and equity indices) is the most inefficient sector of the US economy. The cross-correlation exponents obtained through MF-DXA also suggest that the relationship of the CDS and equity sectors within and across markets is multifractal for all pairs. Within the CDS market, Basic Materials is the most dependent sector, whereas equity market sectors can be divided into two distinct groups based on interdependence. The pair-wise dependence between Basic Materials sector CDSs and the equity index is also the highest. The degree of cross-correlation shows that the sectoral pairs of CDS and equity markets belong to a persistent cross-correlated series within selected time intervals.

  14. Multifractal property of Chinese stock market in the CSI 800 index based on MF-DFA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huijian; Zhang, Weiguo

    2018-01-01

    CSI 800 index consists of CSI 500 index and CSI 300 index, aiming to reflect the performance of stocks with large, mid and small size of China A share market. In this paper we analyze the multifractal structure of Chinese stock market in the CSI 800 index based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. We find that the fluctuation of the closing logarithmic returns have multifractal properties, the shape and width of multifractal spectrum are depended on the weighing order q. More interestingly, we observe a bigger market crash in June-August 2015 than the one in 2008 based on the local Hurst exponents. The result provides important information for further study on dynamic mechanism of return fluctuation and whether it would trigger a new financial crisis.

  15. POSITIONING ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC BANK vis-àvis CONVENTIONAL BANK IN INDONESIA USING PARAMETRIC SFA AND DFA METHODS15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ir Ascarya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will measure and compare the efficiency of Conventional and Islamic banks in Indonesia using parametric approach stochastic frontier approach (SFA and distribution free approach (DFA. These measurements will provide comprehensive and robust results of efficiency of individual bank compare to its peer group. The results using parametric SFA show that in 2002, conventional banks (0.79 were slightly more efficient than Islamic banks (0.77, while in 2003, the efficiency of Islamic banks improved to 0.84 and the efficiency of conventional banks worsen to 0.76, so that Islamic banks have become more efficient than conventional banks. Conventional and Islamic banks have been improving and converged to the highest level of efficiency (1.00 since 2004. The DFA results show that conventional banks (0.89 are only slightly more efficient than Islamic banks (0.87. Conventional public bank (0.93 is the most efficient, while Islamic regional bank (0.84 is the least efficient. Moreover, efficient banks (conventional and Islamic do not always have lower OCOI (operating costs divided by operating income, while banks with better OCOI usually are more profitable (have better return on assets or ROA. Therefore, technically, Islamic banks have shown their readiness to compete head to head with their conventional counterparts. However, other aspects, such as, number of networks and branches, service quality, convenience, products and services provided, human resources, and pricing, should have become the next priorities for improvements.JEL Classification : C10, C33, G21, G28Keywords : Islamic Banking, Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Approach, Distribution Free Approach

  16. Design local exhaust ventilation on sieve machine at PT.Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Ciater using design for assembly (DFA) approach with Boothroyd and Dewhurst method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalqihi, K. I.; Rahayu, M.; Rendra, M.

    2017-12-01

    PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Ciater is a company produced black tea orthodox more or less 4 tons every day. At the production section, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII will use local exhaust ventilation specially at sortation area on sieve machine. To maintain the quality of the black tea orthodox, all machine must be scheduled for maintenance every once a month and takes time 2 hours in workhours, with additional local exhaust ventilation, it will increase time for maintenance process, if maintenance takes time more than 2 hours it will caused production process delayed. To support maintenance process in PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Ciater, designing local exhaust ventilation using design for assembly approach with Boothroyd and Dewhurst method, design for assembly approach is choosen to simplify maintenance process which required assembly process. There are 2 LEV designs for this research. Design 1 with 94 components, assembly time 647.88 seconds and assembly efficiency level 23.62%. Design 2 with 82 components, assembly time 567.84 seconds and assembly efficiency level 24.83%. Design 2 is choosen for this research based on DFA goals, minimum total part that use, optimization assembly time, and assembly efficiency level.

  17. Aplicação do design for assembly (DfA no desenvolvimento do projeto conceitual de um dispositivo funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Roberto Scur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No contexto industrial atual, verifica-se que as organizações empresariais vêm buscando atualização na utilização de métodos e técnicas para o desenvolvimento de produtos. A busca incessante por tal atualização tem se justificado nos últimos anos em função da globalização da economia, na qual as empresas veem-se imersas em um cenário de alta demanda por qualidade, menor preço, menores prazos de lançamento do produto no mercado e menor permissibilidade na ocorrência de erros, fatores estes diretamente responsáveis por seus índices de competitividade. Este artigo visa aplicar a metodologia denominada Design for Assembly (DFA como ferramenta de auxílio no desenvolvimento do projeto conceitual de um dispositivo funcional, com o objetivo de comprovar a eficácia de tal teoria em projetos industriais. Tal metodologia é utilizada no desenvolvimento de produtos, tanto em situações de inovação quanto em situações de redesign, visando facilitar as atividades dos operadores durante a montagem de um determinado produto. Através da simplificação da estrutura do projeto, eliminando componentes desnecessários, integrando partes e reduzindo o número de sistemas de junção, obteve-se, uma redução no número de peças, na massa e nas dimensões do dispositivo, causando, por consequência, um impacto nos custos de fabricação.

  18. Aplicação do Design for Assembly (DfA no Desenvolvimento do Projeto Conceitual de um Dispositivo Funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Roberto Scur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No contexto industrial atual, verifica-se que as organizações empresariais vêm buscando atualização na utilização de métodos e técnicas para o desenvolvimento de produtos. A busca incessante por tal atualização tem se justificado nos últimos anos em função da globalização da economia, na qual as empresas veem-se imersas em um cenário de alta demanda por qualidade, menor preço, menores prazos de lançamento do produto no mercado e menor permissibilidade na ocorrência de erros, fatores estes diretamente responsáveis por seus índices de competitividade. Este artigo visa aplicar a metodologia denominada Design for Assembly (DFA como ferramenta de auxílio no desenvolvimento do projeto conceitual de um dispositivo funcional, com o objetivo de comprovar a eficácia de tal teoria em projetos industriais. Tal metodologia é utilizada no desenvolvimento de produtos, tanto em situações de inovação quanto em situações de re-design, visando facilitar as atividades dos operadores durante a montagem de um determinado produto. Através da simplificação da estrutura do projeto, eliminando componentes desnecessários, integrando partes e reduzindo o número de sistemas de junção, obteve-se, uma redução no número de peças, na massa e nas dimensões do dispositivo, causando, por consequência, um impacto nos custos de fabricação.

  19. Collaborative DFA learning applied to Grid administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.; Jacobs, C.J.H.; van Someren, M.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed learning mechanism that learns patterns from distributed datasets. The complex and dynamic settings of grid environments requires supporting systems to be of a more sophisticated level. Contemporary tools lack the ability to relate and infer events. We developed an

  20. Real time QRS complex detection using DFA and regular grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Salah; Ben Abdallah, Asma; Bedoui, Mohamed Hedi

    2017-02-28

    The sequence of Q, R, and S peaks (QRS) complex detection is a crucial procedure in electrocardiogram (ECG) processing and analysis. We propose a novel approach for QRS complex detection based on the deterministic finite automata with the addition of some constraints. This paper confirms that regular grammar is useful for extracting QRS complexes and interpreting normalized ECG signals. A QRS is assimilated to a pair of adjacent peaks which meet certain criteria of standard deviation and duration. The proposed method was applied on several kinds of ECG signals issued from the standard MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. A total of 48 signals were used. For an input signal, several parameters were determined, such as QRS durations, RR distances, and the peaks' amplitudes. σRR and σQRS parameters were added to quantify the regularity of RR distances and QRS durations, respectively. The sensitivity rate of the suggested method was 99.74% and the specificity rate was 99.86%. Moreover, the sensitivity and the specificity rates variations according to the Signal-to-Noise Ratio were performed. Regular grammar with the addition of some constraints and deterministic automata proved functional for ECG signals diagnosis. Compared to statistical methods, the use of grammar provides satisfactory and competitive results and indices that are comparable to or even better than those cited in the literature.

  1. Modified DFA and DCCA approach for quantifying the multiscale correlation structure of financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2013-12-01

    We use multiscale detrended fluctuation analysis (MSDFA) and multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) to investigate auto-correlation (AC) and cross-correlation (CC) in the US and Chinese stock markets during 1997-2012. The results show that US and Chinese stock indices differ in terms of their multiscale AC structures. Stock indices in the same region also differ with regard to their multiscale AC structures. We analyze AC and CC behaviors among indices for the same region to determine similarity among six stock indices and divide them into four groups accordingly. We choose S&P500, NQCI, HSI, and the Shanghai Composite Index as representative samples for simplicity. MSDFA and MSDCCA results and average MSDFA spectra for local scaling exponents (LSEs) for individual series are presented. We find that the MSDCCA spectrum for LSE CC between two time series generally tends to be greater than the average MSDFA LSE spectrum for individual series. We obtain detailed multiscale structures and relations for CC between the four representatives. MSDFA and MSDCCA with secant rolling windows of different sizes are then applied to reanalyze the AC and CC. Vertical and horizontal comparisons of different window sizes are made. The MSDFA and MSDCCA results for the original window size are confirmed and some new interesting characteristics and conclusions regarding multiscale correlation structures are obtained.

  2. The cross-correlation analysis of multi property of stock markets based on MM-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yujun; Li, Jianping; Yang, Yimei

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method called DH-MXA based on distribution histograms of Hurst surface and multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The method allows us to investigate the cross-correlation characteristics among multiple properties of different stock time series. It may provide a new way of measuring the nonlinearity of several signals. It also can provide a more stable and faithful description of cross-correlation of multiple properties of stocks. The DH-MXA helps us to present much richer information than multifractal detrented cross-correlation analysis and allows us to assess many universal and subtle cross-correlation characteristics of stock markets. We show DH-MXA by selecting four artificial data sets and five properties of four stock time series from different countries. The results show that our proposed method can be adapted to investigate the cross-correlation of stock markets. In general, the American stock markets are more mature and less volatile than the Chinese stock markets.

  3. The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.

  4. An analysis of stock market efficiency: Developed vs Islamic stock markets using MF-DFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Aun R.; Dewandaru, Ginanjar; Bacha, Obiyathulla I.; Masih, Mansur

    An efficient market has been theoretically proven to be a key component for effective and efficient resource allocation in an economy. This paper incorporates econophysics with Efficient Market Hypothesis to undertake a comparative analysis of Islamic and developed countries’ markets by extending the understanding of their multifractal nature. By applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) we calculated the generalized Hurst exponents, multifractal scaling exponents and generalized multifractal dimensions for 22 broad market indices. The findings provide a deeper understanding of the markets in Islamic countries, where they have traces of highly efficient performance particularly in crisis periods. A key finding is the empirical evidence of the impact of the ‘stage of market development’ on the efficiency of the market. If Islamic countries aim to improve the efficiency of resource allocation, an important area to address is to focus, among others, on enhancing the stage of market development.

  5. Direct immunofluorescence assay compared to cell culture for the diagnosis of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, A Chantal; Oelze, Lindsay L; Saz, Ulas E; Greer, Jewel M; Demmler-Harrison, Gail J

    2010-09-01

    Direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) is commonly used for the rapid identification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in mucocutaneous lesions, yet little is known about its diagnostic accuracy. To determine the diagnostic yield and accuracy of HSV DFA for the diagnosis of mucocutaneous HSV infection in pediatric patients. Retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients who underwent HSV DFA testing by the Texas Children's Hospital Diagnostic Virology between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2005. HSV DFA sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LRs), and negative LRs were estimated using viral culture as the reference standard. 659 specimens were submitted for HSV DFA with concurrent viral cultures. Viral cultures were positive for HSV type 1 in 158 (24%) and HSV type 2 in 2 (0.3%). There were 433 different patients with a median age of 8.6 years. Types of lesions were as follows: 50% ulcerative, 26% vesicular, 8% erythema or purpura, 5% pustular, and 11% missing. Of the 659 specimens submitted for HSV DFA, 160 (24%) were inconclusive due to inadequate cells. Of the 499 adequate specimens, overall HSV DFA test accuracy was: sensitivity 61%, specificity 99%, LR positive 40, and LR negative 0.39. A quarter of specimens submitted for HSV DFA testing are not adequate for DFA testing. When HSV DFA can be performed, it is specific, but not sensitive, for the identification of mucocutaneous HSV infection in children. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Should varicella-zoster virus culture be eliminated? A comparison of direct immunofluorescence antigen detection, culture, and PCR, with a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Yen-Lieberman, B; Schindler, S; Asamoto, K; Schold, J D; Procop, G W

    2012-12-01

    A comparison of direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA), culture, and two PCR assays disclosed sensitivities of 87.8%, 46.3%, and 97.6% and 100%, respectively. We reviewed 1,150 results for clinical specimens submitted for DFA and culture and found that only 17 were culture positive/DFA negative. The incremental cost to detect these 17 positives was $3,078/specimen.

  7. Minimizing the effect of exponential trends in detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Na; Shang Pengjian; Kamae, Santi

    2009-01-01

    The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and its extensions (MF-DFA) have been used extensively to determine possible long-range correlations in time series. However, recent studies have reported the susceptibility of DFA to trends which give rise to spurious crossovers and prevent reliable estimation of the scaling exponents. In this report, a smoothing algorithm based on the discrete laplace transform (DFT) is proposed to minimize the effect of exponential trends and distortion in the log-log plots obtained by MF-DFA techniques. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on monofractal and multifractal data corrupted with exponential trends.

  8. Fluoroolefins as Peptide Mimetics. 2. A Computational Study of the Conformational Ramifications of Peptide Bond Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Calculated Relative Energies and Thermochemical Corrections (in kcal/mol) for the Gas Phase Conformations of DFA ∆E ∆(E+ ZPE ) ∆E(298) ∆H(298) ∆G(298...Thermochemical Corrections (in kcal/mol) for the Aqueous Phase Conformations of DFA ∆E ∆(E+ ZPE ) ∆E(298) ∆Η(298) ∆G(298) DFA1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 DFA2 0.39

  9. AR(p) -based detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.

    2018-07-01

    Autoregressive models are commonly used for modeling time-series from nature, economics and finance. This work explored simple autoregressive AR(p) models to remove long-term trends in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Crude oil prices and bitcoin exchange rate were considered, with the former corresponding to a mature market and the latter to an emergent market. Results showed that AR(p) -based DFA performs similar to traditional DFA. However, the former DFA provides information on stability of long-term trends, which is valuable for understanding and quantifying the dynamics of complex time series from financial systems.

  10. Children's dental fear and anxiety: exploring family related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2018-06-04

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a major issue affecting children's oral health and clinical management. This study investigates the association between children's DFA and family related factors, including parents' DFA, parenting styles, family structure (nuclear or single-parent family), and presence of siblings. A total of 405 children (9-13 years old) and their parents were recruited from 3 elementary schools in Hong Kong. Child's demographic and family-related information was collected through a questionnaire. Parents' and child's DFA were measured by using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), respectively. Parenting styles were gauged by using the Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). DFA was reported by 33.1% of children. The mean (SD) CFSS-DS score was 29.1 (11.0). Children with siblings tended to report DFA (37.0% vs. 24.1%; p = 0.034) and had a higher CFSS-DS score (29.9 vs. 27.4; p = 0.025) as compared with their counterpart. Children from single-parent families had lower CFSS-DS score as compared with children from nuclear families (β = - 9.177; p = 0.029). Subgroup analysis showed a higher CFSS-DS score among boys with siblings (β = 7.130; p = 0.010) as compared with their counterpart; girls' from single-parent families had a lower CFSS-DS score (β = - 13.933; p = 0.015) as compared with girls from nuclear families. Children's DFA was not associated with parents' DFA or parenting styles (p > 0.05). Family structure (nuclear or single-parent family) and presence of siblings are significant determinants for children's DFA. Parental DFA and parenting style do not affect children's DFA significantly.

  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1JKSA-3DFAA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1JKSA-3DFAA 1JKS 3DFA A A TVFRQENVDDYYDTGEELGSGQFAVVKKCREKSTGLQYA...dbChain>A 3DFAA KIIDFGLSTCFQQN A 3DFAA KVINK----ASAKN 3DFA A 3DFAA LLKDC-----D...> A 3DFAA QQNTK----MKDRI

  12. Intelligent Personalized Trading Agents that facilitate Real-time Decisionmaking for Auctioneers and Buyers in the Dutch Flower Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this case the Dutch Flower Auctions (DFA) are discussed. The DFA are part of the supply network in which flowers are produced, stocked, and then sold through either mediation or auctioning. This case focuses on the buyers’ and auctioneers’ positions when flowers are traded through

  13. Pop / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Massive Attack "Collected: the Best of Massive Attack", Daft Punk "Musique Vol.1 - 1993-2005", Psychoterror "Anarhia ja dekadents", The Bluetones "A Rough Outline: The Singles & B-Sides 95-03", Pretty Girls Make Graves "⁹lan Vital", DFA "The DFA Remixes: Chapter One"

  14. Microhabitat analysis using radiotelemetry locations and polytomous logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Joel H. Reynolds

    1996-01-01

    Microhabitat analyses often use discriminant function analysis (DFA) to compare vegetation structures or environmental conditions between sites classified by a study animal's presence or absence. These presence/absence studies make questionable assumptions about the habitat value of the comparison sites and the microhabitat data often violate the DFA's...

  15. Dietary fatty acid metabolism in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Christophe; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-01

    Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans. We have recently developed a novel imaging method using PET with oral administration of 14-R,S-F-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) to quantify organ-specific DFA partitioning. Our studies thus far confirmed impaired storage of DFA per volume of fat mass in abdominal adipose tissues of individuals with prediabetes. They also highlighted the increased channeling of DFA toward the heart, associated with subclinical reduction in cardiac systolic and diastolic function in individuals with prediabetes. In the present review, we summarize previous work on DFA metabolism in healthy and prediabetic states and discuss these in the light of our novel findings using PET imaging of DFA metabolism. We herein provide an integrated view of abnormal organ-specific DFA partitioning in prediabetes in humans.

  16. Detrended fluctuation analysis based on higher-order moments of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. We extend DFA and local scaling DFA to higher moments such as skewness and kurtosis (labeled SMDFA and KMDFA), so as to investigate the volatility scaling property of financial time series. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and financial data for providing the comparative study. We further report the results of volatility behaviors in three American countries, three Chinese and three European stock markets by using DFA and LSDFA method based on higher moments. They demonstrate the dynamics behaviors of time series in different aspects, which can quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data and provide us with more meaningful information than single exponent. And the results reveal some higher moments volatility and higher moments multiscale volatility details that cannot be obtained using the traditional DFA method.

  17. Effects of Exponential Trends on Correlations of Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jing Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA is a scaling analysis method used to estimate long-range power-law correlation exponents in time series. In this paper, DFA is employed to discuss the long-range correlations of stock market. The effects of exponential trends on correlations of Hang Seng Index (HSI are investigated with emphasis. We find that the long-range correlations and the positions of the crossovers of lower order DFA appear to have no immunity to the additive exponential trends. Further, our analysis suggests that an increase in the DFA order increases the efficiency of eliminating on exponential trends. In addition, the empirical study shows that the correlations and crossovers are associated with DFA order and magnitude of exponential trends.

  18. Recent advances on biological production of difructose dianhydride III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Yu, Shuhuai; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Guang, Cuie; Mu, Wanmeng

    2018-04-01

    Difructose dianhydride III (DFA III) is a cyclic difructose containing two reciprocal glycosidic linkages. It is easily generated with a small amount by sucrose caramelization and thus occurs in a wide range of food-stuffs during food processing. DFA III has half sweetness but only 1/15 energy of sucrose, showing potential industrial application as low-calorie sucrose substitute. In addition, it displays many benefits including prebiotic effect, low cariogenicity property, and hypocholesterolemic effect, and improves absorption of minerals, flavonoids, and immunoglobulin G. DFA III is biologically produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase, EC 4.2.2.18). Plenty of DFA III-producing enzymes have been identified. The crystal structure of inulin fructotransferase has been determined, and its molecular modification has been performed to improve the catalytic activity and structural stability. Large-scale production of DFA III has been studied by various IFTases, especially using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor. In this article, the recent findings on physiological effects of DFA III are briefly summarized; the research progresses on identification, expression, and molecular modification of IFTase and large-scale biological production of DFA III by IFTase are reviewed in detail.

  19. Positron-labeled antioxidant 6-deoxy-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-ascorbic acid: Increased uptake in transient global ischemic rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Watanabe, Shigenori; Masuda, Kouji; Maeda, Minoru

    1996-05-01

    The in vivo uptake and distribution of 6-deoxy-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-ascorbic acid ({sup 18}F-DFA) were investigated in rat brains following postischemic reperfusion. Global cerebral ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats for 20 min by occlusion of four major arteries. Two time points were chosen for {sup 18}F-DFA injection to rats subjected to cerebral ischemia, at the start of recirculation and 5 days following recirculation. The rats were then killed at 2 h after tail-vein administration of {sup 18}F-DFA and tissue radioactivity concentration was determined. Increased uptake of radioactivity in particular brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and amygdala following injection of {sup 18}F-DFA, compared to the sham-operated control, was observed 5 days after reperfusion. Similar results were also obtained in in vitro experiments using brain slices. Abnormal in vivo accumulation of {sup 45}Ca, a marker of regional postischemic injury, was observed in these brain regions in tissue dissection experiments. Furthermore, metabolite analysis of nonradioactive DFA using {sup 19}F-NMR showed that DFA remained intact in the postischemic reperfusion brain. The present results indicate that {sup 18}F-DFA increasingly accumulates in damaged regions of postischemic reperfusion brain.

  20. B2B inter-organisational digitalisation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivang, Reimer

    2009-01-01

    . Methodology: We utilise Degree of Freedom Analysis (DFA). DFA is in essence a "pattern-matching" between theoretical propositions and observations in a set of data. Inline with the DFA tradition we conducted in-depth interviews and finally the results and interpretations were returned to the respondents...... utilising the digital technology successfully mostly organised their strategic work as described in the interaction approach to digitalisation strategy. Practical value: Study demonstrates a pragmatic route to deepening digitalization success in large firm with considerable e-business investments...

  1. Correlation between detrended fluctuation analysis and the Lempel-Ziv complexity in nonlinear time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang You-Fu; Liu Shu-Lin; Jiang Rui-Hong; Liu Ying-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We study the correlation between detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) in nonlinear time series analysis in this paper. Typical dynamic systems including a logistic map and a Duffing model are investigated. Moreover, the influence of Gaussian random noise on both the DFA and LZC are analyzed. The results show a high correlation between the DFA and LZC, which can quantify the non-stationarity and the nonlinearity of the time series, respectively. With the enhancement of the random component, the exponent a and the normalized complexity index C show increasing trends. In addition, C is found to be more sensitive to the fluctuation in the nonlinear time series than α. Finally, the correlation between the DFA and LZC is applied to the extraction of vibration signals for a reciprocating compressor gas valve, and an effective fault diagnosis result is obtained

  2. Direct immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of legionellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David JM Haldane

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and direct immunofluorescent microscopy (DFA results for Legionella pneumophila were reviewed over a two-year period. In the first year, a positive result was defined as having at least one morphologically typical fluorescing organism. In the second year, a positive was defined as at least five typical fluorescing organisms. Despite these stricter criteria and other measures to reduce the possibility of reagent contamination, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity or specificity of the DFA in the two years for sputa, deep specimens or overall. Of 37 sputum specimens from infected patients, 16 were positive on DFA. Thirty-two of 38 positive patients were detected by sputum culture. DFA can provide rapid diagnostic information but cannot be used to rule out the diagnosis. Sputum is a useful specimen for the initial laboratory investigation of patients with legionellosis.

  3. Analysis of temporal fluctuations in Bach’s sinfonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele

    2012-06-01

    The correlation structures in 15 Bach's sinfonias were analyzed. Each sinfonia is characterized by the superposition of three voices. Each voice is a sequence of pitches. Each voice was transformed in a time series, in which the sampling time was given by the smallest pitch duration in that voice. The scaling properties of the three voices of each sinfonia was quantified by means of the estimate of the scaling exponent, performed using the power spectral density (PSD) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The results show that the voice time series are persistent. The DFA was applied not only to any single voice time series, but also to couples (2-DFA) of voices and to the triple (3-DFA) of voices. It was found that the first voice of each sinfonia modulates the scaling behavior of the whole sinfonia.

  4. Analyzing Chaos Systems and Fine Spectrum Sensing Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. González-Salas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study that uses detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA algorithm of time series obtained from linear and nonlinear dynamical systems is presented. The DFA algorithm behavior toward periodic and chaotic signals is investigated and the effect of the time scale under analysis is discussed. The displayed results prove that the DFA algorithm response is invariant (stable performance to initial condition and chaotic system parameters. An initial idea of DFA algorithm implementation for fine spectrum sensing (SS is proposed under two-stage spectrum sensor approach with test statistics based on the scaling exponent value. The outcomes demonstrate a promising new SS technique that can alleviate several imperfections such as noise power uncertainty and spatial correlation between the adjacent antenna array elements.

  5. Anti-correlation and multifractal features of Spain electricity spot market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzzadeh, Payam; Dullaert, W.; Rahmani, Bahareh

    2007-01-01

    We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to numerically investigate correlation, persistence, multifractal properties and scaling behavior of the hourly spot prices for the Spain electricity exchange-Compania O Peradora del Mercado de Electricidad (OMEL). Through multifractal

  6. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation in time series of homicide and attempted homicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Filho, A.; da Silva, M. F.; Zebende, G. F.

    2014-04-01

    We propose in this paper to establish the relationship between homicides and attempted homicides by a non-stationary time-series analysis. This analysis will be carried out by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and DCCA cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(n). Through this analysis we can identify a positive cross-correlation between homicides and attempted homicides. At the same time, looked at from the point of view of autocorrelation (DFA), this analysis can be more informative depending on time scale. For short scale (days), we cannot identify auto-correlations, on the scale of weeks DFA presents anti-persistent behavior, and for long time scales (n>90 days) DFA presents a persistent behavior. Finally, the application of this new type of statistical analysis proved to be efficient and, in this sense, this paper can contribute to a more accurate descriptive statistics of crime.

  7. Detecting long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis: Application to BWR stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Vazquez, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study boiling water reactor stability. DFA is a scaling method commonly used for detecting long-range correlations in non-stationary time series. This method is based on the random walk theory and was applied to neutronic power signal of Forsmark stability benchmark. Our results shows that the scaling properties breakdown during unstable oscillations.

  8. Detecting long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis: Application to BWR stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Vazquez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study boiling water reactor stability. DFA is a scaling method commonly used for detecting long-range correlations in non-stationary time series. This method is based on the random walk theory and was applied to neutronic power signal of Forsmark stability benchmark. Our results shows that the scaling properties breakdown during unstable oscillations

  9. Evenly spaced Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Selecting the number of points for the diffusion plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Joshua J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2018-02-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has become a widely-used tool to examine the correlation structure of a time series and provided insights into neuromuscular health and disease states. As the popularity of utilizing DFA in the human behavioral sciences has grown, understanding its limitations and how to properly determine parameters is becoming increasingly important. DFA examines the correlation structure of variability in a time series by computing α, the slope of the log SD- log n diffusion plot. When using the traditional DFA algorithm, the timescales, n, are often selected as a set of integers between a minimum and maximum length based on the number of data points in the time series. This produces non-uniformly distributed values of n in logarithmic scale, which influences the estimation of α due to a disproportionate weighting of the long-timescale regions of the diffusion plot. Recently, the evenly spaced DFA and evenly spaced average DFA algorithms were introduced. Both algorithms compute α by selecting k points for the diffusion plot based on the minimum and maximum timescales of interest and improve the consistency of α estimates for simulated fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion time series. Two issues that remain unaddressed are (1) how to select k and (2) whether the evenly-spaced DFA algorithms show similar benefits when assessing human behavioral data. We manipulated k and examined its effects on the accuracy, consistency, and confidence limits of α in simulated and experimental time series. We demonstrate that the accuracy and consistency of α are relatively unaffected by the selection of k. However, the confidence limits of α narrow as k increases, dramatically reducing measurement uncertainty for single trials. We provide guidelines for selecting k and discuss potential uses of the evenly spaced DFA algorithms when assessing human behavioral data.

  10. Cometabolism of Fluoroanilines in the Presence of 4-Fluoroaniline by Ralstonia sp. FD-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Ralstonia sp. FD-1 capable of using 4-fluoroaniline (4-FA as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was investigated for its ability to utilize 4-FA isomers (2-FA, 3-FA and homologs (2,4-DFA, 3,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA. Both 4-FA and 3-FA could be mineralized as the sole carbon and nitrogen source by FD-1. 2-FA, 2,4-DFA, 3,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA could not be degraded by FD-1, respectively, and were selected as secondary substrates for cometabolism with 500 mg/L 4-FA as growth substrate. Bacterial growth (OD600, F− concentrations, and fluoroanilines contents were measured to determinate the degradation ability of 4-FA isomers and homologs by FD-1. FD-1 growth was inhibited by 2,4-DFA, 3,4-DFA, and 2,3,4-TFA at higher concentrations (400 mg/L, except for 2-FA. Complete fluoroanilines degradation was achieved while incomplete defluorination was characterized by the stoichiometric fluoride release indicating partial degradation but not total mineralization. When fluoroaniline was supplied to the resting cells of strain FD-1, a relatively effective removal was showed. Strain FD-1 had broadened application prospect of toxicity and low nutrition fluoroanilines wastewater.

  11. Identification of a recombinant inulin fructotransferase (difructose dianhydride III forming) from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 with high specific activity and remarkable thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shuhuai; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-04-08

    Difructose dianhydride III (DFA III) is a functional carbohydrate produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase, EC 4.2.2.18). In this work, an IFTase gene from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 was cloned and expressed in Escherachia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified by metal affinity chromatography. It showed significant inulin hydrolysis activity, and the produced main product from inulin was determined as DFA III by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The molecular mass of the purified protein was calculated to be 43 and 125 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration, respectively, suggesting the native enzyme might be a homotrimer. The recombinant enzyme showed maximal activity as 2391 units/mg at pH 6.5 and 55 °C. It displayed the highest thermostability among previously reported IFTases (DFA III forming) and was stable up to 80 °C for 4 h of incubation. The smallest substrate was determined as nystose. The conversion ratio of inulin to DFA III reached 81% when 100 g/L inulin was catalyzed by 80 nM recombinant enzyme for 20 min at pH 6.5 and 55 °C. All of these data indicated that the IFTase (DFA III forming) from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 had great potential for industrial DFA III production.

  12. Applying principles of Design For Assembly to ITER maintenance operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, Cock; de Baar, Marco; Elzendoorn, Ben; Koning, Jarich; Verhoeven, Toon; Vreede, Fred de

    2009-01-01

    In ITER, maintenance operations in the vessel and in the Hot Cell will be largely done by Remote Handling (RH). Remotely performed maintenance actions tend to be more time-costly than actions performed by direct human access. With a human operator in the control loop and adequate situational feedback, a two-armed master slave manipulator system can mimic direct access with dexterous manipulation, tactile feedback and vision. But even then, turnaround times are still very high. Adapting the design for simplified maintenance operations can yield significant time savings. One of the methods known to produce a simpler, more robust design, which is also better suited for handling with robots, is Design For Assembly (DFA). This paper discusses whether and how the principles of DFA can be applied to simplify maintenance operations for ITER. While DFA is normally used with series-production and ITER is a unique product, it is possible to apply the principles of DFA to ITER maintenance operations. Furthermore, DFA's principles can be applied at different abstraction levels. Combining principles of DFA with Virtual Reality leads to new insights and provides additional value.

  13. Multichannel detrended fluctuation analysis reveals synchronized patterns of spontaneous spinal activity in anesthetized cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The analysis of the interaction and synchronization of relatively large ensembles of neurons is fundamental for the understanding of complex functions of the nervous system. It is known that the temporal synchronization of neural ensembles is involved in the generation of specific motor, sensory or cognitive processes. Also, the intersegmental coherence of spinal spontaneous activity may indicate the existence of synaptic neural pathways between different pairs of lumbar segments. In this study we present a multichannel version of the detrended fluctuation analysis method (mDFA to analyze the correlation dynamics of spontaneous spinal activity (SSA from time series analysis. This method together with the classical detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA were used to find out whether the SSA recorded in one or several segments in the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat occurs either in a random or in an organized manner. Our results are consistent with a non-random organization of the sets of neurons involved in the generation of spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs recorded either from one lumbar segment (DFA-α mean = 1.04[Formula: see text]0.09 or simultaneously from several lumbar segments (mDFA-α mean = 1.01[Formula: see text]0.06, where α = 0.5 indicates randomness while α = 0.5 indicates long-term correlations. To test the sensitivity of the mDFA method we also examined the effects of small spinal lesions aimed to partially interrupt connectivity between neighboring lumbosacral segments. We found that the synchronization and correlation between the CDPs recorded from the L5 and L6 segments in both sides of the spinal cord were reduced when a lesion comprising the left dorsal quadrant was performed between the segments L5 and L6 (mDFA-[Formula: see text] = 0.992 as compared to initial conditions mDFA-α = 1.186. The synchronization and correlation were reduced even further after a similar additional right spinal lesion (mDFA-α = 0

  14. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  15. Potential use of ionic species for identifying source land-uses of stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-02-01

    Identifying critical land-uses or source areas is important to prioritize resources for cost-effective stormwater management. This study investigated the use of information on ionic composition as a fingerprint to identify the source land-use of stormwater runoff. We used 12 ionic species in stormwater runoff monitored for a total of 20 storm events at five sites with different land-use compositions during the 2012-2014 wet seasons. A stepwise forward discriminant function analysis (DFA) with the jack-knifed cross validation approach was used to select ionic species that better discriminate the land-use of its source. Of the 12 ionic species, 9 species (K + , Mg 2+ , Na + , NH 4 + , Br - , Cl - , F - , NO 2 - , and SO 4 2- ) were selected for better performance of the DFA. The DFA successfully differentiated stormwater samples from urban, rural, and construction sites using concentrations of the ionic species (70%, 95%, and 91% of correct classification, respectively). Over 80% of the new data cases were correctly classified by the trained DFA model. When applied to data cases from a mixed land-use catchment and downstream, the DFA model showed the greater impact of urban areas and rural areas respectively in the earlier and later parts of a storm event.

  16. De novo protein structure prediction by dynamic fragment assembly and conformational space annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyong; Lee, Jinhyuk; Sasaki, Takeshi N; Sasai, Masaki; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung

    2011-08-01

    Ab initio protein structure prediction is a challenging problem that requires both an accurate energetic representation of a protein structure and an efficient conformational sampling method for successful protein modeling. In this article, we present an ab initio structure prediction method which combines a recently suggested novel way of fragment assembly, dynamic fragment assembly (DFA) and conformational space annealing (CSA) algorithm. In DFA, model structures are scored by continuous functions constructed based on short- and long-range structural restraint information from a fragment library. Here, DFA is represented by the full-atom model by CHARMM with the addition of the empirical potential of DFIRE. The relative contributions between various energy terms are optimized using linear programming. The conformational sampling was carried out with CSA algorithm, which can find low energy conformations more efficiently than simulated annealing used in the existing DFA study. The newly introduced DFA energy function and CSA sampling algorithm are implemented into CHARMM. Test results on 30 small single-domain proteins and 13 template-free modeling targets of the 8th Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction show that the current method provides comparable and complementary prediction results to existing top methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases by digital fluoroscopic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Tsuchigame, Naotoshi

    1982-01-01

    Digital fluoroscopic angiography (DFA) is a recently developed angiocardiographic technique, which consists of digitization and real-time subtraction of X-ray transmission data from an image intensifier and television fluoroscopic system. A prototype unit based on this principle was developed and installed at our hospital and initial clinical trial has been performed. Fifty-three examinations were performed on 49 patients with various cardiovascular conditions. DFA was useful in demonstration of intracardiac shunt, and valvular diseases secondary to congenital heart diseases. In ischemic heart diseases, DFA noninvasively demonstrated the heart wall motion, making it possible to evaluate dyskinesis, akinesis and ventricular aneurysm. DFA was also valuable in visualizing disproportionate enlargement of cardiac chambers, stasis, and frequently regurgitation of contrast media in valvular heart diseases. Abnormal mediastinal enlargement and aortic aneurysm were differentiated from other conditions to good advantage. DFA will be used more widely in the above conditions because of non-invasive and simple procedures. Future effort should be directed towards improvement of spatial resolution and development of new algorithm for hemodynamic evaluation. (author)

  18. Managing dental fear and anxiety in pediatric patients: A qualitative study from the public's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Hajar S; Gao, Xiaoli; Yung Yiu, Cynthia K; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M

    2014-01-01

    Internet social media offers a rich source for soliciting the public's views on health issues. This qualitative research, using You-Tube as a platform, aimed to explore the public's perspectives on management of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) in pediatric patients. Using three keywords ("dental fear," "dental phobia," and "dental anxiety"), YouTube videos were searched. Twenty-seven videos related to DFA in children and adolescents were reviewed by three investigators, including a nondental layperson. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted for interpreting the data. Several strategies were considered useful for controlling DFA in pediatric patients, including: verbal and nonverbal communication to establish closeness and effective guidance (explanation, permission-seeking, reassurance, and negotiation); desensitization to dental settings and procedures; tell-show-do; positive reinforcement; distraction by imagination and thoughtful designs of clinic; and parental presence and support. Some self-coping strategies adopted by patients alleviated their DFA, such as self-reasoning and trust-building through long-term connection. Dentists' clinical competence, favorable treatment outcomes, and state-of-the-art devices and technologies (dental lasers, intraoral camera, and adapted anaesthesia method) contributed to reducing DFA. Authentic testimonials in YouTube videos endorsed and interpreted a variety of strategies adoptable by patients, parents, and dental professionals for managing children's and adolescents' dental fears and anxieties.

  19. Parallel Planning Mechanisms as a "Recipe for Disaster"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J van Wyk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This note offers a critical reflection of the recent landmark decision in City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality v Gauteng Development Tribunal which lay to rest the negative consequences of employing the DFA procedures of the Development Facilitation Act 67 of 1995 (DFA alongside those of the provincial Ordinances to establish townships (or to use DFA parlance, “land development areas”. The welcome and timely decision in City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality v Gauteng Development Tribunal has declared invalid chapters V and VI of the DFA. Moreover, it has formalised planning terminology in South Africa, delineated the boundaries of “municipal planning” and “urban planning and development” as listed in Schedules 4 and 5 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and, in the process, clarified the structure of planning law. This note examines the decision of the SCA and focus on the role it will clearly have in reforming some of the law relating to planning. It considers the facts of the case, uncertainties around terminology, the structure of planning in South Africa, the content of municipal planning, the role of the DFA and the consequences of the declaration of invalidity by the SCA.

  20. Phylogenetic comparative methods complement discriminant function analysis in ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, W Andrew; Scott, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    In ecomorphology, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as evidence for the presence of functional links between morphometric variables and ecological categories. Here we conduct simulations of characters containing phylogenetic signal to explore the performance of DFA under a variety of conditions. Characters were simulated using a phylogeny of extant antelope species from known habitats. Characters were modeled with no biomechanical relationship to the habitat category; the only sources of variation were body mass, phylogenetic signal, or random "noise." DFA on the discriminability of habitat categories was performed using subsets of the simulated characters, and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares (PGLS) was performed for each character. Analyses were repeated with randomized habitat assignments. When simulated characters lacked phylogenetic signal and/or habitat assignments were random, ecomorphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Big Network Traffic Data Fusion Approach Based on Fisher and Deep Auto-Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion is usually performed prior to classification in order to reduce the input space. These dimensionality reduction techniques help to decline the complexity of the classification model and thus improve the classification performance. The traditional supervised methods demand labeled samples, and the current network traffic data mostly is not labeled. Thereby, better learners will be built by using both labeled and unlabeled data, than using each one alone. In this paper, a novel network traffic data fusion approach based on Fisher and deep auto-encoder (DFA-F-DAE is proposed to reduce the data dimensions and the complexity of computation. The experimental results show that the DFA-F-DAE improves the generalization ability of the three classification algorithms (J48, back propagation neural network (BPNN, and support vector machine (SVM by data dimensionality reduction. We found that the DFA-F-DAE remarkably improves the efficiency of big network traffic classification.

  2. Synthesis of Prebiotic Caramels Catalyzed by Ion-Exchange Resin Particles: Kinetic Model for the Formation of Di-d-fructose Dianhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Cerda, Imelda-Elizabeth; Thammavong, Phahath; Caqueret, Vincent; Porte, Catherine; Mabille, Isabelle; Garcia Fernandez, José Manuel; Moscosa Santillan, Mario; Havet, Jean-Louis

    2018-02-21

    Caramel enriched in di-d-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs, a family of prebiotic cyclic fructodisaccharides) is a functional food with beneficial properties for health. The aim of this work was to study the conversion of fructose into DFAs catalyzed by acid ion-exchange resin, in order to establish a simplified mechanism of the caramelization reaction and a kinetic model for DFA formation. Batch reactor experiments were carried out in a 250 mL spherical glass flask and afforded up to 50% DFA yields. The mechanism proposed entails order 2 reactions that describe fructose conversion on DFAs or formation of byproducts such as HMF or melanoidines. A third order 1 reaction defines DFA transformation into fructosyl-DFAs or fructo-oligosaccharides. The influence of fructose concentration, resin loading and temperature was studied to calculate the kinetic parameters necessary to scale up the process.

  3. Dispersed-fringe-accumulation-based left-subtract-right method for fine co-phasing of a dispersed fringe sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Shengqian; Rao, Changhui

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a dispersed-fringe-accumulation (DFA)-based left-subtract-right (LSR) piston estimation method (DFA-LSR), in which the dispersed fringe image is accumulated in the dispersed direction, and then the LSR method is used to estimate the piston error, is proposed for dispersed fringe sensors (DFS) in the fine co-phasing stage. The DFS is usually used to detect the piston errors (optical path difference) between different segmented mirrors or synthetic aperture telescopes. The DFA-LSR makes up for the shortcomings of the main peak position (MPP) method, which suffers from the constant offset in the pixel counts. The analysis and experiment results show that the proposed method can keep relatively better performance even at the condition of poor signal-to-noise ratio, compared with the MPP method in fine co-phasing stage.

  4. Event recognition by detrended fluctuation analysis: An application to Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex, Tenerife, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pin, Enrico; Carniel, Roberto; Tarraga, Marta

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate the application of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to seismic data recorded in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during the month of July 2004, in a phase of possible unrest of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Tectonic events recorded in the area are recognized and located by the Spanish national agency Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and their catalogue is the only currently available dataset, whose completeness unfortunately suffers from the strong presence of anthropogenic noise. In this paper we propose the use of DFA to help to automatically identify events. The evaluation of this case study proves DFA to be a promising tool to be used for rapidly screening large seismic datasets and highlighting time windows with the potential presence of discrete events

  5. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  6. Power considerations for the application of detrended fluctuation analysis in gait variability studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A Kuznetsov

    Full Text Available The assessment of gait variability using stochastic signal processing techniques such as detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA has been shown to be a sensitive tool for evaluation of gait alterations due to aging and neuromuscular disease. However, previous studies have suggested that the application of DFA requires relatively long recordings (600 strides, which is difficult when working with clinical populations or older adults. In this paper we propose a model for predicting DFA variance in experimental data and conduct a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the sample size and number of trials required to detect a change in DFA scaling exponent. We illustrate the model in a simulation to detect a difference of 0.1 (medium effect between two groups of subjects when using short gait time series (100 to 200 strides in the context of between- and within-subject designs. We assumed that the variance of DFA scaling exponent arises due to individual differences, time series length, and experimental error. Results showed that sample sizes required to achieve acceptable power of 80% are practically feasible, especially when using within-subject designs. For example, to detect a group difference in the DFA scaling exponent of 0.1, it would require either 25 subjects and 2 trials per subject or 12 subjects and 4 trials per subject using a within-subject design. We then compared plausibility of such power predictions to the empirically observed power from a study that required subjects to synchronize with a persistent fractal metronome. The results showed that the model adequately predicted the empirical pattern of results. Our power simulations could be used in conjunction with previous design guidelines in the literature when planning new gait variability experiments.

  7. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dental fear and anxiety in children and adolescents: qualitative study using YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Hamzah, S H; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M

    2013-02-22

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) refers to the fear of and anxiety towards going to the dentist. It exists in a considerable proportion of children and adolescents and is a major dilemma in pediatric dental practice. As an Internet social medium with increasing popularity, the video-sharing website YouTube offers a useful data source for understanding health behaviors and perceptions of the public. Using YouTube as a platform, this qualitative study aimed to examine the manifestations, impacts, and origins of DFA in children and adolescents from the public's perspective. To retrieve relevant information, we searched YouTube using the keywords "dental fear", "dental anxiety", and "dental phobia". Videos in English expressing a layperson's views or experience on children's or adolescent's DFA were selected for this study. A video was excluded if it had poor audiovisual quality, was irrelevant, was pure advertisement or entertainment, or contained only the views of professionals. After the screen, we transcribed 27 videos involving 32 children and adolescents, which were reviewed by a panel of 3 investigators, including a layperson with no formal dental training. Inductive thematic analysis was applied for coding and interpreting the data. The videos revealed multiple manifestations and impacts of DFA, including immediate physical reactions (eg, crying, screaming, and shivering), psychological responses (eg, worry, upset, panic, helplessness, insecurity, resentment, and hatred), and uncooperativeness in dental treatment. Testimonials from children, adolescents, and their parents suggested diverse origins of DFA, namely personal experience (eg, irregular dental visits and influence of parents or peers), dentists and dental auxiliaries (eg, bad manner, lack of clinical skills, and improper work ethic), dental settings (eg, dental chair and sounds), and dental procedures (eg, injections, pain, discomfort, and aesthetic concerns). This qualitative study suggests that DFA in

  9. Distribution of Anaerobic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Soils from King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Dayanna Souza; Almeida, Juliana Rodrigues Barboza; de Jesus, Hugo E; Rosado, Alexandre S; Seldin, Lucy; Jurelevicius, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic diesel fuel Arctic (DFA) degradation has already been demonstrated in Antarctic soils. However, studies comparing the distribution of anaerobic bacterial groups and of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in Antarctic soils containing different concentrations of DFA are scarce. In this study, functional genes were used to study the diversity and distribution of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (bamA, assA, and bssA) and of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB-apsR) in highly, intermediate, and non-DFA-contaminated soils collected during the summers of 2009, 2010, and 2011 from King George Island, Antarctica. Signatures of bamA genes were detected in all soils analyzed, whereas bssA and assA were found in only 4 of 10 soils. The concentration of DFA was the main factor influencing the distribution of bamA-containing bacteria and of SRB in the analyzed soils, as shown by PCR-DGGE results. bamA sequences related to genes previously described in Desulfuromonas, Lautropia, Magnetospirillum, Sulfuritalea, Rhodovolum, Rhodomicrobium, Azoarcus, Geobacter, Ramlibacter, and Gemmatimonas genera were dominant in King George Island soils. Although DFA modulated the distribution of bamA-hosting bacteria, DFA concentration was not related to bamA abundance in the soils studied here. This result suggests that King George Island soils show functional redundancy for aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that specialized anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria have been selected by hydrocarbon concentrations present in King George Island soils.

  10. ToF-SIMS studies of Bacillus using multivariate analysis with possible identification and taxonomic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.E.; Ellis, J.; Fletcher, J.S.; Goodacre, R.; Henderson, A.; Lockyer, N.P.; Vickerman, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of ToF-SIMS with an Au 3 + primary ion beam, combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) for the identification of individual strains of two Bacillus species. The ToF-SIMS PC-DFA methodology is capable of distinguishing bacteria at the strain level based on analysis of surface chemical species. By classifying the data using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) we are able to show quantitative separation of species and of these strains. This has taxonomic implications in the areas of rapid identification of pathogenic microbes isolated from the clinic, food and environment

  11. Analysis of launch site processing effectiveness for the Space Shuttle 26R payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Carlos A.; Heuser, Robert E.; Pepper, Richard E., Jr.; Smith, Anthony M.

    1991-01-01

    A trend analysis study has been performed on problem reports recorded during the Space Shuttle 26R payload's processing cycle at NASA-Kennedy, using the defect-flow analysis (DFA) methodology; DFA gives attention to the characteristics of the problem-report 'population' as a whole. It is established that the problem reports contain data which distract from pressing problems, and that fully 60 percent of such reports were caused during processing at NASA-Kennedy. The second major cause of problem reports was design defects.

  12. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis on Cardiac Pulses in Both, Animal Models and Humans: A Computation for an Early Prognosis of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yazawa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the heartbeat interval by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA in models and humans. In models, the myocardium of the healthy heart contracted regularly. The deteriorated heart model, however, showed alternating beats so-called "alternans." The DFA revealed that if the heart is having "alternans" exhibited there is a declined scaling exponent (~0.5. In humans, the heart that had "alternans" also showed a low scaling exponent (~0.6. We consider that the coexistence of "alternans" and a low scaling exponent can be a risk marker in predictive and preventative diagnosis, supporting the idea that "alternans" can be a harbinger of sudden death.

  13. A simplified approach to design for assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moultrie, James; Maier, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of design for assembly (DfA) are well established. This paper presents a short review of the development of DfA approaches before presenting a new tool in which these principles are packaged for use in teams, both in an industrial and an educational context. The fundamental...... consideration in the design of this tool is to encourage wide team participation from across an organisation and is thus physical rather than software-based. This tool builds on the process developed by Appleton whilst at the University of Cambridge. In addition to the traditional analysis of component fitting...

  14. Universal scaling behaviors of meteorological variables’ volatility and relations with original records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feiyu; Yuan, Naiming; Fu, Zuntao; Mao, Jiangyu

    2012-10-01

    Volatility series (defined as the magnitude of the increments between successive elements) of five different meteorological variables over China are analyzed by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA for short). Universal scaling behaviors are found in all volatility records, whose scaling exponents take similar distributions with similar mean values and standard deviations. To reconfirm the relation between long-range correlations in volatility and nonlinearity in original series, DFA is also applied to the magnitude records (defined as the absolute values of the original records). The results clearly indicate that the nonlinearity of the original series is more pronounced in the magnitude series.

  15. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Japan: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yumi; Chou, Wan-Ting; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugawara, Yumi; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in Japanese. We prospectively assessed the association between dietary patterns among the Japanese and the risk of colorectal cancer. Dietary information was collected from 44,097 Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years without a history of cancer at the baseline in 1994. During 11 years of follow-up, we documented 854 cases of colorectal cancer, which included 554 cases of colon cancer and 323 cases of rectal cancer. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) based on a validated food frequency questionnaire identified three dietary patterns: (1) a Japanese dietary pattern, (2) an "animal food" dietary pattern, and (3) a high-dairy, high-fruit-and-vegetable, low-alcohol (DFA) dietary pattern. After adjustment for potential confounders, the DFA pattern was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (hazard ratio of the highest quartile vs the lowest, 0.76; 95 % confidence interval 0.60-0.97; p for trend = 0.02). When colon and rectal cancers were separated, the inverse association between the DFA pattern and cancer risk was observed for rectal cancer (p for trend = 0.003), but not for colon cancer (p for trend = 0.43). No apparent association was observed for either the Japanese dietary pattern or the "animal food" dietary pattern. The DFA dietary pattern was found to be inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This association was observed for rectal cancer, but not for colon cancer.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  17. An algorithm for learning real-time automata (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2007-01-01

    A common model for discrete event systems is a deterministic finite automaton (DFA). An advantage of this model is that it can be interpreted by domain experts. When observing a real-world system, however, there often is more information than just the sequence of discrete events: the time at which

  18. Utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was assessment of prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA test for its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi , India Thirty male patients with symptoms of dysuria showing polymorphs in their gram stained urethral smears with no evidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and negative for Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by wet mount were subjected to DFA test for detection of C. trachomatis in urethral samples. Microscopic examination of gram stained urethral smears revealed 5-7 polymorphs / HPF in 90% of the patients. Evidence of C. trachomatis with DFA (MicroTrak was detected in 11 cases (36.67% when a cut off of 10 elementary bodies was considered essential. It is concluded that C. trachomatis is an important cause of non gonococcal urethritis in male patients in New Delhi and DFA test is a useful diagnostic tool in its detection. Where facilities are not available for its detection antichlamydial therapy should be recommended emperically.

  19. 13 CFR 120.441 - How does a Lender become a CLP Lender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consider whether the Lender: (1) Has the ability to process, close, service and liquidate loans; (2) Has a... application packages; (3) Has an acceptable SBA purchase rate; and (4) Has shown the ability to work well with... Lender may appeal to the D/FA, whose decision will be final. If SBA grants CLP status, it applies only in...

  20. A New Algorithm of Shape Boundaries Based on Chain Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method to obtain connected component in binary images is presented. The method uses DFA automaton to obtain chain code and label the component boundary. It is theoretically proved that the algorithm improves the image encoding efficiency closer to the lowest time consumption.

  1. Efficient representation of DNA data for pattern recognition using failure factor oracles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, Loek; Kourie, Derrick G.; Watson, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    In indexing of and pattern matching on DNA sequences, representing all factors of a sequence is important. One efficient, compact representation is the factor oracle (FO). At the same time, any classical deterministic finite automata (DFA) can be transformed to a so-called failure one (FDFA), which

  2. Time Series Factor Analysis with an Application to Measuring Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Paul D.; Meijer, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Time series factor analysis (TSFA) and its associated statistical theory is developed. Unlike dynamic factor analysis (DFA), TSFA obviates the need for explicitly modeling the process dynamics of the underlying phenomena. It also differs from standard factor analysis (FA) in important respects: the

  3. 77 FR 3284 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... concerning the collection of data about H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) [SGA/DFA PY-10-13] and H-1B... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Comment Request for Information Collection for the H-1B Technical Skills Training (H-1B) and the H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (JIAC) Grant Programs, New...

  4. Using a satisfiability solver to identify deterministic finite state automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heule, M.J.H.; Verwer, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present an exact algorithm for identification of deterministic finite automata (DFA) which is based on satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Despite the size of the low level SAT representation, our approach seems to be competitive with alternative techniques. Our contributions are threefold: First, we

  5. Characterizing Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of multifractional Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, V. A.; Sharma, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    The Hurst exponent (H) is widely used to quantify long range dependence in time series data and is estimated using several well known techniques. Recognizing its ability to remove trends the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is used extensively to estimate a Hurst exponent in non-stationary data. Multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) broadly encompasses a set of models of non-stationary data exhibiting time varying Hurst exponents, H(t) as against a constant H. Recently, there has been a growing interest in time dependence of H(t) and sliding window techniques have been used to estimate a local time average of the exponent. This brought to fore the ability of DFA to estimate scaling exponents in systems with time varying H(t) , such as mBm. This paper characterizes the performance of DFA on mBm data with linearly varying H(t) and further test the robustness of estimated time average with respect to data and technique related parameters. Our results serve as a bench-mark for using DFA as a sliding window estimator to obtain H(t) from time series data.

  6. A survey of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in estuarine waters and sediments of Beira, Mozambique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available 5 ocean fish and 1 deep sea water sample were also collected. The samples were analysed for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 using culture methods, the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a single...

  7. Multifractal features of spot rates in the Liquid Petroleum Gas shipping market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Dullaert, Wout; Rahmani, Bahareh

    We investigate for the first time the spot rate dynamics of Very Large Gas Carriers (VLGCs) by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and rescaled range (R/S) analysis. Both non-parametric methods allow for a rigorous statistical analysis of the freight process by detecting

  8. In Denmark, Football Fitness is the new girl in the FA school of football – but who is she?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    2018-01-01

    The Danish Football Association (DFA) has launched a football-based activity for health called Football Fitness. It is targeting adults playing in voluntary organised, non-profit and municipally subsidised football clubs, and is hugely popular among women. But what is the concept? Dr. Søren Benni...

  9. Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Frances L; Plummer, Thomas W; Raaum, Ryan L

    2018-01-01

    The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category. The protocol was reduced to a subset of landmarks on the mandibular corpus in order to make it applicable to incomplete fossils. The reduced landmark set resulted in greater overlap between feeding categories but maintained the same continuum as the complete landmark model. The DFA resubstitution and jackknife analyses resulted in classification success rates of 85% and 80%, respectively. The reduced landmark model was applied to fossil mandibles from the Upper Laetolil Beds (∼4.3-3.5 Ma) and Upper Ndolanya Beds (∼2.7-2.6 Ma) at Laetoli, Tanzania in order to assess antelope diet, and indirectly evaluate paleo-vegetation structure. The majority of the fossils were classified by the DFA as browsers or mixed feeders preferring browse. Our results indicate a continuous presence of wooded habitats and are congruent with recent environmental studies at Laetoli indicating a mosaic woodland-bushland-grassland savanna ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 24236 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Trade Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... foreign trade by funding the expansion and improvement of education and career training programs that are... Applications. Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY-12-10. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Labor (the..., potentially funding more than one per state. The Department will award grants up to $25 million to single...

  11. 77 FR 36012 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Pay for Success Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... model, an innovative funding strategy for achieving specific social service outcomes. The complete SGA... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [Funding Opportunity Number SGA/DFA PY-11-13] Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Pay for Success...

  12. 77 FR 22806 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Applications (SGA). Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY-11-11. SUMMARY: The Employment and Training... participation of persons with disabilities in the workforce. DOL is using this funding to make six to ten grant... through exemplary and model service delivery by the public workforce system. The DOL will award DEI grants...

  13. The detection and stabilisation of limit cycle for deterministic finite automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoguang; Chen, Zengqiang; Liu, Zhongxin; Zhang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the topological structure properties of deterministic finite automata (DFA), under the framework of the semi-tensor product of matrices, are investigated. First, the dynamics of DFA are converted into a new algebraic form as a discrete-time linear system by means of Boolean algebra. Using this algebraic description, the approach of calculating the limit cycles of different lengths is given. Second, we present two fundamental concepts, namely, domain of attraction of limit cycle and prereachability set. Based on the prereachability set, an explicit solution of calculating domain of attraction of a limit cycle is completely characterised. Third, we define the globally attractive limit cycle, and then the necessary and sufficient condition for verifying whether all state trajectories of a DFA enter a given limit cycle in a finite number of transitions is given. Fourth, the problem of whether a DFA can be stabilised to a limit cycle by the state feedback controller is discussed. Criteria for limit cycle-stabilisation are established. All state feedback controllers which implement the minimal length trajectories from each state to the limit cycle are obtained by using the proposed algorithm. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the theoretical results.

  14. 77 FR 14994 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... error on page 12215 in row 16 of the third column. The 2012 A season directed fishing allowance for the... \\1\\ 2013 B season \\1\\ season \\1\\ Area and sector 2012 2013 Allocations A season SCA harvest B season... allocated as a DFA as follows: inshore sector--50 percent, catcher/processor sector (C/P)--40 percent, and...

  15. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ′thyrotoxicosis′ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA, difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS, excess daytime sleepiness. In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2, change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8, in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4, change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1, tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA. Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4 had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS. Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features.

  16. Design for Assembly aplicado ao projeto de habitações em Light Steel Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Vivan

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo principal a proposição de diretrizes para o desenvolvimento do Design for Assembly (DFA para a produção de habitações unifamiliares. Tais diretrizes envolvem considerações a respeito da apresentação dos projetos e sobre a padronização das informações que definem a sequência de montagem dos principais elementos de uma edificação em LSF, visando a melhorar a construtibilidade dos projetos. Foi desenvolvido um exemplo de aplicação do DFA a um elemento de uma edificação em LSF. Este estudo foi baseado em conceitos obtidos na revisão bibliográfica, relacionados com a Engenharia Concorrente, Lean Design e DFA. Além disso, visando a destacar a importância na inovação de processos na construção, o atual contexto de projeto do LSF no Brasil foi caracterizado por meio de entrevistas com profissionais que têm utilizado esta tecnologia. O produto final deste artigo visa a contribuir para o avanço dos estudos a respeito do processo de projeto do LSF, além de promover o uso de conceitos pouco abordados na indústria da construção, como o DFA.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  18. A comparative analysis of polymerase chain reaction and direct fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Patwardhan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  19. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance.

  20. Construct Validity in TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks: Insights from Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the construct validity of speaking tasks included in the TOEFL iBT (e.g., integrated and independent speaking tasks). Specifically, advanced natural language processing (NLP) tools, MANOVA difference statistics, and discriminant function analyses (DFA) are used to assess the degree to which and in what ways responses to these…

  1. Scaling Features of Multimode Motions in Coupled Chaotic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Two different methods (the WTMM- and DFA-approaches) are applied to investigate the scaling properties in the return-time sequences generated by a system of two coupled chaotic oscillators. Transitions from twomode asynchronous dynamics (torus or torus-Chaos) to different states of chaotic phase ...

  2. 78 FR 47217 - Proposed Supervisory Guidance on Implementing Dodd-Frank Act Company-Run Stress Tests for Banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... 10-50. More advanced portfolio segmentation can take several forms, such as by product (construction... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 Proposed Supervisory Guidance on Implementing Dodd-Frank Act Company-Run Stress... 165(i)(2) of the Dodd-Frank Act Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``DFA'') stress tests...

  3. Detrended fluctuation analysis for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Wajid; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ali, Syed Saad Azhar; Yasin, Mohd Azhar Mohd; Amin, Hafeezullah

    2015-01-01

    Clinical utility of Electroencephalography (EEG) based diagnostic studies is less clear for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this paper, a novel machine learning (ML) scheme was presented to discriminate the MDD patients and healthy controls. The proposed method inherently involved feature extraction, selection, classification and validation. The EEG data acquisition involved eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO) conditions. At feature extraction stage, the de-trended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was performed, based on the EEG data, to achieve scaling exponents. The DFA was performed to analyzes the presence or absence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC) in the recorded EEG data. The scaling exponents were used as input features to our proposed system. At feature selection stage, 3 different techniques were used for comparison purposes. Logistic regression (LR) classifier was employed. The method was validated by a 10-fold cross-validation. As results, we have observed that the effect of 3 different reference montages on the computed features. The proposed method employed 3 different types of feature selection techniques for comparison purposes as well. The results show that the DFA analysis performed better in LE data compared with the IR and AR data. In addition, during Wilcoxon ranking, the AR performed better than LE and IR. Based on the results, it was concluded that the DFA provided useful information to discriminate the MDD patients and with further validation can be employed in clinics for diagnosis of MDD.

  4. Bit-coded regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...

  5. Development and testing of monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, J A; Huq, A; Nair, G B; Garg, S; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Loomis, L; Bernstein, D; Colwell, R R

    1995-11-01

    We report on the development and testing of two monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunodiagnostic test kits, BengalScreen, a coagglutination test, and Bengal DFA, a direct fluorescent-antibody test, for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 synonym Bengal in clinical and environmental specimens. The BengalScreen test requires less than 5 min to complete and can be used in the field. Bengal DFA, being more sensitive than BengalScreen, requires only one reagent and less than 20 min for detection and enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal. In tests for specificity, all 40 strains of V. cholerae O139 reacted with both test kits, whereas 157 strains of heterologous species examined did not, yielding 100% specificity in this study. A field trial was conducted in with both BengalScreen and Bengal DFA, and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional culture methods. BengalScreen demonstrated a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 94%. Results obtained by Bengal DFA, on the other hand, were 100% sensitive and 100% specific and yielded 100% positive and negative predictive values compared with culture methods. In a second evaluation, 93 stool specimens from Mexico that were negative for V. cholerae O139 by culture were also tested with both the BengalScreen and Bengal DFA kits. None of the 93 specimens were positive for V. cholerae O139 by both tests. A concentration method was optimized for screening of environmental water samples for V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal with rapid test kits. BengalScreen results were unequivocally positive when water samples contained at least 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/ml, whereas Bengal DFA demonstrated an unequivocally positive reaction when the water sample contained at least 1.5 x 10(2) CFU/ml. When Bengal DFA was compared with conventional culture methods for enumeration of V. cholerae O139 synonym Bengal organisms, no difference was observed.

  6. Fault diagnosis of rolling bearings based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and Mahalanobis distance criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Chen, Qian

    2013-07-01

    Vibration data of faulty rolling bearings are usually nonstationary and nonlinear, and contain fairly weak fault features. As a result, feature extraction of rolling bearing fault data is always an intractable problem and has attracted considerable attention for a long time. This paper introduces multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to analyze bearing vibration data and proposes a novel method for fault diagnosis of rolling bearings based on MF-DFA and Mahalanobis distance criterion (MDC). MF-DFA, an extension of monofractal DFA, is a powerful tool for uncovering the nonlinear dynamical characteristics buried in nonstationary time series and can capture minor changes of complex system conditions. To begin with, by MF-DFA, multifractality of bearing fault data was quantified with the generalized Hurst exponent, the scaling exponent and the multifractal spectrum. Consequently, controlled by essentially different dynamical mechanisms, the multifractality of four heterogeneous bearing fault data is significantly different; by contrast, controlled by slightly different dynamical mechanisms, the multifractality of homogeneous bearing fault data with different fault diameters is significantly or slightly different depending on different types of bearing faults. Therefore, the multifractal spectrum, as a set of parameters describing multifractality of time series, can be employed to characterize different types and severity of bearing faults. Subsequently, five characteristic parameters sensitive to changes of bearing fault conditions were extracted from the multifractal spectrum and utilized to construct fault features of bearing fault data. Moreover, Hilbert transform based envelope analysis, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet transform (WT) were utilized to study the same bearing fault data. Also, the kurtosis and the peak levels of the EMD or the WT component corresponding to the bearing tones in the frequency domain were carefully checked

  7. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coric A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anka Coric,1 Adriana Banozic,2 Miro Klaric,3 Katarina Vukojevic,4 Livia Puljak5 1School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Health Center Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 4Department of Anatomy, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia; 5Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Abstract: An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS, Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS, Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001 and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001. Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05. There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings

  8. Fluorescent antibody application in bioremediation procedures at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Direct Fluorescent Antibodies (DFA) and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques are currently being employed at the Savannah River Site to monitor methanotrophic bacteria for the bioremediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in field studies. Direct Fluorescent Antibodies were developed against various methanotrophic bacteria isolated from SRS as well as methanotrophic bacteria acquired from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). DFA's are anticipated to be more efficient for monitoring methanotroph activity than MPN's because of shorter processing time, lower cost, and the direct nature of the assay. The DFA method is a direct technique, in that samples are processed immediately and can be enumerated within an hour. The MPN method is indirect, since samples must be cultured for 6-8 weeks before measuring methane consumption and carbon dioxide production. Indirect methods are not highly selective and have limited application. The greatest advantage of a faster assay, is that bioremediation procedures utilizing methanotrophic bacteria could be amended. These amendments would be based on environmental monitoring with results in real time (1 hour). The elimination of the MPN technique and the use of DFA's will save significantly on both materials and labor. The data obtained from the DFA's and MPN's were statistically compared to each other and to total bacterial counts (AODC). The statistical analysis used was Analysis of Variants (ANOVA). Using this analysis, groundwater samples were found to be not significantly different; whereas soil were significantly different. These methods were employed on soil samples from the Southern Sector and ground water samples from the TCE-contaminated Sanitary Landfill at SRS. Acridine Orange Direct Counts were compared to show relative differences between total bacterial and methanotroph population

  9. Desarrollo floral del aguacate 'hass' en clima semicálido. Parte II. Generación y validación de modelos de predicción del desarrollo floral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salazar-García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para disponer de herramientas que mejoren la productividad de los huertos de aguacate 'Hass' en el clima semicálido de Nayarit, México, se desarrolló esta investigación multianual (1998 a 2006 con los siguientes objetivos: a cuantificar el efecto de la temperatura ambiental sobre el desarrollo floral de 'Hass', y b desarrollar y validar modelos de predicción para pronosticar etapas críticas del proceso de floración. El desarrollo floral de 'Hass' fue asociado a la temperatura ambiental y pudo ser modelado matemáticamente. El desarrollo floral de brotes del flujo vegetativo de invierno estuvo asociado a la acumulación de días frío (DFA con temperaturas ¿ 21 °C, así como a los intervalos acumulados entre las temperaturas máxima y mínima (INTAC. Para los brotes del flujo de verano fueron los DFA con temperaturas ¿ 9 °C, ¿ 20 °C y los INTAC. Para brotes del flujo de invierno se obtuvieron dos modelos de predicción del desarrollo floral, inviernoDFA ¿ 21 (R2 = 0.99 e inviernoINTAC (R2 = 0.96. En el caso de los brotes del flujo de verano se generaron tres modelos de predicción del desarrollo floral, veranoDFA ¿ 19, veranoDFA ¿ 20 y veranoINTAC, todos ellos con R2 = 0.99.

  10. Removal of artifacts in knee joint vibroarthrographic signals using ensemble empirical mode decomposition and detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Yang, Shanshan; Zheng, Fang; Cai, Suxian; Lu, Meng; Wu, Meihong

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution knee joint vibroarthrographic (VAG) signals can help physicians accurately evaluate the pathological condition of a degenerative knee joint, in order to prevent unnecessary exploratory surgery. Artifact cancellation is vital to preserve the quality of VAG signals prior to further computer-aided analysis. This paper describes a novel method that effectively utilizes ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) algorithms for the removal of baseline wander and white noise in VAG signal processing. The EEMD method first successively decomposes the raw VAG signal into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with fast and low oscillations, until the monotonic baseline wander remains in the last residue. Then, the DFA algorithm is applied to compute the fractal scaling index parameter for each IMF, in order to identify the anti-correlation and the long-range correlation components. Next, the DFA algorithm can be used to identify the anti-correlated and the long-range correlated IMFs, which assists in reconstructing the artifact-reduced VAG signals. Our experimental results showed that the combination of EEMD and DFA algorithms was able to provide averaged signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values of 20.52 dB (standard deviation: 1.14 dB) and 20.87 dB (standard deviation: 1.89 dB) for 45 normal signals in healthy subjects and 20 pathological signals in symptomatic patients, respectively. The combination of EEMD and DFA algorithms can ameliorate the quality of VAG signals with great SNR improvements over the raw signal, and the results were also superior to those achieved by wavelet matching pursuit decomposition and time-delay neural filter. (paper)

  11. Effect of bilateral superior oblique split lengthening on torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jethani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Superior oblique split lengthening (SOSL is done for weakening of superior oblique. It corrects the superior oblique overaction (SOOA and A pattern. Its effect on the torsion of the eye is not known. We present our data on the effect of this particular procedure on torsion. Materials and Methods: We did a study of 16 patients (32 eyes who underwent bilateral SOSL and compared the disc foveal angle (DFA preoperatively and postoperatively. The split lengthening was done from 4 mm to 7 mm depending upon the overaction of superior oblique. Results: The mean age was 15.3 ± 8.4 years. Mean preoperative DFA in the right eye (RE was −3.9° and in the left eye (LE was −2.9°. Mean postoperative DFA in RE was 0.2° and in LE was 0.9°. The mean change in the DFA for RE was 4.1° ± 1.3° and for LE was 3.8° ± 1.2°. All the patients were aligned horizontally within 6 prism diopter and no pattern and no diplopia postoperatively. The A pattern was corrected in all the patient postsurgery. For each mm of surgery, an improvement of 0.8° was seen in the DFA. Conclusion: We report the effect of SOSL on torsion. The SOSL reduces intorsion postsurgery and is, therefore, a valuable procedure in SOOA where both pattern and in torsion needs to be corrected.

  12. Desempeño de la prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa en el diagnóstico del virus Influenza A(H1N1 Direct immunofluorescence assay performance in diagnosis of the Influenza A(H1N1 virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pianciola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El 25 de abril de 2009, a menos de un mes de la detección en México del primer humano con virus Influenza A(H1N1, la enfermedad ya se había propagado a más de 40 países superando los 10 000 casos notificados. Dada su naturaleza impredecible, este tipo de virus requiere métodos diagnósticos apropiados, confiables y seguros, pero que también estén al alcance de los laboratorios clínicos. Mediante el estudio de 291 muestras de pacientes con sospecha de infección por virus Influenza A(H1N1 en Neuquén, Argentina, el presente trabajo compara los dos métodos de diagnóstico utilizados simultáneamente: la prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa (DFA y la de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real (RT-PCR. La DFA dio una sensibilidad de 44,4%, especificidad de 99,6%, valor predictivo positivo de 95,2% y valor predictivo negativo de 90,7%. Los resultados positivos de la metodología pueden considerarse verdaderos positivos. Un resultado negativo no excluye la presencia del virus y la muestra debe examinarse mediante RT-PCR. Del total de 291 muestras, 45 resultaron positivas por RT-PCR y 21 por DFA.By 25 April 2009, less than one month after the first human with Influenza A(H1N1 virus was detected in Mexico, the disease had already spread to more than 40 countries, with over 10 000 cases reported. Due to its unpredictability, this type of virus requires appropriate, reliable, and safe diagnostic methods that are also accessible to clinical laboratories. Through the analysis of 291 samples taken from patients with suspected Influenza A(H1N1 virus infection in Neuquén, Argentina, this study compares the two diagnostic methods used simultaneously: direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. DFA had a sensitivity of 44.4%, a specificity of 99.6%, a positive predictive value of 95.2%, and a negative predictive value of 90.7%. Positive results obtained with this method can be considered true

  13. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  14. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  15. Safe zones and a technical guide for cerclage wiring of the femur: a computed topographic angiogram (CTA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apivatthakakul, Theerachai; Siripipattanamongkol, P; Oh, Chang-Wug; Sananpanich, K; Phornphutkul, C

    2018-01-01

    Cerclage wiring for reduction of complex femoral shaft fractures can create iatrogenic vascular injury. To describe the anatomical relation of blood vessels to the femur and develop a technical guide for safe passage of cerclage wire. CT lower-limb angiographs (CTA) of 80 patients were reviewed and analysed to identify the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and the deep femoral artery (DFA) as well as the relation of those arteries to the femoral cortex. The total length of the femur was measured and divided into eight equal segments (seven levels). At each level, the medial half of the femur was divided into eight sectors labelled A through H and the position of the SFA and DFA was recorded. The shortest distance between the femoral cortex and the SFA and DFA at each level was measured. The data was analysed using STATA version 10.0. The average total femoral length from the tip of greater trochanter to lateral joint line was 402.98 ± 26.16 cm. The average distances from the SFA to the femur (d1) for levels 1 through 7 were 37.20 ± 5.0, 32.09 ± 4.74, 27.13 ± 4.19, 27.71 ± 5.46, 23.71 ± 4.40, 13.63 ± 3.59 and 10.08 ± 3.09 mm, respectively. The average distances between the DFA and the femur (d2) for levels 1 through 3 were 26.70 ± 4.13, 14.76 ± 3.27 and 9.58 ± 3.79 mm, respectively. The position of the SFA is located in sectors B through E at levels 1-3 and in sectors E through H at levels 4-7 and the position of the DFA located in sectors B through F at levels 1-3. Cerclage wiring should be started from the posterior intermuscular septum at the linea aspera. The safe area is the proximal half (midshaft) of the femur where the SFA and DFA lie at a safe distance from the femur. Between the midshaft and the distal 1/4, insertion of the passer must be done meticulously with the tip kept close to posteromedial cortex. Below the distal 1/4, the tip of the passer should be kept close to the posterior cortex to avoid injury to the SFA and

  16. Long memory effect of past climate change in Vostok ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yuuki; Kitahara, Naoki; Kano, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Time series analysis of Vostok ice core data has been done for understanding of palaeoclimate change from a stochastic perspective. The Vostok ice core is one of the proxy data for palaeoclimate in which local temperature and precipitation rate, moisture source conditions, wind strength and aerosol fluxes of marine, volcanic, terrestrial, cosmogenic and anthropogenic origin are indirectly stored. Palaeoclimate data has a periodic feature and a stochastic feature. For the proxy data, spectrum analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were conducted to characterize periodicity and scaling property (long memory effect) in the climate change. The result of spectrum analysis indicates there exist periodicities corresponding to the Milankovitch cycle in past climate change occurred. DFA clarified time variability of scaling exponents (Hurst exponent) is associated with abrupt warming in past climate.

  17. Application of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method to the trajectory of the centre of pressure of the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, M. T.; Anguiano, M.; Arias de Saavedra, F.; Lallena, A. M.; Carpena, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is a signal analyzing method which permits to study the correlation properties of the signal analyzed. This algorithm admits different variants which can be used to eliminate trends of different order existing in the signal. In this work we show the results obtained when two of these different variants, the so-called DFA-1 and DFA-2, are applied to the time series of the position and velocity of the centre of pressure of the human body in static conditions. The results show that the correlation exponents α obtained for each of the four types of analysis performed, depend on the scale studied. For the scales corresponding to large time intervals (above 35 s) the α values found in the four analyses coincide. (Author) 24 refs.

  18. Characterization of (1 1 1) surface tailored Pt nanoparticles by electrochemistry and X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, K.R.; Solla-Gullon, J.; Herrero, E.; Garnier, E.; Pailloux, F.; Leoni, M.; Scardi, P.; Snyder, R.L.; Aldaz, A.; Feliu, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles with a mean size of 8.7 nm were synthesized by a salt reduction reaction having polyhedron shapes with preferential (1 1 1) surfaces. In situ electrochemical characterization of nanoparticles was performed which confirmed the existence of mostly (1 1 1) surface sites in the sample. The effect of this surface in the electrooxidation of CO was measured. Debye Function Analysis (DFA) and Whole Powder Pattern Modelling (WPPM) of the measured X-ray diffraction pattern were carried out to obtain statistical information on the particle size and shape present in the sample. Both analyses determined that the octahedron particle shape was the most abundant which was also consistent with TEM observations. The existence of a small percentage of single twinned particles was determined by DFA, WPPM, as well as analysis of HRTEM images.

  19. Cascade-Driven Series with Narrower Multifractal Spectra Than Their Surrogates: Standard Deviation of Multipliers Changes Interactions across Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Taek Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifractal (or singularity spectra widths w allow diagnosing cascade structure through comparing original series’ widths wOrig to surrogate series’ widths wSurr. However, interpretations of 0DFA and Chhabra and Jensen’s method provided two estimates of wOrig for 200 simulated series at each value 0.1≤σ≤1.1 incrementing by 0.05. Increasing σ draws wOrig away from wSurrDFA. 0

  20. Quantitative Classification of Quartz by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Conjunction with Discriminant Function Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsive laser induced breakdown spectroscopic system was developed and improved for utilizing it as a sensor for the classification of quartz samples on the basis of trace elements present in the acquired samples. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS in conjunction with discriminant function analysis (DFA was applied for the classification of five different types of quartz samples. The quartz plasmas were produced at ambient pressure using Nd:YAG laser at fundamental harmonic mode (1064 nm. We optimized the detection system by finding the suitable delay time of the laser excitation. This is the first study, where the developed technique (LIBS+DFA was successfully employed to probe and confirm the elemental composition of quartz samples.

  1. Measurement of heterogeneous distribution on technegas SPECT images by three-dimensional fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michinobu; Murase, Kenya

    2002-01-01

    This review article describes a method for quantifying heterogeneous distribution on Technegas ( 99m Tc-carbon particle radioaerosol) SPECT images by three-dimensional fractal analysis (3D-FA). Technegas SPECT was performed to quantify the severity of pulmonary emphysema. We delineated the SPECT images by using five cut-offs (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35% of the maximal voxel radioactivity), and measured the total number of voxels in the areas surrounded by the contours obtained with each cut-off level. We calculated fractal dimensions from the relationship between the total number of voxels and the cut-off levels transformed into natural logarithms. The fractal dimension derived from 3D-FA is the relative and objective measurement, which can assess the heterogeneous distribution on Technegas SPECT images. The fractal dimension strongly correlate pulmonary function in patients with emphysema and well documented the overall and regional severity of emphysema. (author)

  2. Irregular Liesegang-type patterns in gas phase revisited. II. Statistical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzmán, José C.; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of Liesegang-type patterns formed in a gaseous HCl-NH3 system by ammonium chloride precipitation along glass tubes, as described in Paper I [J. C. Torres-Guzmán et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174701 (2016)] of this work. We focus on the detection and characterization of short and long-range correlations within the non-stationary sequence of apparently irregular precipitation bands. To this end we applied several techniques to estimate spatial correlations stemming from different fields, namely, linear auto-correlation via the power spectral density, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), and methods developed in the context of random matrix theory (RMT). In particular RMT methods disclose well pronounced long-range correlations over at least 40 bands in terms of both, band positions and intensity values. By using a variant of the DFA we furnish proof of the nonlinear nature of the detected long-range correlations.

  3. Nonlinearity and Fractal Properties of Climate Change during the Past 500 Years in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA, the present paper analyzed the nonlinearity and fractal properties of tree-ring records from two types of trees in northwestern China, and then we disclosed climate change characteristics during the past 500 years in this area. The results indicate that climate change in northwestern China displayed a long-range correlation (LRC, which can exist over time span of 100 years or longer. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for long-term climate predictions. Combining the DFA results obtained from daily temperatures records at the Xi’an meteorological observation station, which is near the southern peak of the Huashan Mountains, self-similarities widely existed in climate change on monthly, seasonal, annual, and decadal timescales during the past 500 years in northwestern China, and this change was a typical nonlinear process.

  4. An inter- laboratory proficiency testing exercise for rabies diagnosis in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Clavijo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA, is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise. In addition, the laboratories completed an online questionnaire to assess laboratory practices. Answers to the online questionnaire indicated large variability in the laboratories throughput, equipment used, protocols availability, quality control standards and biosafety requirements. Our results will inform actions to improve and harmonize laboratory rabies capacities across LAC in support for the regional efforts towards elimination of dog-maintained rabies.

  5. Asymmetric ramification of deep femoral artery: Incidental detection of an anatomic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Serdar Başbuğ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the deep femoral artery (DFA is most commonly located posterolaterally constituting the 40% of all studied specimens. Second most common course is the posterior origin (37%, that is followed by the lateral (12%, posteromedial (12% and medial (2% origins respectively. In this case report, we presented a case with a lateral originated DFA which is the third common anatomic variation. This case is especially important that it demonstrates the branching behaviors of vascular structures may differ between the right and the left limbs creating an asymmetry between the both sides of the same patient. Clinicians should be aware of anatomic variation during the cardiac catheterization, trans-arterial interventions, arteriography and the surgical dissections of the groin region.

  6. Application of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis method to the trajectory of the centre of pressure of the human body; Aplicacion del metodo Detrended Fluctuation Analysis a la trayectoria del centro de presion del cuerpo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez, M. T.; Anguiano, M.; Arias de Saavedra, F.; Lallena, A. M.; Carpena, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is a signal analyzing method which permits to study the correlation properties of the signal analyzed. This algorithm admits different variants which can be used to eliminate trends of different order existing in the signal. In this work we show the results obtained when two of these different variants, the so-called DFA-1 and DFA-2, are applied to the time series of the position and velocity of the centre of pressure of the human body in static conditions. The results show that the correlation exponents {alpha} obtained for each of the four types of analysis performed, depend on the scale studied. For the scales corresponding to large time intervals (above 35 s) the {alpha} values found in the four analyses coincide. (Author) 24 refs.

  7. Non-linear characteristics and long-range correlations in Asian stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Ma, K.; Cai, X.

    2007-05-01

    We test several non-linear characteristics of Asian stock markets, which indicates the failure of efficient market hypothesis and shows the essence of fractal of the financial markets. In addition, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to investigate the long range correlation of the volatility in the stock markets, we find that the crossover phenomena exist in the results of DFA. Further, in the region of small volatility, the scaling behavior is more complicated; in the region of large volatility, the scaling exponent is close to 0.5, which suggests the market is more efficient. All these results may indicate the possibility of characteristic multifractal scaling behaviors of the financial markets.

  8. Factors that Determine Child Behavior during Dental Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajrić Elmedin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we wanted to summarize all the aspects which could affect the behavior of the child patients in the dental office. At the beginning, the factors that are related to the child patients are mentioned. Various segments of child psychological, cognitive, physiological and other kinds of development are discussed. Also, the reasons for dental fear and anxiety (DFA and dental behavior problems (DBP were analyzed, and how the child dental patients could cope with them. Finally, types of patients according to their behavior in the dental office were discussed. Furthermore, the influences of child patients’ parents were studied, including parenting styles, as well as factors related to dentist, dental team and the dental office. Finally, critical evaluation of administration of assets to measure the presence of DFA and DBP is provided. Every part of the text was corroborated by the results from our own and other authors’ recent bibliography data.

  9. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection

  10. A NEW APPROACH TO DETECT CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE USING DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANDRAKAR KAMATH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate how far the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA approach helps to characterize the short-term and intermediate-term fractal correlations in the raw electrocardiogram (ECG signals and thereby discriminate between normal and congestive heart failure (CHF subjects. The DFA-1 calculations were performed on normal and CHF short-term ECG segments, of the order of 20 seconds duration. Differences were found in shortterm and intermediate-term correlation properties and the corresponding scaling exponents of the two groups (normal and CHF. The statistical analyses show that short-term fractal scaling exponent alone is sufficient to distinguish between normal and CHF subjects. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis confirms the robustness of this new approach and exhibits an average accuracy that exceeds 98.2%, average sensitivity of about 98.4%, positive predictivity of 98.00%, and average specificity of 98.00%.

  11. The effects of observational correlated noises on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulich, Damián; Zunino, Luciano

    2012-08-01

    We have numerically investigated the effects that observational correlated noises have on the generalized Hurst exponents, h(q), estimated by using the multifractal generalization of detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). More precisely, artificially generated stochastic binomial multifractals with increased amount of colored noises were analyzed via MF-DFA. It has been recently shown that for moderate additions of white noise, the generalized Hurst exponents are significantly underestimated for qeffects of additive noise, short- term memory and periodic trends, Physica A 390 (2011) 2480-2490]. In this paper, we have found that h(q) with q≥2 are also affected when correlated noises are considered. This is due to the fact that the spurious correlations influence the scaling behaviors associated to large fluctuations. The results obtained are significant for practical situations, where noises with different correlations are inherently present.

  12. Research on the fractal structure in the Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xin-tian; Huang, Xiao-yuan; Sha, Yan-li

    2004-02-01

    Applying fractal theory, this paper probes and discusses self-similarity and scale invariance of the Chinese stock market. It analyses three kinds of scale indexes, i.e., autocorrelation index, Hurst index and the scale index on the basis of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) algorithm and promotes DFA into a recursive algorithm. Using the three kinds of scale indexes, we conduct empirical research on the Chinese Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets. The results indicate that the rate of returns of the two stock markets does not obey the normal distribution. A correlation exists between the stock price indexes over time scales. The stock price indexes exhibit fractal time series. It indicates that the policy guide hidden at the back influences the characteristic of the Chinese stock market.

  13. Correlation and multifractality in climatological time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedron, I T

    2010-01-01

    Climate can be described by statistical analysis of mean values of atmospheric variables over a period. It is possible to detect correlations in climatological time series and to classify its behavior. In this work the Hurst exponent, which can characterize correlation and persistence in time series, is obtained by using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method. Data series of temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, maximum squall, atmospheric pressure and randomic series are studied. Furthermore, the multifractality of such series is analyzed applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) method. The results indicate presence of correlation (persistent character) in all climatological series and multifractality as well. A larger set of data, and longer, could provide better results indicating the universality of the exponents.

  14. Effect of treadmill versus overground running on the structure of variability of stride timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Timothy R; Noakes, Timothy D; McGregor, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Gait timing dynamics of treadmill and overground running were compared. Nine trained runners ran treadmill and track trials at 80, 100, and 120% of preferred pace for 8 min. each. Stride time series were generated for each trial. To each series, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), power spectral density (PSD), and multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis were applied to infer the regime of control along the randomness-regularity axis. Compared to overground running, treadmill running exhibited a higher DFA and PSD scaling exponent, as well as lower entropy at non-preferred speeds. This indicates a more ordered control for treadmill running, especially at non-preferred speeds. The results suggest that the treadmill itself brings about greater constraints and requires increased voluntary control. Thus, the quantification of treadmill running gait dynamics does not necessarily reflect movement in overground settings.

  15. Accurate Modeling of The Siemens S7 SCADA Protocol For Intrusion Detection And Digital Forensic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kleinmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Siemens S7 protocol is commonly used in SCADA systems for communications between a Human Machine Interface (HMI and the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs. This paper presents a model-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS designed for S7 networks. The approach is based on the key observation that S7 traffic to and from a specific PLC is highly periodic; as a result, each HMI-PLC channel can be modeled using its own unique Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. The resulting DFA-based IDS is very sensitive and is able to flag anomalies such as a message appearing out of its position in the normal sequence or a message referring to a single unexpected bit. The intrusion detection approach was evaluated on traffic from two production systems. Despite its high sensitivity, the system had a very low false positive rate - over 99.82% of the traffic was identified as normal.

  16. The use of copula functions for modeling the risk of investment in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof; Błachowicz, Tomasz

    2014-11-01

    In our work copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using the local Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) were used to investigate the risk of investment made in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The combination of copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using local DFA is a new approach. For copula function analysis bivariate variables composed of shares prices of the PEKAO bank (a big bank with high capitalization) and other banks (PKOBP, BZ WBK, MBANK and HANDLOWY in decreasing capitalization order) and companies from other branches (KGHM-mining industry, PKNORLEN-petrol industry as well as ASSECO-software industry) were used. Hurst exponents were calculated for daily shares prices and used to predict high drops of those prices. It appeared to be a valuable indicator in the copula selection procedure, since Hurst exponent’s low values were pointing on heavily tailed copulas e.g. the Clayton one.

  17. Optimizing Hadoop Performance for Big Data Analytics in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtaj Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid deployment of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs in power systems globally is leading to Big Data challenges. New high performance computing techniques are now required to process an ever increasing volume of data from PMUs. To that extent the Hadoop framework, an open source implementation of the MapReduce computing model, is gaining momentum for Big Data analytics in smart grid applications. However, Hadoop has over 190 configuration parameters, which can have a significant impact on the performance of the Hadoop framework. This paper presents an Enhanced Parallel Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (EPDFA algorithm for scalable analytics on massive volumes of PMU data. The novel EPDFA algorithm builds on an enhanced Hadoop platform whose configuration parameters are optimized by Gene Expression Programming. Experimental results show that the EPDFA is 29 times faster than the sequential DFA in processing PMU data and 1.87 times faster than a parallel DFA, which utilizes the default Hadoop configuration settings.

  18. Model Development of Degradation of PV Modules Backsheet with Locating Place of Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Yu [Case Western Reserve University; Fairbrother, Andrew [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Merzlic, Sebastien [Arkema; Julien, Scott [Northeastern University; Fridman, Lucas S. [Case Western Reserve University; Loyer, Camille [Arkema; Lefebvre, Amy L. [Arkema; O' Brien, Gregory [Arkema; Gu, Xiaohong [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Ji, Liang [Underwriters Laboratories; Boyce, Kenneth P. [Underwriters Laboratories; Wan, Kai-tak [Northeastern University; French, Roger H. [Case Western Reserve University; Bruckman, Laura S. [Case Western Reserve University

    2017-08-23

    Performance of a photovoltaic (PV) module is related to the micro-environment around the module. The position of photovoltaic modules in an array row have a large effect on the yellowing and gloss of PV module backsheet exposed in Dfa climatic zone (Gaithersburg, MD) with a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) outer layer. Stress/Response models of yellowing and gloss-losing as function of location parameters of module, including the shed, row, measurement position in a same module and the distance of module location to the row center, are under development. The module installation height had the greatest influence on degradation of PEN PV backsheet in the Dfa climatic zone. The module backsheets at the end of an array have higher degradation rate (edge effect). The edge effect decreases with increasing of module installation heights.

  19. Financial liberalization and stock market cross-correlation: MF-DCCA analysis based on Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Zhang, Shuhua; Lv, Dayong; Lu, Xinsheng

    2018-02-01

    Based on the implementation of Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect in China, this paper examines the effects of financial liberalization on stock market comovement using both multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) methods. Results based on MF-DFA confirm the multifractality of Shanghai and Hong Kong stock markets, and the market efficiency of Shanghai stock market increased after the implementation of this connect program. Besides, analysis based on MF-DCCA has verified the existence of persistent cross-correlation between Shanghai and Hong Kong stock markets, and the cross-correlation gets stronger after the launch of this liberalization program. Finally, we find that fat-tail distribution is the main source of multifractality in the cross-correlations before the stock connect program, while long-range correlation contributes to the multifractality after this program.

  20. Statistical features of seismoelectric signals prior to M7.4 Guerrero-Oaxaca earthquake (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramírez-Rojas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a statistical analysis of seismoelectric ULF signals prior to the M7.4 Guerrero-Oaxaca earthquake (EQ occurred at the Mexican Pacific coast on 14 September 1995, has been performed. The signals were simultaneously recorded at three monitoring stations from the last months of 1994 until July of 1996. The nonlinear time series methods of Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA have been used. In the three data sets we found some complex dynamical behaviors that seemingly reflect a relaxation-EQ preparation-main shock-relaxation process. In particular, clear spike-like anomalies in both DFA- and HFD-exponents some months before the main shock are revealed.

  1. Development of three-dimensional patient face model that enables real-time collision detection and cutting operation for a dental simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuya; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Noborio, Hiroshi; Imazato, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The virtual reality (VR) simulator is a useful tool to develop dental hand skill. However, VR simulations with reactions of patients have limited computational time to reproduce a face model. Our aim was to develop a patient face model that enables real-time collision detection and cutting operation by using stereolithography (STL) and deterministic finite automaton (DFA) data files. We evaluated dependence of computational cost and constructed the patient face model using the optimum condition for combining STL and DFA data files, and assessed the computational costs for operation in do-nothing, collision, cutting, and combination of collision and cutting. The face model was successfully constructed with low computational costs of 11.3, 18.3, 30.3, and 33.5 ms for do-nothing, collision, cutting, and collision and cutting, respectively. The patient face model could be useful for developing dental hand skill with VR.

  2. Multiple scaling behaviour and nonlinear traits in music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espinoza, Alfredo; Larralde, Hernán; Martínez-Mekler, Gustavo; Müller, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We present a statistical analysis of music scores from different composers using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find different fluctuation profiles that correspond to distinct autocorrelation structures of the musical pieces. Further, we reveal evidence for the presence of nonlinear autocorrelations by estimating the DFA of the magnitude series, a result validated by a corresponding study of appropriate surrogate data. The amount and the character of nonlinear correlations vary from one composer to another. Finally, we performed a simple experiment in order to evaluate the pleasantness of the musical surrogate pieces in comparison with the original music and find that nonlinear correlations could play an important role in the aesthetic perception of a musical piece.

  3. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluctuation dynamics in geoelectrical data: an investigation by using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Colangelo, Gerardo; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Macchiato, Maria

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed fluctuations in the time dynamics of nonstationary geoelectrical data, recorded in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The multifractal character of the signal depends mostly on the different long-range properties for small and large fluctuations. The time variation of indices, denoting the departure from monofractal behaviour, reveals an enhancement of the multifractality of the signal prior seismic occurrences

  5. AcEST: BP911830 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SYKGLTVQETGVNKAVLKGTNYHVSPAHVDDYQDCTHQPANLG 1453 >sp|Q6DFA8|GLD2B_XENLA Poly(A) RNA polymerase GLD2-B OS=Xenopus laevis GN=papd4...LD2A_XENLA Poly(A) RNA polymerase GLD2-A OS=Xenopus laevis GN=papd4-A PE=1 SV=1 Length = 509 Score = 29.6 bi

  6. Entrainment to a real time fractal visual stimulus modulates fractal gait dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Christopher K; Kiefer, Adam W; D'Andrea, Susan E; Warren, William H; Aaron, Roy K

    2014-08-01

    Fractal patterns characterize healthy biological systems and are considered to reflect the ability of the system to adapt to varying environmental conditions. Previous research has shown that fractal patterns in gait are altered following natural aging or disease, and this has potential negative consequences for gait adaptability that can lead to increased risk of injury. However, the flexibility of a healthy neurological system to exhibit different fractal patterns in gait has yet to be explored, and this is a necessary step toward understanding human locomotor control. Fifteen participants walked for 15min on a treadmill, either in the absence of a visual stimulus or while they attempted to couple the timing of their gait with a visual metronome that exhibited a persistent fractal pattern (contained long-range correlations) or a random pattern (contained no long-range correlations). The stride-to-stride intervals of the participants were recorded via analog foot pressure switches and submitted to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine if the fractal patterns during the visual metronome conditions differed from the baseline (no metronome) condition. DFA α in the baseline condition was 0.77±0.09. The fractal patterns in the stride-to-stride intervals were significantly altered when walking to the fractal metronome (DFA α=0.87±0.06) and to the random metronome (DFA α=0.61±0.10) (both p<.05 when compared to the baseline condition), indicating that a global change in gait dynamics was observed. A variety of strategies were identified at the local level with a cross-correlation analysis, indicating that local behavior did not account for the consistent global changes. Collectively, the results show that a gait dynamics can be shifted in a prescribed manner using a visual stimulus and the shift appears to be a global phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Forecasting of magnitude and duration of currency crises based on the analysis of distortions of fractal scaling in exchange rate fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritskaya, Olga Y.

    2005-05-01

    Results of fractal stability analysis of daily exchange rate fluctuations of more than 30 floating currencies for a 10-year period are presented. It is shown for the first time that small- and large-scale dynamical instabilities of national monetary systems correlate with deviations of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent from the value 1.5 predicted by the efficient market hypothesis. The observed dependence is used for classification of long-term stability of floating exchange rates as well as for revealing various forms of distortion of stable currency dynamics prior to large-scale crises. A normal range of DFA exponents consistent with crisis-free long-term exchange rate fluctuations is determined, and several typical scenarios of unstable currency dynamics with DFA exponents fluctuating beyond the normal range are identified. It is shown that monetary crashes are usually preceded by prolonged periods of abnormal (decreased or increased) DFA exponent, with the after-crash exponent tending to the value 1.5 indicating a more reliable exchange rate dynamics. Statistically significant regression relations (R=0.99, pcurrency crises and the degree of distortion of monofractal patterns of exchange rate dynamics are found. It is demonstrated that the parameters of these relations characterizing small- and large-scale crises are nearly equal, which implies a common instability mechanism underlying these events. The obtained dependences have been used as a basic ingredient of a forecasting technique which provided correct in-sample predictions of monetary crisis magnitude and duration over various time scales. The developed technique can be recommended for real-time monitoring of dynamical stability of floating exchange rate systems and creating advanced early-warning-system models for currency crisis prevention.

  8. Targeting L-Selectin To Improve Neurologic and Urologic Function after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    bladder voiding during daily animal care. Following euthanasia , bladders were removed, weighed, and normalized to total bodyweight (Figure 5B). A one...muscle tone. Following euthanasia , bladders were removed, weighed, and normalized to total body weight (Figure 8D). A one-tailed t-test demonstrated...there is benefit , then repeat study but initiate treatment at 8 hours. If there is no benefit at 3 hours, then repeat study with DFA/vehicle given

  9. Identifying the performance characteristics of a winning outcome in elite mixed martial arts competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Robertson, Sam; Haff, G Gregory; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-03-01

    To determine those performance indicators that have the greatest influence on classifying outcome at the elite level of mixed martial arts (MMA). A secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of decision tree analysis in explaining the characteristics of victory when compared to alternate statistical methods. Cross-sectional observational. Eleven raw performance indicators from male Ultimate Fighting Championship bouts (n=234) from July 2014 to December 2014 were screened for analysis. Each raw performance indicator was also converted to a rate-dependent measure to be scaled to fight duration. Further, three additional performance indicators were calculated from the dataset and included in the analysis. Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to determine the magnitude of the differences between Wins and Losses, while decision tree (chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID)) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to classify outcome (Win and Loss). Effect size comparisons revealed differences between Wins and Losses across a number of performance indicators. Decision tree (raw: 71.8%; rate-scaled: 76.3%) and DFA (raw: 71.4%; rate-scaled 71.2%) achieved similar classification accuracies. Grappling and accuracy performance indicators were the most influential in explaining outcome. The decision tree models also revealed multiple combinations of performance indicators leading to victory. The decision tree analyses suggest that grappling activity and technique accuracy are of particular importance in achieving victory in elite-level MMA competition. The DFA results supported the importance of these performance indicators. Decision tree induction represents an intuitive and slightly more accurate approach to explaining bout outcome in this sport when compared to DFA. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long - Memory Persistence in African Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging stock markets are said to become efficient with time. This study seeks to investigate this assertion by analyzing long - memory persistence in 8 African stock markets covering the period from 28 August 2000 to 28 August 2015. The Hurst exponent is used as our efficiency measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. Our findings show strong evidence of long - memory persistence in the markets studied therefore violating the weak - form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH.

  11. Scaling Exponents in Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Kim, Soo Yong

    2007-03-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of four exchange rates in foreign exchange markets. A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to detect the long-range correlation embedded in the non-stationary time series. It is for our case found that there exists a persistent long-range correlation in volatilities, which implies the deviation from the efficient market hypothesis. Particularly, the crossover is shown to exist in the scaling behaviors of the volatilities.

  12. Randomness confidence bands of fractal scaling exponents for financial price returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Valdez, C.; Alvarez, J.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A robust test for randomness of price returns is proposed. • The DFA scaling exponent is contrasted against confidence bands for random sequences. • The size of the band depends of the sequence length. • Crude oil and USA stock markets have been rarely inefficient. - Abstract: The weak-form of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) establishes that price returns behave as a pure random process and so their outcomes cannot be forecasted. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been widely used to test the weak-form of the EMH by showing that time series of price returns are serially uncorrelated. In this case, the DFA scaling exponent exhibits deviations from the theoretical value of 0.5. This work considers the test of the EMH for DFA implementation on a sliding window, which is an approach that is intended to monitor the evolution of markets. Under these conditions, the scaling exponent exhibits important variations over the scrutinized period that can offer valuable insights in the behavior of the market provided the estimated scaling value is kept within strict statistical tests to verify the presence or not of serial correlations in the price returns. In this work, the statistical tests are based on comparing the estimated scaling exponent with the values obtained from pure Gaussian sequences with the length of the real time series. In this way, the presence of serial correlations can be guaranteed only in terms of the confidence bands of a pure Gaussian process. The crude oil (WTI) and the USA stock (DJIA) markets are used to illustrate the methodology.

  13. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  14. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  15. Optimisation of a machine learning algorithm in human locomotion using principal component and discriminant function analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Bisele, M; Bencsik, M; Lewis, MGC; Barnett, CT

    2017-01-01

    Assessment methods in human locomotion often involve the description of normalised graphical profiles and/or the extraction of discrete variables. Whilst useful, these approaches may not represent the full complexity of gait data. Multivariate statistical methods, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), have been adopted since they have the potential to overcome these data handling issues. The aim of the current study was to develop and optimise a ...

  16. Chaos generation by a hybrid integrated chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Niu, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Xu, Yu-Hang; Meng, Jie; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang

    2018-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2014DFA50870), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61377089, 61475111, and 61527819), Shanxi Province Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2015011049), Shanxi Province Youth Science and Technology Foundation, China (Grant No. 201601D021069), Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (Grant No. 2016-036), Program for the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi, China, and Program for Sanjin Scholar, China.

  17. DFAs and PFAs with long shortest synchronizing word length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bondt, M.; Don, H.; Zantema, H.; Charlier, E.; Leroy, J.; Rigo, M.

    2017-01-01

    It was conjectured by Černý in 1964, that a synchronizing DFA on n states always has a synchronizing word of length at most (n-1)2 and he gave a sequence of DFAs for which this bound is reached. Until now a full analysis of all DFAs reaching this bound was only given for n ≤ 4 and with bounds on the

  18. Concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal in hyperthyroidism: Evidence from detrended fluctuation analysis of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2010-05-01

    Despite many previous studies on the association between hyperthyroidism and the hyperadrenergic state, controversies still exist. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a well recognized method in the nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and it has physiological significance related to the autonomic nervous system. In particular, an increased short-term scaling exponent α1 calculated from DFA is associated with both increased sympathetic activity and decreased vagal activity. No study has investigated the DFA of HRV in hyperthyroidism. This study was designed to assess the sympathovagal balance in hyperthyroidism. We performed the DFA along with the linear analysis of HRV in 36 hyperthyroid Graves’ disease patients (32 females and 4 males; age 30 ± 1 years, means ± SE) and 36 normal controls matched by sex, age and body mass index. Compared with the normal controls, the hyperthyroid patients revealed a significant increase ( Phyperthyroid 1.28±0.04 versus control 0.91±0.02), long-term scaling exponent α2 (1.05±0.02 versus 0.90±0.01), overall scaling exponent α (1.11±0.02 versus 0.89±0.01), low frequency power in normalized units (LF%) and the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF); and a significant decrease ( Phyperthyroidism is characterized by concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. This sympathovagal imbalance state in hyperthyroidism helps to explain the higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and exercise intolerance among hyperthyroid patients.

  19. Preliminary Design Guide for Arctic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Mazda (1983, p. 20/19). Zinc-air Energy output Falls to 20% or les. of nominal. Capacitors Capacitance 10 ppm/C to 2000 ppm/C. Maintain at constant...Temperature coefficient Use compensation, calibrate at temperature, provide artificial environment. Motors Rotation May fail to start turning. Heat...JP-5 and Type II distillate range of common motor oils. In addition, they fuels should be considered. DF-A fuel (Diesel Fuel- Table 4

  20. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H; Elborgy, Ebrahim S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value.

  1. Extending Wi-Fi Direct for Automated Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    API Application Programing Interface BSS Basic Service Set HA Humanitarian Assistance DFA Deterministic Finite Automaton DR Disaster Relief FA...Group Owners are essentially software APs. They can provide communication between clients and access to a concunent WLAN connection. 7 8 1...3] A P2P device can operate simultaneously with a WLAN (see Figure 4). That device is known as a P2P concurrent device Any device performing

  2. Gait performance is not influenced by working memory when walking at a self-selected pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Jordan; Rhea, Christopher K

    2014-02-01

    Gait performance exhibits patterns within the stride-to-stride variability that can be indexed using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Previous work employing DFA has shown that gait patterns can be influenced by constraints, such as natural aging or disease, and they are informative regarding a person's functional ability. Many activities of daily living require concurrent performance in the cognitive and gait domains; specifically working memory is commonly engaged while walking, which is considered dual-tasking. It is unknown if taxing working memory while walking influences gait performance as assessed by DFA. This study used a dual-tasking paradigm to determine if performance decrements are observed in gait or working memory when performed concurrently. Healthy young participants (N = 16) performed a working memory task (automated operation span task) and a gait task (walking at a self-selected speed on a treadmill) in single- and dual-task conditions. A second dual-task condition (reading while walking) was included to control for visual attention, but also introduced a task that taxed working memory over the long term. All trials involving gait lasted at least 10 min. Performance in the working memory task was indexed using five dependent variables (absolute score, partial score, speed error, accuracy error, and math error), while gait performance was indexed by quantifying the mean, standard deviation, and DFA α of the stride interval time series. Two multivariate analyses of variance (one for gait and one for working memory) were used to examine performance in the single- and dual-task conditions. No differences were observed in any of the gait or working memory dependent variables as a function of task condition. The results suggest the locomotor system is adaptive enough to complete a working memory task without compromising gait performance when walking at a self-selected pace.

  3. Morphological analysis of Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 from southern Chilean rivers using a truss-based system (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 is a small endemic catfish inhabiting the Andean river basins of Chile. In this study, the morphological variability of three T. areolatus populations, collected in two river basins from southern Chile, was assessed with multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant function analysis (DFA. It is hypothesized that populations must segregate morphologically from each other based on the river basin that they were sampled from, since each basin presents relatively particular hydrological characteristics. Significant morphological differences among the three populations were found with PCA (ANOSIM test, r = 0.552, p < 0.0001 and DFA (Wilks’s λ = 0.036, p < 0.01. PCA accounted for a total variation of 56.16% by the first two principal components. The first Principal Component (PC1 and PC2 explained 34.72 and 21.44% of the total variation, respectively. The scatter-plot of the first two discriminant functions (DF1 on DF2 also validated the existence of three different populations. In group classification using DFA, 93.3% of the specimens were correctly-classified into their original populations. Of the total of 22 transformed truss measurements, 17 exhibited highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among populations. The data support the existence of T. areolatus morphological variation across different rivers in southern Chile, likely reflecting the geographic isolation underlying population structure of the species.

  4. Volatilities, traded volumes, and the hypothesis of price increments in derivative securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Scalas, Enrico; Kim, Kyungsik

    2007-08-01

    A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to the statistics of Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. In this study, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of the long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to a inherent higher-order correlation not detected by with the direct application of the DFA to logarithmic increments of KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of future prices and to generate a geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It was found from a comparison of the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments leads to volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes can be supported by the hypothesis of price changes.

  5. Volatilities, Traded Volumes, and Price Increments in Derivative Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, Soo Yong; Scalas, Enrico

    2007-03-01

    We apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the statistics of the Korean treasury bond (KTB) futures from which the logarithmic increments, volatilities, and traded volumes are estimated over a specific time lag. For our case, the logarithmic increment of futures prices has no long-memory property, while the volatility and the traded volume exhibit the existence of long-memory property. To analyze and calculate whether the volatility clustering is due to the inherent higher-order correlation not detected by applying directly the DFA to logarithmic increments of the KTB futures, it is of importance to shuffle the original tick data of futures prices and to generate the geometric Brownian random walk with the same mean and standard deviation. It is really shown from comparing the three tick data that the higher-order correlation inherent in logarithmic increments makes the volatility clustering. Particularly, the result of the DFA on volatilities and traded volumes may be supported the hypothesis of price changes.

  6. Evaluation of Sleep by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of the Heartbeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Toru; Shimoda, Yukio; Hutapea, Albert M.

    2011-08-01

    There are already-established methods for investigating biological signals such as rhythmic heartbeats. We used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), originally developed by Peng et al. (1995) to check power-law characteristics, because the method can quantify the heart condition numerically. In this article, we studied the heartbeat of sleeping subjects. Our purpose was to test whether DFA is useful to evaluate the subject's wellness of both during being awake and sleeping. This is a challenge to measure sleep without complex/expensive machine, an electro encephalography (EEG). We conducted electrophysiological recording to measure heartbeats during sleep using electrocardiograph with three-leads, one ground electrode and two active electrodes attached to chest. For good recording, a stable baseline must be maintained even when subjects move their body. We needed a tool to ensure long-term steady recording. We thus invented a new electric-circuit designed to produce this desired result. This gadget allowed us to perform heartbeat recording without any drifting baseline. We then were able to detect 100% of heartbeat peaks over the entire period of sleep. Here, we show a case study as empirical evidence that DFA is useful numerical method for quantifying sleep by using the scaling exponents.

  7. Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.

  8. A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.

  9. Auto-correlation in the motor/imaginary human EEG signals: A vision about the FDFA fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilney Figueira Zebende

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed, by the FDFA root mean square fluctuation (rms function, the motor/imaginary human activity produced by a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG. We utilized the Physionet on-line databank, a publicly available database of human EEG signals, as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA method for EEG analysis. We show that the complex time series of the EEG exhibits characteristic fluctuations depending on the analyzed channel in the scalp-recorded EEG. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we analyzed four distinct channels represented here by F332, F637 (frontal region of the head and P349, P654 (parietal region of the head. We verified that the amplitude of the FDFA rms function is greater for the frontal channels than for the parietal. To tabulate this information in a better way, we define and calculate the difference between FDFA (in log scale for the channels, thus defining a new path for analysis of EEG signals. Finally, related to the studied EEG signals, we obtain the auto-correlation exponent, αDFA by DFA method, that reveals self-affinity at specific time scale. Our results shows that this strategy can be applied to study the human brain activity in EEG processing.

  10. Time Correlations of Lightning Flash Sequences in Thunderstorms Revealed by Fractal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xueqiang; Chen, Mingli; Zhang, Guangshu

    2018-01-01

    By using the data of lightning detection and ranging system at the Kennedy Space Center, the temporal fractal and correlation of interevent time series of lightning flash sequences in thunderstorms have been investigated with Allan factor (AF), Fano factor (FF), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methods. AF, FF, and DFA methods are powerful tools to detect the time-scaling structures and correlations in point processes. Totally 40 thunderstorms with distinguishing features of a single-cell storm and apparent increase and decrease in the total flash rate were selected for the analysis. It is found that the time-scaling exponents for AF (αAF) and FF (αFF) analyses are 1.62 and 0.95 in average, respectively, indicating a strong time correlation of the lightning flash sequences. DFA analysis shows that there is a crossover phenomenon—a crossover timescale (τc) ranging from 54 to 195 s with an average of 114 s. The occurrence of a lightning flash in a thunderstorm behaves randomly at timescales τc but shows strong time correlation at scales >τc. Physically, these may imply that the establishment of an extensive strong electric field necessary for the occurrence of a lightning flash needs a timescale >τc, which behaves strongly time correlated. But the initiation of a lightning flash within a well-established extensive strong electric field may involve the heterogeneities of the electric field at a timescale τc, which behave randomly.

  11. Thermal and Ablative Properties of Ipns and Composites of High Ortho Resole Resin and Difurfurylidene Acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. NAJIM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High ortho resole resin was prepared by condensation of phenol with excess of formaldehyde in the presence of magnesium oxide as catalyst. Reaction of furfuraldehyde with acetone in basic medium led to difurfurylidene acetone (DFA. Their interpenetrating polymer network (IPNS were obtained by the reaction of predetermined quantities of difurfurylidene acetone and high ortho resole using p-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA as curing agent. The thermal behavior of the resins was studied using thermogravimetry (TG under ambient and nitrogen atmospheres over a temperature range of (25-1000 Cº. It was observed that the IPN of 20% DFA – 80% resole has higher thermal stability than that of resole alone and the decomposition temperature was higher by 80 Cº. This behavior was attributed to highly cross linked structure and thermally stable backbone of ploy difurfurylidene acetone due to formation of ladder structure.Impregnation of chopped fiber glass type (E with the polymeric solutions was used to prepare their composites, and the ablative properties were investigated according to ASTM E-285 –80. It was observed that the IPN of (DFA- resol perform better than the resole composite alone.

  12. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  13. [German research institute/Max-Planck Institute for psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, D

    1999-12-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie (DFA, German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich was founded in 1917 bel Emil Kraepelin. For a long time it was the only institution in Germany entirely devoted to psychiatric research. Because of its strictly science-oriented and multidisciplinary approach it also became a model for institutions elsewhere. Kraepelin's ideas have certainly had a strong influence on psychiatry in the twentieth century. The fascinating and instructive history of the DFA reflects the central issues and determinants of psychiatric research. First, talented individuals are needed to conduct such research, and there was no lack in this regard. Second, the various topics chosen are dependent on the available methods and resources. And finally, the issues addressed and the ethical standards of the researchers are heavily dependent on the zeitgeist, as is evident in the three epochs of research at the DFA, from 1917 to 1933, from 1933 to 1945, and from the postwar period to the present. With the introduction of molecular biology and neuroimaging techniques into psychiatric research a change in paradigm took place and a new phase of the current epoch began.

  14. Incidence of respiratory viruses in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Vocal individuality cues in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Livio; Gamba, Marco; Alfieri, Chiara; Pessani, Daniela; McElligott, Alan G

    2015-11-25

    The African penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern Africa. In penguins of the genus Spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. However, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. We recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. For each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. For each parameter, we calculated the Potential of Individual Coding (PIC). The acoustic parameters showing PIC ≥ 1.1 were used to perform a stepwise cross-validated discriminant function analysis (DFA). The DFA correctly classified 66.1% of the contact calls and 62.5% of display songs to the correct individual. The DFA also resulted in the further selection of 10 acoustic features for contact calls and 9 for display songs that were important for vocal individuality. Our results suggest that studying the anatomical constraints that influence nesting penguin vocalisations from a source-filter perspective, can lead to a much better understanding of the acoustic cues of individuality contained in their calls. This approach could be further extended to study and understand vocal communication in other bird species.

  16. Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nithin Prabhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT, as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT.

  17. Imaging of salt structure. 2; Gan`enso kozo no imaging. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akama, K; Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With respect to a velocity model structuring method using depth focusing analysis (DFA) as a depth image processing technology used for elastic wave exploration, its practicability was discussed. First, synthetic data were used to extract problems in the DFA. The problems were extracted by using a model with constant velocity as an initial model, deciding on the sequential structures from the higher order, and estimating velocity and depth of each layer by using a model fitting type method. In its application to field data, characteristic records include those for rock salt beds distributed in a sheet form and the folding structure associated with the growth thereof, as acquired in offshore seismic exploration carried out in the eastern part of Gulf of Mexico. The conclusion is that the DFA is a method that can derive a velocity model with required accuracy by using a minimum number of repetition even against relatively complex structures. Particularly, the quick convergence from the initial model with a constant velocity until a certain accuracy is reached is a noteworthy advantage. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Scaling analysis of the effects of load on hand tremor movements in essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesić, S.; Stratimirović, Dj.; Milošević, S.; Marić, J.; Kostić, V.; Ljubisavljević, M.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we have used the Wavelet Transform (WT) and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) methods to analyze hand tremor movements in essential tremor (ET), in two different recording conditions (before and after the addition of wrist-cuff load). We have analyzed the time series comprised of peak-to-peak (PtP) intervals, extracted from regions around the first three main frequency components of the power spectra (PwS) of the recorded tremors, in order to substantiate results related to the effects of load on ET, to distinguish between multiple sources of ET, and to separate the influence of peripheral factors on ET. Our results show that, in ET, the dynamical characteristics, that is, values of respective scaling exponents, of the main frequency component of recorded tremors change after the addition of load. Our results also show that in all the observed cases the scaling behavior of the calculated functions changes as well-the calculated WT scalegrams and DFA functions display a shift in the position of the crossover when the load is added. We conclude that the difference in behavior of the WT and DFA functions between different conditions in ET could be associated with the expected pathology in ET, or with some additional mechanism that controls movements in ET patients, and causes the observed changes in scaling behavior.

  19. Detecting abrupt dynamic change based on changes in the fractal properties of spatial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qunqun; He, Wenping; Gu, Bin; Jiang, Yundi

    2017-10-01

    Many abrupt climate change events often cannot be detected timely by conventional abrupt detection methods until a few years after these events have occurred. The reason for this lag in detection is that abundant and long-term observational data are required for accurate abrupt change detection by these methods, especially for the detection of a regime shift. So, these methods cannot help us understand and forecast the evolution of the climate system in a timely manner. Obviously, spatial images, generated by a coupled spatiotemporal dynamical model, contain more information about a dynamic system than a single time series, and we find that spatial images show the fractal properties. The fractal properties of spatial images can be quantitatively characterized by the Hurst exponent, which can be estimated by two-dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis (TD-DFA). Based on this, TD-DFA is used to detect an abrupt dynamic change of a coupled spatiotemporal model. The results show that the TD-DFA method can effectively detect abrupt parameter changes in the coupled model by monitoring the changing in the fractal properties of spatial images. The present method provides a new way for abrupt dynamic change detection, which can achieve timely and efficient abrupt change detection results.

  20. [Determination of the healing effect of Piper aduncum (spiked pepper or matico) on human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paco, Karen; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Lopez-Ilasaca, Marco; Aguilar, José L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the healing effect of a Piper aduncum ethanol-water extract on an adult human dermal fibroblast cell line (hDFa). After obtaining the extract via solid-liquid extraction, concentration, and lyophilization, extract proteins were purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, identified using tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-TOF on an ABSciex4800 mass spectrometer. Half maximum effective concentration values (EC50), half maximum inhibiting concentration (IC50), and percentages of cell proliferation were determined using tetrazolium salt assays. Cell migration was evaluated using a "scratch assay". Growth factor expression in cells was analyzed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Against the hDFa cell line, the extract had an IC50 of 200 μg/mL and EC50 of 103.5 µg/mL. In the proliferation assay, protein K2 (obtained from the extract) exhibited increased proliferative activity relative to other treatments (1 µg/mL); this agent also exhibited increased activity (50 µg/mL) in the fibroblast migration assay.Furthermore, the relative expression of platelet-derived growth factor increased by 8.6-fold in the presence of K2 protein relative to the control. The hydroethanolic extract of Piper aduncum and its component proteins increased the proliferation and migration of hDFa and increased the expression of growth factors involved in the healing process.

  1. Humming along or buzzing off? The elusive consequences of plant-pollinator mismatches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ryan Straka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal mismatches among plants and pollinators, driven by climate change, are considered a potential cause of population declines of these mutualists. However, field studies demonstrating population declines as a result of climate-driven phenological mismatches are uncommon, and the extent to which mismatches will be a problem in the future remains unclear. We revisit predicted consequences of climate-driven phenological mismatch in plant-pollinator systems by identifying nine previously-applied assumptions that are violated or insufficiently understood in real systems. Briefly, the assumptions are: (1 Dates of first-flowering (DFF or dates of first activity (DFA correctly describe phenology, and disparities between DFF and DFA represent the magnitude of mismatch. (2 “Optimal” matches are measured correctly. (3 Advancement of DFF or DFA will be the primary phenological change in the future. (4 Future phenological shifts will be independent for each species. (5 All plant-pollinator interactions are equally effective. (6 Populations of plants and pollinators are limited by mutualistic interactions. Some previous models have also assumed that the effects of future mismatches will not be influenced by (7 emergence of novel interactions, (8 competition or facilitation from altered co-flowering and co-flight, and (9 phenotypic plasticity and rapid adaptive evolution of phenology. Those assumptions affect the direction, extent, and accuracy of predicted consequences of future phenological mismatch. In discussing them, we identify important topics for future research in pollination ecology.

  2. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  3. Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K Nithin; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Veeresh, B Hanchinal; Rathnamma, Doddamane; Sharada, R; Das, Lekshmi J; Satyanarayana, M L; Hegde, Nagendra R; Rahman, Sira Abdul

    2018-02-28

    Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT.

  4. Environmental controls on the 2H/1H values of terrestrial leaf waxes in the eastern Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Ampel, Linda; Sauer, Peter E.; Fornace, Kyrstin

    2013-10-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of plant waxes preserved in lacustrine sediments is a potentially valuable tool for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in the Arctic. However, in contrast to the mid- and low-latitudes, significantly less effort has been directed towards understanding the factors controlling D/H fractionation in high latitude plant waxes and the impact of these processes on the interpretation of sedimentary leaf wax δD records. To better understand these processes, we examined the D/H ratios of long chain fatty acids in lake surface sediments spanning a temperature and precipitation gradient on Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. D/H ratios of plant waxes increase with increasing temperature and aridity, with values ranging from -240‰ to -160‰ over the study area. Apparent fractionation factors between n-alkanoic acids in Arctic lake sediments and precipitation(εFA-ppt) are less negative than those of mid-latitude lakes and modern plants by 25‰ to 65‰, consistent with n-alkane data from modern Arctic plants (Yang et al., 2011). Furthermore, εFA-ppt values from Arctic lakes become systematically more positive with increasing evaporation, in contrast to mid-latitude sites, which show little to no change in fractionation with aridity. These data are consistent with enhanced water loss and isotope fractionation at higher latitude in the Arctic summer, when continuous sunlight supports increased daily photosynthesis. The dominant control on δDFA variations on Baffin Island is temperature. However, changing εFA-ppt result in steeper δDFA-temperature relationships than observed for modern precipitation. The application of this δDFA-based paleotemperature calibration to existing δDFA records from Baffin Island produces much more realistic changes in late Holocene temperature and highlights the importance of these effects in influencing the interpretation of Arctic δDFA records. A better understanding of the controls on

  5. Diferential diagnosis in atypical facial pain: a clinical study Diagnóstico diferencial em dor facial atípica: estudo clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Marinho Nóbrega

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To evaluate a sample of patients with atypical facial pain (AFP in comparison to patients with symptomatic facial pain (SFP. METHOD: 41 patients with previous diagnostic of AFP were submitted to a standardized evaluation protocol, by a multidisciplinary pain team. RESULTS: 21 (51.2% were considered AFP and 20 (48.8% (SFP received the following diagnosis: 8 (40.0% had temporomandibular disorders (TMD; 3 (15.0% had TMD associated to systemic disease (fibromyalgia, systemic erythematosus lupus; 4 (20.0% had neuropathy after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery for petroclival tumor; 2 (10.0% had Wallenberg syndrome; 1 (5.0% had intracranial tumor; 1 (5.0% had oral cancer (epidermoid carcinoma, and 1 (5.0% had burning mouth syndrome (BMS associated to fibromyalgia. Spontaneous descriptors of pain were not different between AFP and SFP groups (p=0.82. Allodynia was frequent in SFP (p=0.05 and emotion was the triggering factor most prevalent in AFP (p=0.06. AFP patients had more traumatic events previously to pain (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: AFP patients had more: a traumatic events previously to pain onset, and b emotions as a triggering factor for pain. These data support the need of trained health professionals in multidisciplinary groups for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of these patients.OBJETIVO: Avaliar uma amostra de pacientes com dor facial atípica (DFA e compará-la a outra com dor facial sintomática (DFS. MÉTODO: 41 pacientes com diagnóstico prévio de DFA foram submetidos a um protocolo padronizado de avaliação aplicado por uma equipe multidisciplinar. RESULTADOS: 21 (51,2% foram mantidos com o diagnóstico de DFA e 20 (48,8% (DFS receberam os seguintes diagnósticos: 8 (40.0% tinham disfunções temporomandibulares (DTM; 3 (15,0% tinham DTM associada a doença sistêmica (fibromialgia, lupus eritematoso sistêmico; 4 (20,0% tinham neuropatia após cirurgia otorrinolaringológica (ORL para tumor petroclival; 2 (10,0% tinham s

  6. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  7. A novel optimization method, Effective Discrete Firefly Algorithm, for fuel reload design of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced version of firefly algorithm, EDFA, is proposed for the core pattern optimization problem. • The movement of each firefly toward the best firefly with a dynamic probability is the major improvement of EDFA. • LPO results represent the faster convergence and better performance of EDFA in comparison to CFA and DFA. - Abstract: Inspired by fireflies behavior in nature, a firefly algorithm has been developed for solving optimization problems. In this approach, each firefly movement is based on absorption of the other one. For enhancing the performance of firefly algorithm in the optimization process of nuclear reactor loading pattern optimization (LPO), we introduce a new variant of firefly algorithm, i.e. Effective Discrete Firefly Algorithm (EDFA). In EDFA, a new behavior is the movement of fireflies to current global best position with a dynamic probability, i.e. the movement of each firefly can be determined to be toward the brighter or brightest firefly’s position in any iteration of the algorithm. In this paper, our optimization objectives for the LPO are the maximization of K eff along with the minimization of the power peaking factor (PPF). In order to represent the increase of convergence speed of EDFA, basic firefly algorithms including the continuous firefly algorithm (CFA) and the discrete firefly algorithm (DFA) also have been implemented. Loading pattern optimization results of two well-known problems confirm better performance of EDFA in obtaining nearly optimized fuel arrangements in comparison to CFA and DFA. All in all, we can suggest applying the EDFA to other optimization problems of nuclear engineering field in order to investigate its performance in gaining considered objectives

  8. Alpha-fetoprotein is present in the fetal fluids and is increased in plasma of mares with experimentally induced ascending placentitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canisso, Igor F; Ball, Barry A; Scoggin, Kirsten E; Squires, Edward L; Williams, Neil M; Troedsson, Mats H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in fetal fluids (FF), and (ii) compare plasma concentrations of AFP in mares with placentitis (n=17) and gestationally age-matched control mares (n=17). Fetal fluid sampling (FFS, n=7/group) was performed at 0, 5 and 12 days post inoculation (DPI) or until abortion. Plasma was harvested daily for 12 days or until abortion. Placentitis was induced via intracervical inoculation of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Proteins present in the FF were resolved by 1D-SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotting was used to detect the presence of AFP in fetal fluids. Concentrations of AFP in FF and plasma were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mixed models for DPI, and for days from abortion (DFA) were used to analyze plasma concentrations of AFP. A protein band ∼68kDa consistent with the AFP size was present in all samples of fetal fluids examined. Immunoblotting for AFP revealed a single protein band (∼68kDa) in all samples. Concentrations of AFP in FF appeared higher than those in maternal plasma. There were effects of time (DPI p<0.0001; DFA p=0.0002) and time-by-group interactions (DPI*Group p<0.06; Group*DFA p<0.001). This study confirmed that AFP is present in the FF of mares during the third trimester of pregnancy. Experimentally induced placentitis was associated with an elevation in maternal plasma concentrations of AFP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND. CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchanges between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  10. Synthesis and solar-cell applications of novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivrak, Arif; Er, Ömer Faruk; Kivrak, Hilal; Topal, Yasemin; Kuş, Mahmut; Çamlısoy, Yesim

    2017-11-01

    At present, novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives; namely 9,10-di(furan-2-yl)anthracene (DFA), 5,5‧-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)bis(furan-2-carbaldehyde) (DAFA) and 2,2‧-((5,5‧-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)bis(furan-5,2-diyl))bis(methanylylidene))dimalononitrile (DCNFA) were designed and synthesized successfully by employing Stille Cross-Coupling, Vilsmeier-Haack and Knoevenagel condensation reactions, respectively. This methodology provides a practical new route for the synthesis of furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives bearing strong electron-withdrawing groups. The electrochemical and electro-optical properties of these novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives were also examined with strong acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor interactions. Furthermore, Highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), Lowest Unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), and band gap (Eg) values were investigated by using spectroscopic methods. Electrochemical and electro-optical properties were calculated and compared to DFA, DAFA and DCNFA. Eg was found as 2.85, 2.71, and 2.33 eV, respectively. Consequently, Organic Solar Cells (OSC) were fabricated to investigate their solar cell performances. The strong electron withdrawing groups did not increase the solar cell performance of furanyl-anthracenes. Surprisingly, DFA was found to exhibit the best OSCs performance (Efficiency = 3.36). As a result, one could note that these novel furanyl-substituted anthracene derivatives are good candidate for the applications of the OSCs. Our results might help in the development of new materials with important electrochemical functions by giving the advantage of designing and further derivatization of new generation small organic molecules for photovoltaic device applications.

  11. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  12. [Ultrastructure and Raman Spectral Characteristics of Two Kinds of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao-Yue; Cheng, Xue-Lian; Dong, Shu-Xu; Zhao, Shi-Xuan; Wang, Ying; Ru, Yong-Xin

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the Raman spectral characteristics of leukemia cells from 4 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (M 3 ) and 3 patients with acute monoblastic leukemia (M 5 ), establish a novel Raman label-free method to distinguish 2 kinds of acute myeloid leukemia cells so as to provide basis for clinical research. Leukemia cells were collected from bone marrow of above-mentioned patients. Raman spectra were acquired by Horiba Xplora Raman spectrometer and Raman spectra of 30-50 cells from each patient were recorded. The diagnostic model was established according to principle component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis, and the spectra of leukemia cells from 7 patients were analyzed and classified. Characteristics of Raman spectra were analyzed combining with ultrastructure of leukemia cells. There were significant differences between Raman spectra of 2 kinds of leukemia cells. Compared with acute monoblastic leukemia cells, the spectra of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells showed stronger peaks in 622, 643, 757, 852, 1003, 1033, 1117, 1157, 1173, 1208, 1340, 1551, 1581 cm -1 . The diagnostic models established by PCA-DFA and cluster analysis could successfully classify these Raman spectra of different samples with a high accuracy of 100% (233/233). The model was evaluated by "Leave-one-out" cross-validation and reached a high accuracy of 97% (226/233). The level of macromolecules of M 3 cells is higher than that of M 5 . The diagnostic models established by PCA-DFA can classify these Raman spectra of different cells with a high accuracy. Raman spectra shows consistent result with ultrastructure by TEM.

  13. Neurophysiological differences between patients clinically at high risk for schizophrenia and neurotypical controls--first steps in development of a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Frank H; D'Angelo, Eugene; Rotenberg, Alexander; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2015-11-02

    Schizophrenia is a severe, disabling and prevalent mental disorder without cure and with a variable, incomplete pharmacotherapeutic response. Prior to onset in adolescence or young adulthood a prodromal period of abnormal symptoms lasting weeks to years has been identified and operationalized as clinically high risk (CHR) for schizophrenia. However, only a minority of subjects prospectively identified with CHR convert to schizophrenia, thereby limiting enthusiasm for early intervention(s). This study utilized objective resting electroencephalogram (EEG) quantification to determine whether CHR constitutes a cohesive entity and an evoked potential to assess CHR cortical auditory processing. This study constitutes an EEG-based quantitative neurophysiological comparison between two unmedicated subject groups: 35 neurotypical controls (CON) and 22 CHR patients. After artifact management, principal component analysis (PCA) identified EEG spectral and spectral coherence factors described by associated loading patterns. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) determined factors' discrimination success between subjects in the CON and CHR groups. Loading patterns on DFA-selected factors described CHR-specific spectral and coherence differences when compared to controls. The frequency modulated auditory evoked response (FMAER) explored functional CON-CHR differences within the superior temporal gyri. Variable reduction by PCA identified 40 coherence-based factors explaining 77.8% of the total variance and 40 spectral factors explaining 95.9% of the variance. DFA demonstrated significant CON-CHR group difference (P <0.00001) and successful jackknifed subject classification (CON, 85.7%; CHR, 86.4% correct). The population distribution plotted along the canonical discriminant variable was clearly bimodal. Coherence factors delineated loading patterns of altered connectivity primarily involving the bilateral posterior temporal electrodes. However, FMAER analysis showed no CON

  14. Study of Glycemic Variability Through Time Series Analyses (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Poincaré Plot) in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Maset, Leonor; González, Lidia Blasco; Furquet, Gonzalo Llop; Suay, Francisco Montes; Marco, Roberto Hernández

    2016-11-01

    Time series analysis provides information on blood glucose dynamics that is unattainable with conventional glycemic variability (GV) indices. To date, no studies have been published on these parameters in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship between time series analysis and conventional GV indices, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This is a transversal study of 41 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Glucose monitoring was carried out continuously for 72 h to study the following GV indices: standard deviation (SD) of glucose levels (mg/dL), coefficient of variation (%), interquartile range (IQR; mg/dL), mean amplitude of the largest glycemic excursions (MAGE), and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA). The time series analysis was conducted by means of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and Poincaré plot. Time series parameters (DFA alpha coefficient and elements of the ellipse of the Poincaré plot) correlated well with the more conventional GV indices. Patients were grouped according to the terciles of these indices, to the terciles of eccentricity (1: 12.56-16.98, 2: 16.99-21.91, 3: 21.92-41.03), and to the value of the DFA alpha coefficient (> or ≤1.5). No differences were observed in the HbA1c of patients grouped by GV index criteria; however, significant differences were found in patients grouped by alpha coefficient and eccentricity, not only in terms of HbA1c, but also in SD glucose, IQR, and CONGA index. The loss of complexity in glycemic homeostasis is accompanied by an increase in variability.

  15. Loss of knee extensor torque complexity during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions occurs exclusively above the critical torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of knee extensor torque time series decreases during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions. We hypothesized that because of peripheral fatigue, this loss of torque complexity would occur exclusively during contractions above the critical torque (CT). Nine healthy participants performed isometric knee extension exercise (6 s of contraction, 4 s of rest) on six occasions for 30 min or to task failure, whichever occurred sooner. Four trials were performed above CT (trials S1-S4, S1 being the lowest intensity), and two were performed below CT (at 50% and 90% of CT). Global, central, and peripheral fatigue were quantified using maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) with femoral nerve stimulation. The complexity of torque output was determined using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis-α scaling exponent (DFA-α). The MVC torque was reduced in trials below CT [by 19 ± 4% (means ± SE) in 90%CT], but complexity did not decrease [ApEn for 90%CT: from 0.82 ± 0.03 to 0.75 ± 0.06, 95% paired-samples confidence intervals (CIs), 95% CI = -0.23, 0.10; DFA-α from 1.36 ± 0.01 to 1.32 ± 0.03, 95% CI -0.12, 0.04]. Above CT, substantial reductions in MVC torque occurred (of 49 ± 8% in S1), and torque complexity was reduced (ApEn for S1: from 0.67 ± 0.06 to 0.14 ± 0.01, 95% CI = -0.72, -0.33; DFA-α from 1.38 ± 0.03 to 1.58 ± 0.01, 95% CI 0.12, 0.29). Thus, in these experiments, the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity occurred exclusively during contractions performed above the CT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Approaches to brain stress testing: BOLD magnetic resonance imaging with computer-controlled delivery of carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impaired vascular response in the brain regionally may indicate reduced vascular reserve and vulnerability to ischemic injury. Changing the carbon dioxide (CO(2 tension in arterial blood is commonly used as a cerebral vasoactive stimulus to assess the cerebral vascular response, changing cerebral blood flow (CBF by up to 5-11 percent/mmHg in normal adults. Here we describe two approaches to generating the CO(2 challenge using a computer-controlled gas blender to administer: i a square wave change in CO(2 and, ii a ramp stimulus, consisting of a continuously graded change in CO(2 over a range. Responses were assessed regionally by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 8 patients with known cerebrovascular disease (carotid stenosis or occlusion and 2 healthy subjects. The square wave stimulus was used to study the dynamics of the vascular response, while the ramp stimulus assessed the steady-state response to CO(2. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR maps were registered by color coding and overlaid on the anatomical scans generated with 3 Tesla MRI to assess the corresponding BOLD signal change/mmHg change in CO(2, voxel-by-voxel. Using a fractal temporal approach, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA maps of the processed raw BOLD signal per voxel over the same CO(2 range were generated. Regions of BOLD signal decrease with increased CO(2 (coded blue were seen in all of these high-risk patients, indicating regions of impaired CVR. All patients also demonstrated regions of altered signal structure on DFA maps (Hurst exponents less than 0.5; coded blue indicative of anti-persistent noise. While 'blue' CVR maps remained essentially stable over the time of analysis, 'blue' DFA maps improved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This combined dual stimulus and dual analysis approach may be complementary in identifying vulnerable brain regions and thus constitute a regional as

  17. The complexity of standing postural control in older adults: a modified detrended fluctuation analysis based upon the empirical mode decomposition algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhou

    Full Text Available Human aging into senescence diminishes the capacity of the postural control system to adapt to the stressors of everyday life. Diminished adaptive capacity may be reflected by a loss of the fractal-like, multiscale complexity within the dynamics of standing postural sway (i.e., center-of-pressure, COP. We therefore studied the relationship between COP complexity and adaptive capacity in 22 older and 22 younger healthy adults. COP magnitude dynamics were assessed from raw data during quiet standing with eyes open and closed, and complexity was quantified with a new technique termed empirical mode decomposition embedded detrended fluctuation analysis (EMD-DFA. Adaptive capacity of the postural control system was assessed with the sharpened Romberg test. As compared to traditional DFA, EMD-DFA more accurately identified trends in COP data with intrinsic scales and produced short and long-term scaling exponents (i.e., α(Short, α(Long with greater reliability. The fractal-like properties of COP fluctuations were time-scale dependent and highly complex (i.e., α(Short values were close to one over relatively short time scales. As compared to younger adults, older adults demonstrated lower short-term COP complexity (i.e., greater α(Short values in both visual conditions (p>0.001. Closing the eyes decreased short-term COP complexity, yet this decrease was greater in older compared to younger adults (p<0.001. In older adults, those with higher short-term COP complexity exhibited better adaptive capacity as quantified by Romberg test performance (r(2 = 0.38, p<0.001. These results indicate that an age-related loss of COP complexity of magnitude series may reflect a clinically important reduction in postural control system functionality as a new biomarker.

  18. Fractal time series analysis of postural stability in elderly and control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doussot Michel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of balance using stabilogram analysis is of particular interest in the study of falls. Although simple statistical parameters derived from the stabilogram have been shown to predict risk of falls, such measures offer little insight into the underlying control mechanisms responsible for degradation in balance. In contrast, fractal and non-linear time-series analysis of stabilograms, such as estimations of the Hurst exponent (H, may provide information related to the underlying motor control strategies governing postural stability. In order to be adapted for a home-based follow-up of balance, such methods need to be robust, regardless of the experimental protocol, while producing time-series that are as short as possible. The present study compares two methods of calculating H: Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA and Stabilogram Diffusion Analysis (SDA for elderly and control subjects, as well as evaluating the effect of recording duration. Methods Centre of pressure signals were obtained from 90 young adult subjects and 10 elderly subjects. Data were sampled at 100 Hz for 30 s, including stepping onto and off the force plate. Estimations of H were made using sliding windows of 10, 5, and 2.5 s durations, with windows slid forward in 1-s increments. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for the effect of time, age and estimation method on the Hurst exponent, while the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used as a measure of reliability. Results Both SDA and DFA methods were able to identify differences in postural stability between control and elderly subjects for time series as short as 5 s, with ICC values as high as 0.75 for DFA. Conclusion Both methods would be well-suited to non-invasive longitudinal assessment of balance. In addition, reliable estimations of H were obtained from time series as short as 5 s.

  19. Examining the effectiveness of discriminant function analysis and cluster analysis in species identification of male field crickets based on their calling songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Jaiswara

    Full Text Available Traditional taxonomy based on morphology has often failed in accurate species identification owing to the occurrence of cryptic species, which are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical. Molecular data have thus been used to complement morphology in species identification. The sexual advertisement calls in several groups of acoustically communicating animals are species-specific and can thus complement molecular data as non-invasive tools for identification. Several statistical tools and automated identifier algorithms have been used to investigate the efficiency of acoustic signals in species identification. Despite a plethora of such methods, there is a general lack of knowledge regarding the appropriate usage of these methods in specific taxa. In this study, we investigated the performance of two commonly used statistical methods, discriminant function analysis (DFA and cluster analysis, in identification and classification based on acoustic signals of field cricket species belonging to the subfamily Gryllinae. Using a comparative approach we evaluated the optimal number of species and calling song characteristics for both the methods that lead to most accurate classification and identification. The accuracy of classification using DFA was high and was not affected by the number of taxa used. However, a constraint in using discriminant function analysis is the need for a priori classification of songs. Accuracy of classification using cluster analysis, which does not require a priori knowledge, was maximum for 6-7 taxa and decreased significantly when more than ten taxa were analysed together. We also investigated the efficacy of two novel derived acoustic features in improving the accuracy of identification. Our results show that DFA is a reliable statistical tool for species identification using acoustic signals. Our results also show that cluster analysis of acoustic signals in crickets works effectively for species

  20. Effect of whole-body vibration on center-of-mass movement during standing in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huaqing; Beerse, Matthew; Ke, Xiang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) can affect postural control and muscular activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the center-of-mass (COM) movement of children and young adults before, during, immediately after, and 5min after 40-s WBV in quiet standing. Fourteen young adults (mean age 24.5 years) and fourteen children (mean age 8.1 years) participated in the study. A full-body 35-marker set was placed on the participants and used to calculate COM. Forty-second standing trials were collected before, during, immediately after, and 5min after WBV with an frequency of 28Hz and an amplitude of range, sway area and fractal dimension), frequency-domain measures (total power and median frequency), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent in both anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Results show that during WBV both children and adults increased average velocity and median frequency, but decreased range and the DFA scaling exponent. Immediately after WBV both groups increased the range, but showed pre-vibration values for most of the COM variables. Comparing to adults, children displayed a higher COM velocity, range, fractal dimension, and total power, but a lower DFA scaling exponent at all phases. The results suggest that both children and adults can quickly adapt their postural control system to WBV and maintain balance during and after vibration. Children display some adult-like postural control during and after WBV; however, their postural development continues into adolescence. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Cross-correlation analysis between Chinese TF contracts and treasury ETF based on high-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the high-frequency cross-correlation relationship between Chinese treasury futures contracts and treasury ETF. We analyze the logarithmic return of these two price series, from which we can conclude that both return series are not normally distributed and the futures markets have greater volatility. We find significant cross-correlation between these two series. We further confirm the relationship using the DCCA coefficient and the DMCA coefficient. We quantify the long-range cross-correlation with DCCA method, and we further show that the relationship is multifractal. An arbitrage algorithm based on DFA regression with stable return is proposed in the last part.

  2. Correlated and uncorrelated heart rate fluctuations during relaxing visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, N.; Pallikari, F.

    2010-05-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) of healthy subjects practicing relaxing visualization is studied by use of three multiscale analysis techniques: the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), the entropy in natural time (ENT) and the average wavelet (AWC) coefficient. The scaling exponent of normal interbeat interval increments exhibits characteristics of the presence of long-range correlations. During relaxing visualization the HRV dynamics change in the sense that two new features emerge independent of each other: a respiration-induced periodicity that often dominates the HRV at short scales (sleep.

  3. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  4. Fractal dynamics of heartbeat time series of young persons with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Alonso-Martínez, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Martínez-Hernández, G.

    2012-10-01

    Many physiological systems have been in recent years quantitatively characterized using fractal analysis. We applied it to study heart variability of young subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS); we examined the RR time series (time between two R waves in ECG) with the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, the Higuchi's fractal dimension method and the multifractal analysis to detect the possible presence of heart problems. The results show that although the young persons have MS, the majority do not present alterations in the heart dynamics. However, there were cases where the fractal parameter values differed significantly from the healthy people values.

  5. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  6. AFETR Instrumentation Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-09-01

    90 TELEMETRY 0 U- a. 00 m 00~0 0L 0- uiu o of U- u 0 > IL a__3c 00f z X I- I-- 00 ( Sdg )l 08L) J:)I?j Oi to- zn M 00 LuU co 0 he o~~0 I-i zw~~~- ~ca LL...ARN-6 DFA-70 4. APN-70 LORAN x 5. N-l Compass System X X 6. True Air Speed Ind Sys X X 7. APN-59 SEarch Radar X X 8. Doppler Nav Radar APN-82 APN-147 9

  7. Comparing geological and statistical approaches for element selection in sediment tracing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; McMahon, Joe; Evrard, Olivier; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Elevated suspended sediment loads reduce reservoir capacity and significantly increase the cost of operating water treatment infrastructure, making the management of sediment supply to reservoirs of increasingly importance. Sediment fingerprinting techniques can be used to determine the relative contributions of different sources of sediment accumulating in reservoirs. The objective of this research is to compare geological and statistical approaches to element selection for sediment fingerprinting modelling. Time-integrated samplers (n=45) were used to obtain source samples from four major subcatchments flowing into the Baroon Pocket Dam in South East Queensland, Australia. The geochemistry of potential sources were compared to the geochemistry of sediment cores (n=12) sampled in the reservoir. The geochemical approach selected elements for modelling that provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination between sediment sources. Two statistical approaches selected elements for modelling with the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and Discriminatory Function Analysis (DFA). In particular, two different significance levels (0.05 & 0.35) for the DFA were included to investigate the importance of element selection on modelling results. A distribution model determined the relative contributions of different sources to sediment sampled in the Baroon Pocket Dam. Elemental discrimination was expected between one subcatchment (Obi Obi Creek) and the remaining subcatchments (Lexys, Falls and Bridge Creek). Six major elements were expected to provide discrimination. Of these six, only Fe2O3 and SiO2 provided expected, observed and statistical discrimination. Modelling results with this geological approach indicated 36% (+/- 9%) of sediment sampled in the reservoir cores were from mafic-derived sources and 64% (+/- 9%) were from felsic-derived sources. The geological and the first statistical approach (DFA0.05) differed by only 1% (σ 5%) for 5 out of 6 model groupings with only

  8. Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

  9. Constitutive laws for the neutron density current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Morales-Sandoval, Jaime B.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Espinosa-Martinez, Erick-G.

    2008-01-01

    In this technical note, a fractional wave equation for the average neutron motion in nuclear reactor is considered. This representation covers the full spectrum of the average neutron transport behavior, i.e., Fickian and non-Fickian effects. The fractional diffusion model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion in which the relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains a fractional exponent that can be manipulated to obtain the best representation of the neutron transport phenomena. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method is presented in this paper to estimate the fractional exponent

  10. Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic test and immunofluorescence assay compared to real time RT-PCR in children with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infection 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction:The influenza burden among children is underestimated. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of the rapid influenza detection test (RIDT BD Directigen™ EZ Flu A B® and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA used among children with influenza-like illness (ILI consulted in the ambulatory care clinic.Material/Methods:A total of 150 patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were: age less than 59 months, presentation of ILI according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition (fever >37.8°C, cough and/or sore throat in the absence of another known cause of illness, duration of symptoms shorter than 96 hours. Two nasal swabs and one pharyngeal swab were obtained from patients and tested by RIDT, DFA and real time RT-PCR as the reference method.Results:For influenza A (H1N1pdm09 virus sensitivity of RIDT was 62.2�0(95�0CI 46.5–76.2� specificity 97.1�0(95�0CI 91.8–99.4� PPV 90.3�0(95�0CI 74.3–98� NPV 85.7�0(95�0CI 78.1–91.5� for DFA sensitivity was 60�0(95�0CI 51.9–63.2� specificity 96�0(95�0CI 88.7–98.8� PPV 93.1�0(95�0CI 80.5–98� NPV 72.7�0(95�0CI 67.2–74.9� Analysis of logistic regression revealed that the chance of receiving a true positive result of RIDT was twice as high when the test was conducted during the first 48 hours of symptoms (OR 0.40 vs OR 0.22.Conclusions:The accuracy of RIDT is comparable with DFA and both methods are very specific but moderately sensitive in diagnosis of influenza in young children. Both methods may be recommended for screening for influenza among children.

  11. Time indices of multiphasic development in genotypes of sweet cherry are similar from dormancy to cessation of pit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M; Whiting, Matthew D; Einhorn, Todd

    2017-02-01

    The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size. Volume was calculated from photographic measurements of reproductive buds, ovaries and pits at all phases of development. A population of unfertilized ovaries was produced using bee-exclusion netting to enable a statistical comparison with an open pollinated population to detect differences in size and shape between successful and failing fruit growth. Anthesis timing and fruiting-density were manipulated by floral extinction at the spur and whole-tree scales. Developmental time indices were analysed using polynomial curve fitting of log-transformed data supported by Richards and logistic functions of asymptotic growth of the pit and maturing fruit, respectively. Pre-anthesis growth began at the completion of eco-dormancy. A slight decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was observed during bud scale separation approx. -16 d from anthesis (DFA) before resumption of exponential growth to a maximum about 14 DFA. After anthesis, reduced growth of unfertilized or defective ovaries was partly discriminated from successful fruit at 5 DFA and completely at 25 DFA. Time indices of RGR inflections were similar among cultivars when adjusted for anthesis date alone, until the end of pit growth. Asymptotic growth of the pit underpinned the declining growth rate of fruit at the end of the first exponential

  12. Biofeedback training effects on minimum toe clearance variability during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Oren; Cambell, Amity; Begg, Rezaul K; Sparrow, W A

    2013-08-01

    A number of variability analysis techniques, including Poincaré plots and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were used to investigate minimum toe clearance (MTC) control during walking. Ten young adults walked on a treadmill for 10 min at preferred speed in three conditions: (i) no-intervention baseline, (ii) with biofeedback of MTC within a target range, and (iii) no-biofeedback retention. Mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and inter quartile range of MTC during biofeedback (45.57 ± 11.65, 44.98 ± 11.57, 7.08 ± 2.61, 8.58 ± 2.77 mm, respectively) and retention (56.95 ± 20.31, 56.69 ± 20.94, 10.68 ± 5.41, 15.38 ± 10.19 mm) were significantly greater than baseline (30.77 ± 9.49, 30.51 ± 9.49, 3.04 ± 0.77, 3.66 ± 0.91 mm). Relative to baseline, skewness was reduced in biofeedback and retention but only significantly for retention (0.88 ± 0.51, 0.63 ± 0.55, and 0.40 ± 0.40, respectively). Baseline Poincaré measures (SD1 = 0.25, SD2 = 0.34) and DFA (α1 = 0.72 and α2 = 0.64) were lower than biofeedback (SD1 = 0.58, SD2 = 0.83, DFA α1 = 0.76 and α2 = 0.92) with significantly greater variability in retention compared to biofeedback only in the long-term SD2 and α2 analyses. Increased DFA longer-term correlations α2 in retention confirm that a novel gait pattern was acquired with a longer-term variability structure. Short- and long-term variability analyses were both useful in quantifying gait adaptations with biofeedback. The findings provide evidence that MTC can be modified with feedback, suggesting future applications in gait training procedures for impaired populations designed to reduce tripping risk.

  13. Cycles, scaling and crossover phenomenon in length of the day (LOD) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano

    2007-06-01

    The dynamics of the temporal fluctuations of the length of the day (LOD) time series from January 1, 1962 to November 2, 2006 were investigated. The power spectrum of the whole time series has revealed annual, semi-annual, decadal and daily oscillatory behaviors, correlated with oceanic-atmospheric processes and interactions. The scaling behavior was analyzed by using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which has revealed two different scaling regimes, separated by a crossover timescale at approximately 23 days. Flicker-noise process can describe the dynamics of the LOD time regime involving intermediate and long timescales, while Brownian dynamics characterizes the LOD time series for small timescales.

  14. Advanced compositional gradient and compartmentalization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, Jesus A.; Petti, Daniela; Mullins, Oliver [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Acquisition of hydrocarbons samples from the reservoir prior to oil or gas production is essential in order to design production strategies and production facilities. In addition, reservoir compartmentalization and hydrocarbon compositional grading magnify the necessity to map fluid properties vertically and laterally in the reservoir prior to production. Formation testers supply a wealth of information to observe and predict the state of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs, through detailed pressure and fluid analysis measurements. With the correct understanding of the state of fluids in the reservoirs, reserve calculations and adequate development plans can be prepared. Additionally, flow barriers may then be revealed. This paper describes a new Downhole Fluid Analysis technology (DFA) for improved reservoir management. DFA is a unique process that combines new fluid identification sensors, which allow real time monitoring of a wide range of parameters as GOR, fluid density, viscosity, fluorescence and composition (CH{sub 4}, C2- C5, C6 +, CO{sub 2}), free gas and liquid phases detection, saturation pressure, as well WBM and OBM filtrate differentiation and pH. This process is not limited to light fluid evaluation and we extended to heavy oil (HO) reservoirs analysis successfully. The combination of DFA Fluid Profiling with pressure measurements has shown to be very effective for compartmentalization characterization. The ability of thin barriers to hold off large depletion pressures has been established, as the gradual variation of hydrocarbon quality in biodegraded oils. In addition, heavy oils can show large compositional variation due to variations in source rock charging but without fluid mixing. Our findings indicates that steep gradients are common in gas condensates or volatile oils, and that biodegradation is more common in HO than in other hydrocarbons, which generate fluid gradients and heavy ends tars near the OWC, limiting the aquifer activity and

  15. Long-range correlations and asymmetry in the Bitcoin market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.; Ibarra-Valdez, C.

    2018-02-01

    This work studies long-range correlations and informational efficiency of the Bitcoin market for the period from June 30, 2013 to June 3rd, 2017. To this end, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was implemented over sliding windows to estimate long-range correlations for price returns. It was found that the Bitcoin market exhibits periods of efficiency alternating with periods where the price dynamics are driven by anti-persistence. The pattern is replicated by prices samples at day, hour and second frequencies. The Bitcoin market also presents asymmetric correlations with respect to increasing and decreasing price trending, with the former trend linked to anti-persistence of returns dynamics.

  16. A systemic approach for managing extreme risk events-dynamic financial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Student Rodica Ianole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Black Swan logic, it often happens that what we do not know becomes more relevant that what we (believe to know. The management of extreme risks falls under this paradigm in the sense that it cannot be limited to a static approach based only on objective and easily quantifiable variables. Making appeal to the operational tools developed primarily for the insurance industry, the present paper aims to investigate how dynamic financial analysis (DFA can be used within the framework of extreme risk events.

  17. The influence of liquidity on informational efficiency: The case of the Thai Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariviera, Aurelio Fernández

    2011-11-01

    The presence of long-range memory in financial time series is a puzzling fact that challenges the established financial theory. We study the effect of liquidity on the efficiency (measured by the Hurst’s exponent) of the Thai Stock Market. According to our study, we find that: (i) the R/S method could generate spurious long-range dependence, giving the DFA method more reliable estimates of the Hurst’s exponent and (ii) there is a weak relationship between market capitalization and the efficiency of the market, and that the latter is not significantly affected by the presence of foreign investors.

  18. Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee

    2010-01-01

    Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the

  19. Imaging of salt structure; Gan`enso kozo no imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akama, K; Saeki, T [Japan National Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Due to the improvement of algorithm and the advancement of calculation performance, the imaging by depth migration before stacking is being put into practice from the viewpoint of both calculation cost and accuracy. A lot of imaging examples have been already reported from the survey areas with complicated velocity structures, such as the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Effectiveness of the method has been confirmed. For imaging techniques in Japan National Oil Corporation and Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd., high-speed depth migration before stacking and high efficiency velocity structure estimation technique have been investigated. This paper describes necessary care to be taken when using depth focusing analysis (DFA) for correcting a velocity model, as an interim stage of case study. The results of depth migration before stacking using dip moveout (DMO) velocity were further inferior to the section obtained by the migration after tracking. Tendency of velocity errors was distinctly deviated with the variation of depth and horizontal position. It was not suitable for modifying the velocity model using DFA. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Optimized approach to decision fusion of heterogeneous data for breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Nolte, Loren W.; Baker, Jay A.; Floyd, Carey E.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2006-01-01

    As more diagnostic testing options become available to physicians, it becomes more difficult to combine various types of medical information together in order to optimize the overall diagnosis. To improve diagnostic performance, here we introduce an approach to optimize a decision-fusion technique to combine heterogeneous information, such as from different modalities, feature categories, or institutions. For classifier comparison we used two performance metrics: The receiving operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve [area under the ROC curve (AUC)] and the normalized partial area under the curve (pAUC). This study used four classifiers: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), artificial neural network (ANN), and two variants of our decision-fusion technique, AUC-optimized (DF-A) and pAUC-optimized (DF-P) decision fusion. We applied each of these classifiers with 100-fold cross-validation to two heterogeneous breast cancer data sets: One of mass lesion features and a much more challenging one of microcalcification lesion features. For the calcification data set, DF-A outperformed the other classifiers in terms of AUC (p 0.10), the DF-P did significantly improve specificity versus the LDA at both 98% and 100% sensitivity (p<0.04). In conclusion, decision fusion directly optimized clinically significant performance measures, such as AUC and pAUC, and sometimes outperformed two well-known machine-learning techniques when applied to two different breast cancer data sets

  1. Behavior of the E-E' Bonds (E, E' = S and Se) in Glutathione Disulfide and Derivatives Elucidated by Quantum Chemical Calculations with the Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoko; Tsubomoto, Yutaka; Nakanishi, Waro

    2018-02-17

    The nature of the E-E' bonds (E, E' = S and Se) in glutathione disulfide ( 1 ) and derivatives 2 - 3 , respectively, was elucidated by applying quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) dual functional analysis (QTAIM-DFA), to clarify the basic contribution of E-E' in the biological redox process, such as the glutathione peroxidase process. Five most stable conformers a - e were obtained, after applying the Monte-Carlo method then structural optimizations. In QTAIM-DFA, total electron energy densities H b ( r c ) are plotted versus H b ( r c ) - V b ( r c )/2 at bond critical points (BCPs), where V b ( r c ) are potential energy densities at BCPs. Data from the fully optimized structures correspond to the static nature. Those containing perturbed structures around the fully optimized one in the plot represent the dynamic nature of interactions. The behavior of E-E' was examined carefully. Whereas E-E' in 1a - 3e were all predicted to have the weak covalent nature of the shared shell interactions, two different types of S-S were detected in 1 , depending on the conformational properties. Contributions from the intramolecular non-covalent interactions to stabilize the conformers were evaluated. An inverse relationship was observed between the stability of a conformer and the strength of E-E' in the conformer, of which reason was discussed.

  2. Heart rate variability analysis in healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure and heart transplanted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find parameters to characterize heart rate variability (HRV and discriminate healthy subjects and patients with heart diseases. The parameters used for discrimination characterize the different components of HRV memory (short and long and are extracted from HRV recordings using parametric as well as non parametric methods. Thus, the parameters are: spectral components at low frequencies (LH and high frequencies (HF which are associated with the short memory of HRV and the long memory parameter (d obtained from autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA models. In the non parametric context, short memory (α1 and long memory (α2 parameters are obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The sample used in this study contains 24-hour Holter HRV recordings of 30 subjects: 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients suffering from congestive heart failure and 10 heart transplanted patients from the Noltisalis database. It was found that short memory parameters present higher values for the healthy individuals whereas long memory parameters present higher values for the diseased individuals. Moreover, there is evidence that ARFIMA modeling allows the discrimination between the 3 groups under study, being advantageous over DFA.

  3. General anesthesia suppresses normal heart rate variability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Gerald; Wood, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The human heart normally exhibits robust beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV). The loss of this variability is associated with pathology, including disease states such as congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of general anesthesia on intrinsic HRV is unknown. In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 100 human subjects having elective major surgical procedures under general anesthesia. We recorded continuous heart rate data via continuous electrocardiogram before, during, and after anesthesia, and we assessed HRV of the R-R intervals. We assessed HRV using several common metrics including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Multifractal Analysis, and Multiscale Entropy Analysis. Each of these analyses was done in each of the four clinical phases for each study subject over the course of 24 h: Before anesthesia, during anesthesia, early recovery, and late recovery. On average, we observed a loss of variability on the aforementioned metrics that appeared to correspond to the state of general anesthesia. Following the conclusion of anesthesia, most study subjects appeared to regain their normal HRV, although this did not occur immediately. The resumption of normal HRV was especially delayed on DFA. Qualitatively, the reduction in HRV under anesthesia appears similar to the reduction in HRV observed in CHF. These observations will need to be validated in future studies, and the broader clinical implications of these observations, if any, are unknown.

  4. Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

    2013-11-15

    This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor deficits in schizophrenia quantified by nonlinear analysis of postural sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerillyn S Kent

    Full Text Available Motor dysfunction is a consistently reported but understudied aspect of schizophrenia. Postural sway area was examined in individuals with schizophrenia under four conditions with different amounts of visual and proprioceptive feedback: eyes open or closed and feet together or shoulder width apart. The nonlinear complexity of postural sway was assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The schizophrenia group (n = 27 exhibited greater sway area compared to controls (n = 37. Participants with schizophrenia showed increased sway area following the removal of visual input, while this pattern was absent in controls. Examination of DFA revealed decreased complexity of postural sway and abnormal changes in complexity upon removal of visual input in individuals with schizophrenia. Additionally, less complex postural sway was associated with increased symptom severity in participants with schizophrenia. Given the critical involvement of the cerebellum and related circuits in postural stability and sensorimotor integration, these results are consistent with growing evidence of motor, cerebellar, and sensory integration dysfunction in the disorder, and with theoretical models that implicate cerebellar deficits and more general disconnection of function in schizophrenia.

  6. Identification and genetic characterization of rabies virus from Egyptian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tholoth, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Hamed, Mohamed F

    2015-09-01

    Rabies is caused by negative strand RNA-virus classified in the genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae of the order Mononegavirales. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze nucleotides sequence of nucleoprotein (N) gene of rabies virus (RABV) from two cases of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) bitten by a fox in Egypt, 2013. The diseased buffaloes showed nervous manifestations with fever. Specimens from brains of the buffaloes with suspected rabies were collected. RABV in collected samples was identified using direct fluorescent antibody (dFA) technique, histopathological examination and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Also, nucleotides sequence of partially amplified nucleoprotein (N) gene was compared with the other street strains of RABV available on GenBank. The results revealed that RABV antigen was identified in the brains of diseased buffaloes by dFA technique and the characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies) and RABV nucleic acid were detected by histopathology and RT-PCR, respectively. The identified virus showed close genetic relationship with street strains identified previously from dogs in different Governorates in Egypt and with strains identified in Israel and Jordan indicating transmission of the virus between Egyptian Governorates with a potential transmission from and/or to our neighboring countries.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of pupillary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Francesco; Mainardi, Luca Tommaso; Sirca, Fabiola; Russo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Pupil size reflects autonomic response to different environmental and behavioral stimuli, and its dynamics have been linked to other autonomic correlates such as cardiac and respiratory rhythms. The aim of this study is to assess the nonlinear characteristics of pupil size of 25 normal subjects who participated in a psychophysiological experimental protocol with four experimental conditions, namely “baseline”, “anger”, “joy”, and “sadness”. Nonlinear measures, such as sample entropy, correlation dimension, and largest Lyapunov exponent, were computed on reconstructed signals of spontaneous fluctuations of pupil dilation. Nonparametric statistical tests were performed on surrogate data to verify that the nonlinear measures are an intrinsic characteristic of the signals. We then developed and applied a piecewise linear regression model to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Two joinpoints and three scaling intervals were identified: slope α0, at slow time scales, represents a persistent nonstationary long-range correlation, whereas α1 and α2, at middle and fast time scales, respectively, represent long-range power-law correlations, similarly to DFA applied to heart rate variability signals. Of the computed complexity measures, α0 showed statistically significant differences among experimental conditions (pnonlinear dynamics, (b) three well-defined and distinct long-memory processes exist at different time scales, and (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics. (c) autonomic stimulation is partially reflected in nonlinear dynamics.

  8. Accuracy and reliability in sex determination from skulls: a comparison of Fordisc® 3.0 and the discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Bruzek, Jaroslav

    2011-05-20

    Identification in forensic anthropology and the definition of a biological profile in bioarchaeology are essential to each of those fields and use the same methodologies. Sex, age, stature and ancestry can be conclusive or dispensable, depending on the field. The Fordisc(®) 3.0 computer program was developed to aid in the identification of the sex, stature and ancestry of skeletal remains by exploiting the Forensic Data Bank (FDB) and computing discriminant function analyses (DFAs). Although widely used, this tool has been recently criticised, principally when used to determine ancestry. Two sub-samples of individuals of known sex were drawn from French (n=50) and Thai (n=91) osteological collections and used to assess the reliability of sex determination using Fordisc(®) 3.0 with 12 cranial measurements. Comparisons were made using the whole FDB as well as using select groups, taking into account the posterior and typicality probabilities. The results of Fordisc(®) 3.0 vary between 52.2% and 77.8% depending on the options and groups selected. Tests of published discriminant functions and the computation of specific DFA were performed in order to discuss the applicability of this software and, overall, to question the pertinence of the use of DFA and linear distances in sex determination, in light of the huge cranial morphological variability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA with 128, 192, and 256-Bit Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junko; Fukunaga, Toshinori

    This paper describes a differential fault analysis (DFA) attack against CLEFIA. The proposed attack can be applied to CLEFIA with all supported keys: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys. DFA is a type of side-channel attack. This attack enables the recovery of secret keys by injecting faults into a secure device during its computation of the cryptographic algorithm and comparing the correct ciphertext with the faulty one. CLEFIA is a 128-bit blockcipher with 128, 192, and 256-bit keys developed by the Sony Corporation in 2007. CLEFIA employs a generalized Feistel structure with four data lines. We developed a new attack method that uses this characteristic structure of the CLEFIA algorithm. On the basis of the proposed attack, only 2 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts are needed to retrieve the 128-bit key, and 10.78 pairs on average are needed to retrieve the 192 and 256-bit keys. The proposed attack is more efficient than any previously reported. In order to verify the proposed attack and estimate the calculation time to recover the secret key, we conducted an attack simulation using a PC. The simulation results show that we can obtain each secret key within three minutes on average. This result shows that we can obtain the entire key within a feasible computational time.

  10. Analysis of physiological signals for recognition of boredom, pain, and surprise emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hye; Park, Byoung-Jun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2015-06-18

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise. In addition to that, it was conducted to propose approaches for emotion recognition based on physiological signals. Three emotions, boredom, pain, and surprise, are induced through the presentation of emotional stimuli and electrocardiography (ECG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (SKT), and photoplethysmography (PPG) as physiological signals are measured to collect a dataset from 217 participants when experiencing the emotions. Twenty-seven physiological features are extracted from the signals to classify the three emotions. The discriminant function analysis (DFA) as a statistical method, and five machine learning algorithms (linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), self-organizing map (SOM), Naïve Bayes algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM)) are used for classifying the emotions. The result shows that the difference of physiological responses among emotions is significant in heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), skin conductance response (SCR), mean skin temperature (meanSKT), blood volume pulse (BVP), and pulse transit time (PTT), and the highest recognition accuracy of 84.7% is obtained by using DFA. This study demonstrates the differences of boredom, pain, and surprise and the best emotion recognizer for the classification of the three emotions by using physiological signals.

  11. Linear scaling of density functional algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechel, E.B.; Feibelman, P.J.; Williams, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient density functional algorithm (DFA) that scales linearly with system size will revolutionize electronic structure calculations. Density functional calculations are reliable and accurate in determining many condensed matter and molecular ground-state properties. However, because current DFA's, including methods related to that of Car and Parrinello, scale with the cube of the system size, density functional studies are not routinely applied to large systems. Linear scaling is achieved by constructing functions that are both localized and fully occupied, thereby eliminating the need to calculate global eigenfunctions. It is, however, widely believed that exponential localization requires the existence of an energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied states. Despite this, the authors demonstrate that linear scaling can still be achieved for metals. Using a linear scaling algorithm, they have explicitly constructed localized, almost fully occupied orbitals for the quintessential metallic system, jellium. The algorithm is readily generalizable to any system geometry and Hamiltonian. They will discuss the conceptual issues involved, convergence properties and scaling for their new algorithm

  12. Classification of monofloral honeys by voltammetric electronic tongue with chemometrics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhenbo [Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > We self-developed a voltammetric electronic tongue based on new sensors array. > We advanced a new method to extract eigenvalues from signals obtained by VE-tongue. > We first detected the monofloral honeys of different floral origins using VE-tongue. - Abstract: A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) based on multifrequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) was developed to classify monofloral honeys of seven kinds of floral origins. The VE-tongue was composed of six working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, tungsten, and titanium) in a standard three-electrode configuration. The applied waveform of MLAPV was composed of four individual frequencies: 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1000 Hz. Two eigenvalues (the maximum value and the minimum value) of each cycle were extracted for building the first database (FDB); four eigenvalues (the maximum value, the minimum value, and two inflexion values) were exacted for building the second database (SDB). The two databases were analyzed by three-pattern recognition techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA) and cluster analysis (CA), respectively. It was possible to discriminate the seven kinds of honeys of different floral origins completely based on FDB and SDB by PCA, DFA and CA, and FDB was certificated as an efficient database by contrasting with the SDB. Moreover, the effective working electrodes and frequencies were picked out as the best experimental project for the further study.

  13. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.

  14. Fatigue reduces the complexity of knee extensor torque fluctuations during maximal and submaximal intermittent isometric contractions in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations. PMID:25664928

  15. Detrended fluctuation analysis of short datasets: An application to fetal cardiac data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Preißl, H.; Eswaran, H.; Campbell, J. Q.; Lowery, C. L.

    2007-02-01

    Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) we perform scaling analysis of short datasets of length 500-1500 data points. We quantify the long range correlation (exponent α) by computing the mean value of the local exponents αL (in the asymptotic regime). The local exponents are obtained as the (numerical) derivative of the logarithm of the fluctuation function F(s) with respect to the logarithm of the scale factor s:αL=dlog10F(s)/dlog10s. These local exponents display huge variations and complicate the correct quantification of the underlying correlations. We propose the use of the phase randomized surrogate (PRS), which preserves the long range correlations of the original data, to minimize the variations in the local exponents. Using the numerically generated uncorrelated and long range correlated data, we show that performing DFA on several realizations of PRS and estimating αL from the averaged fluctuation functions (of all realizations) can minimize the variations in αL. The application of this approach to the fetal cardiac data (RR intervals) is discussed and we show that there is a statistically significant correlation between α and the gestation age.

  16. Relationship between regional severity of emphysema and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michinobu; Sakai, Shinya; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Ikezoe, Junpei; Murase, Kenya; Ichiki, Taku

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between regional severity of emphysema, which was evaluated by three-dimensional fractal analysis (3D-FA) of Technegas SPECT images, and coronary heart disease (CHD). For 22 patients with emphysema who underwent Technegas SPECT, we followed up CHD events. The follow-up period was 5.4±0.5 (mean ±SD) years. We defined the upper-lung fractal dimension (U-FD) and lower-lung fractal dimension (L-FD) obtained with 3D-FA of Technegas SPECT images as the regional severity of emphysema. FD became greater with the progression of emphysematous change. During the follow-up period, CHD events occurred in 6 (27%) of the 22 patients. The ratio of U-FD to L-FD for patients with CHD events (0.87±0.22) was significantly smaller than for patients without CHD events (1.52±0.38) (p=0.0015). These findings suggest that severer emphysema in the lower lung indicates a higher risk of CHD than that in the upper lung. (author)

  17. Serum chemistry reference ranges for Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups from Alaska: stock differentiation and comparisons within a North Pacific sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Michelle E; Fadely, Brian S; Gelatt, Thomas S; Rea, Lorrie D; Loughlin, Thomas R

    2013-12-01

    Blood chemistry and hematologic reference ranges are useful for population health assessment and establishing a baseline for future comparisons in the event of ecosystem changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine if there was any population spatial structure for blood variables of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), an established sentinel species, and to report reference ranges for appropriate populations using standardized analyses. In addition to comparing reference ranges between populations with contrasting abundance trends, data were examined for evidence of disease or nutritional stress. From 1998 to 2011, blood samples were collected from 1,231 pups captured on 37 rookeries across their Alaskan range. Reference ranges are reported separately for the western and eastern distinct population segments (DPS) of Steller sea lion after cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA) supported underlying stock structure. Variables with greater loading scores for the DFA (creatinine, total protein, calcium, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase) also were greater for sea lions from the endangered western DPS, supporting previous studies that indicated pup condition in the west was not compromised during the first month postpartum. Differences between population segments were likely a result of ecological, physiological, or age related differences.

  18. Assessing population-level morphometric variation of the Mountain Mullet Agonostomus monticola (Teleostei: Mugilidae across its Middle American distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha P. Díaz-Murillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Population-level morphometric variation of the Mountain Mullet (Agonostomus monticola was assessed in 419 adult specimens from 25 sample sites (river basins across its Middle American distribution (Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean drainages. This analysis was based on 36 standardized linear measurements and 19 landmarks on geometric morphometrics approach. Discriminant function analysis (DFA revealed 19 linear morphological characters with significant variation among groups. Geometrically, the most notable changes were associated to the curvature of the frontal region of the head, the anterior and posterior insertion of the first dorsal and anal fins. The resulting grouping based on the DFA and geometric morphometrics techniques (Pacific-A, Pacific-B and NE México-Caribbean were similar to those previously recovered by genetic techniques, where the Pacific-B (Ayuquila river basin was the most different group. Our results provide morphological evidence for considering Agonostomus monticola as a complex of evolutionary entities, represented by two forms in the Pacific Ocean and another in the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Mohaidat, Qassem I.

    2009-01-01

    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  20. Site characterization at Groningen gas field area through joint surface-borehole H/V analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Zack J.; Perton, Mathieu; Nakata, Nori; Liu, Xin; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2018-01-01

    A new interpretation of the horizontal to vertical (H/V) spectral ratio in terms of the Diffuse Field Assumption (DFA) has fuelled a resurgence of interest in that approach. The DFA links H/V measurements to Green's function retrieval through autocorrelation of the ambient seismic field. This naturally allows for estimation of layered velocity structure. In this contribution, we further explore the potential of H/V analysis. Our study is facilitated by a distributed array of surface and co-located borehole stations deployed at multiple depths, and by detailed prior information on velocity structure that is available due to development of the Groningen gas field. We use the vertical distribution of H/V spectra recorded at discrete depths inside boreholes to obtain shear wave velocity models of the shallow subsurface. We combine both joint H/V inversion and borehole interferometry to reduce the non-uniqueness of the problem and to allow faster convergence towards a reliable velocity model. The good agreement between our results and velocity models from an independent study validates the methodology, demonstrates the power of the method, but more importantly provides further constraints on the shallow velocity structure, which is an essential component of integrated hazard assessment in the area.

  1. Variable disparity estimation based intermediate view reconstruction in dynamic flow allocation over EPON-based access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, a variable disparity estimation (VDE)-based intermediate view reconstruction (IVR) in dynamic flow allocation (DFA) over an Ethernet passive optical network (EPON)-based access network is proposed. In the proposed system, the stereoscopic images are estimated by a variable block-matching algorithm (VBMA), and they are transmitted to the receiver through DFA over EPON. This scheme improves a priority-based access network by converting it to a flow-based access network with a new access mechanism and scheduling algorithm, and then 16-view images are synthesized by the IVR using VDE. Some experimental results indicate that the proposed system improves the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) to as high as 4.86 dB and reduces the processing time to 3.52 s. Additionally, the network service provider can provide upper limits of transmission delays by the flow. The modeling and simulation results, including mathematical analyses, from this scheme are also provided.

  2. Empirical properties of inter-cancellation durations in the Chinese stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Feng eGu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Order cancellation process plays a crucial role in the dynamics of price formation in order-driven stock markets and is important in the construction and validation of computational finance models. Based on the order flow data of 23 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003, we investigate the empirical statistical properties of inter-cancellation durations in units of events defined as the waiting times between two consecutive cancellations. The inter-cancellation durations for both buy and sell orders of all the stocks favor a $q$-exponential distribution when the maximum likelihood estimation method is adopted; In contrast, both cancelled buy orders of 9 stocks and cancelled sell orders of 4 stocks prefer Weibull distribution when the nonlinear least-square estimation is used. Applying detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA, centered detrending moving average (CDMA and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA methods, we unveil that the inter-cancellation duration time series process long memory and multifractal nature for both buy and sell cancellations of all the stocks. Our findings show that order cancellation processes exhibit long-range correlated bursty behaviors and are thus not Poissonian.

  3. DNAzyme Feedback Amplification: Relaying Molecular Recognition to Exponential DNA Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Yin, Qingxin; McConnell, Erin M; Chang, Yangyang; Brennan, John D; Li, Yingfu

    2018-03-26

    Technologies capable of linking DNA amplification to molecular recognition are very desirable for ultrasensitive biosensing applications. We have developed a simple but powerful isothermal DNA amplification method, termed DNAzyme feedback amplification (DFA), that is capable of relaying molecular recognition to exponential DNA amplification. The method incorporates both an RNA-cleaving DNAzyme (RCD) and rolling circle amplification (RCA) carried out by a special DNA polymerase using a circular DNA template. DFA begins with a stimulus-dependent RCA reaction, producing tandemly linked RCDs in long-chain DNA products. These RCDs cleave an RNA-containing DNA sequence to form additional primers that hybridize to the circular DNA molecule, giving rise to DNA assemblies that act as the new inputs for RCA. The RCA reaction and the cleavage event keep on feeding each other autonomously, resulting in exponential growth of repetitive DNA sequences that can be easily detected. This method can be used for the detection of both nucleic acid based targets and non-nucleic acid analytes. In this article, we discuss the conceptual framework of the feedback amplification approach, the essential features of this method as well as remaining challenges and possible solutions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers associated with yield traits in the Indian tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta drury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suhrid R.; Kar, Prasanta K.; Srivastava, Ashok K.; Sinha, Manoj K.; Shankar, Jai; Ghosh, Ananta K.

    2012-01-01

    The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, is a semi-domesticated vanya silk-producing insect of high economic importance. To date, no molecular marker associated with cocoon and shell weights has been identified in this species. In this report, we identified a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker and examined its inheritance, and also developed a stable diagnostic sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Silkworms were divided into groups with high (HCSW) and low (LCSW) cocoon and shell weights, and the F2 progeny of a cross between these two groups were obtained. DNA from these silkworms was screened by PCR using 34 random primers and the resulting RAPD fragments were used for cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The clustering pattern in a UPGMA-based dendogram and DFA clearly distinguished the HCSW and LCSW groups. Multiple regression analysis identified five markers associated with cocoon and shell weights. The marker OPW16905 bp showed the most significant association with cocoon and shell weights, and its inheritance was confirmed in F2 progeny. Cloning and sequencing of this 905 bp fragment showed 88% identity between its 134 nucleotides and the Bmc-1/Yamato-like retroposon of A. mylitta. This marker was further converted into a diagnostic SCAR marker (SCOPW 16826 bp). The SCAR marker developed here may be useful in identifying the right parental stock of tasar silk-worms for high cocoon and shell weights in breeding programs designed to enhance the productivity of tasar silk. PMID:23271934

  5. Behavior of the E–E’ Bonds (E, E’ = S and Se in Glutathione Disulfide and Derivatives Elucidated by Quantum Chemical Calculations with the Quantum Theory of Atoms-in-Molecules Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Hayashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the E–E’ bonds (E, E’ = S and Se in glutathione disulfide (1 and derivatives 2–3, respectively, was elucidated by applying quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM dual functional analysis (QTAIM-DFA, to clarify the basic contribution of E–E’ in the biological redox process, such as the glutathione peroxidase process. Five most stable conformers a–e were obtained, after applying the Monte-Carlo method then structural optimizations. In QTAIM-DFA, total electron energy densities Hb(rc are plotted versus Hb(rc − Vb(rc/2 at bond critical points (BCPs, where Vb(rc are potential energy densities at BCPs. Data from the fully optimized structures correspond to the static nature. Those containing perturbed structures around the fully optimized one in the plot represent the dynamic nature of interactions. The behavior of E–E’ was examined carefully. Whereas E–E’ in 1a–3e were all predicted to have the weak covalent nature of the shared shell interactions, two different types of S–S were detected in 1, depending on the conformational properties. Contributions from the intramolecular non-covalent interactions to stabilize the conformers were evaluated. An inverse relationship was observed between the stability of a conformer and the strength of E–E’ in the conformer, of which reason was discussed.

  6. Multi-Response Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters Using Taguchi Based Desirability Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Himadri; Maity, Kalipada

    2018-03-01

    Shape memory alloy has a unique capability to return to its original shape after physical deformation by applying heat or thermo-mechanical or magnetic load. In this experimental investigation, desirability function analysis (DFA), a multi-attribute decision making was utilized to find out the optimum input parameter setting during wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy. Four critical machining parameters, namely pulse on time (TON), pulse off time (TOFF), wire feed (WF) and wire tension (WT) were taken as machining inputs for the experiments to optimize three interconnected responses like cutting speed, kerf width, and surface roughness. Input parameter combination TON = 120 μs., TOFF = 55 μs., WF = 3 m/min. and WT = 8 kg-F were found to produce the optimum results. The optimum process parameters for each desired response were also attained using Taguchi’s signal-to-noise ratio. Confirmation test has been done to validate the optimum machining parameter combination which affirmed DFA was a competent approach to select optimum input parameters for the ideal response quality for WEDM of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy.

  7. Cross-correlations between RMB exchange rate and international commodity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ying; Qian, Yubo

    2017-11-01

    This paper employs multifractal detrended analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) to study cross-correlation behaviors between China's RMB exchange rate market and four international commodity markets, using a comprehensive set of data covering the period from 22 July 2005 to 15 March 2016. Our empirical results from MF-DFA indicate that the RMB exchange rate is the most inefficient among the 4 selected markets. The results from quantitative analysis have testified the existence of cross-correlations and the result from MF-DCCA have further confirmed a strong multifractal behavior between RMB exchange rate and international commodity markets. We also demonstrate that the recent financial crisis has significant impact on the cross-correlated behavior. Through the rolling window analysis, we find that the RMB exchange rates and international commodity prices are anti-persistent cross-correlated. The main sources of multifractality in the cross-correlations are long-range correlations between RMB exchange rate and the aggregate commodity, energy and metals index.

  8. Discrimination of chicken seasonings and beef seasonings using electronic nose and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huaixiang; Li, Fenghua; Qin, Lan; Yu, Haiyan; Ma, Xia

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the feasibility of electronic nose as a method to discriminate chicken and beef seasonings and to predict sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation showed that 8 chicken seasonings and 4 beef seasonings could be well discriminated and classified based on 8 sensory attributes. The sensory attributes including chicken/beef, gamey, garlic, spicy, onion, soy sauce, retention, and overall aroma intensity were generated by a trained evaluation panel. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and cluster analysis (CA) combined with electronic nose were used to discriminate seasoning samples based on the difference of the sensor response signals of chicken and beef seasonings. The correlation between sensory attributes and electronic nose sensors signal was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The results showed that the seasoning samples were all correctly classified by the electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA, and CA. The electronic nose gave good prediction results for all the sensory attributes with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.8. The work indicated that electronic nose is an effective method for discriminating different seasonings and predicting sensory attributes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Efficient Deterministic Finite Automata Minimization Based on Backward Depth Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Desheng; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng; Guo, Xiaojun; Su, Shaojing

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a minimal automaton is a fundamental issue in the theory and practical implementation of deterministic finite automatons (DFAs). A minimization algorithm is presented in this paper that consists of two main phases. In the first phase, the backward depth information is built, and the state set of the DFA is partitioned into many blocks. In the second phase, the state set is refined using a hash table. The minimization algorithm has a lower time complexity O(n) than a naive comparison of transitions O(n2). Few states need to be refined by the hash table, because most states have been partitioned by the backward depth information in the coarse partition. This method achieves greater generality than previous methods because building the backward depth information is independent of the topological complexity of the DFA. The proposed algorithm can be applied not only to the minimization of acyclic automata or simple cyclic automata, but also to automata with high topological complexity. Overall, the proposal has three advantages: lower time complexity, greater generality, and scalability. A comparison to Hopcroft's algorithm demonstrates experimentally that the algorithm runs faster than traditional algorithms.

  10. Sensitivity to mental effort and test-retest reliability of heart rate variability measures in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Yadav, Rajeev; Yung, Iris; Zajdel, Daniel P; Oken, Barry S

    2011-10-01

    To determine (1) whether heart rate variability (HRV) was a sensitive and reliable measure in mental effort tasks carried out by healthy seniors and (2) whether non-linear approaches to HRV analysis, in addition to traditional time and frequency domain approaches were useful to study such effects. Forty healthy seniors performed two visual working memory tasks requiring different levels of mental effort, while ECG was recorded. They underwent the same tasks and recordings 2 weeks later. Traditional and 13 non-linear indices of HRV including Poincaré, entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were determined. Time domain, especially mean R-R interval (RRI), frequency domain and, among non-linear parameters - Poincaré and DFA were the most reliable indices. Mean RRI, time domain and Poincaré were also the most sensitive to different mental effort task loads and had the largest effect size. Overall, linear measures were the most sensitive and reliable indices to mental effort. In non-linear measures, Poincaré was the most reliable and sensitive, suggesting possible usefulness as an independent marker in cognitive function tasks in healthy seniors. A large number of HRV parameters was both reliable as well as sensitive indices of mental effort, although the simple linear methods were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-range correlations of different EEG derivations in rats: sleep stage-dependent generators may play a key role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guangzhan; Xia, Yang; Lai, Yongxiu; You, Zili; Yao, Dezhong

    2010-01-01

    For the electroencephalogram (EEG), topographic differences in the long-range temporal correlations would imply that these signals might be affected by specific mechanisms related to the generation of a given neuronal process. So the properties of the generators of various EEG oscillations might be investigated by their spatial differences of the long-range temporal correlations. In the present study, these correlations were characterized with respect to their topography during different vigilance states by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The results indicated that (1) most of the scaling exponents acquired from different EEG derivations for various oscillations were significantly different in each vigilance state; these differences might be resulted from the different quantities and different locations of sleep stage-dependent generators of various neuronal processes; (2) there might be multiple generators of delta and theta over the brain and many of them were sleep stage-dependent; (3) the best site of the frontal electrode in a fronto-parietal bipolar electrode for sleep staging might be above the anterior midline cortex. We suggest that DFA analysis can be used to explore the properties of the generators of a given neuronal oscillation, and the localizations of these generators if more electrodes are involved

  12. Multifractal investigation of continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 pre- and eruptive phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Martì Molist, Joan; López Moreno, Carmen; Abella Meléndez, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    The Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) is an effective method that allows detecting multifractality in non-stationary signals. We applied the MF-DFA to the continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands), which was affected by a submarine monogenetic eruption in October 2011. We investigated the multifractal properties of the continuous seismic signal before the onset of the eruption and after. We analysed three frames of the signal, one measured before the onset of eruption that occurred on October 10, 2011; and two after, but corresponding to two distinct eruptive episodes, the second one started on November 22, 2011 and lasting until late February 2012. The results obtained show a striking difference in the width of the multifractal spectrum, which is generally used to quantify the multifractal degree of a signal: the multifractal spectra of the signal frames recorded during the eruptive episodes are almost identical and much narrower than that of the signal frame measured before the onset of the eruption. Such difference indicates that the seismic signal recorded during the unrest reflects mostly the fracturing of the host rock under the overpressure exerted by the intruding magma, while that corresponding to the eruptive phases was mostly influenced by the flow of magma through the plumbing system, even some fracturing remains, not being possible to distinguish among the two eruptive episodes in terms of rock fracture mechanics.

  13. Chemometric and multivariate statistical analysis of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry spectra from complex Cu-Fe sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegowda, Yogesh; Harmer, Sarah L

    2012-03-20

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) spectra of mineral samples are complex, comprised of large mass ranges and many peaks. Consequently, characterization and classification analysis of these systems is challenging. In this study, different chemometric and statistical data evaluation methods, based on monolayer sensitive TOF-SIMS data, have been tested for the characterization and classification of copper-iron sulfide minerals (chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bornite, and pyrite) at different flotation pulp conditions (feed, conditioned feed, and Eh modified). The complex mass spectral data sets were analyzed using the following chemometric and statistical techniques: principal component analysis (PCA); principal component-discriminant functional analysis (PC-DFA); soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA); and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) classification. PCA was found to be an important first step in multivariate analysis, providing insight into both the relative grouping of samples and the elemental/molecular basis for those groupings. For samples exposed to oxidative conditions (at Eh ~430 mV), each technique (PCA, PC-DFA, SIMCA, and k-NN) was found to produce excellent classification. For samples at reductive conditions (at Eh ~ -200 mV SHE), k-NN and SIMCA produced the most accurate classification. Phase identification of particles that contain the same elements but a different crystal structure in a mixed multimetal mineral system has been achieved.

  14. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  15. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  16. Can Mindful Parenting Be Observed? Relations between Observational Ratings of Mother-Youth Interactions and Mothers’ Self-Report Mindful Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494

  17. Optimisation of a machine learning algorithm in human locomotion using principal component and discriminant function analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisele, Maria; Bencsik, Martin; Lewis, Martin G C; Barnett, Cleveland T

    2017-01-01

    Assessment methods in human locomotion often involve the description of normalised graphical profiles and/or the extraction of discrete variables. Whilst useful, these approaches may not represent the full complexity of gait data. Multivariate statistical methods, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), have been adopted since they have the potential to overcome these data handling issues. The aim of the current study was to develop and optimise a specific machine learning algorithm for processing human locomotion data. Twenty participants ran at a self-selected speed across a 15m runway in barefoot and shod conditions. Ground reaction forces (BW) and kinematics were measured at 1000 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively from which joint angles (°), joint moments (N.m.kg-1) and joint powers (W.kg-1) for the hip, knee and ankle joints were calculated in all three anatomical planes. Using PCA and DFA, power spectra of the kinematic and kinetic variables were used as a training database for the development of a machine learning algorithm. All possible combinations of 10 out of 20 participants were explored to find the iteration of individuals that would optimise the machine learning algorithm. The results showed that the algorithm was able to successfully predict whether a participant ran shod or barefoot in 93.5% of cases. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to optimise the development of a machine learning algorithm.

  18. Self-affinity in the dengue fever time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, S. M.; Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Filho, A. S. Nascimento; Moret, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a complex public health problem that is common in tropical and subtropical regions. This disease has risen substantially in the last three decades, and the physical symptoms depict the self-affine behavior of the occurrences of reported dengue cases in Bahia, Brazil. This study uses detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to verify the scale behavior in a time series of dengue cases and to evaluate the long-range correlations that are characterized by the power law α exponent for different cities in Bahia, Brazil. The scaling exponent (α) presents different long-range correlations, i.e. uncorrelated, anti-persistent, persistent and diffusive behaviors. The long-range correlations highlight the complex behavior of the time series of this disease. The findings show that there are two distinct types of scale behavior. In the first behavior, the time series presents a persistent α exponent for a one-month period. For large periods, the time series signal approaches subdiffusive behavior. The hypothesis of the long-range correlations in the time series of the occurrences of reported dengue cases was validated. The observed self-affinity is useful as a forecasting tool for future periods through extrapolation of the α exponent behavior. This complex system has a higher predictability in a relatively short time (approximately one month), and it suggests a new tool in epidemiological control strategies. However, predictions for large periods using DFA are hidden by the subdiffusive behavior.

  19. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-01-01

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  20. MULTIFRACTAL SOLAR EUV INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Rivera, Y. J. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Jennings, P. J. [5174 S. Slauson Avenue, Culver City, CA 90230 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F., E-mail: ana.cadavid@csun.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/ Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15–45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  1. Two general models that generate long range correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaocong; Han, Zhangang

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study two models that generate sequences with LRC (long range correlation). For the IFT (inverse Fourier transform) model, our conclusion is the low frequency part leads to LRC, while the high frequency part tends to eliminate it. Therefore, a typical method to generate a sequence with LRC is multiplying the spectrum of a white noise sequence by a decaying function. A special case is analyzed: the linear combination of a smooth curve and a white noise sequence, in which the DFA plot consists of two line segments. For the patch model, our conclusion is long subsequences leads to LRC, while short subsequences tend to eliminate it. Therefore, we can generate a sequence with LRC by using a fat-tailed PDF (probability distribution function) of the length of the subsequences. A special case is also analyzed: if a patch model with long subsequences is mixed with a white noise sequence, the DFA plot will consist of two line segments. We have checked known models and actual data, and found they are all consistent with this study.

  2. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  3. Characterization of CCN and IN activity of bacterial isolates collected in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Sara; Waters, Samantha; Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of CCN activity of bacteria, other than a few select types such as Pseudomonas syringae, is limited, especially when looked at in conjunction with corresponding IN activity. The link between these two points is especially important for bacteria as those that have high CCN activity are likely to form an aqueous phase required for immersion freezing. Given the high ice nucleation temperature of bacterial cells, especially in immersion mode, it is important to characterize the CCN and IN activity of many different bacterial strains. To this effect, we developed a droplet freezing assay (DFA) which consists of an aluminum cold plate, cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture, in order to observe immersion freezing of the collected bacteria. Here, we present the initial results on the CCN and IN activities of bacterial samples we have collected in Atlanta, GA. Bacterial strains were collected and isolated from rainwater samples taken from different storms throughout the year. We then characterized the CCN activity of each strain using a DMT Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter by exposing the aerosolized bacteria to supersaturations ranging from 0.05% to 0.6%. Additionally, using our new DFA, we characterized the IN activity of each bacterial strain at temperatures ranging from -20oC to 0oC. The combined CCN and IN activity gives us valuable information on how some uncharacterized bacteria contribute to warm and mixed-phase cloud formation in the atmosphere.

  4. Direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for evaluating chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.M.; Brey, J.; Fliermans, C.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River, Aiken, SC (United States). Environmental Biotechnology Section; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K. [Medical Coll. of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Immunological procedures were developed to enumerate chlorinated hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced by immunizing New Zealand white rabbits against 18 contaminant-degrading bacteria. These included methanotrophic and chlorobenzene (CB) degrading species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test for specificity and sensitivity of the Pabs. Direct fluorescent antibodies (DFAs) were developed with these Pabs against select methanotrophic bacteria isolated from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and cultures from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Analysis of cross reactivity testing data showed some of the Pabs to be group specific while others were species specific. The threshold of sensitivity for the ELISA is 105 bacteria cells/ml. The DFA can detect as few as one bacterium per ml after concentration. Results from the DFA and ELISA techniques for enumeration of methanotrophic bacteria in groundwater were higher but not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to indirect microbiological techniques such as MPN. These methods provide useful information on in situ community structure and function for bioremediation applications within 1--4 hours of sampling.

  5. Could schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder be distinguishable using cognitive profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lee, Chun-Yi; Lee, Yu; Hung, Chi-Fa; Huang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Chen, Yi-Chih; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2018-05-24

    This study seeks to determine whether the cognition profiles of patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD), schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD) are distinguishable. A total of 227 participants, comprising 88 healthy control subjects, 50 patients with SAD, 48 patients with schizophrenia and 41 patients with BD, were recruited. The participants' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). A discriminant functions analysis (DFA) was conducted to determine whether using cognitive performance can be used to distinguish these participant groups. Relative to healthy control subjects, patients with SAD, schizophrenia and BD exhibited significant deficits in all cognitive domains (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency, attention and processing speed, executive function and a composite BACS score). Among the three patient groups, the schizophrenia group exhibited particularly impaired motor speed, and the BD group performed best in attention, processing speed, executive function and the composite BACS score. The classification accuracy rates of patients with SAD, schizophrenia and BD in the DFA model were 38%, 47.9% and 46.3%, respectively. These findings suggest that the impairments of some cognitive domains were less severe in patients with BD than in patients with schizophrenia or SAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. New approach for rapid assessment of trophic status of Yellow Sea and East China Sea using easy-to-measure parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianyu; Liu, Yanfang; Jian, Huimin; Su, Rongguo; Yao, Qingzhen; Shi, Xiaoyong

    2017-10-01

    To realize potential cost savings in coastal monitoring programs and provide timely advice for marine management, there is an urgent need for efficient evaluation tools based on easily measured variables for the rapid and timely assessment of estuarine and offshore eutrophication. In this study, using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA) with the trophic index (TRIX) for reference, we developed an approach for rapidly assessing the eutrophication status of coastal waters using easy-to-measure parameters, including chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), fluorescence excitation-emission matrices, CDOM UV-Vis absorbance, and other water-quality parameters (turbidity, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen). First, we decomposed CDOM excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) by PARAFAC to identify three components. Then, we applied PCA to simplify the complexity of the relationships between the water-quality parameters. Finally, we used the PCA score values as independent variables in DFA to develop a eutrophication assessment model. The developed model yielded classification accuracy rates of 97.1%, 80.5%, 90.3%, and 89.1% for good, moderate, and poor water qualities, and for the overall data sets, respectively. Our results suggest that these easy-to-measure parameters could be used to develop a simple approach for rapid in-situ assessment and monitoring of the eutrophication of estuarine and offshore areas.

  7. First identification of the herpes simplex virus by skin-dedicated ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy during herpetic skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Campolmi, N; Thuret, G; Naigeon, N; Bourlet, T; Pillet, S; Cambazard, F

    2015-06-01

    Skin-dedicated ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) has so far been used to identify cutaneous tumours on freshly excised samples using acridine orange as fluorochrome. To use FCM for a new indication, namely, the identification of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) in skin lesions, using fluorescent antibodies. Six roof samples from skin vesicles suspicious for HSV lesions were incubated with anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 antibodies coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and examined under skin-dedicated ex vivo FCM. The positive controls were swabs taken from the floor of each vesicle and observed under conventional direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and by viral cultures. Roof samples from three bullae of bullous pemphigoid were the negative controls. Using ex vivo FCM, the samples from the lesions clinically suspicious for HSV infection were seen to be fluorescent after incubation with anti-HSV-1, and were negative after incubation with anti-HSV-2 antibodies. Conventional DFA with an optical microscope and cultures confirmed the presence of HSV-1 infection. By using fluorescent antibodies to identify precise structures, ex vivo FCM can be used for indications other than tumour identification. More specifically, it can be an additional diagnostic tool for HSV infection. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Correlation of optical properties with the fractal microstructure of black molybdenum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Enrique; Gonzalez, Federico [Area de Energia, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Rodriguez, Eduardo [Area de Computacion y Sistemas, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose, E-mail: jjar@xanum.uam.mx [Area de Energia, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-01-01

    Coating is commonly used for improving the optical properties of surfaces for solar collector applications. The coating morphology depends on the deposition conditions, and this determines the final optical characteristics. Coating morphologies are irregular and of fractal nature, so a suitable approach for its characterization should use methods borrowed from fractal analysis. The aim of this work is to study the fractal characteristics of black molybdenum coatings on copper and to relate the fractal parameters to the optical properties. To this end, coating surfaces were prepared via immersion in a solution of ammonium paramolybdate for different deposition periods. The fractal analysis was carried out for SEM and AFM images of the coating surface and the fractal properties were obtained with a recently developed high-dimensional extension of the well-known detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The most salient parameter drawn from the application of the DFA is the Hurst index, a parameter related to the roughness of the coating surface, and the multifractality index, which is related to the non-linearity features of the coating morphology. The results showed that optical properties, including absorptance and emittance, are decreasing functions of the Hurst and multifractality indices. This suggests that coating surfaces with high absorptance and emittance values are related to complex coating morphologies conformed within a non-linear structure.

  9. Dietary Fiber Extraction from Defatted Corn Hull by Hot-Compressed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

  10. S-05: Düzenli Fiziksel Aktivitenin Dikkat Eksikliği ve Hiperaktivite Bozukluğu Olan Çocuklardaki Etkisinin Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdülaziz Türksoylu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AMAÇ: Düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin 8-12 yaş arası Dikkat Eksikliği ve Hiperaktivite Bozukluğu (DEHB tanısı alan ve en az 6 ay stimülan tedavi kullanan çocuklar üzerindeki etkisinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır.YÖNTEM: Randomize kontrollü olarak planlanan çalışmaya DEHB tanısı alan, 8-12 yaş arası, 46 erkek çocuk dahil edildi. 23 olgu kontrol grubu, diğer 23 olgu ise düzenli fiziksel aktivite (DFA grubu olmak üzere randomize edildi. Tüm olgulara DuPaul DEHB Değerlendirme Ölçeği, Çocuk için Yaşam Kalitesi Ölçeği (ÇİYKÖ 8-12 yaş grubu Ebeveyn ve Çocuk Formu ve Güçler Güçlükler Anketi (GGA uygulandı. Kontrol grubu 10 hafta boyunca mevcut stimülan tedaviyi almaya devam etti ve herhangi bir ek müdahale yapılmadı. DFA grubuna ise en az 60 dakika süren futbol antrenmanı, haftada 3 gün, 10 hafta boyunca yaptırıldı. DFA grubunda, izlemde 19 olgu düzenli fiziksel aktiviteye devam edebilmiş ve çalışmayı tamamlamıştır. 10 hafta sonunda tüm olgulara DuPaul DEHB Değerlendirme Ölçeği, ÇİYKÖ 8-12 yaş grubu Ebeveyn ve Çocuk Formu ve GGA tekrar uygulandı.BULGULAR: Çalışmamızda DFA grubu ve kontrol grubu yaş ortalamaları, DEHB alt tipleri ve Komorbidite dağılımları birbirine benzerdi. DFA grubunun fiziksel aktivite öncesi ve sonrası testleri karşılaştırıldığında; GGA alt ölçeklerinde duygusal, davranış, dikkat eksikliği ve aşırı hareketlilik, akran ilişkileri ve toplam güçlük puanlarında anlamlı azalma (p0,05.SONUÇ: Çalışma sonuçları, düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin stimülan tedavi alan DEHB tanısı olan çocukların DEHB belirtilerini, hastalığın şiddetini ve davranışsal sorunlarını azalttığını, çocukların yaşam kalitesi üzerine olumlu etkileri olduğunu göstermektedir. DEHB olan çocuklarda, stimülan tedaviye ek olarak düzenli fiziksel aktivitenin yapılması iyileşmeye katkıda bulunabilir.

  11. Morphometric identification of small mammal footprints from ink tracking tunnels in the Brazilian Cerrado Identificação morfométrica de pequenos mamíferos usando tubos de pegadas no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. T. Palma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for identifying and inventorying rodents and marsupials inhabiting forests and grasslands of Brazilian Cerrado is presented and discussed. Ink tracking tunnels were designed according to the size of target species and used to build a reference collection of small mammal footprints composed of 1408 footprints belonging to 251 individuals from 30 species (21 rodents and nine marsupials. Sherman traps and ink tracking tunnels were used to conduct inventories in gallery forests. Footprints obtained in ink tracking tunnels were digitalized and compared with those in reference collection using Discriminant Analysis (DFA. DFA allowed good footprint differentiation, even among congeneric species. In DFA analysis, the first two axis were related to size and arboreality. The efficiency of ink tracking tunnels was higher (track-success = 31% than conventional trapping (trap-success = 14% in inventories. Ink tracking tunnels gave a good description of the small mammal community of gallery forest by detecting rodents and marsupials of different habits, including trap-shy species. This paper also discusses advantages and limitations of ink tracking tunnels use in inventories and ecological studies, and concludes that this technique can be efficient in long-term studies and in rapid inventories as a complementary technique for trapping.Um método alternativo de identificação e inventário de roedores e marsupiais de florestas e áreas abertas do Cerrado é apresentado e discutido. Os tubos de pegadas foram projetados de acordo com o tamanho das espécies alvo e usados para construir uma coleção de referência de pegadas de pequenos mamíferos formada por 1408 pegadas pertencentes a 251 indivíduos de 30 espécies (21 roedores e nove marsupiais. Armadilhas Sherman e tubos de pegadas foram usados para conduzir inventários em matas de galeria. As pegadas obtidas nos tubos foram digitalizadas e comparadas com as da coleção de refer

  12. Determinación del efecto cicatrizante de Piper aduncum (matico en fibroblastos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Paco

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto cicatrizante del extracto hidroetanólico de Piper aduncum, en una línea celular de fibroblastos Dermales Adultos Humanos (hDFa. Materiales y métodos. El extracto se obtuvo mediante extracción sólido-líquido, fue concentrado y liofilizado. Se purificaron las proteínas del extracto mediante cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia de fase reversa (RP-HPLC; las proteínas fueron identificadas por espectrometría de masas en tándem de péptidos trípticos y se analizaron por MALDI-TOF-TOF en un espectrómetro de masa ABSciex4800. Los valores de concentración efectiva media (EC50, concentración inhibitoria media (IC50, y el porcentaje de proliferación celular; fueron determinados por ensayos con sales de tetrazolio (MTT . La migración celular se evaluó mediante la "técnica de rayado" . Se analizó la expresión de factores de crecimiento mediante el ensayo de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa a tiempo real (RT- qPCR. Resultados. La línea hDFa evidenció un IC50 de 200 µg/mL con el extracto, el valor de EC50 fue 103,5 µg/mL. En el ensayo de proliferación, la proteína K2; mostró mayor actividad en la proliferación respecto de otros tratamientos (1 µg/mL. En el ensayo de migración de fibroblastos, la proteína K2 mostró mayor actividad (50 µg/mL. La expresión relativa del factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas (PDGF se incrementó 8,6 veces respecto al control, en presencia de la proteína K2. Conclusiones. El extracto hidroetanólico, de Piper aduncum, así como las proteínas que contiene, incrementaron la proliferación y migración de fibroblastos dermales humanos (hDFa; así mismo, aumentaron la expresión de factores de crecimiento que intervienen en el proceso de cicatrización.

  13. Detrended fluctuation analysis of compound action potentials re-corded in the cutaneous nerves of diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz-González, Salvador; Rodríguez-Torres, Erika Elizabeth; Segura-Alegría, Bertha; Pereira-Venegas, Javier; Lopez-Gomez, Rosa Estela; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractal analysis of compound action potentials (CAP) evoked in diabetic nerves. • Diabetic rats showed an increment in the chaotic behavior of CAP responses. • Diabetes provokes impaired transmission of sensory information in rats. - Abstract: The electrophysiological alterations in nerves due to diabetes are classically studied in relation to their instantaneous frequency, conduction velocity and amplitude. However, analysis of amplitude variability may reflect the occurrence of feedback loop mechanisms that adjust the output as a function of its previous activity could indicate fractal dynamics. We assume that a peripheral neuropathy, such as that evoked by diabetes, the inability to maintain a steady flow of sensory information is reflected as a breakdown of the long range power-law correlation of CAP area fluctuation from cutaneous nerves. To test this, we first explored in normal rats whether fluctuations in the trial-to-trial CAP area showed a self-similar behavior or fractal structure by means of detrended fluctuations analysis (DFA), and Poincare plots. In addition, we determine whether such CAP fluctuations varied by diabetes induction. Results showed that CAP area fluctuation of SU nerves evoked in normal rats present a long term correlation and self-similar organization (fractal behavior) from trial to trial stimulation as evidenced by DFA of CAP areas. However, CAPs recorded in diabetic nerves exhibited significant reductions in area, larger duration and increased area variability and different Poincare plots than control nerves. The Hurst exponent value determined with the DFA method from a series of 2000 CAPs evoked in diabetic SU nerves was smaller than in control nerves. It is proposed that in cutaneous nerves of normal rats variability of the CAP area present a long term correlation and self-similar organization (fractal behavior), and reflect the ability to maintain a steady flow of sensory information through cutaneous nerves

  14. Capital Budgeting Evaluation Practices of Building Contractors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C Lam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an investigation into capital budgeting evaluation practicesin the construction industry of Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify thepopularity and extent of usage of various techniques for capital budget evaluation, investmentappraisal, risk analysis, and management science. The current study was comparedwith a similar survey conducted in 1994 to establish the changes in the capital budgetingevaluation practices of contracting firms over time. The results indicate that there was ageneral increase in the popularity and extent of usage in certain capital budget evaluationtechniques such as “best/worst estimate” and “formal financial evaluation”. In addition,the evaluation techniques examined were fitted into a discriminant function analysis (DFA,and a model has been developed which allows contracting firms to be classified accordingto their predominant characteristics in capital budget evaluation.

  15. Nonlinear Fluctuation Behavior of Financial Time Series Model by Statistical Physics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a random financial time series model of stock market by one of statistical physics systems, the stochastic contact interacting system. Contact process is a continuous time Markov process; one interpretation of this model is as a model for the spread of an infection, where the epidemic spreading mimics the interplay of local infections and recovery of individuals. From this financial model, we study the statistical behaviors of return time series, and the corresponding behaviors of returns for Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSECI and Hang Seng Index (HSI are also comparatively studied. Further, we investigate the Zipf distribution and multifractal phenomenon of returns and price changes. Zipf analysis and MF-DFA analysis are applied to investigate the natures of fluctuations for the stock market.

  16. Investigating the time-correlation properties in self-potential signals recorded in a seismic area of Irpinia, southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesca, Luciano; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that many natural phenomena are characterized by temporal fluctuations with long-range power-law correlations, suggesting a fractal geometry of the underlying dynamical system. The presence of power-law correlations are detected in four time series of self-potential signals, measured in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), a method that permits the detection of long-range correlations in nonstationary time series. Results show scaling behaviour for all the signals recorded, indicating the presence of fractal features expressing a long-term correlation quantified by the numerical value of the scaling exponents. Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the earthquakes occurred in the area investigated and the relative maxima/minima of the mean and the standard deviation of the scaling exponents. Furthermore, the normalized average and standard deviation curves for all the signals tend to converge in correspondence with an earthquake

  17. Crossover Phenomena in Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Used in Financial Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shihao

    2009-01-01

    A systematic analysis of Shanghai and Japan stock indices for the period of Jan. 1984 to Dec. 2005 is performed. After stationarity is verified by ADF (Augmented Dickey-Fuller) test, the power spectrum of the data exhibits a power law decay as a whole characterized by 1/f β processes with possible long range correlations. Subsequently, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of the general volatility in the stock markets, we find that the long-range correlations are occurred among the return series and the crossover phenomena exhibit in the results obviously. Further, Shanghai stock market shows long-range correlations in short time scale and shows short-range correlations in long time scale. Whereas, for Japan stock market, the data behaves oppositely absolutely. Last, we compare the varying of scale exponent in large volatility between two stock markets. All results obtained may indicate the possibility of characteristic of multifractal scaling behavior of the financial markets.

  18. Multifractality, efficiency analysis of Chinese stock market and its cross-correlation with WTI crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyang; Wei, Yu; Ma, Feng

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the multifractality and efficiency degrees of ten important Chinese sectoral indices are evaluated using the methods of MF-DFA and generalized Hurst exponents. The study also scrutinizes the dynamics of the efficiency of Chinese sectoral stock market by the rolling window approach. The overall empirical findings revealed that all the sectoral indices of Chinese stock market exist different degrees of multifractality. The results of different efficiency measures have agreed on that the 300 Materials index is the least efficient index. However, they have a slight diffidence on the most efficient one. The 300 Information Technology, 300 Telecommunication Services and 300 Health Care indices are comparatively efficient. We also investigate the cross-correlations between the ten sectoral indices and WTI crude oil price based on Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis. At last, some relevant discussions and implications of the empirical results are presented.

  19. On development of RFQ vanes from beam dynamics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Avik; Padhi, Rakesh; Banerjee, M.K.; Naik, Vaishali; Sanyal, Dirtha; Choudhury, Siddhartha De; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2005-01-01

    Simulation at critical steps of product development greatly helps to detect the design flaws at the earlier stage and gives a digital platform to iterate the design and process at the initial stage. This helps to reduce the risk of failure considerably and gives an alternative to reduce the number of physical prototypes for design validation. Modern concepts of virtual prototyping for predicting functional behaviour of a product and process are gaining momentum globally as it is the fully integrated approach to converge the concepts of functional design, Design for Manufacturing (DFM), Design for Assembly (DFA) and manufacturing process simulation. This concept has been partially implemented in development of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadruple) vanes and the basic guidelines have been discussed. (author)

  20. A Review on the Nonlinear Dynamical System Analysis of Electrocardiogram Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Suraj K; Bit, Arindam; Dey, Anilesh; Mohapatra, Biswajit; Pal, Kunal

    2018-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis has received special attention of the researchers in the recent past because of its ability to divulge crucial information about the electrophysiology of the heart and the autonomic nervous system activity in a noninvasive manner. Analysis of the ECG signals has been explored using both linear and nonlinear methods. However, the nonlinear methods of ECG signal analysis are gaining popularity because of their robustness in feature extraction and classification. The current study presents a review of the nonlinear signal analysis methods, namely, reconstructed phase space analysis, Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), recurrence plot, Poincaré plot, approximate entropy, and sample entropy along with their recent applications in the ECG signal analysis.

  1. AcEST: DK949916 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q6DFA8|GLD2B_XENLA Poly(A) RNA polymerase GLD2-B OS=Xenopus laevis GN=papd4-B PE=...LQK 376 >sp|Q641A1|GLD2A_XENLA Poly(A) RNA polymerase GLD2-A OS=Xenopus laevis GN=papd4-A PE=1 SV=1 Length =...LPEPILPSLQK 376 >sp|Q0VFA3|GLD2_XENTR Poly(A) RNA polymerase GLD2 OS=Xenopus tropicalis GN=papd4 PE=2 SV=1 L...I 355 >sp|Q503I9|GLD2_DANRE Poly(A) RNA polymerase GLD2 OS=Danio rerio GN=papd4 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 489 Score

  2. Long memory of abnormal investor attention and the cross-correlations between abnormal investor attention and trading volume, volatility respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoqian; Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xintian; Jin, Xiu

    2017-03-01

    Taking Baidu Index as a proxy for abnormal investor attention (AIA), the long memory property in the AIA of Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) 50 Index component stocks was empirically investigated using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that abnormal investor attention is power-law correlated with Hurst exponents between 0.64 and 0.98. Furthermore, the cross-correlations between abnormal investor attention and trading volume, volatility respectively are studied using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) and the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient (ρDCCA). The results suggest that there are positive correlations between AIA and trading volume, volatility respectively. In addition, the correlations for trading volume are in general higher than the ones for volatility. By carrying on rescaled range analysis (R/S) and rolling windows analysis, we find that the results mentioned above are effective and significant.

  3. Automated Production of Insulated Footwear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    td 0 -* -^ -H ♦* «0 >-4 « as H 5 .* § £ s 0CM W Ü •« -< 0 -H c o S. is. a. y: 5B -* oo — öS Q...No. of equivalents of MDI Isocyanate Index ■ ___________———— No. of equivalents of (PTMG, 1- 4BD , TMP) B. Outsole Formula a- Ingredients...faift*Jkäl GDA >4QJPA _Cf&Jh* td - *Ä*/> 9«J&LE**L TkL’*** A /#s?ttT&W’** K>UPA ►0CI1PAI v—i. rt OOGDA 0?DPA[ 03>Q]DA 0$DF>A 0$QI>A OODDA

  4. Magnitude and sign correlations in conductance fluctuations of horizontal oil water two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, L; Jin, N D; Gao, Z K; Zong, Y B; Zhai, L S; Wang, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    In experiment we firstly define five typical horizontal oil-water flow patterns. Then we introduce an approach for analyzing signals by decomposing the original signals increment into magnitude and sign series and exploring their scaling properties. We characterize the nonlinear and linear properties of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow, which relate to magnitude and sign series respectively. We find that the joint distribution of different scaling exponents can effectively identify flow patterns, and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on magnitude and sign series can represent typical horizontal oil-water two-phase flow dynamics characteristics. The results indicate that the magnitude and sign decomposition method can be a helpful tool for characterizing complex dynamics of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow.

  5. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of the Human EEG during Listening to Emotional Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear method named detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was utilized to investigate the scaling behavior of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) in three emotional music conditions (fear, happiness, sadness) and a rest condition (eyes-closed). The results showed that the EEG exhibited scaling behavior in two regions with two scaling exponents β1 and β2 which represented the complexity of higher and lower frequency activity besides β band respectively. As the emotional intensity decreased the value of β1 increased and the value of β2 decreased. The change of β1 was weakly correlated with the 'approach-withdrawal' model of emotion and both of fear and sad music made certain differences compared with the eyes-closed rest condition. The study shows that music is a powerful elicitor of emotion and that using nonlinear method can potentially contribute to the investigation of emotion.

  6. HBS-1: A Modular Child-Size 3D Printed Humanoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianjun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An affordable, highly articulated, child-size humanoid robot could potentially be used for various purposes, widening the design space of humanoids for further study. Several findings indicated that normal children and children with autism interact well with humanoids. This paper presents a child-sized humanoid robot (HBS-1 intended primarily for children’s education and rehabilitation. The design approach is based on the design for manufacturing (DFM and the design for assembly (DFA philosophies to realize the robot fully using additive manufacturing. Most parts of the robot are fabricated with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS using rapid prototyping technology. Servomotors and shape memory alloy actuators are used as actuating mechanisms. The mechanical design, analysis and characterization of the robot are presented in both theoretical and experimental frameworks.

  7. Multifractal in Volatility of Family Business Stocks Listed on Casablanca STOCK Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    In this paper, we check for existence of multifractal in volatility of Moroccan family business stock returns and in volatility of Casablanca market index returns based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) technique. Empirical results show strong evidence of multifractal characteristics in volatility series of both family business stocks and market index. In addition, it is found that small variations in volatility of family business stocks are persistent, whilst small variations in volatility of market index are anti-persistent. However, large variations in family business volatility and market index volatility are both anti-persistent. Furthermore, multifractal spectral analysis based results show strong evidence that volatility in Moroccan family business companies exhibits more multifractality than volatility in the main stock market. These results may provide insightful information for risk managers concerned with family business stocks.

  8. A Review on the Nonlinear Dynamical System Analysis of Electrocardiogram Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Biswajit

    2018-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis has received special attention of the researchers in the recent past because of its ability to divulge crucial information about the electrophysiology of the heart and the autonomic nervous system activity in a noninvasive manner. Analysis of the ECG signals has been explored using both linear and nonlinear methods. However, the nonlinear methods of ECG signal analysis are gaining popularity because of their robustness in feature extraction and classification. The current study presents a review of the nonlinear signal analysis methods, namely, reconstructed phase space analysis, Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), recurrence plot, Poincaré plot, approximate entropy, and sample entropy along with their recent applications in the ECG signal analysis. PMID:29854361

  9. Modelling and analysis of tool wear and surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 steel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Junaid Mir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with some machinability studies on tool wear and surface roughness, in finish hard turning of AISI D2 steel using PCBN, Mixed ceramic and coated carbide inserts. The machining experiments are conducted based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Combined effects of three cutting parameters viz., cutting speed, cutting time and tool hardness on the two performance outputs (i.e. VB and Ra, are explored employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA.The relationship(s between input variables and the response parameters are determined using a quadratic regression model. The results show that the tool wear was influenced principally by the cutting time and in the second level by the cutting tool hardness. On the other hand, cutting time was the dominant factor affecting workpiece surface roughness followed by cutting speed. Finally, the multiple response optimizations of tool wear and surface roughness were carried out using the desirability function approach (DFA.

  10. Morphological variability of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810, along the southern Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyn Khayyami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variability of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810, was studied in traditional morphometric measurements in 25 morphological characters from 90 specimens in three fishery areas in the southern Caspian Sea (Guilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Univariate analysis of variance showed significant differences between the means of the three groups for 22 out of 25 standardized morphometric measurements. In discriminant function analysis (DFA, the proportion of individuals correctly classified into their original groups was 100%. Principal component analysis results (PCA for morphometric data indicated that samples of Guilan and Mazandaran showed high degree of overlap and these two regions were highly different from Golestan. The dendrogram derived from cluster analysis showed that the samples of L. aurata from Guilan and Mazandaran had same clade while both were obviously distinct from Golestan.

  11. Multifractals of investor behavior in stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear properties of investor activity using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. Using the aggregated trading volumes of buying, selling, and normalized net investor trading (NIT) to quantify the characteristics of trader behavior in the KOSPI market, we find that the cumulative distribution functions of all NIT time series, except for individual traders, follow a power-law distribution with an exponent in the range of 2.92 ≤ γ ≤ 3.87. To observe the nonlinear features of investor activity, we also calculate the multifractal spectra for the buyer, seller, and NIT data sets and find that a multifractal structure exists in all of the data, regardless of the investor type studied.

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia Treated with Lower-Dose Palivizumab in a Heart Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Grodin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is an important community-acquired pathogen that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients who have compromised pulmonary function, are elderly, or are immunosuppressed. This paper describes a 70-year-old man with a remote history of heart transplantation who presented with signs and symptoms of pneumonia. Chest computed tomography (CT imaging demonstrated new patchy ground glass infiltrates throughout the upper and lower lobes of the left lung, and the RSV direct fluorescence antibody (DFA was positive. The patient received aerosolized ribavirin, one dose of intravenous immunoglobulin, and one dose of palivizumab. After two months of followup, the patient had improved infiltrates on chest CT, improved pulmonary function testing, and no evidence of graft rejection or dysfunction. There are few data on RSV infections in heart transplant patients, but this case highlights the importance of considering this potentially serious infection and introduces a novel method of treatment.

  13. The parametric modified limited penetrable visibility graph for constructing complex networks from time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuming; Sun, Mei; Gao, Cuixia; Han, Dun; Wang, Minggang

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the parametric modified limited penetrable visibility graph (PMLPVG) algorithm for constructing complex networks from time series. We modify the penetrable visibility criterion of limited penetrable visibility graph (LPVG) in order to improve the rationality of the original penetrable visibility and preserve the dynamic characteristics of the time series. The addition of view angle provides a new approach to characterize the dynamic structure of the time series that is invisible in the previous algorithm. The reliability of the PMLPVG algorithm is verified by applying it to three types of artificial data as well as the actual data of natural gas prices in different regions. The empirical results indicate that PMLPVG algorithm can distinguish the different time series from each other. Meanwhile, the analysis results of natural gas prices data using PMLPVG are consistent with the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The results imply that the PMLPVG algorithm may be a reasonable and significant tool for identifying various time series in different fields.

  14. Influence of fluorescence time characteristics on the spatial resolution of CW-stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Haiyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Yong; Wang, Guiren; Wang, Kaige

    2018-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11672229 and 61378083), International Cooperation Foundation of the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011DFA12220), Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91123030), Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2010JS110 and 2013SZS03-Z01), Natural Science Basic Research Program of Shaanxi Province — Major Basic Research Project, China (Grant No. 2016ZDJC-15), Young Scientist Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11504294), and the Youth Talent Plan of the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2016JQ103).

  15. Efficiency and cross-correlation in equity market during global financial crisis: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengcheng; Li, Daye; Li, Shuo

    2016-02-01

    Using one minute high-frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index (SHCI) and the Shenzhen Composite Index (SZCI) (2007-2008), we employ the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the detrended cross correlation analysis (DCCA) with rolling window approach to observe the evolution of market efficiency and cross-correlation in pre-crisis and crisis period. Considering the fat-tail distribution of return time series, statistical test based on shuffling method is conducted to verify the null hypothesis of no long-term dependence. Our empirical research displays three main findings. First Shanghai equity market efficiency deteriorated while Shenzhen equity market efficiency improved with the advent of financial crisis. Second the highly positive dependence between SHCI and SZCI varies with time scale. Third financial crisis saw a significant increase of dependence between SHCI and SZCI at shorter time scales but a lack of significant change at longer time scales, providing evidence of contagion and absence of interdependence during crisis.

  16. Are EUR and GBP different words for the same currency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K.; Ausloos, M.

    2002-05-01

    The British Pound (GBP) is not part of the Euro (EUR) monetary system. In order to find out arguments on whether GBP should join the EUR or not correlations are calculated between GBP exchange rates with respect to various currencies: USD, JPY, CHF, DKK, the currencies forming EUR and a reconstructed EUR for the time interval from 1993 till June 30, 2000. The distribution of fluctuations of the exchange rates is Gaussian for the central part of the distribution, but has fat tails for the large size fluctuations. Within the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) statistical method the power law behavior describing the root-mean-square deviation from a linear trend of the exchange rate fluctuations is obtained as a function of time for the time interval of interest. The time-dependent exponent evolution of the exchange rate fluctuations is given. Statistical considerations imply that the GBP is already behaving as a true EUR.

  17. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed culture of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) juice: synergism in the aroma compounds production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  19. The use of the Hurst exponent to predict changes in trends on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The local properties of the time series of the evolution of share prices of 126 significant companies traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange during the period between 1991-2008 have been investigated. The analysis was applied to daily financial returns. I have used the local DFA to obtain the Hurst exponent (diffusion coefficient) while searching for negative correlations by which changes of long-term trends would be effected. A certain evidence, proving that after the signature of anti-correlation-the drop in the Hurst exponent-the change in the trend and in the return rate of an investment is probable, was pointed out. Hence after further investigation this method may be useful as a part of an investment strategy. As the Warsaw Stock Exchange is relatively smaller and younger than other significant world Stock Exchanges-and as the developing market is less efficient-the generalization for others markets needs further investigation.

  20. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  1. Detection of viable and viable nonculturable Vibrio cholerae O1 through cultures and immunofluorescence in the Tucumán rivers, Argentina Detecção de Vibrio cholerae O1 viável e viável não cultivável, através de técnicas de cultivo e imunofluorescência nos rios de Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aulet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae has been sporadically isolated from rivers in Tucumán, Argentina, since the outbreak in 1991. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental reservoir of the bacterium in these rivers, assessing the presence of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and O1 (the latter both in its viable culturable and non culturable state and its relationship to environmental physicochemical variables. 18 water samplings were collected in the Salí River (in Canal Norte and Banda and the Lules River between 2003 and 2005. Physical-chemical measurements (pH, water temperature, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen were examined. Vibrio cholerae was investigated with conventional culture methods and with Direct Immunofluorescence (DFA-VNC in order to detect viable non culturable organisms. All isolated microorganisms corresponded to Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 (Lules 26%, Canal Norte 33% and Banda 41%. The majority was found during spring and summer and correlated with temperature and pH. Non culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected year round in 38 of the 54 water samples analyzed. Application of the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that there was no relationship between positive immunofluorescence results and environmental physicochemical parameters. Genes coding for somatic antigen O1 were confirmed in all DFA-VNC-positive samples, whereas the virulence-associated ctxA and tcpA genes were confirmed in 24 samples.Vibrio cholerae tem sido isolado esporadicamente nos rios da Província de Tucumán, Argentina, desde outubro de 1991. O objetivo deste estudo foi localizar os reservatórios nestes rios, identificar a presença de Vibrio cholerae O1 (em estado cultivável e não cultivável e relacionar a presença desta bactéria com as variações físico-químicos da água. Foram coletadas dezoito amostras de água do rio Salí (nas localidades de Canal Norte e Banda e do rio Lules, entre 2003 e 2005. Estas foram submetidas a an

  2. Multifractal analysis of managed and independent float exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Darko; Stošić, Dusan; Stošić, Tatijana; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of daily price changes in currency rates using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We analyze managed and independent floating currency rates in eight countries, and determine the changes in multifractal spectrum when transitioning between the two regimes. We find that after the transition from managed to independent float regime the changes in multifractal spectrum (position of maximum and width) indicate an increase in market efficiency. The observed changes are more pronounced for developed countries that have a well established trading market. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to both probability density function and long term correlations for managed float regime, while for independent float regime multifractality is in most cases caused by broad probability density function.

  3. Freqüência das infecções oculares por clamídia nos portadores de conjuntivite, em clínica particular de Uberaba, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Couto-Junior

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Setecentos e oitenta pacientes com recidivas clínicas de infecções conjuntivais ou queixas persistentes de prurido, ardor, dor, lacrimejamento e hiperemia, foram submetidos ao raspado conjuntival com citologia e pesquisa de inclusões. Destes 247(31,7% apresentaram inclusões citoplasmáticas; 235 pacientes foram, também, submetidos a coloração com anticorpo monoclonal fluorescente (imunofluorescência direta - DFA com 90 (38,3% casos positivos. Discute-se também, a importância do quadro clinico e dos métodos laboratoriais (coloração com anticorpo monoclonal fluorescente e pesquisa de inclusões citoplasmáticas no diagnóstico. Os pacientes fazem parte de clientela de clínica particular e tem nível sócio-econômico de médio a alto.

  4. Multisensor system for toxic gases detection generated on indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, C. M.; Monsalve, P. A. G.; Mosquera, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    This work describes a wireless multisensory system for different toxic gases detection generated on indoor environments (i.e., Underground coal mines, etc.). The artificial multisensory system proposed in this study was developed through a set of six chemical gas sensors (MQ) of low cost with overlapping sensitivities to detect hazardous gases in the air. A statistical parameter was implemented to the data set and two pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) were used for feature selection. The toxic gases categories were classified with a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) in order to validate the results previously obtained. The tests were carried out to verify feasibility of the application through a wireless communication model which allowed to monitor and store the information of the sensor signals for the appropriate analysis. The success rate in the measures discrimination was 100%, using an artificial neural network where leave-one-out was used as cross validation method.

  5. Studies on the sedimentation and agglomeration behavior of Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C grain refiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazanion, F.; Chen, X.G.; Dupuis, C. [Alcan International Ltd., Jonquiere, PQ (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Centre

    2002-07-01

    The sedimentation and agglomeration behavior of Al-Ti-B and Al-Ti-C grain refiners in liquid aluminum has been investigated using the LiMCA and PoDFA analysis techniques in combination with metallographic examination. The widely used Al-5%Ti-1%B and Al-3%Ti-0.15%C master alloys were chosen. Two aluminum alloys, an AAlxxx (commercially pure metal) and an AA5182 (Al-4.5%Mg) alloy, were prepared with different additions of grain refiners. The difference in particle behavior in liquid aluminum for both refiners is described and briefly analyzed in terms of sensitivity to agglomeration and grain refiner performance. Experimental results indicate that, in comparison with the Al-Ti-B refiner, the Al-Ti-C refiner is detrimentally affected by long holding periods due to the decomposition of TiC particles within the melt. (orig.)

  6. Causality relation between the producer price index and the consumer price index. Ecuador Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Quinde Rosales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present document is an investigation with a type of inductive reasoning. It evaluated the relationship of causality between the producer price index (IPP, and the consumer price index (IPC in a period from January 1998 to December 2016. The unit root test Dickey-Fuller Augmented (DFA was used under an empirical- analytic paradigm, an autoregressive vector-VAR model was generated and the Granger causality test was performed. The results show a positive trend and seasonality in the data of the variables, a VAR model of two variables was obtained with a number of optimal remnants of fourteen VAR2 (14 to which the causality test was performed, demonstrating a bi - directionality of both indices.

  7. Testing for multifractality of Islamic stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saâdaoui, Foued

    2018-04-01

    Studying the power-law scaling of financial time series is a promising area of econophysics, which has often contributed to the understanding of the intricate features of the global markets. In this article, we examine the multifractality of some financial processes and the underlying formation mechanisms in the context of Islamic equity markets. The well-known Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) is used to investigate the self-similar properties of two Dow Jones Islamic Market Indexes (DJIM). The results prove that both indexes exhibit multifractal properties. By discussing the sources of multifractality, we find that they are related to the occurrence of extreme events, long-range dependency of autocorrelations and fat-tailed distribution of returns. These results have several important implications for analysts and decision makers in modeling the dynamics of Islamic markets, thus recommending efficient asset allocation plans to investors dealing with Islamic equity markets.

  8. System, apparatus and methods to implement high-speed network analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezick, James; Lethin, Richard; Ros-Giralt, Jordi; Szilagyi, Peter; Wohlford, David E

    2015-11-10

    Systems, apparatus and methods for the implementation of high-speed network analyzers are provided. A set of high-level specifications is used to define the behavior of the network analyzer emitted by a compiler. An optimized inline workflow to process regular expressions is presented without sacrificing the semantic capabilities of the processing engine. An optimized packet dispatcher implements a subset of the functions implemented by the network analyzer, providing a fast and slow path workflow used to accelerate specific processing units. Such dispatcher facility can also be used as a cache of policies, wherein if a policy is found, then packet manipulations associated with the policy can be quickly performed. An optimized method of generating DFA specifications for network signatures is also presented. The method accepts several optimization criteria, such as min-max allocations or optimal allocations based on the probability of occurrence of each signature input bit.

  9. Ferulic Acid Dehydrodimer and –Dehydrotrimer Profiles of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles from Different Cereal Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Bunzel, Mirko; Schäfer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid dehydrodimers- (DFA) and trimers (TriFA) ester-linked to plant cell wall polymers may not only cross-link cell wall polysaccharides, but also other cell wall components including proteins and lignin, thus, enhancing the rigidity and potentially affect the enzymatic degradation...... of the plant cell wall. Corn-, wheat-, and mixed cereal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated for composition of DFAs and TriFAs by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Corn DDGS contained 5.3 and 5.9 times higher contents of total DFAs...... acid cross-links in the corn cell wall are presumably not modified during fermentation and DDGS processing....

  10. Evidence of increment of efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market through the analysis of its variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that there exist statistical and structural differences between the stock markets of developed and emerging countries. In this work, and in order to find out if the efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market has been changing over time, we have performed and compared several analyses of the variations of the Mexican Stock Market index (IPC) and Dow Jones industrial average index (DJIA) for different periods of their historical daily data. We have analyzed the returns autocorrelation function (ACF) and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study returns variations. We also analyze the volatility, mean value and standard deviation of both markets and compare their evolution. We conclude from the overall result of these studies, that they show compelling evidence of the increment of efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market over time. The data samples analyzed here, correspond to daily values of the IPC and DJIA for the period 10/30/1978-02/28/2006.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  12. The origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery: a meta-analysis and proposal of a new classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Henry, Brandon M; Vikse, Jens; Roy, Joyeeta; Pękala, Przemysław A; Svensen, Maren; Guay, Daniel L; Saganiak, Karolina; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) is a common branch of the deep femoral artery (DFA) responsible for supplying the femoral head and the greater trochanteric fossa. The prevalence rates of MCFA origin, its branching patterns and its distance to the mid-inguinal point (MIP) vary significantly throughout the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the true prevalence of these characteristics and to study their associated anatomical and clinical relevance. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the origin of the MCFA, its branching patterns and its distance to the MIP. No data or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. All data on origin, branching and distance to MIP was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL v2.0. Results. A total of 38 (36 cadaveric and 2 imaging) studies (n = 4,351 lower limbs) were included into the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the DFA was 64.6% (95% CI [58.0-71.5]), while the pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the CFA was 32.2% (95% CI [25.9-39.1]). The CFA-derived MCFA was found to originate as a single branch in 81.1% (95% CI [70.1-91.7]) of cases with a mean pooled distance of 50.14 mm (95% CI [42.50-57.78]) from the MIP. Conclusion. The MCFA's variability must be taken into account by surgeons, especially during orthopedic interventions in the region of the hip to prevent iatrogenic injury to the circulation of the femoral head. Based on our analysis, we present a new proposed classification system for origin of the MCFA.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of human locomotion: effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on local dynamic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eTerrier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that times series of gait parameters (stride length (SL, stride time (ST and stride speed (SS, exhibit long-term persistence and fractal-like properties. Synchronizing steps with rhythmic auditory stimuli modifies the persistent fluctuation pattern to anti-persistence. Another nonlinear method estimates the degree of resilience of gait control to small perturbations, i.e. the local dynamic stability (LDS. The method makes use of the maximal Lyapunov exponent, which estimates how fast a nonlinear system embedded in a reconstructed state space (attractor diverges after an infinitesimal perturbation. We propose to use an instrumented treadmill to simultaneously measure basic gait parameters (time series of SL, ST and SS from which the statistical persistence among consecutive strides can be assessed, and the trajectory of the center of pressure (from which the LDS can be estimated. In 20 healthy participants, the response to rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC of LDS and of statistical persistence (assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA was compared. By analyzing the divergence curves, we observed that long-term LDS (computed as the reverse of the average logarithmic rate of divergence between the 4th and the 10th strides downstream from nearest neighbors in the reconstructed attractor was strongly enhanced (relative change +47%. That is likely the indication of a more dampened dynamics. The change in short-term LDS (divergence over one step was smaller (+3%. DFA results (scaling exponents confirmed an anti-persistent pattern in ST, SL and SS. Long-term LDS (but not short-term LDS and scaling exponents exhibited a significant correlation between them (r=0.7. Both phenomena probably result from the more conscious/voluntary gait control that is required by RAC. We suggest that LDS and statistical persistence should be used to evaluate the efficiency of cueing therapy in patients with neurological gait disorders.

  14. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  15. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh, E-mail: f.hosseinpanahi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoufi, Davood [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Bayan [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-4697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babaei, Reza [Department of Physics, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science & Research Branch Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasani, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Bu Ali Sina, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  16. fractales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Torres

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo comparamos tres métodos diferentes utilizados para estimar el exponente de Hurst, y analizamos su eficiencia cuando son aplicados a series de datos de diferentes longitudes. Se analizan series temporales de fBm sintetizada pura y con tendencias sinusoidales superpuestas. Mostraremos que los tres métodos aquí discutidos, DFA, basado en wavelets y de variaciones discretas, no sólo son altamente dependientes de la longitud de la señal, sino también del orden o número de los momentos (polinómico, regularidad wavelet o variaciones discretas. Para longitudes de datos suficientemente grandes (superiores a 212, los métodos basados en wavelets y de variaciones discretas mostraron ser menos sesgados y más estables para señales fBm simuladas. Mostraremos que el método de DFA, más utilizado en el ambiente biomédico, es el que proporciona peores estimaciones, arrojando resultados ambiguos cuando son aplicados a señales biológicas de diferentes longitudes o con diferentes parámetros de estimación, sin que pueda considerarse a ninguno de los otros dos como métodos confiables en el momento de desear obtener resultados de relevancia física o fisiológica. Los resultados obtenidos indican que debería procederse con más cautela cuando se trata de obtener conclusiones fisiológicas a partir de estimaciones realizadas a partir de señales reales.

  17. Epigenetics of drought-induced trans-generational plasticity: consequences for range limit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob; Anderson, Cynthia; Siemens, David H

    2015-12-18

    Genetic variation gives plants the potential to adapt to stressful environments that often exist beyond their geographic range limits. However, various genetic, physiological or developmental constraints might prevent the process of adaptation. Alternatively, environmentally induced epigenetic changes might sustain populations for several generations in stressful areas across range boundaries, but previous work on Boechera stricta, an upland mustard closely related to Arabidopsis, documented a drought-induced trans-generational plastic trade-off that could contribute to range limit development. Offspring of parents who were drought treated had higher drought tolerance, but lower levels of glucosinolate toxins. Both drought tolerance and defence are thought to be needed to expand the range to lower elevations. Here, we used methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms to determine whether environmentally induced DNA methylation and thus epigenetics could be a mechanism involved in the observed trans-generational plastic trade-off. We compared 110 offspring from the same self-fertilizing lineages whose parents were exposed to experimental drought stress treatments in the laboratory. Using three primer combinations, 643 polymorphic epi-loci were detected. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) on the amount of methylation detected resulted in significant combinations of epi-loci that distinguished the parent drought treatments in the offspring. Principal component (PC) and univariate association analyses also detected the significant differences, even after controlling for lineage, planting flat, developmental differences and multiple testing. Univariate tests also indicated significant associations between the amount of methylation and drought tolerance or glucosinolate toxin concentration. One epi-locus that was implicated in DFA, PC and univariate association analysis may be directly involved in the trade-off because increased methylation at this

  18. A global conformance quality model. A new strategic tool for minimizing defects caused by variation, error, and complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C. Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The performance of Japanese products in the marketplace points to the dominant role of quality in product competition. Our focus is motivated by the tremendous pressure to improve conformance quality by reducing defects to previously unimaginable limits in the range of 1 to 10 parts per million. Toward this end, we have developed a new model of conformance quality that addresses each of the three principle defect sources: (1) Variation, (2) Human Error, and (3) Complexity. Although the role of variation in conformance quality is well documented, errors occur so infrequently that their significance is not well known. We have shown that statistical methods are not useful in characterizing and controlling errors, the most common source of defects. Excessive complexity is also a root source of defects, since it increases errors and variation defects. A missing link in the defining a global model has been the lack of a sound correlation between complexity and defects. We have used Design for Assembly (DFA) methods to quantify assembly complexity and have shown that assembly times can be described in terms of the Pareto distribution in a clear exception to the Central Limit Theorem. Within individual companies we have found defects to be highly correlated with DFA measures of complexity in broad studies covering tens of millions of assembly operations. Applying the global concepts, we predicted that Motorola`s Six Sigma method would only reduce defects by roughly a factor of two rather than orders of magnitude, a prediction confirmed by Motorola`s data. We have also shown that the potential defects rates of product concepts can be compared in the earliest stages of development. The global Conformance Quality Model has demonstrated that the best strategy for improvement depends upon the quality control strengths and weaknesses.

  19. A stable pattern of EEG spectral coherence distinguishes children with autism from neuro-typical controls - a large case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Frank H; Als, Heidelise

    2012-06-26

    The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact. Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to 18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C). After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA) identified EEG spectral coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) determined the spectral coherence factors' discrimination success for the two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASD-specific coherence differences when compared to controls. Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P EEG coherence-based phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distance coherences may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distance coherences may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide average spectral range of factor loadings may suggest over-damped neural networks.

  20. A stable pattern of EEG spectral coherence distinguishes children with autism from neuro-typical controls - a large case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy Frank H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact. Methods Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to 18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C. After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA identified EEG spectral coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984. Discriminant function analysis (DFA determined the spectral coherence factors' discrimination success for the two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASD-specific coherence differences when compared to controls. Results Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P Conclusions Classification success suggests a stable coherence loading pattern that differentiates ASD- from C-group subjects. This might constitute an EEG coherence-based phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distance coherences may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distance coherences may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide average spectral range

  1. Untangling Trends and Drivers of Changing River Discharge Along Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodzik, K.; Kaplan, D. A.; Klarenberg, G.

    2017-12-01

    Along the relatively undeveloped Big Bend coastline of Florida, discharge in many rivers and springs is decreasing. The causes are unclear, though they likely include a combination of groundwater extraction for water supply, climate variability, and altered land use. Saltwater intrusion from altered freshwater influence and sea level rise is causing transformative ecosystem impacts along this flat coastline, including coastal forest die-off and oyster reef collapse. A key uncertainty for understanding river discharge change is predicting discharge from rainfall, since Florida's karstic bedrock stores large amounts of groundwater, which has a long residence time. This study uses Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate data reduction technique for time series, to find common trends in flow and reveal hydrologic variables affecting flow in eight Big Bend rivers since 1965. The DFA uses annual river flows as response time series, and climate data (annual rainfall and evapotranspiration by watershed) and climatic indices (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] Index and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] Index) as candidate explanatory variables. Significant explanatory variables (one evapotranspiration and three rainfall time series) explained roughly 50% of discharge variation across rivers. Significant trends (representing unexplained variation) were shared among rivers, with geographical grouping of five northern rivers and three southern rivers, along with a strong downward trend affecting six out of eight systems. ENSO and NAO had no significant impact. Advancing knowledge of these dynamics is necessary for forecasting how altered rainfall and temperatures from climate change may impact flows. Improved forecasting is especially important given Florida's reliance on groundwater extraction to support its growing population.

  2. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for

  3. Elemental microchemistry, fatty acid profile and geometric morphometrics signatures of goose barnacles (Pollicipes pollicipes reveal their place of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seafood plays an important role in the socioeconomic, gastronomy and cultural heritage of Portuguese coastal communities. In the Iberian Peninsula, the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the intertidal biological resource most heavily exploited by man, resulting on overexploitation of stocks. In the MPA of BNR P.pollicipes harvesting is however strictly regulated, making it a good example of marine resources management. Analytical methods able to identify the origin of goose barnacle would be an important tool to help the management of the trade. For such purpose, we investigated whether P. pollicipes have site-specific differences based on its elemental microchemistry (EM, fatty acid profile (FA and capitulum shape (CS. The analysis was performed on specimens collected from 3 sites in the BNR and 7 along a 300 km stretch of the Portuguese coast. For each individual we analysed the largest lateral shell for EM using ICP-MS, the FA content of the muscle using GC-FID, and the CS using geometric morphometrics. Discriminant function analyses (DFA for both EM and FA separately provided a high reclassification success (77.6% and 99% respectively, of cross-validated cases correctly classified, while for EM combined with FA allowed for a 100% reclassification success. DFA analysis based only on CS, revealed a low classification success (29.6%. These results show that EM and FA signatures can be a powerful tool to infer goose barnacles origin. Such “fingerprinting” approach can be used to track and identify goose barnacles origin, helping in establishing an origin certificate and increasing the potential value of biological resources from Portuguese MPAs.

  4. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles for Discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-Strain Spores Grown on Different Media▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L.; Swan, Brandon K.; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 ω9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation. PMID:20097814

  5. Use of fatty acid methyl ester profiles for discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-strain spores grown on different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L; Swan, Brandon K; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 omega9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation.

  6. Repeatability of heart rate variability in congenital hypothyroidism as analysed by detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverría, J C; Solís, L I; Pérez, J E; Gaitán, M J; Mandujano, M; Sánchez, M C; González-Camarena, R; Rivera, I R

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of heart rate fluctuations, or heart rate variability (HRV), may be applied to explore children's neurodevelopment. However, previous studies have reported poor reliability (repeatability) of HRV measures in children at rest and during light exercise. Whether the reliability can be improved by controlling variables such as physical activity, breathing rate and tidal volume, or by selecting non-conventional techniques for analysing the data remains as an open question. We evaluated the short-term repeatability of RR-interval data from medicated children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The α 1 exponents, obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), from the data of 21 children collected at two different sessions were compared. Elapsed days between sessions were 59 ± 33, and data were obtained during 10 min, trying to restrict the children's activity while being seated. We found statistical agreement between the means of α 1 exponents for each session (p = 0.94) and no bias with a low-coefficient variation (9.1%); an intraclass correlation coefficient ri = 0.48 ([0.14 0.72], 95% confidence interval) was also estimated. These findings, which were compared with results obtained by conventional time and frequency techniques, indicate the existence of agreement between the α 1 exponents obtained at each session, thereby providing support concerning the repeatability of HRV data as analysed by DFA in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Of particular interest was also the agreement found by using the central frequency of the high-frequency band and the parameter pNN20, both showing better or similar ri than α 1 (0.77 [0.57 0.89] and 0.51 [0.17 0.74], respectively), yet considerably better repeatability than other conventional time and frequency parameters

  7. GATHERING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON REGEX WEB PAGE DENOISING HASH ALIGNMENTS WEB CRAWLER WITHOUT LANDING THE MICRO - BLOG ABUNDANT%基于 Regex 网页去噪 Hash 比对的网络爬虫无登陆微博采集技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 孟凡龙; 刘培玉; 朱振方

    2015-01-01

    针对当前微博采集无精确去噪方法和微博无法无登陆采集现象,笔者提出了基于 Regex 网页去噪 Hash 对比的网络爬虫采集方案并利用插件采集实现了无登陆采集。该方法通过 Regex 构建 DFA 和 NFA 模型来去除网页噪声,通过 Hash 对比对确定采集页面,并通过插件权限提升实现无登陆技术。有效的避免了 Hash 值的变化与网页内容变化产生偏离的现象,解决了网络爬虫虚拟登录时多次对 URL 采集造成的身份认证问题。实验表明,该方法可以实时快速的获取微博信息,为舆情数据分析提供批量精准的数据。%In view of the current micro - blog acquisition without accurate denoising method and unable abundantly the non - debarkation gathering phenomenon,we present a web crawler acquisition scheme of Regex Webpage denoising Hash based on comparison and realize no landing collection by using plug - in acquisition. The method of Regex to construct DFA and NFA model to remove Webpage noise,comparing the Hash to determine the collection page,and the plug - in privilege without landing techniques are presented. Experiments show that,this method quickly gets micro - blog information in real time,and provides,accurate data for the mass public opinion data analysis.

  8. Stream pH as an abiotic gradient influencing distributions of trout in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Carline, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Elevation and stream slope are abiotic gradients that limit upstream distributions of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in streams. We sought to determine whether another abiotic gradient, base-flow pH, may also affect distributions of these two species in eastern North America streams. We used historical data from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's fisheries management database to explore the effects of reach elevation, slope, and base-flow pH on distributional limits to brook trout and brown trout in Pennsylvania streams in the Appalachian Plateaus and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to calculate a canonical axis that separated allopatric brook trout populations from allopatric brown trout populations and allowed us to assess which of the three independent variables were important gradients along which communities graded from allopatric brook trout to allopatric brown trout. Canonical structure coefficients from DFA indicated that in both physiographic provinces, stream base-flow pH and slope were important factors in distributional limits; elevation was also an important factor in the Ridge and Valley Province but not the Appalachian Plateaus Province. Graphs of each variable against the proportion of brook trout in a community also identified apparent zones of allopatry for both species on the basis of pH and stream slope. We hypothesize that pH-mediated interspecific competition that favors brook trout in competition with brown trout at lower pH is the most plausible mechanism for segregation of these two species along pH gradients. Our discovery that trout distributions in Pennsylvania are related to stream base-flow pH has important implications for brook trout conservation in acidified regions. Carefully designed laboratory and field studies will be required to test our hypothesis and elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the partitioning of brook trout and

  9. Study of multiparameter respiratory pattern complexity in surgical critically ill patients during weaning trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglaveras Nikos K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Separation from mechanical ventilation is a difficult task, whereas conventional predictive indices have not been proven accurate enough, so far. A few studies have explored changes of breathing pattern variability for weaning outcome prediction, with conflicting results. In this study, we tried to assess respiratory complexity during weaning trials, using different non-linear methods derived from theory of complex systems, in a cohort of surgical critically ill patients. Results Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. There were 22 who passed and 10 who failed a weaning trial. Tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow were analyzed for 10 minutes during two phases: 1. pressure support (PS ventilation (15-20 cm H2O and 2. weaning trials with PS: 5 cm H2O. Sample entropy (SampEn, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA exponent, fractal dimension (FD and largest lyapunov exponents (LLE of the two respiratory parameters were computed in all patients and during the two phases of PS. Weaning failure patients exhibited significantly decreased respiratory pattern complexity, reflected in reduced sample entropy and lyapunov exponents and increased DFA exponents of respiratory flow time series, compared to weaning success subjects (p 0.1, SampEn and LLE predicted better weaning outcome compared with RSBI, P0.1 and RSBI* P0.1 (conventional model, R2 = 0.874 vs 0.643, p Conclusions We suggest that complexity analysis of respiratory signals can assess inherent breathing pattern dynamics and has increased prognostic impact upon weaning outcome in surgical patients.

  10. Detrended fluctuation analysis made flexible to detect range of cross-correlated fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświecimka, Paweł; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    The detrended cross-correlation coefficient ρDCCA has recently been proposed to quantify the strength of cross-correlations on different temporal scales in bivariate, nonstationary time series. It is based on the detrended cross-correlation and detrended fluctuation analyses (DCCA and DFA, respectively) and can be viewed as an analog of the Pearson coefficient in the case of the fluctuation analysis. The coefficient ρDCCA works well in many practical situations but by construction its applicability is limited to detection of whether two signals are generally cross-correlated, without the possibility to obtain information on the amplitude of fluctuations that are responsible for those cross-correlations. In order to introduce some related flexibility, here we propose an extension of ρDCCA that exploits the multifractal versions of DFA and DCCA: multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, respectively. The resulting new coefficient ρq not only is able to quantify the strength of correlations but also allows one to identify the range of detrended fluctuation amplitudes that are correlated in two signals under study. We show how the coefficient ρq works in practical situations by applying it to stochastic time series representing processes with long memory: autoregressive and multiplicative ones. Such processes are often used to model signals recorded from complex systems and complex physical phenomena like turbulence, so we are convinced that this new measure can successfully be applied in time-series analysis. In particular, we present an example of such application to highly complex empirical data from financial markets. The present formulation can straightforwardly be extended to multivariate data in terms of the q -dependent counterpart of the correlation matrices and then to the network representation.

  11. Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using three measurement scales among children in New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Anju Singh; Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    There is a great need for identifying fearful children, who often present problems in patient management, thus affecting the quality of dental care rendered to them. This study is unique in the way that dental fear was assessed through three fear scales as research has suggested the use of more than one scale because each scale has its own restrictions and is open to criticism. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental fear and anxiety (DFA) among children aged 3-14 years using three fear measurement scales. The study was conducted on children (3-14 years) who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. The DFA levels were measured using three fear measurement scales, i.e., facial image scale (FIS), dental fear scale (DFS), and children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS). The dental behavior was estimated using the Frankl's behavior rating scale (FBRS). The prevalence of dental fear according to FIS was 14.3%, according to DFS was 22.6%, and according to CFSS-DS was 7.4%. In assessment of the behavior of children in the clinics through FBRS, it was observed that he maximum number of respondents (69.8%) showed Frankl's Rating 3 i.e. positive. In the DFS and CFSS-DS, the factor which caused most fear was "feeling the needle injected" and "injections," respectively. Assessment of dental fear is an extremely useful tool for the dental practitioner, who can use it to customize the behavioral treatment and management for child patients.

  12. Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using three measurement scales among children in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Singh Rajwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a great need for identifying fearful children, who often present problems in patient management, thus affecting the quality of dental care rendered to them. This study is unique in the way that dental fear was assessed through three fear scales as research has suggested the use of more than one scale because each scale has its own restrictions and is open to criticism. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate dental fear and anxiety (DFA among children aged 3–14 years using three fear measurement scales. Methods: The study was conducted on children (3–14 years who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry at Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. The DFA levels were measured using three fear measurement scales, i.e., facial image scale (FIS, dental fear scale (DFS, and children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS. The dental behavior was estimated using the Frankl's behavior rating scale (FBRS. Results: The prevalence of dental fear according to FIS was 14.3%, according to DFS was 22.6%, and according to CFSS-DS was 7.4%. In assessment of the behavior of children in the clinics through FBRS, it was observed that he maximum number of respondents (69.8% showed Frankl's Rating 3 i.e. positive. In the DFS and CFSS-DS, the factor which caused most fear was “feeling the needle injected” and “injections,” respectively. Conclusion: Assessment of dental fear is an extremely useful tool for the dental practitioner, who can use it to customize the behavioral treatment and management for child patients.

  13. Fractal features of CdTe thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinpanahi, Fayegh; Raoufi, Davood; Ranjbarghanei, Khadijeh; Karimi, Bayan; Babaei, Reza; Hasani, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdTe thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature with different deposition time 5, 10 and 15 min. • Nanostructure of CdTe layer indicates that CdTe films are polycrystalline and have zinc blende structure, irrespective of their deposition time. • Complexity and roughness of the CdTe films and strength of multifractality increase with increasing deposition time. • Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe films have multifractal nature. - Abstract: Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). The film deposition was performed for 5, 10, and 15 min at power of 30 W with a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The crystal structure of the prepared CdTe thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD analyses indicate that the CdTe films are polycrystalline, having zinc blende structure of CdTe irrespective of their deposition time. All CdTe films showed a preferred orientation along (1 1 1) crystalline plane. The surface morphology characterization of the films was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The quantitative AFM characterization shows that the RMS surface roughness of the prepared CdTe thin films increases with increasing the deposition time. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and also multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) methods showed that prepared CdTe thin films have multifractal nature. The complexity, roughness of the CdTe thin films and strength of the multifractality increase as deposition time increases.

  14. Impact of iron chelators on short-term dissolution of basaltic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Anne; Rossano, Stéphanie; Trcera, Nicolas; Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D.; Catillon, Gilles; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Guyot, François

    2015-08-01

    Although microorganisms seem to play an important role in the alteration processes of basaltic glasses in solution, the elementary mechanisms involved remain unclear in particular with regard to the role of organic ligands excreted by the cells. Two glasses, one with Fe and one without Fe were synthesized to model basaltic glass compositions. Fe in the glass was mostly Fe(III) for enhancing interaction with siderophores, yet with small but significant amounts of Fe(II) (between 10% and 30% of iron). The prepared samples were submitted to abiotic alteration experiments in buffered (pH 6.4) diluted solutions of metal-specific ligands, namely oxalic acid (OA, 10 mM), desferrioxamine (DFA, 1 mM) or 2,2‧-bipyridyl (BPI, 1 mM). Element release from the glass into the solution after short term alteration (maximum 1 week) was measured by ICP-OES, and normalized mass losses and relative release ratios (with respect to Si) were evaluated for each element in each experimental condition. The presence of organic ligands had a significant effect on the dissolution of both glasses. Trivalent metals chelators (OA, DFA) impacted on the release of Fe3+ and Al3+, and thus on the global dissolution of both glasses, enhancing all release rates and dissolution stoichiometry (release rates were increased up to 7 times for Al or Fe). As expected, the mostly divalent metal chelator BPI interacted preferentially with Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+. This study thus allows to highlight the central roles of iron and aluminium in interaction with some organic ligands in the alteration processes of basaltic glasses. It thus provides a step toward understanding the biological contribution of this fundamental geological process.

  15. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  16. Avaliação de Interações entre Professor e Alunos na Educação Matemática: ensino e aprendizagem de recursos pedagógicos. Evaluation of Teacher-student Interactions in Mathematics Education: the teaching and the learning of pedagogical resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Lopes Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto tem o propósito dizer que é possível e necessário que, enquanto profissional autônomo, o professor avalie a sua própria prática. Admitindo que a Avaliação Funcional Descritiva (AFD pode se constituir em recurso pedagógico de avaliação, implementação e alteração de práticas de ensino de Matemática, descreve-se um estudo que objetivou analisar a aquisição dos repertórios que definem a AFD por duas professoras que ensinam Matemática e que atuam no Ensino Fundamental do estado de São Paulo. Ao atribuir ao professor a função de avaliar e de se avaliar, reconhece-se nele um agente fundamental de transformação na Educação. Palavras-chave: Educação Matemática. Avaliação Funcional Descritiva. Recursos Pedagógicos.The aim of this paper is to discuss the teachers’ need, as autonomous professionals, to evaluate their own pratice. Considering that Descriptive Functional Analysis (DFA may be a pedagogical method for analysis, implementation, and change of teachers’ mathematics teaching practices, the objective of the present research was to teach repertoires compatible with DFA to two mathematics teachers in elementary schools of São Paulo state. When teachers are responsible for evaluation and self evaluation, they recognize themselves as fundamental agents of transformation in education. Keywords: Mathematics Education. Descriptive Functional Analysis. Pedagogical Resources.

  17. Caffeine consumption, insomnia, and sleep duration: Results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ninad S; Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas J; Chakravorty, Subhajit

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia symptoms have been individually associated with both caffeine consumption and sleep duration abnormalities in prior studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether caffeine consumption was associated with insomnia symptoms from a population perspective and whether this relationship depended on habitual sleep duration. Data were extracted from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (N = 4730). Caffeine consumption was quantified as mg/d from 2 typical days of use, 7 to 10 d apart. Insomnia symptoms were evaluated using frequencies of difficulty falling asleep (DFA), difficulty staying asleep (DSA), non-restorative sleep (NRS), and daytime sleepiness (DS). Habitual sleep duration was assessed as the hours of sleep obtained on a typical night. Binomial logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationships of individual insomnia and sleepiness symptoms (DFA, DSA, NRS, and DS) with caffeine consumption and sleep duration variables, after adjusting for covariates. The mean ± SD caffeine consumption was 176.6 ± 201 mg/d. Mean habitual sleep duration was 6.8 ± 1.4 h. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent in 19.1% to 28.4% of the respondents. Although caffeine consumption was associated with all insomnia symptoms in the unadjusted models, the adjusted models demonstrated a trend toward significance with DSA. Sleep duration was inversely associated with the insomnia symptoms in unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Finally, NRS was associated with an interaction between increased caffeine consumption and sleep duration. The association between caffeine use and insomnia symptoms depends on habitual sleep duration at a population level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  19. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE

  20. Beyond Precipitation: Physiographic Gradients Dictate the Relative Importance of Environmental Drivers on Savanna Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Kaplan, David A.; Southworth, Jane; Zhu, Likai; Waylen, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude and spatial distribution of the key environmental factors driving vegetation change in southern African savanna, and how they vary across physiographic gradients. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate times series dimension reduction technique to ten years of monthly remote sensing data (MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and a suite of environmental covariates: precipitation, mean and maximum temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, fire and potential evapotranspiration. Monthly NDVI was described by cyclic seasonal variation with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in different physiographic regions. Results support existing work emphasizing the importance of precipitation, soil moisture and fire on NDVI, but also reveal overlooked effects of temperature and evapotranspiration, particularly in regions with higher mean annual precipitation. Critically, spatial distributions of the weights of environmental covariates point to a transition in the importance of precipitation and soil moisture (strongest in grass-dominated regions with precipitation950 mm). Conclusions/Significance We quantified the combined spatiotemporal effects of an available suite of environmental drivers on NDVI across a large and diverse savanna region. The analysis supports known drivers of savanna vegetation but also uncovers important roles of temperature and evapotranspiration. Results highlight the utility of applying the DFA approach to remote sensing products for regional analyses of landscape change in the context of global environmental change. With the dramatic increase in global change research, this methodology augurs well for

  1. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e infecções pulmonares pós revascularização miocárdica Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca e infecciones pulmonares post revascularización miocárdica Heart rate variability and pulmonary infections after myocardial revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Corrêa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC é um método diagnóstico não invasivo usado na avaliação da modulação autonômica do coração. A análise da VFC por métodos de dinâmica não linear no período pré-operatório da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio poderia ser preditora de morbidade no pós-operatório, como por exemplo, infecções pulmonares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento da VFC pela dinâmica não linear, no período pré-operatório da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio e sua relação com a ocorrência de infecções pulmonares no período pós-operatório hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 69 pacientes (média de idade de 58,6 ± 10,4 anos com doença arterial coronariana e indicação eletiva de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Para quantificar a dinâmica não linear da VFC, foram realizadas: análise das flutuações depuradas de tendências (DFA, seus componentes de curto (α1 e longo (α2 prazos, entropia aproximada (-ApEn, expoente de Lyapunov (LE, e expoente de Hurst (HE de séries temporais dos intervalos RR do ECG, captados com equipamento Polar S810i, na véspera da operação. RESULTADOS: Nos níveis de corte estipulado pela curva ROC, houve diferença significativa entre os grupos com e sem infecções pulmonares no pós-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio para a DFA total, entropia aproximada e expoente Lyapunov com p = 0, 0309, p = 0,0307 e p = 0,0006, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os métodos de dinâmica não linear, nos seus respectivos níveis de corte, permitiram diferenciar os casos que evoluíram com infecção pulmonar no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, sugerindo que, nesse grupo de pacientes, estes métodos podem ter caráter prognóstico.FUNDAMENTO: La variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC es un método diagnóstico no invasivo usado en la evaluación de la modulación autonómica del coraz

  2. 拉曼镊子结合多元统计方法分析两种人体滴虫的差异性%Investigation of Biochemical Diversity of Two Species of Trichomonads Based on Raman Tweezers Combined with Multistatistical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庶识; 赖钧灼; 梁裕芬; 韦俊彬

    2011-01-01

    应用单细胞激光拉曼光谱分析技术,对不同来源的阴道毛滴虫和口腔毛滴虫的拉曼光谱数据进行减背景、平滑、基线校正、归一化等处理后做主成分分析(PCA)和辨别函数分析(DFA)等多元统计分析.平均光谱和PCA分析结果表明,阴道毛滴虫和口腔毛滴虫差异最为明显是 1002 cm峰,其次,差异相关性最大的还有9个拉曼谱峰785,888,979,1127,1287,1317,1364,1446和1465 cm,其中4个峰来自核酸,6个峰归属于蛋白质信号峰,反映两种滴虫的蛋白质、核酸的相对含量差异较大,可以通过PCA方法鉴别两种毛滴虫的差异.由于口腔毛滴虫或阴道毛滴虫虫株间差异并不明显,应用PCA结合DFA多元统计学方法,在保留原有数据信息基础上,通过扩大组间差异,缩小组内差距,同种毛滴虫虫株间在一定程度得到区分.口腔毛滴虫4个虫株之间有12个峰是差异最大的谱峰,阴道毛滴虫4个虫株之间有14个峰是差异最大,反映了两种毛滴虫虫株之间核酸、蛋白质、脂类及糖类等生物大分子组成相对含量差异.此外,根据DFA中虫株间欧氏距离聚类,可以确知虫株之间的差异.%To investigate the biochemical components and structure between two species of trichomonads, a Raman tweezers was used to collect Raman spectra of single Trichomonas tenax and Trichomonas vaginalis cells taken from different patients, in which multiple statistical analysis, principal component analyses(PCA) and discriminant function analysis(DFA), were applied to distinguish the biological diversity between tow species of trichomonads and among their strains statistically. A laser beam was introduced into a sample pool on the stage of an inverted microscopy to form an optical trap, a uniform trichomonad with vitality was trapped randomly in water and the Raman scatter was collected, subsequently, Raman data were background-subtracted smoothed, baselined, normalized, PCA, DFA and hierarchical

  3. Produção de forragem e produção animal em pastagem com duas disponibilidades de forragem associadas ou não à suplementação energética Effects of forage availability and energy supplementation on herbage accumulation rate and animal yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento, avaliou-se o efeito de duas disponibilidades de forragem, 1.200 e 1.500 kg/ha de matéria seca (MS, e do uso de suplementação energética sobre a produção de forragem e a produção animal em pastagem de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb + azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Foram utilizadas 90 novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore, com peso vivo (PV de 164 kg no início do pastejo, submetidas às seguintes combinações: DFB - disponibilidade de forragem baixa; DFA - disponibilidade de forragem alta; DFBS - disponibilidade de forragem baixa + suplementação energética; DFAS - disponibilidade de forragem alta + suplementação energética. O suplemento fornecido foi grão de sorgo moído, na proporção de 0,7% do PV. As variáveis estudadas foram produção de forragem (PF, carga animal (CA e ganho de peso vivo por área (GPA. A PF não foi influenciada pelo manejo da pastagem e pela suplementação aos animais. O acúmulo de forragem diário estimado foi de 45,53 kg/ha de MS. A CA na DFA, média de 862 kg/ha de PV, apresentou pouca variação no decorrer do ciclo de pastejo. Em DFAS, DFB e DFBS, a carga animal foi extremamente variável e, a partir de 26/08, foi maior na DFBS. A utilização de 1.200 kg/ha de MS não afetou o GPA, enquanto a suplementação aos animais proporcionou aumento de 59,4% em relação ao uso exclusivo da pastagem.The trial was conducted to evaluate two forage availabilities (1.200 and 1.500 kg/ha of dry matter [DM] and energy supplementation of winter pasture on herbage and animal yields. The pasture was a mixture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb + Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. Ninety Charolais and Charolais crossbred Nellore heifers, with initial live weight of 164 kg, were submitted to the following treatments: LFA - low forage availability; HFA - high forage availability; LFAS - low forage availability + supplementation; HFAS - high forage availability + supplementation

  4. The combined use of dynamic factor analysis and wavelet analysis to evaluate latent factors controlling complex groundwater level fluctuations in a riverside alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yun-Yeong; Yun, Seong-Taek; Yu, Soonyoung; Hamm, Se-Yeong

    2017-12-01

    To identify and quantitatively evaluate complex latent factors controlling groundwater level (GWL) fluctuations in a riverside alluvial aquifer influenced by barrage construction, we developed the combined use of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) and wavelet analysis (WA). Time series data of GWL, river water level and precipitation were collected for 3 years (July 2012 to June 2015) from an alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area of the Nakdong river basin, South Korea. Based on the wavelet coefficients of the final approximation, the GWL data was clustered into three groups (WCG1 to WCG3). Two dynamic factors (DFs) were then extracted using DFA for each group; thus, six major factors were extracted. Next, the time-frequency variability of the extracted DFs was examined using multiresolution cross-correlation analysis (MRCCA) with the following steps: 1) major driving forces and their scales in GWL fluctuations were identified by comparing maximum correlation coefficients (rmax) between DFs and the GWL time series and 2) the results were supplemented using the wavelet transformed coherence (WTC) analysis between DFs and the hydrological time series. Finally, relative contributions of six major DFs to the GWL fluctuations could be quantitatively assessed by calculating the effective dynamic efficiency (Def). The characteristics and relevant process of the identified six DFs are: 1) WCG1DF4,1 as an indicative of seasonal agricultural pumping (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.68-0.89; Def ≤ 23.1%); 2) WCG1DF4,4 representing the cycle of regional groundwater recharge (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.98-1.00; Def ≤ 11.1%); 3) WCG2DF4,1 indicating the complex interaction between the episodes of precipitation and direct runoff (scales = 2-8 days; rmax = 0.82-0.91; Def ≤ 35.3%) and seasonal GW-RW interaction (scales = 64-128 days; rmax = 0.76-0.91; Def ≤ 14.2%); 4) WCG2DF4,4 reflecting the complex effects of seasonal pervasive pumping and the local recharge

  5. TH-E-BRF-07: Raman Spectroscopy for Radiation Treatment Response Assessment in a Lung Metastases Mouse Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devpura, S; Barton, K; Brown, S; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Sethi, S; Klein, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Raman spectroscopy is an optical spectroscopic method used to probe chemical information about a target tissue. Our goal was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy is able to distinguish lung tumors from normal lung tissue and whether this technique can identify the molecular changes induced by radiation. Methods: 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into the flanks of 6 Balb/C female mice. Four additional mice were used as “normal lung” controls. After 14 days, 3 mice bearing tumors received 6Gy to the left lung with 6MV photons and the other three were treated as “unirradiated tumor” controls. At a 24-hour time point, lungs were excised and the specimens were sectioned using a cryostat; alternating sections were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for evaluation by a pathologist or unstained for Raman measurements. 240 total Raman spectra were collected; 84 from normal lung controls; 63 from unirradiated tumors and 64 from tumors irradiated with 6Gy in a single fraction. Raman spectra were also collected from normal lung tissues of mice with unirradiated tumors. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were performed to analyze the data. Results: Raman bands assignable to DNA/RNA showed prominent contributions in tumor tissues while Raman bands associated with hemoglobin showed strong contributions in normal lung tissue. PCA/DFA analysis identified normal lung tissue and tumor with 100% and 98.4% accuracy, respectively, relative to pathologic scoring. Additionally, normal lung tissues from unirradiated mice bearing tumors were classified as normal with 100% accuracy. In a model consisting of unirradiated and irradiated tumors identification accuracy was 79.4% and 93.8% respectively, relative to pathologic assessment. Conclusion: Initial results demonstrate the promise for Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis normal vs. lung metastases as well as the assessment of

  6. The origin of the medial circumflex femoral artery: a meta-analysis and proposal of a new classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof A. Tomaszewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA is a common branch of the deep femoral artery (DFA responsible for supplying the femoral head and the greater trochanteric fossa. The prevalence rates of MCFA origin, its branching patterns and its distance to the mid-inguinal point (MIP vary significantly throughout the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the true prevalence of these characteristics and to study their associated anatomical and clinical relevance. Methods. A search of the major electronic databases Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SciELO, BIOSIS, and CNKI was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the origin of the MCFA, its branching patterns and its distance to the MIP. No data or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. All data on origin, branching and distance to MIP was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL v2.0. Results. A total of 38 (36 cadaveric and 2 imaging studies (n = 4,351 lower limbs were included into the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the DFA was 64.6% (95% CI [58.0–71.5], while the pooled prevalence of the MCFA originating from the CFA was 32.2% (95% CI [25.9–39.1]. The CFA-derived MCFA was found to originate as a single branch in 81.1% (95% CI [70.1–91.7] of cases with a mean pooled distance of 50.14 mm (95% CI [42.50–57.78] from the MIP. Conclusion. The MCFA’s variability must be taken into account by surgeons, especially during orthopedic interventions in the region of the hip to prevent iatrogenic injury to the circulation of the femoral head. Based on our analysis, we present a new proposed classification system for origin of the MCFA.

  7. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  8. Sediment fingerprinting experiments to test the sensitivity of multivariate mixing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Blake, Will; Smith, Hugh; Navas, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Sediment fingerprinting techniques provide insight into the dynamics of sediment transfer processes and support for catchment management decisions. As questions being asked of fingerprinting datasets become increasingly complex, validation of model output and sensitivity tests are increasingly important. This study adopts an experimental approach to explore the validity and sensitivity of mixing model outputs for materials with contrasting geochemical and particle size composition. The experiments reported here focused on (i) the sensitivity of model output to different fingerprint selection procedures and (ii) the influence of source material particle size distributions on model output. Five soils with significantly different geochemistry, soil organic matter and particle size distributions were selected as experimental source materials. A total of twelve sediment mixtures were prepared in the laboratory by combining different quantified proportions of the Kruskal-Wallis test, Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), or correlation matrix). Summary results for the use of the mixing model with the different sets of fingerprint properties for the twelve mixed soils were reasonably consistent with the initial mixing percentages initially known. Given the experimental nature of the work and dry mixing of materials, geochemical conservative behavior was assumed for all elements, even for those that might be disregarded in aquatic systems (e.g. P). In general, the best fits between actual and modeled proportions were found using a set of nine tracer properties (Sr, Rb, Fe, Ti, Ca, Al, P, Si, K, Si) that were derived using DFA coupled with a multivariate stepwise algorithm, with errors between real and estimated value that did not exceed 6.7 % and values of GOF above 94.5 %. The second set of experiments aimed to explore the sensitivity of model output to variability in the particle size of source materials assuming that a degree of

  9. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-03-05

    Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and/or peptic ulcer, as compared

  10. Assessment of 48 Stock markets using adaptive multifractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Dionísio, Andreia; Movahed, S. M. S.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Stock market comovements are examined using cointegration, Granger causality tests and nonlinear approaches in context of mutual information and correlations. Since underlying data sets are affected by non-stationarities and trends, we also apply Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (AMF-DFA) and Adaptive Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (AMF-DXA). We find only 170 pair of Stock markets cointegrated, and according to the Granger causality and mutual information, we realize that the strongest relations lies between emerging markets, and between emerging and frontier markets. According to scaling exponent given by AMF-DFA, h(q = 2) > 1, we find that all underlying data sets belong to non-stationary process. According to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), only 8 markets are classified in uncorrelated processes at 2 σ confidence interval. 6 Stock markets belong to anti-correlated class and dominant part of markets has memory in corresponding daily index prices during January 1995 to February 2014. New-Zealand with H = 0 . 457 ± 0 . 004 and Jordan with H = 0 . 602 ± 0 . 006 are far from EMH. The nature of cross-correlation exponents based on AMF-DXA is almost multifractal for all pair of Stock markets. The empirical relation, Hxy ≤ [Hxx +Hyy ] / 2, is confirmed. Mentioned relation for q > 0 is also satisfied while for q behavior of markets for small fluctuations is affected by contribution of major pair. For larger fluctuations, the cross-correlation contains information from both local (internal) and global (external) conditions. Width of singularity spectrum for auto-correlation and cross-correlation are Δαxx ∈ [ 0 . 304 , 0 . 905 ] and Δαxy ∈ [ 0 . 246 , 1 . 178 ] , respectively. The wide range of singularity spectrum for cross-correlation confirms that the bilateral relation between Stock markets is more complex. The value of σDCCA indicates that all pairs of stock market studied in this time interval

  11. Functional characterization of Plasmodium berghei PSOP25 during ookinete development and as a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenqi; Liu, Fei; He, Yiwen; Liu, Qingyang; Humphreys, Gregory B; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Fan, Qi; Luo, Enjie; Cao, Yaming; Cui, Liwang

    2017-01-05

    Plasmodium ookinete surface proteins as post-fertilization target antigens are potential malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidates. Putative secreted ookinete protein 25 (PSOP25) is a highly conserved ookinete surface protein, and has been shown to be a promising novel TBV target. Here, we further investigated the TBV activities of the full-length recombinant PSOP25 (rPSOP25) protein in Plasmodium berghei, and characterized the potential functions of PSOP25 during the P. berghei life-cycle. We expressed the full-length P. berghei PSOP25 protein in a prokaryotic expression system, and developed polyclonal mouse antisera and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the recombinant protein. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot were used to test the specificity of antibodies. The transmission-blocking (TB) activities of antibodies were evaluated by the in vitro ookinete conversion assay and by direct mosquito feeding assay (DFA). Finally, the function of PSOP25 during Plasmodium development was studied by deleting the psop25 gene. Both polyclonal mouse antisera and anti-rPSOP25 mAb recognized the PSOP25 proteins in the parasites, and IFA showed the preferential expression of PSOP25 on the surface of zygotes, retorts and mature ookinetes. In vitro, these antibodies significantly inhibited ookinetes formation in an antibody concentration-dependent manner. In DFA, mice immunized with the rPSOP25 and those receiving passive transfer of the anti-rPSOP25 mAb reduced the prevalence of mosquito infection by 31.2 and 26.1%, and oocyst density by 66.3 and 63.3%, respectively. Genetic knockout of the psop25 gene did not have a detectable impact on the asexual growth of P. berghei, but significantly affected the maturation of ookinetes and the formation of midgut oocysts. The full-length rPSOP25 could elicit strong antibody response in mice. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against PSOP25 could effectively block the formation of ookinetes in vitro

  12. TH-E-BRF-07: Raman Spectroscopy for Radiation Treatment Response Assessment in a Lung Metastases Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devpura, S; Barton, K; Brown, S; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Sethi, S [Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Klein, M [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Raman spectroscopy is an optical spectroscopic method used to probe chemical information about a target tissue. Our goal was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy is able to distinguish lung tumors from normal lung tissue and whether this technique can identify the molecular changes induced by radiation. Methods: 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into the flanks of 6 Balb/C female mice. Four additional mice were used as “normal lung” controls. After 14 days, 3 mice bearing tumors received 6Gy to the left lung with 6MV photons and the other three were treated as “unirradiated tumor” controls. At a 24-hour time point, lungs were excised and the specimens were sectioned using a cryostat; alternating sections were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for evaluation by a pathologist or unstained for Raman measurements. 240 total Raman spectra were collected; 84 from normal lung controls; 63 from unirradiated tumors and 64 from tumors irradiated with 6Gy in a single fraction. Raman spectra were also collected from normal lung tissues of mice with unirradiated tumors. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were performed to analyze the data. Results: Raman bands assignable to DNA/RNA showed prominent contributions in tumor tissues while Raman bands associated with hemoglobin showed strong contributions in normal lung tissue. PCA/DFA analysis identified normal lung tissue and tumor with 100% and 98.4% accuracy, respectively, relative to pathologic scoring. Additionally, normal lung tissues from unirradiated mice bearing tumors were classified as normal with 100% accuracy. In a model consisting of unirradiated and irradiated tumors identification accuracy was 79.4% and 93.8% respectively, relative to pathologic assessment. Conclusion: Initial results demonstrate the promise for Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis normal vs. lung metastases as well as the assessment of

  13. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  14. Grading and outcome prediction of pediatric diffuse astrocytic tumors with diffusion and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI in comparison with 18F-DOPA PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morana, Giovanni; Tortora, Domenico; Severino, Mariasavina; Rossi, Andrea [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuroradiology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Cabria, Manlio [Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Genoa (Italy); Puntoni, Matteo [Ente Ospedaliero Ospedali Galliera, Clinical Trial Unit, Scientific Directorate, Genoa (Italy); Nozza, Paolo [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Pathology Unit, Genoa (Italy); Ravegnani, Marcello; Consales, Alessandro; Mascelli, Samantha; Raso, Alessandro [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neurosurgery Unit, Genoa (Italy); Verrico, Antonio; Milanaccio, Claudia [Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Neuro-oncology Unit, Genoa (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate MRI-derived diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging in comparison with {sup 18}F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET with respect to diagnostic performance in tumor grading and outcome prediction in pediatric patients with diffuse astrocytic tumors (DAT). We retrospectively analyzed 26 children with histologically proven treatment naive low and high grade DAT who underwent ASL and DWI performed within 2 weeks of {sup 18}F-DOPA PET. Relative ASL-derived cerebral blood flow max (rCBF max) and DWI-derived minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC min) were compared with {sup 18}F-DOPA uptake tumor/normal tissue (T/N) and tumor/striatum (T/S) ratios, and correlated with World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grade and progression-free survival (PFS). Statistics included Pearson's chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Spearman's rank correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, discriminant function analysis (DFA), Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and Cox analysis. A significant correlation was demonstrated between rCBF max, rADC min, and {sup 18}F-DOPA PET data (p < 0.001). Significant differences in terms of rCBF max, rADC min, and {sup 18}F-DOPA uptake were found between low- and high-grade DAT (p ≤ 0.001). ROC analysis and DFA demonstrated that T/S and T/N values were the best parameters for predicting tumor progression (AUC 0.93, p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, all diagnostic tools correlated with PFS (p ≤ 0.001); however, on multivariate analysis, only {sup 18}F-DOPA uptake remained significantly associated with outcome (p ≤ 0.03), while a trend emerged for rCBF max (p = 0.09) and rADC min (p = 0.08). The combination of MRI and PET data increased the predictive power for prognosticating tumor progression (AUC 0.97, p < 0.001). DWI, ASL and {sup 18}F-DOPA PET provide useful complementary information for pediatric DAT grading. {sup 18}F-DOPA uptake

  15. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  16. Can Tai Chi training impact fractal stride time dynamics, an index of gait health, in older adults? Cross-sectional and randomized trial studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Gow

    Full Text Available To determine if Tai Chi (TC has an impact on long-range correlations and fractal-like scaling in gait stride time dynamics, previously shown to be associated with aging, neurodegenerative disease, and fall risk.Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, this study evaluated the impact of TC mind-body exercise training on stride time dynamics assessed during 10 minute bouts of overground walking. A hybrid study design investigated long-term effects of TC via a cross-sectional comparison of 27 TC experts (24.5 ± 11.8 yrs experience and 60 age- and gender matched TC-naïve older adults (50-70 yrs. Shorter-term effects of TC were assessed by randomly allocating TC-naïve participants to either 6 months of TC training or to a waitlist control. The alpha (α long-range scaling coefficient derived from DFA and gait speed were evaluated as outcomes.Cross-sectional comparisons using confounder adjusted linear models suggest that TC experts exhibited significantly greater long-range scaling of gait stride time dynamics compared with TC-naïve adults. Longitudinal random-slopes with shared baseline models accounting for multiple confounders suggest that the effects of shorter-term TC training on gait dynamics were not statistically significant, but trended in the same direction as longer-term effects although effect sizes were very small. In contrast, gait speed was unaffected in both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons.These preliminary findings suggest that fractal-like measures of gait health may be sufficiently precise to capture the positive effects of exercise in the form of Tai Chi, thus warranting further investigation. These results motivate larger and longer-duration trials, in both healthy and health-challenged populations, to further evaluate the potential of Tai Chi to restore age-related declines in gait dynamics.The randomized trial component of this study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01340365.

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Achchhe L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274 and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4% and sensitivity (97.1% of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate

  18. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Wilkins, Kimberly; Gao, Jinxin; Condori Condori, Rene Edgar; Gigante, Crystal M; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Xiaoyue; Ellison, James A; Greenberg, Lauren; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Orciari, Lillian; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high

  19. A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Wadhwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses

  20. Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Anandasabari, Karthik; Pham, Dat; Carson, Stephen; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Hussain, Mohammad; Yap, Wenshu; Jones, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. Representative samples from each unit were collected for detailed mineralogy analysis using X-ray Diffraction. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit

  1. Same Same, But Different: Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Pham, D. T.; Carson, S.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hussain, M.; Yap, W.

    2014-12-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit could be distinguished from the tsunami, tidal and aeolian deposits. However, applying the same data analysed

  2. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Methods: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200 infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200 by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200 by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200 by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C

  3. Essays in financial economics and econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spada, Gabriele

    Chapter 1 (my job market paper) asks the following question: Do asset managers reach for yield because of competitive pressures in a low rate environment? I propose a tournament model of money market funds (MMFs) to study this issue. I show that funds with different costs of default respond differently to changes in interest rates, and that it is important to distinguish the role of risk-free rates from that of risk premia. An increase in the risk premium leads funds with lower default costs to increase risk-taking, while funds with higher default costs reduce risk-taking. Without changes in the premium, low risk-free rates reduce risk-taking. My empirical analysis shows that these predictions are consistent with the risk-taking of MMFs during the 2006--2008 period. Chapter 2, co-authored with Fabrizio Lillo and published in Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics (2014), studies the effect of round-off error (or discretization) on stationary Gaussian long-memory process. For large lags, the autocovariance is rescaled by a factor smaller than one, and we compute this factor exactly. Hence, the discretized process has the same Hurst exponent as the underlying one. We show that in presence of round-off error, two common estimators of the Hurst exponent, the local Whittle (LW) estimator and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), are severely negatively biased in finite samples. We derive conditions for consistency and asymptotic normality of the LW estimator applied to discretized processes and compute the asymptotic properties of the DFA for generic long-memory processes that encompass discretized processes. Chapter 3, co-authored with Fabrizio Lillo, studies the effect of round-off error on integrated Gaussian processes with possibly correlated increments. We derive the variance and kurtosis of the realized increment process in the limit of both "small" and "large" round-off errors, and its autocovariance for large lags. We propose novel estimators for the

  4. Behavior of Halogen Bonds of the Y-X⋅⋅⋅π Type (X, Y=F, Cl, Br, I) in the Benzene π System, Elucidated by Using a Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules Dual-Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugibayashi, Yuji; Hayashi, Satoko; Nakanishi, Waro

    2016-08-18

    The nature of halogen bonds of the Y-X-✶-π(C6 H6 ) type (X, Y=F, Cl, Br, and I) have been elucidated by using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) dual-functional analysis (QTAIM-DFA), which we proposed recently. Asterisks (✶) emphasize the presence of bond-critical points (BCPs) in the interactions in question. Total electron energy densities, Hb (rc ), are plotted versus Hb (rc )-Vb (rc )/2 [=(ħ(2) /8m)∇(2) ρb (rc )] for the interactions in QTAIM-DFA, in which Vb (rc ) are potential energy densities at the BCPs. Data for perturbed structures around fully optimized structures were used for the plots, in addition to those of the fully optimized ones. The plots were analyzed by using the polar (R, θ) coordinate for the data of fully optimized structures with (θp , κp ) for those that contained the perturbed structures; θp corresponds to the tangent line of the plot and κp is the curvature. Whereas (R, θ) corresponds to the static nature, (θp , κp ) represents the dynamic nature of the interactions. All interactions in Y-X-✶-π(C6 H6 ) are classified by pure closed-shell interactions and characterized to have vdW nature, except for Y-I-✶-π(C6 H6 ) (Y=F, Cl, Br) and F-Br-✶-π(C6 H6 ), which have typical hydrogen-bond nature without covalency. I-I-✶-π(C6 H6 ) has a borderline nature between the two. Y-F-✶-π(C6 H6 ) (Y=Br, I) were optimized as bent forms, in which Y-✶-π interactions were detected. The Y-✶-π interactions in the bent forms are predicted to be substantially weaker than those in the linear F-Y-✶-π(C6 H6 ) forms. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Prediction of egg freshness during storage using electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenu, Samuel M; Kim, J Y; Kim, B S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment. The e-nose study included 2 independent test sets; calibration (35 samples) and validation (28 samples). Every sampling time, 5 replicates were prepared from one egg carton for calibration samples and 4 replicates were prepared from the remaining egg carton for validation samples. Sensors (peaks) were selected prior to multivariate chemometric analysis; qualitative sensors for principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and quantitative sensors for partial least square (PLS) modeling. PCA and DFA confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of egg samples from 7 different storage times accounting for a total variance of 95.7% and 93.71%, respectively. Models for predicting storage time, Haugh units, odor score, and overall acceptability score from e-nose data were developed using calibration samples by PLS regression. The results showed that these quality indices were well predicted from the e- nose signals, with correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.9441, R2 = 0.9511, R2 = 0.9725, and R2 = 0.9530 and with training errors of 0.887, 1.24, 0.626, and 0.629, respectively. As a result of ANOVA, most of the PLS model results were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the corresponding reference values. These results proved that the fast GC electronic nose has the potential to assess egg freshness and feasibility to predict multiple egg freshness indices

  6. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of financial market efficiency: Comparison using Dow Jones sector ETF indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-10-01

    This study challenges the efficient market hypothesis, relying on the Dow Jones sector Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) indices. For this purpose, we use the generalized Hurst exponent and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, using daily data over the timespan from 2000 to 2015. We compare the sector ETF indices in terms of market efficiency between short- and long-run horizons, small and large fluctuations, and before and after the global financial crisis (GFC). Our findings can be summarized as follows. First, there is clear evidence that the sector ETF markets are multifractal in nature. We also find a crossover in the multifractality of sector ETF market dynamics. Second, the utilities and consumer goods sector ETF markets are more efficient compared with the financial and telecommunications sector ETF markets, in terms of price prediction. Third, there are noteworthy discrepancies in terms of market efficiency, between the short- and long-term horizons. Fourth, the ETF market efficiency is considerably diminished after the global financial crisis.

  7. The impact of Manjil and Tarik dams (Sefidroud River, southern Caspian Sea basin on morphological traits of Siah Mahi Capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleh Heidari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that the building of the Manjil and Tarik dams on Sefidroud River has led to the body shape variation of Capoeta gracilis in up- and downstream populations due to the isolation. In this study, Geometric morphometric approach was used to explore body shape variations of Capoeta gracilis populations in up- and downstream Manjil and Tarik dams in Sefidroud River from south of the Caspian Sea basin. The shape of 90 individuals from three sampling sites was extracted by recording the 2-D coordinates of 13 landmark points. PCA, CVA, DFA and CA analysis were used to examine shape differences among the populations. The significant differences were found among the shape of the populations and these differences were observed in the snout, the caudal peduncle and head. The present study indicated the body shape differences in the populations of Capoeta gracilis in the Sefidroud River across the Manjil and Tarik dams, probably due to the dam construction showing anthropogenic transformation of rivers influences body shape in an aquatic organism.

  8. Word-Length Correlations and Memory in Large Texts: A Visibility Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Guzmán-Vargas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the correlation properties of word lengths in large texts from 30 ebooks in the English language from the Gutenberg Project (www.gutenberg.org using the natural visibility graph method (NVG. NVG converts a time series into a graph and then analyzes its graph properties. First, the original sequence of words is transformed into a sequence of values containing the length of each word, and then, it is integrated. Next, we apply the NVG to the integrated word-length series and construct the network. We show that the degree distribution of that network follows a power law, P ( k ∼ k - γ , with two regimes, which are characterized by the exponents γ s ≈ 1 . 7 (at short degree scales and γ l ≈ 1 . 3 (at large degree scales. This suggests that word lengths are much more strongly correlated at large distances between words than at short distances between words. That finding is also supported by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA and recurrence time distribution. These results provide new information about the universal characteristics of the structure of written texts beyond that given by word frequencies.

  9. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  10. The effect of Gamma-irradiation on the functional properties of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BenBettaieb, Nasreddine

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation is one of the effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. In this research the effect of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20 and 50kGy) on the rheological, structural, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch was studied. Viscoamylograph test showed that the maximal consistency of the starch paste and its corresponding temperature decrease with increasing irradiation dose. Textural analysis of paste starch using strain-relaxation test showed the dominance of behaviour elastic after irradiation. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed a good discrimination of the irradiation doses among rheological parameters in the strain-relaxation test. FTIR spectra showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the O.H stretch (3000.3600 cm 1 ), C.H stretch (2800.3000 cm 1 ), bending mode of water (1600.1800 cm 1 ) and bending mode of glycosidic linkage (900-950 cm-1). The X-ray diffraction spectra show that did not any modification in the sharp and intensity of peaks after irradiation dose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of corn starch showed decreases in onset (To), final (Tf) and peak (Tp) gelatinisation temperature with increasing irradiation dose. icrophotographs of polarized light microscopy (LPM) showed that up to 50 kGy irradiation did not present any visible physical effect on the corn starch granule. (Author)

  11. Early detection of fungal growth in bakery products by use of an electronic nose based on mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaixa, Maria; Marín, Sonia; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard; Vilanova, Xavier; Correig, Xavier; Ramos, Antonio; Sanchis, Vicent

    2004-10-06

    This paper presents the design, optimization, and evaluation of a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose (MS e-nose) for early detection of unwanted fungal growth in bakery products. Seven fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium rubrum, Eurotium repens, and Penicillium corylophillum) were isolated from bakery products and used for the study. Two sampling headspace techniques were tested: static headspace (SH) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Cross-validated models based on principal component analysis (PCA), coupled to discriminant function analysis (DFA) and fuzzy ARTMAP, were used as data treatment. When attempting to discriminate between inoculated and blank control vials or between genera or species of in vitro growing cultures, sampling based on SPME showed better results than those based on static headspace. The SPME-MS-based e-nose was able to predict fungal growth with 88% success after 24 h of inoculation and 98% success after 48 h when changes were monitored in the headspace of fungal cultures growing on bakery product analogues. Prediction of the right fungal genus reached 78% and 88% after 24 and 96 h, respectively.

  12. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  13. Perceptual security of encrypted images based on wavelet scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Olmos, C.; Murguía, J. S.; Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Mejía Carlos, M.; Rosu, H. C.; González-Aguilar, H.

    2016-08-01

    The scaling behavior of the pixel fluctuations of encrypted images is evaluated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis based on wavelets, a modern technique that has been successfully used recently for a wide range of natural phenomena and technological processes. As encryption algorithms, we use the Advanced Encryption System (AES) in RBT mode and two versions of a cryptosystem based on cellular automata, with the encryption process applied both fully and partially by selecting different bitplanes. In all cases, the results show that the encrypted images in which no understandable information can be visually appreciated and whose pixels look totally random present a persistent scaling behavior with the scaling exponent α close to 0.5, implying no correlation between pixels when the DFA with wavelets is applied. This suggests that the scaling exponents of the encrypted images can be used as a perceptual security criterion in the sense that when their values are close to 0.5 (the white noise value) the encrypted images are more secure also from the perceptual point of view.

  14. Meat quality attributes of the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the Kh'ara genotype of llama (Lama glama) reared extensively in northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Linares, L W; Gallo, C B

    2013-05-01

    Twenty male llama of the Kh'ara genotype, reared extensively in the north of Chile, were slaughtered at ages between 2 and 4 permanent teeth (2 to 3.5years) and analyses were carried out on the Longissimus lumborum muscle, including composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash, cholesterol, amino acids, fatty acid profile and collagen content) and meat quality parameters (pH, color, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force). Llama meat was characterized by a low cholesterol (39.04mg/100g) and intramuscular fat (1.56%) content, a total collagen content of 6.28mg/g, of which 20.28% was soluble collagen. Amino acid composition and fatty acid profile were similar to those found for beef finished on forage. Llama meat showed a low n-6/n-3 (4.69) and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (1.55) ratio and acceptable values of DFA (65.78%). Quality parameters in llama Longissimus muscle were within the ranges reported for more traditional meats such as beef and lamb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. LA PARIDAD DE PODER DE COMPRAEN MÉXICO (1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick H. Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Empleamos una serie de datos no explotados anteriormente para calcular el tipo de cambio real respecto al dólar para México durante 1930.01-1960.12 a fin de probar la paridad de poder de compra (PPC. Los resultados iniciales de la prueba de Dickey-Fuller aumentada (DFA muestran un débil apoyo para la PPC. La prueba de Kapetanios, Shin, and Snell (KSS, con otra hipótesis de reversión no lineal a la media, muestra bastante apoyo para la PPC. Sin embargo, encontramos que los residuos de estas pruebas presentan no normalidad o heteroscedasticidad. Usando el enfoque de wild bootstrap, calculamos los valores críticos de la distribución empírica de los residuos y reevaluamos los estadísticos de prueba empleando estos nuevos valores críticos. Concluimos que hay evidencia de ajuste no lineal a la PPC para 1930.01-1951.12, pero esta evidencia no se mantiene durante 1952.01-1960.12, el periodo de sustitución de importaciones en México.

  16. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Comparison of an Electronic Nose Based on Ultrafast Gas Chromatography, Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, and Sensory Evaluation for an Analysis of Type of Whisky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wiśniewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whisky is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages. There are many types of whisky, for example, Scotch, Irish, and American whisky (called bourbon. The whisky market is highly diversified, and, because of this, it is important to have a method which would enable rapid quality evaluation and authentication of the type of whisky. The aim of this work was to compare 3 methods: an electronic nose based on the technology of ultrafast gas chromatography (Fast-GC, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC, and sensory evaluation. The selected whisky brands included 6 blended whiskies from Scotland, 4 blended whiskies from Ireland, and 4 bourbons produced in the USA. For data analysis, peak heights of chromatograms were used. The panelists who took part in sensory evaluations included 4 women and 4 men. The obtained data were analyzed by 2 chemometric methods: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and discrimination function analysis (DFA. E-nose and GC × GC allowed for differentiation between whiskies by type. Sensory analysis did not allow for differentiation between whiskies by type, but it allowed giving consumer preferences.

  18. Treatment outcomes and dental anxiety in 18-year-olds with MIH, comparisons with healthy controls - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jälevik, Birgitta; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2012-03-01

    In a previous study, 9-year-old children with severe Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) had undergone dental treatment of their first molars nearly ten times as often as children in a control group. They also showed more management problems (BMP) and fear and anxiety (DFA). To assess the long-term outcomes of dental treatments, dental anxiety, and patients' satisfaction in adolescents with MIH. Sixty-seven patients, identical with those in the baseline study, were studied at age 18-years. The participants answered the Children's Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale the Dental Visit Satisfaction Scale (DVSS). Data were compiled from the dental records concerning dental health, number of restorative treatments and BMP. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization group had a significantly higher DMFT, and had undergone treatment of their permanent first molars 4.2 times as often as the controls. BMP was still significantly more common in the MIH group. However, DFS was reduced in MIH group and increased in the control groups. The DVSS scores did not differ between the groups. Conclusions.  Patients with severe MIH had a poorer dental health and were still more treatment consuming at age 18-years. However, their dental fear was now at the same level as the controls. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Ecomorphology of radii in Canidae: Application to fragmentary fossils from Plio-Pleistocene hominin assemblages

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    Carlo Meloro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary long bone material from fossil Carnivora is rarely considered to support palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Here, we use morphometry of the radius in extant carnivorans of the dog family (Canidae to reconstruct the palaeobiology of extinct canids from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (Bed I and II and Koobi Fora, Kenya. We use radius morphometrics to predict adaptation to prey size and introduce a new method for quantifying canid habitat adaptations based on the geographic distributions of the extant species sampled. Linear Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA and cluster neighbour-joining algorithms are employed to investigate radial morphometrics as described by 29 linear measurements. Results of our analyses suggest that a phylogenetic signal is present in radial morphometrics, even if it does not allow us to accurately discriminate among genera. A binary prey size categorisation of “small-medium” versus “large” prey can be more accurately predicted than a habitat categorisation scheme (Open, Mixed, Closed. The East African fossil specimens examined show morphometric affinities with the golden jackal (Canis aureus and coyote (Canis latrans and are likely attributable to the genus Canis. Fragmentary fossil specimens from Olduvai Gorge are predicted as habitat generalists (Open for Bed I and Mixed for Bed II adapted for hunting small-medium prey, whereas the specimen from Koobi Fora was predicted as inhabiting mixed habitats and adapted for killing large prey. This study supports the inclusion of fossil Canidae in palaeoecological analyses attempting to clarify the palaeoenvironment of early hominin fossil sites.

  20. Automatic detection of ischemic stroke based on scaling exponent electroencephalogram using extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, H. A.; Wijaya, S. K.; Prawito; Badri, C.; Rezal, M.

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is one of cerebrovascular diseases caused by the obstruction of blood flow to the brain. Stroke becomes the leading cause of death in Indonesia and the second in the world. Stroke also causes of the disability. Ischemic stroke accounts for most of all stroke cases. Obstruction of blood flow can cause tissue damage which results the electrical changes in the brain that can be observed through the electroencephalogram (EEG). In this study, we presented the results of automatic detection of ischemic stroke and normal subjects based on the scaling exponent EEG obtained through detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) using extreme learning machine (ELM) as the classifier. The signal processing was performed with 18 channels of EEG in the range of 0-30 Hz. Scaling exponents of the subjects were used as the input for ELM to classify the ischemic stroke. The performance of detection was observed by the value of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The result showed, performance of the proposed method to classify the ischemic stroke was 84 % for accuracy, 82 % for sensitivity and 87 % for specificity with 120 hidden neurons and sine as the activation function of ELM.

  1. Long-term memory and volatility clustering in high-frequency price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2008-02-01

    We studied the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). For all high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property was detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property was found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property were investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, and the FIGARCH model, reflecting the long-term memory property of the volatility time series. The memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remained unchanged, while the long-term memory property diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. Notably, there is no long-term memory property, when we eliminate the long-term memory property of volatility by the FIGARCH model. For all data used, although the Hurst exponents of the volatility time series changed considerably over time, those of the time series with the volatility clustering effect removed diminish significantly. Our results imply that the long-term memory property of the volatility time series can be attributed to the volatility clustering observed in the financial time series.

  2. How does crisis affect efficiency? An empirical study of East Asian markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aun R. Rizvi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been undertaken in the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH over the preceding two decades. With Asian countries emerging as a global powerhouse in terms of regional economics, the interest in their stock markets has picked up recently. Asian markets traditionally comprised of many emerging markets are generally assumed to be more volatile and speculative in nature. Based on this crux, we focus specifically on the response of these markets efficiency to major crisis. In recent years, the Asian markets have experienced a phenomenal boom in attracting foreign capital inflow, with Singapore evolving into a global financial hub in terms of banking and financial services. Scepticism and cautious nature raises the question of whether these stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our study is unique in nature, as we focus on the efficiency of these market in response to crisis periods, comparing it with their pre-crisis period, both in shorter term of 1 year as well as longer term of 5 years post and pre crisis period. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency measure for comparative analysis with its own past. The findings put forth a notion of generally a deteriorating and negative impact of the Asian financial crisis, while the sub-prime crisis impact varies based on the economic structure of the economies. The findings concur with the mainstream literature and similar studies for other countries and region.

  3. The troika of business cycle, efficiency and volatility. An East Asian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Shaista; Rizvi, Syed Aun R.

    2015-02-01

    The EMH has been the subject of much debate over the past few decades, with a recent surge in interest in Asian markets. Asian markets which traditionally comprise of many emerging markets are more volatile and speculative in nature. The heart of our study focuses on the East Asian economies, which have experienced massive capital inflows. This begs the question of whether or not the stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our paper differs from existing literature as it focuses on deriving weak form efficiency rankings during different business cycle phases. We endeavour further to assess the volatility and business cycle phases. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency rankings and find firstly, the overall efficiency has improved over the past two decades and secondly, markets are more efficient in growth phases in comparison to its preceding decline. Similarly, employing wavelet decomposition in conjunction with EGARCH, we obtain volatility of stock markets in two distinct time horizons, i.e. short term and long term. We find the markets to be more stable during economic boom than its preceding bust. Our results confer with mainstream literature.

  4. A Novel Method for the Discrimination of Semen Arecae and Its Processed Products by Using Computer Vision, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut, commonly known locally as Semen Arecae (SA in China, has been used as an important Chinese herbal medicine for thousands of years. The raw SA (RAW is commonly processed by stir-baking to yellow (SBY, stir-baking to dark brown (SBD, and stir-baking to carbon dark (SBC for different clinical uses. In our present investigation, intelligent sensory technologies consisting of computer vision (CV, electronic nose (E-nose, and electronic tongue (E-tongue were employed in order to develop a novel and accurate method for discrimination of SA and its processed products. Firstly, the color parameters and electronic sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue of the samples were determined, respectively. Then, indicative components including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF and arecoline (ARE were determined by HPLC. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant factor analysis (DFA were performed. The results demonstrated that these three instruments can effectively discriminate SA and its processed products. 5-HMF and ARE can reflect the stir-baking degree of SA. Interestingly, the two components showed close correlations to the color parameters and sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue. In conclusion, this novel method based on CV, E-nose, and E-tongue can be successfully used to discriminate SA and its processed products.

  5. A dynamic factor model of the evaluation of the financial crisis in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, F; Kinay, B

    2010-01-01

    Factor analysis has been widely used in economics and finance in situations where a relatively large number of variables are believed to be driven by few common causes of variation. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) which is a combination of factor and time series analysis, involves autocorrelation matrices calculated from multivariate time series. Dynamic factor models were traditionally used to construct economic indicators, macroeconomic analysis, business cycles and forecasting. In recent years, dynamic factor models have become more popular in empirical macroeconomics. They have more advantages than other methods in various respects. Factor models can for instance cope with many variables without running into scarce degrees of freedom problems often faced in regression-based analysis. In this study, a model which determines the effect of the global crisis on Turkey is proposed. The main aim of the paper is to analyze how several macroeconomic quantities show an alteration before the evolution of the crisis and to decide if a crisis can be forecasted or not.

  6. Multifractal analysis of Asian markets during 2007-2008 financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Rashid; Mohammad, Salim M.

    2015-02-01

    2007-2008 US financial crisis adversely affected the stock markets all over the world. Asian markets also came under pressure and were differently affected. As markets under stress could reveal features that remain hidden under normal conditions, we use MF-DFA technique to investigate the multifractal structure of the US and seven Asian stock markets during the crisis period. The overall period of study, from 01 July 2002 to 31 December 2013, is divided into three sub-periods: pre-crisis period, crisis period and post-crisis period. We find during the crisis period markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, S. Korea and Indonesia show very strong non-linearity for positive values of the moment q. We calculate the singularity spectra, f(α) for the three sub-periods for all markets. During the crisis period, we observe that the peaks of the f(α) spectra shift to lower values of α and markets of the US, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Indonesia exhibit increased long range correlations of large fluctuations in index returns. We also study the impact of the crisis on the power law exponent in the tail region of the cumulative return distribution and find that by excluding the crisis period from the overall data sets, the tail exponent increases across all markets.

  7. Fatty acid composition of minced meat, longissimus muscle and omental fat from Small East African goats finished on different levels of concentrate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Thomassen, M S; Kifaro, G C; Eik, L O

    2010-10-01

    Effects of supplementing Small East African (SEA) goats with concentrate diets on fatty acids composition of minced meat, M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and omental fat were assessed using 23 animals (14.5 months old and 20.1 kg body weight). Goats were subjected to four levels of concentrate supplementation: ad libitum concentrate allowance (T100), 66% (T66), 33% (T33) and 0% (T0) of ad libitum concentrate allowance. All goats were slaughtered after 90 days of experimental period. Minced meat from concentrate-supplemented goats had higher (Pmeat from T00 and T66 goats had similar proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA that were higher (Pgoats whereas margaric and arachidonic acids were in higher (Pgoats. Overall, LD was associated with PUFA, omental fat with saturated fatty acids (SFA), minced meat with MUFA. It is concluded that finishing SEA goats on concentrate diets will increase the proportion of DFA in meat from them. In addition, the proportion of PUFA in meat from such goats will peak at concentrate supplementation equivalent to 66% of their ad libitum intake. Consumers should avoid high intake of internal fat due to their richness in SFA. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Descriptional Complexity of the Languages KaL: Automata, Monoids and Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Klíma

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first step when forming the polynomial hierarchies of languages is to consider languages of the form KaL where K and L are over a finite alphabet A and from a given variety V of languages, a being a letter from A. All such KaL's generate the variety of languages BPol1(V. We estimate the numerical parameters of the language KaL in terms of their values for K and L. These parameters include the state complexity of the minimal complete DFA and the size of the syntactic monoids. We also estimate the cardinality of the image of A* in the Schuetzenberger product of the syntactic monoids of K and L. In these three cases we obtain the optimal bounds. Finally, we also consider estimates for the cardinalities of free monoids in the variety of monoids corresponding to BPol1(V in terms of sizes of the free monoids in the variety of monoids corresponding to V.

  9. A Postura Locomotora de Protolipterna ellipsodontoides Cifelli, 1983 (Mammalia: Litopterna:Protolipternidae da Bacia de São José de Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro (Paleoceno superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fortes Bastos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Litopterna is a group of endemic South America ungulates that lived from Late Paleocene (Itaboraienseto Late Pleistocene (Lujanense. The order is divided in two large groups based on dental features: the Bunolipterna,in which the Protolipternidae is placed, is composed by taxa with primitive bunodont teeth; and the Lopholipterna,grouping taxa with derived lophodont teeth. In both the postcranial morphology is derived and uniform since the earlyforms. The Itaborai Basin, located at São José district, Itaboraí city, Rio de Janeiro state, is filled with different kinds oflimestones, cut vertically by fissure fill deposits, where most of the fossils were collected. Protolipterna ellipsodontoideswas described in 1983 based on dental features, but later postcranial bones were associated to this species. The main goalof this article is to infer the foot posture of P. ellipsodontoides. The material studied consists of femora, astragali, calcaneaand metatarsals III, comprising 165 bones. All fossils were deposited in the fossil mammal collection of Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral, in Rio de Janeiro state, Brasil. The methodology employed consisted of 15 linear and curvilinear measurements, which were submitted to a multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis - PCA and Discriminant Function Analysis - DFA. The results suggested a digitigrade posture to P. ellipsodontoides. Other morphological features of the skeleton, associated with a digitigrades posture, are suggestive of a cursorial locomotion, but with probable saltatory habits.

  10. The use of the multi-cumulant tensor analysis for the algorithmic optimisation of investment portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The cumulant analysis plays an important role in non Gaussian distributed data analysis. The shares' prices returns are good example of such data. The purpose of this research is to develop the cumulant based algorithm and use it to determine eigenvectors that represent investment portfolios with low variability. Such algorithm is based on the Alternating Least Square method and involves the simultaneous minimisation 2'nd- 6'th cumulants of the multidimensional random variable (percentage shares' returns of many companies). Then the algorithm was tested during the recent crash on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. To determine incoming crash and provide enter and exit signal for the investment strategy the Hurst exponent was calculated using the local DFA. It was shown that introduced algorithm is on average better that benchmark and other portfolio determination methods, but only within examination window determined by low values of the Hurst exponent. Remark that the algorithm is based on cumulant tensors up to the 6'th order calculated for a multidimensional random variable, what is the novel idea. It can be expected that the algorithm would be useful in the financial data analysis on the world wide scale as well as in the analysis of other types of non Gaussian distributed data.

  11. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multifractal features of spot rates in the Liquid Petroleum Gas shipping market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelen, Steve; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Rahmani, Bahareh; Dullaert, Wout

    2011-01-01

    We investigate for the first time the spot rate dynamics of Very Large Gas Carriers (VLGCs) by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and rescaled range (R/S) analysis. Both non-parametric methods allow for a rigorous statistical analysis of the freight process by detecting correlation, scaling and fluctuation behavior regardless of nonlinearity issues. By applying different data-frequencies and a temporal framework, the Hurst exponents indicate that freight rates exhibit trend-reinforcement and persistence subject to limited time-dependency and controlled volatility. The found long-range dependence corroborates that a predictive freight model can be built undermining the efficient market hypothesis. Memory effects seem to each time build up until they are interrupted by seasonal transitions, stochastic events or cycles which all spark a sudden loss in correlations or increase in nonlinearities. The surrogate and shuffling data procedures demonstrate that, dependent on the data-frequency used, memory effects and fat-tail distributions should be contained differently in freight rate models. (author)

  13. Asymmetric statistical features of the Chinese domestic and international gold price fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhao, Yingchao; Han, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Analyzing the statistical features of fluctuation is remarkably significant for financial risk identification and measurement. In this study, the asymmetric detrended fluctuation analysis (A-DFA) method was applied to evaluate asymmetric multifractal scaling behaviors in the Shanghai and New York gold markets. Our findings showed that the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold spot markets were asymmetric. The gold return series persisted longer in an increasing trend than in a decreasing trend. Moreover, the asymmetric degree of multifractals in the Chinese and international gold markets decreased with the increase in fluctuation range. In addition, the empirical analysis using sliding window technology indicated that multifractal asymmetry in the Chinese and international gold markets was characterized by its time-varying feature. However, the Shanghai and international gold markets basically shared a similar asymmetric degree evolution pattern. The American subprime mortgage crisis (2008) and the European debt crisis (2010) enhanced the asymmetric degree of the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold markets. Furthermore, we also make statistical tests for the results of multifractatity and asymmetry, and discuss the origin of them. Finally, results of the empirical analysis using the threshold autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (TARCH) and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) models exhibited that good news had a more significant effect on the cyclical fluctuation of the gold market than bad news. Moreover, good news exerted a more significant effect on the Chinese gold market than on the international gold market.

  14. Short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol improves cardiac autonomic function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; De Souza Melo Costa, Fernando; Pantoni, Camila Bianca Falasco; Di Thommazo, Luciana; Luzzi, Sérgio; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is accompanied by severe impairment of cardiac autonomous regulation (CAR). This study aimed to determine whether a short-term physiotherapy exercise protocol post-CABG, during inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR), might improve CAR. Seventy-four patients eligible for CABG were recruited and randomised into physiotherapy exercise group (EG) or physiotherapy usual care group (UCG). EG patients underwent a short-term supervised inpatient physiotherapy exercise protocol consisting of an early mobilisation with progressive exercises plus usual care (respiratory exercises). UCG only received respiratory exercises. Forty-seven patients (24 EG and 23 UGC) completed the study. Outcome measures of CAR included linear and non-linear measures of heart rate variability (HRV) assessed before discharge. By hospital discharge, EG presented significantly higher parasympathetic HRV values [rMSSD, high frequency (HF), SD1)], global power (STD RR, SD2), non-linear HRV indexes [detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)alpha1, DFAalpha2, approximate entropy (ApEn)] and mean RR compared to UCG (pexercise protocol during inpatient CR improves CAR at the time of discharge. Thus, exercise-based inpatient CR might be an effective non-pharmacological tool to improve autonomic cardiac tone in patient's post-CABG.

  15. Chemical and Enzymatic Approaches to Carbohydrate-Derived Spiroketals: Di-D-Fructose Dianhydrides (DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. García Fernández

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Di-D-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs comprise a unique family of stereoisomeric spiro-tricyclic disaccharides formed upon thermal and/or acidic activation of sucroseand/ or D-fructose-rich materials. The recent discovery of the presence of DFAs in food products and their remarkable nutritional features has attracted considerable interest from the food industry. DFAs behave as low-caloric sweeteners and have proven to exert beneficial prebiotic nutritional functions, favouring the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. In the era of functional foods, investigation of the beneficial properties of DFAs has become an important issue. However, the complexity of the DFA mixtures formed during caramelization or roasting of carbohydrates by traditional procedures (up to 14 diastereomeric spiroketal cores makes evaluation of their individual properties a difficult challenge. Great effort has gone into the development of efficient procedures to obtain DFAs in pure form at laboratory and industrial scale. This paper is devoted to review the recent advances in the stereoselective synthesis of DFAs by means of chemical and enzymatic approaches, their scope, limitations, and complementarities.

  16. Crude oil market efficiency and modeling. Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Alvarez, Jesus; Solis, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research on market inefficiencies focuses on the detection of autocorrelations in price time series. In the case of crude oil markets, statistical support is claimed for weak efficiency over a wide range of time-scales. However, the results are still controversial since theoretical arguments point to deviations from efficiency as prices tend to revert towards an equilibrium path. This paper studies the efficiency of crude oil markets by using lagged detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to detect delay effects in price autocorrelations quantified in terms of a multiscaling Hurst exponent (i.e., autocorrelations are dependent of the time scale). Results based on spot price data for the period 1986-2009 indicate important deviations from efficiency associated to lagged autocorrelations, so imposing the random walk for crude oil prices has pronounced costs for forecasting. Evidences in favor of price reversion to a continuously evolving mean underscores the importance of adequately incorporating delay effects and multiscaling behavior in the modeling of crude oil price dynamics. (author)

  17. Crude oil market efficiency and modeling. Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Alvarez, Jesus [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Solis, Ricardo [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Empirical research on market inefficiencies focuses on the detection of autocorrelations in price time series. In the case of crude oil markets, statistical support is claimed for weak efficiency over a wide range of time-scales. However, the results are still controversial since theoretical arguments point to deviations from efficiency as prices tend to revert towards an equilibrium path. This paper studies the efficiency of crude oil markets by using lagged detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to detect delay effects in price autocorrelations quantified in terms of a multiscaling Hurst exponent (i.e., autocorrelations are dependent of the time scale). Results based on spot price data for the period 1986-2009 indicate important deviations from efficiency associated to lagged autocorrelations, so imposing the random walk for crude oil prices has pronounced costs for forecasting. Evidences in favor of price reversion to a continuously evolving mean underscores the importance of adequately incorporating delay effects and multiscaling behavior in the modeling of crude oil price dynamics. (author)

  18. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Scale invariance in chaotic time series: Classical and quantum examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Emmanuel; Morales, Irving O.; Stránský, Pavel; Fossion, Rubén; Velázquez, Victor; López Vieyra, J. C.; Frank, Alejandro

    Important aspects of chaotic behavior appear in systems of low dimension, as illustrated by the Map Module 1. It is indeed a remarkable fact that all systems tha make a transition from order to disorder display common properties, irrespective of their exacta functional form. We discuss evidence for 1/f power spectra in the chaotic time series associated in classical and quantum examples, the one-dimensional map module 1 and the spectrum of 48Ca. A Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method is applied to investigate the scaling properties of the energy fluctuations in the spectrum of 48Ca obtained with a large realistic shell model calculation (ANTOINE code) and with a random shell model (TBRE) calculation also in the time series obtained with the map mod 1. We compare the scale invariant properties of the 48Ca nuclear spectrum sith similar analyses applied to the RMT ensambles GOE and GDE. A comparison with the corresponding power spectra is made in both cases. The possible consequences of the results are discussed.

  20. Long-range correlations of electroencephalogram in rats irradiated by millimeter wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Taorong; Pei Jian; Li Fen; Zhang Jie; Qi Hongxing; Chen Shude; Qiao Dengjiang

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative study was conducted on stress reaction in rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave. Long-range correlations analysis of the rat electroencephalogram(EEG) was investigated. The scaling exponents α 1 and α 2 were calculated by de-trended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The exponent α 1 shows that the high frequency EEG component is characterized by Brownian noise before irradiated by 35 GHz millimeter wave while it has long-range correlations during irradiation. The exponent α 2 shows that the low frequency EEG component has long-range correlations before irradiation while it is characterized by Brownian noise during irradiation. Introducing stress parameter k(k=α 2 /α 1 ), the average change rate of k was used to evaluate the intensity of stress in rat evoked by 35 GHz millimeter wave. The k increases 49.9%±13.6% during irradiation, which indicates that the high frequency EEG component becomes more ordered and the low frequency EEG component becomes more disordered, showing the acute stress in rat induced by 35 GHz millimeter wave. (authors)

  1. THE ROLE OF INTERFERON PREPARATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN INFANTS, BABIES AND TODDLERS (RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Feklisova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of a comparative clinical trial of drugs recombinant human interferon alpha-2b in the dosage form of suppositories for their use in the treatment of ARVI in infants, babies and toddlers age. In accordance to the selection criteria 100 children who were hospitalized, aged from 6 months to 3 years with clinically diagnosed ARVI were included in the study. Two study groups were formed: basic, which patients within 5 days received suppositories containing taurine and interferon alpha (125,000 IU,  and the comparison group, where patients received suppositories with interferon (150,000 IU. The patients of both groups were subjects of medical observation for 5 days with an estimate of the effectiveness of treatment on the 6th day of therapy. The eliminating activity of the exploring drugs was determined using standard laboratory techniques (PCR or DFA scrapings from the nasopharynx. The study established the high effectiveness and wide safety profile of both drugs. No cases of the adverse events that have established link with the study medications. Key words: influenza, ARVI, recombinant human interferon alpha-2b, taurine, suppositories, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 76–82.

  2. The Parkinsonian Subthalamic Network: Measures of Power, Linear, and Non-linear Synchronization and their Relationship to L-DOPA Treatment and OFF State Motor Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Timothy; Farmer, Simon; Berthouze, Luc; Jha, Ashwani; Beudel, Martijn; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the dopaminergic modulation of neuronal interactions occurring in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during Parkinson's disease (PD). We utilized linear measures of local and long range synchrony such as power and coherence, as well as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for Phase Synchrony (DFA-PS)- a recently developed non-linear method that computes the extent of long tailed autocorrelations present in the phase interactions between two coupled signals. Through analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) taken from the STN we seek to determine changes in the neurodynamics that may underpin the pathophysiology of PD in a group of 12 patients who had undergone surgery for deep brain stimulation. We demonstrate up modulation of alpha-theta (5-12 Hz) band power in response to L-DOPA treatment, whilst low beta band power (15-20 Hz) band-power is suppressed. We also find evidence for significant local connectivity within the region surrounding STN although there was evidence for its modulation via administration of L-DOPA. Further to this we present evidence for a positive correlation between the phase ordering of bilateral STN interactions and the severity of bradykinetic and rigidity symptoms in PD. Although, the ability of non-linear measures to predict clinical state did not exceed standard measures such as beta power, these measures may help identify the connections which play a role in pathological dynamics.

  3. Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in daily atmospheric temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cuomo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law persistence in atmospheric temperature fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA carried out on twenty-two historical daily time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates temperature variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of temperature time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.

  4. Carbohydrates in sustainable development I. Renewable resources for chemistry and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauter, Amelia, P. [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Dept. Quimica e Bioquimica; Vogel, Pierre [Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. of Glycochemistry and Asymmetric Synthesis; Queneau, Yves (eds.) [Lyon Univ. Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Chimie et Biochimie

    2010-07-01

    Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material, By S. Peters, T. Rose, and M. Moser; Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis, By I. Andre, G. Potocki-Veronese, S. Morel, P. Monsan, and M. Remaud-Simeon; Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods, By C. Ortiz Mellet and J. M. Garcia Fernandez; Development of Agriculture Left-Overs: Fine Organic Chemicals from Wheat Hemicellulose-Derived Pentoses, By F. Martel, B. Estrine, R. Plantier-Royon, N. Hoffmann, and C. Portella; Cellulose and Derivatives from Wood and Fibers as Renewable Sources of Raw-Materials, By J.A. Figueiredo, M.I. Ismael, C.M.S. Anjo, and A.P. Duarte; Olive Pomace, a Source for Valuable Arabinan-Rich Pectic Polysaccharides, By M. A. Coimbra, S. M. Cardoso, and J. A. Lopes-da-Silva; Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants,By T. Benvegnu and J.-F. Sassi; From Natural Polysaccharides to Materials for Catalysis, Adsorption, and Remediation, By F. Quignard, F. Di Renzo, and E. Guibal. (orig.)

  5. Macroscopic Spatial Complexity of the Game of Life Cellular Automaton: A Simple Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Rodríguez-Achach, M. E.

    In this chapter we present a simple data analysis of an ensemble of 20 time series, generated by averaging the spatial positions of the living cells for each state of the Game of Life Cellular Automaton (GoL). We show that at the macroscopic level described by these time series, complexity properties of GoL are also presented and the following emergent properties, typical of data extracted complex systems such as financial or economical come out: variations of the generated time series following an asymptotic power law distribution, large fluctuations tending to be followed by large fluctuations, and small fluctuations tending to be followed by small ones, and fast decay of linear correlations, however, the correlations associated to their absolute variations exhibit a long range memory. Finally, a Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) of the generated time series, indicates that the GoL spatial macro states described by the time series are not either completely ordered or random, in a measurable and very interesting way.

  6. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  7. Price-volume multifractal analysis of the Moroccan stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alaoui, Marwane

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we analyzed price-volume multifractal cross-correlations of Moroccan Stock Exchange. We chose the period from January 1st 2000 to January 20th 2017 to investigate the multifractal behavior of price change and volume change series. Then, we used multifractal detrended cross-correlations analysis method (MF-DCCA) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to analyze the series. We computed bivariate generalized Hurst exponent, Rényi exponent and spectrum of singularity for each pair of indices to measure quantitatively cross-correlations. Furthermore, we used detrended cross-correlations coefficient (DCCA) and cross-correlation test (Q(m)) to analyze cross-correlation quantitatively and qualitatively. By analyzing results, we found existence of price-volume multifractal cross-correlations. The spectrum width has a strong multifractal cross-correlation. We remarked that volume change series is anti-persistent when we analyzed the generalized Hurst exponent for all moments q. The cross-correlation test showed the presence of a significant cross-correlation. However, DCCA coefficient had a small positive value, which means that the level of correlation is not very significant. Finally, we analyzed sources of multifractality and their degree of contribution in the series.

  8. Introducing False EUR and False EUR exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.; Ivanova, K.

    2000-10-01

    The Euro ( EUR) is a new currency introduced by the European Community. Its exchange rate is very puzzling. We have invented a false Euro ( FEUR) dating back to 1993 and have derived the exchange rates of the FEUR with respect to currencies not belonging to the EUR, i.e., DKK, CHF, JPY and USD. This allows us to search for correlations between the fluctuations preexisting to the introduction of EUR and present ones in such financial data. The detrended fluctuation analysis ( DFA) statistical method is used. This leads to assume a power-law behavior, i.e., a scaling hypothesis, through an exponent α. The latter has demonstrated its usefulness for the investigations of long-range power-law correlations in several types of financial sequences. Our findings show that the α exponent interestingly characterizes fractional Brownian motion of the currency exchange rates between EUR and DKK over a 25 day interval, and usual Brownian motion otherwise and for the three other investigated exchange rates. We can devise an investment strategy based on the localα technique and obtain appreciable gains for the time being.

  9. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic assisted adsorption of brilliant green and eosin B onto ZnS nanoparticles loaded activated carbon: Artificial neural network modeling and central composite design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Dashtian, K.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Alipanahpour, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function approach (DFA) gives useful information about operational condition and also to obtain useful information about interaction and main effect of variables concerned to simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of brilliant green (BG) and eosin B (EB) by zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NPs-AC). Spectra overlap between BG and EB dyes was extensively reduced and/or omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method, while multi-layer artificial neural network (ML-ANN) model learned with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was used for building up a predictive model and prediction of the BG and EB removal. The ANN efficiently was able to forecast the simultaneous BG and EB removal that was confirmed by reasonable numerical value i.e. MSE of 0.0021 and R2 of 0.9589 and MSE of 0.0022 and R2 of 0.9455 for testing data set, respectively. The results reveal acceptable agreement among experimental data and ANN predicted results. Langmuir as the best model for fitting experimental data relevant to BG and EB removal indicates high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity (258.7 and 222.2 mg g- 1) that supports and confirms its applicability for wastewater treatment.

  10. An investigation of Forex market efficiency based on detrended fluctuation analysis: A case study for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abounoori, Esmaiel; Shahrazi, Mahdi; Rasekhi, Saeed

    2012-06-01

    The efficient market hypothesis (EMH) states that asset prices fully reflect all available information. As a result, speculators cannot predict the future behavior of asset prices and earn excess profits at least after adjusting for risk. Although initial tests of the EMH were performed on stock market data, the EMH was soon applied to other markets including foreign exchange (FX). This study uses the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique to test 01:12:2005-18:04:2010 Iranian Rial/US Dollar exchange rate time series data to see if it can be explained by the weak form of the EMH. Moreover, to determine changes in the degree of inefficiency over time, the whole period has been divided into four subperiods. The study shows that the Iranian Forex market (the Rial/Dollar case) is weak-form inefficient over the whole period and in each of the subperiods. However, the degree of inefficiency is not constant over time. The findings suggest that profitable risk-adjusted trades could be made using past data.

  11. EMD-Based Predictive Deep Belief Network for Time Series Prediction: An Application to Drought Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert A. Agana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a stochastic natural feature that arises due to intense and persistent shortage of precipitation. Its impact is mostly manifested as agricultural and hydrological droughts following an initial meteorological phenomenon. Drought prediction is essential because it can aid in the preparedness and impact-related management of its effects. This study considers the drought forecasting problem by developing a hybrid predictive model using a denoised empirical mode decomposition (EMD and a deep belief network (DBN. The proposed method first decomposes the data into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using EMD, and a reconstruction of the original data is obtained by considering only relevant IMFs. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA was applied to each IMF to determine the threshold for robust denoising performance. Based on their scaling exponents, irrelevant intrinsic mode functions are identified and suppressed. The proposed method was applied to predict different time scale drought indices across the Colorado River basin using a standardized streamflow index (SSI as the drought index. The results obtained using the proposed method was compared with standard methods such as multilayer perceptron (MLP and support vector regression (SVR. The proposed hybrid model showed improvement in prediction accuracy, especially for multi-step ahead predictions.

  12. Estimation and optimization of flank wear and tool lifespan in finish turning of AISI 304 stainless steel using desirability function approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdar Bouzid

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available The wear of cutting tools remains a major obstacle. The effects of wear are not only antagonistic at the lifespan and productivity, but also harmful with the surface quality. The present work deals with some machinability studies on flank wear, surface roughness, and lifespan in finish turning of AISI 304 stainless steel using multilayer Ti(C,N/Al2O3/TiN coated carbide inserts. The machining experiments are conducted based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Combined effects of three cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed rate and cutting time on the two performance outputs (i.e. VB and Ra, and combined effects of two cutting parameters, namely cutting speed and feed rate on lifespan (T, are explored employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The relationship between the variables and the technological parameters is determined using a quadratic regression model and optimal cutting conditions for each performance level are established through desirability function approach (DFA optimization. The results show that the flank wear is influenced principally by the cutting time and in the second level by the cutting speed. In addition, it is indicated that the cutting time is the dominant factor affecting workpiece surface roughness followed by feed rate, while lifespan is influenced by cutting speed. The optimum level of input parameters for composite desirability was found Vc1-f1-t1 for VB, Ra and Vc1-f1 for T, with a maximum percentage of error 6.38%.

  13. Relation between heart beat fluctuations and cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon-Lomeli, R; Murguia, J S; Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Gonzalez-Galvan, E; Alba, A; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition that affects the nervous and muscular system. Thirty percent of the population between 18 and 60 years suffers from insomnia. The effects of this disorder involve problems such as poor school or job performance and traffic accidents. In addition, patients with insomnia present changes in the cardiac function during sleep. Furthermore, the structure of electroencephalographic A-phases, which builds up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern during sleep, is related to the insomnia events. Therefore, the relationship between these brain activations (A-phases) and the autonomic nervous system would be of interest, revealing the interplay of central and autonomic activity during insomnia. With this goal, a study of the relationship between A-phases and heart rate fluctuations is presented. Polysomnography recording of five healthy subjects, five sleep misperception patients and five patients with psychophysiological insomnia were used in the study. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was used in order to evaluate the heart rate dynamics and this was correlated with the number of A-phases. The results suggest that pathological patients present changes in the dynamics of the heart rate. This is reflected in the modification of A-phases dynamics, which seems to modify of heart rate dynamics.

  14. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.A. Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG. The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24 and 90 days (IR90 after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the α-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR.

  15. Protein structure modeling for CASP10 by multiple layers of global optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Juyong; Sim, Sangjin; Lee, Sun Young; Lee, Kiho; Heo, Seungryong; Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Sung Jong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2014-02-01

    In the template-based modeling (TBM) category of CASP10 experiment, we introduced a new protocol called protein modeling system (PMS) to generate accurate protein structures in terms of side-chains as well as backbone trace. In the new protocol, a global optimization algorithm, called conformational space annealing (CSA), is applied to the three layers of TBM procedure: multiple sequence-structure alignment, 3D chain building, and side-chain re-modeling. For 3D chain building, we developed a new energy function which includes new distance restraint terms of Lorentzian type (derived from multiple templates), and new energy terms that combine (physical) energy terms such as dynamic fragment assembly (DFA) energy, DFIRE statistical potential energy, hydrogen bonding term, etc. These physical energy terms are expected to guide the structure modeling especially for loop regions where no template structures are available. In addition, we developed a new quality assessment method based on random forest machine learning algorithm to screen templates, multiple alignments, and final models. For TBM targets of CASP10, we find that, due to the combination of three stages of CSA global optimizations and quality assessment, the modeling accuracy of PMS improves at each additional stage of the protocol. It is especially noteworthy that the side-chains of the final PMS models are far more accurate than the models in the intermediate steps. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A new linear plasma device for various edge plasma studies at SWIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zheng, Pengfei; Tynan, George; Che, Tong; Wang, Zhanhui; Guo, Dong; Wei, Ran

    2017-10-01

    To facilitate the plasma-material interactions (PMI) studies, Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP) has constructed a linear plasma device. It is comprised of a source chamber (Φ 0.4 m), a target chamber (Φ 0.9 m), 15 magnets with different sizes, and power supplies with the total power of a few hundred kilowatts, etc. A maximum magnetic field of 0.3 Tesla along the axial direction can be produced. The current of each of the 15 magnets can be independently controlled. More than 60 ports are available for diagnostics, with the sizes vary from Φ 50 mm to Φ 150 mm. Rectangular ports of 190 mm × 270 mm are also available. 12 ports looking at the sample holder are specially designed for ion beam injection, of which the axes are 25 to the chamber axis. The device is equipped with a LaB6 hot cathode plasma source, which is able to generate steady-state H/D/He plasmas with a diameter of Φ 100 mm, density of 1x1019 /m3 , and a particle flux of 1022 1023 n/m2 .s. The electron temperature is usually a few eV. Further, a Helicon RF plasma source is also planned for plasma transport studies. Int'l Sci & Tech Cooperation Program of China (No. 2015DFA61760).

  17. A hierarchical clustering scheme approach to assessment of IP-network traffic using detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takuma, Takehisa; Masugi, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to the assessment of IP-network traffic in terms of the time variation of self-similarity. To get a comprehensive view in analyzing the degree of long-range dependence (LRD) of IP-network traffic, we use a hierarchical clustering scheme, which provides a way to classify high-dimensional data with a tree-like structure. Also, in the LRD-based analysis, we employ detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is applicable to the analysis of long-range power-law correlations or LRD in non-stationary time-series signals. Based on sequential measurements of IP-network traffic at two locations, this paper derives corresponding values for the LRD-related parameter α that reflects the degree of LRD of measured data. In performing the hierarchical clustering scheme, we use three parameters: the α value, average throughput, and the proportion of network traffic that exceeds 80% of network bandwidth for each measured data set. We visually confirm that the traffic data can be classified in accordance with the network traffic properties, resulting in that the combined depiction of the LRD and other factors can give us an effective assessment of network conditions at different times.

  18. Shielding analysis of the IEM cell offset adapter plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The adapter plate for the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell ten foot ceiling valve was modified so that the penetration through the valve is offset to the north side of the steel plate. The modifications required that the shielding effectiveness be evaluated for several operating conditions. The highest gamma ray dose rate (51 mrem/hr) occurs when a Core Component Container (CCC) with six high burn-up driver fuel assemblies is transferred into or out of Solid Waste Cask (SWC). The neutron dose rate at the same source location is 2.5 mrem/hr. The total dose rate during the transfer is less than the 200 mrem/hr limit. If the ten foot ceiling valve is closed, the dose rate with twelve DFA in the cell will be less than 0.1 mrem/hr. However, with the ceiling valve open the dose rate will be as high as 12 mrem/hr. The latter condition will require controlled access to the area around the offset adapter plate when the ceiling valve is open. It was found that gaps in the shield block around the SWC floor valve will allow contact dose rates as high as 350 mrem/hr during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC. Although this situation does not pertain to the offset adapter plate, it will require controlled access around the SWC valve during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC

  19. The long-range correlation and evolution law of centennial-scale temperatures in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohui; Lian, Yi; Wang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    This paper applies the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method to investigate the long-range correlation of monthly mean temperatures from three typical measurement stations at Harbin, Changchun, and Shenyang in Northeast China from 1909 to 2014. The results reveal the memory characteristics of the climate system in this region. By comparing the temperatures from different time periods and investigating the variations of its scaling exponents at the three stations during these different time periods, we found that the monthly mean temperature has long-range correlation, which indicates that the temperature in Northeast China has long-term memory and good predictability. The monthly time series of temperatures over the past 106 years also shows good long-range correlation characteristics. These characteristics are also obviously observed in the annual mean temperature time series. Finally, we separated the centennial-length temperature time series into two time periods. These results reveal that the long-range correlations at the Harbin station over these two time periods have large variations, whereas no obvious variations are observed at the other two stations. This indicates that warming affects the regional climate system's predictability differently at different time periods. The research results can provide a quantitative reference point for regional climate predictability assessment and future climate model evaluation.

  20. Freqüência das infecções oculares por clamídia nos portadores de conjuntivite, em clínica particular de Uberaba, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Couto-Junior

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Setecentos e oitenta pacientes com recidivas clínicas de infecções conjuntivais ou queixas persistentes de prurido, ardor, dor, lacrimejamento e hiperemia, foram submetidos ao raspado conjuntival com citologia e pesquisa de inclusões. Destes 247(31,7% apresentaram inclusões citoplasmáticas; 235 pacientes foram, também, submetidos a coloração com anticorpo monoclonal fluorescente (imunofluorescência direta - DFA com 90 (38,3% casos positivos. Discute-se também, a importância do quadro clinico e dos métodos laboratoriais (coloração com anticorpo monoclonal fluorescente e pesquisa de inclusões citoplasmáticas no diagnóstico. Os pacientes fazem parte de clientela de clínica particular e tem nível sócio-econômico de médio a alto.780 patients with recurrent conjunctival infections or persistent complaints of itching, burning pain, lacrimation and conjunctival hyperemia were subject to conjunctival smear examination for cytology and the presence of inclusion bodies. Two hundred and forty seven (31.7% showed cytoplamic inclusions; 235 of them were subject to a direct specific immunofluorescency test with 90 (38.3% positive results. The importance of the clinical manifestations and laboratory methods (direct immunofluorescence and research cytoplasmic inclusions were considered. The patients are clients of a private clinic and have a moderate to hightor socioeconomic level.

  1. Redesign of an in-market food processor for manufacturing cost reduction using DFMA methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Harlalka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the time and cost involved in the product development is very important to stay competitive in the market. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA is a cost-reduction framework for designers to evaluate manufacturing aspects of a product design. A case study on an in-market food processor, this paper aims to demonstrate the significance of DFMA implementation on an Indian consumer product. Even though many DFMA case studies have been published till date, very few have dealt with the Indian consumer durables category. In this paper, various cost-reduction opportunities are identified in the design of a food processor manufactured by a reputed company in India. Using the DFMA study, design ideas are developed with an objective of reducing the overall manufacturing cost of the product. As a result of DFMA implementation, significant improvement in terms of the product’s architecture, assembly time and design efficiency is identified. Overall cost reduction of 0.25 USD (United States Dollar was achieved and an improvement in the Design for Assembly (DFA index from 15.99 to 19.93 is reported. This procedure utilized in this paper can be adopted for any consumer durable products of similar type and design improvements and cost reduction can be achieved.

  2. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  3. The Influence of Grain Refiners on the Efficiency of Ceramic Foam Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towsey, Nicholas; Schneider, Wolfgang; Krug, Hans-Peter; Hardman, Angela; Keegan, Neil J.

    An extensive program of work has been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of ceramic foam filters under carefully controlled conditions. Work reported at previous TMS meetings showed that in the absence of grain refiners, ceramic foam filters have the capacity for high filtration efficiency and consistent, reliable performance. The current phase of the investigation focuses on the impact grain refiner additions have on filter performance. The high filtration efficiencies obtained using 50 or 80ppi CFF's in the absence of grain refiners diminish when Al-3%Ti-1%B grain refiners are added. This, together with the impact of incoming inclusion loading on filter performance and the level of grain refiner addition are considered in detail. The new generation Al-3%Ti-0.15%C grain refiner has also been included. At typical addition levels (1kg/tonne) the effect on filter efficiency is similar to that for TiB2based grain refiners. The work was again conducted on a production scale using AA1050 alloy. Metal quality was determined using LiMCA and PoDFA. Spent filters were also analysed.

  4. Comparison of the Scaling Properties of EUV Intensity Fluctuations in Coronal Holes to those in Regions of Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, Ana Cristina; Lawrence, John K.; Jennings, Peter John

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of EUV intensity fluctuations seen in low-latitude coronal holes (CH) and in regions of Quiet Sun (QS), in signals obtained with the SDO/AIA instrument in the 193 Å waveband. Contemporaneous time series in the 171 and 211 Å wavebands are used for comparison among emissions at different heights in the transition region and low corona. Potential-field extrapolations of contemporaneous SDO/HMI line-of-sight magnetic fields provide a context in the physical environment. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) shows that the variance of the fluctuations obeys a power-law as a function of temporal scales with periods in the range ~15-60 min. This scaling is characterized by a generalized Hurst exponent α. In QS regions, and in regions within CHs that include magnetic bipoles, the scaling exponent lies in the range 1.0 anti-correlated, turbulent-like, dynamical processes. Regions inside the coronal holes primarily associated with magnetic field of a dominant single polarity, have a generalized exponent (0.5 correlated (“persistent”) processes. The results indicate the influence of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of the emission.

  5. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen-Hua, E-mail: shenandchen01@163.com [College of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource, Nanjing 210046 (China); Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment of Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-12-04

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems. - Highlights: • A detrended multiple linear regression is shown. • A detrended semipartial cross correlation analysis is proposed. • The important meteorological factors affecting API are assessed. • The explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

  6. Haloacetates in fog and rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, A; Klemm, O; Fricke, W; Frank, H

    2001-04-01

    Atmospheric haloacetates can arise from photochemical degradation of halogenated hydrocarbons and from direct anthropogenic emissions. Furthermore, there is also evidence of natural sources although these are quantitatively uncertain. As haloacetates are highly soluble in water, hydrometeors are most significant for their deposition. Fogwater (96 samples) and rainwater samples (over 100 samples) were collected from July 1998 to March 1999 at an ecological research site in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. They were analyzed for monofluoroacetate (MFA), difluoroacetate (DFA), trifluoroacetate (TFA), monochloroacetate (MCA), dichloroacetate (DCA), trichloroacetate (TCA), monobromoacetate (MBA), and dibromoacetate (DBA). The major inorganic ions were also determined. High concentrations of up to 11 microg/L MCA, 5 microg/L DCA, 2 microg/L TCA, and 2 microg/L TFA were found in fogwater associated with westerly winds. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses. MBA and DBA have highest concentrations in fogwater advected with air originating from the Atlantic, suggesting the marine origin of these two compounds. All analyzed substances show higher average concentrations in fog than in rain. Estimates of the deposition of haloacetates suggest that the contribution of fog may be more important than rain for the total burden of a forest ecosystem.

  7. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L.A.A.; Nogueira, R.A. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal. Lab. de Biofisica Teorico-Experimental e Computacional; Silva, I.M.S.; Fernandes, T.S., E-mail: ran.pe@terra.com.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2015-10-15

    Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG). The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24) and 90 days (IR90) after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the a-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR. (author)

  8. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems. - Highlights: • A detrended multiple linear regression is shown. • A detrended semipartial cross correlation analysis is proposed. • The important meteorological factors affecting API are assessed. • The explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales.

  9. Efecto de niveles crecientes de seudotallo de guineo en combinación con ensilaje de maíz, sobre el crecimiento de terneras jersey, durante la época seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herberth Dormond

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el efecto biologico y economico del seudotallo de guineo (Musa ABB, en combi- nacion con ensilaje demaiz, como mezcla forraje- ra en la alimentacion de temeras Jersey en desarro- 110, durante la epoca seca. Se utilizaron 20 temeras Jersey, bajo estabulacion total, con un peso inicial promedio de 154 kg. Las 4 mezclas forrajeras eva- luadas fueron: 0: 100%; 40:60%; 50:50% y 60:40%, seudotallo:ensilaje de mafz, en base fres- ca. A cada grupo de 5 animales se Ie suministro por dfa 1.5 kg de concentrado proteico (30% PC y 50 g de sal mineral completa. Se les peso una vez por semana. El perfodo de experimentacion fue de 63 dfas, tras 7 dfas de adaptacion al consumo de las dietas. Durante los 3 ultimos dfas se efectuo una prueba de digestibilidad aparente. Los consumos de MS, PC y FDN se redujeron (P

  10. POPULATION AND MICROHABITAT OF Gonystylus bancanus (Miq. Kurz IN DANAU PULAU BESAR-DANAU BAWAH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Wahyu C. Kusuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus is one of the major timber species that facing high exploitation in Indonesia. This species can only be found on a specific peat swamp habitat, thus it confines its distribution. Information on its current population and microhabitat characteristics is relatively limited. Here, we investigated natural population and microhabitat of ramin in a peat swamp area in Riau Province using  random transects consist of 46 (100m2 sampling plots. Forty-eight individuals of ramin were found in which 46 of these belonged to G. bancanus, while the other two were different species. The estimated population density of ramin in this area was 7.18±2.75 individuals/ha i.e there were approximately seven individuals in each one-ha area of study. The population structure of ramin showed a J-shaped curve bearing many large old trees with few saplings without any seedlings. The microhabitat was investigated using the Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA and Canonical Analysis, generating two significant variables that discriminated three groups of the population.

  11. Long-term correlation of the electrocorticogram as a bioindicator of brain exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, L A A; Silva, I M S; Fernandes, T S; Nogueira, R A

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the effects of radiation and its possible influence on the nervous system are of great clinical interest. However, there have been few electrophysiological studies on brain activity after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A new methodological approach regarding the assessment of the possible effects of IR on brain activity is the use of linear and nonlinear mathematical methods in the analysis of complex time series, such as brain oscillations measured using the electrocorticogram (ECoG). The objective of this study was to use linear and nonlinear mathematical methods as biomarkers of gamma radiation regarding cortical electrical activity. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 irradiated groups, evaluated at 24 h (IR24) and 90 days (IR90) after exposure to 18 Gy of gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 radiotherapy source. The ECoG was analyzed using power spectrum methods for the calculation of the power of delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms and by means of the α-exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Using both mathematical methods it was possible to identify changes in the ECoG, and to identify significant changes in the pattern of the recording at 24 h after irradiation. Some of these changes were persistent at 90 days after exposure to IR. In particular, the theta wave using the two methods showed higher sensitivity than other waves, suggesting that it is a possible biomarker of exposure to IR.

  12. Integração espacial no mercado brasileiro de café arábica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tadeu Pongelupe Nogueira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes spatial integration in the arabica coffee market of the two main producer states in Brazil. The results of the Dickey-Fuller Augmented (DFA unit root test show that all price series are integrated of first order, I(1. The results of the Johansen co-integration test suggest that all series are co-integrated. It can be concluded, thus, that the coffee markets of the main producer regions in the States of Minas Gerais and São Paulo are spatially integrated, which means that supply and demand shocks in one of these markets affect the coffee prices in the other markets. Another outcome of this research, resulting from the estimation of an error correction model and the application of the Granger causality test, is that the Cerrado region in the State of Minas Gerais Granger-causes the prices in the other regions. This result contradicts the expectation that the South of Minas region, one of the main producers and exporters in Brazil, would lead the remaining regions. Therefore, the results of this research suggest that the Brazilian coffee market is efficient, since information has flowed rapidly among the market agents, allowing arbitrage and the Law of One Price to work properly.

  13. Investigating the sex-related geometric variation of the human cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsatos, Andreas; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Valakos, Efstratios; Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni

    2018-01-29

    Accurate sexing methods are of great importance in forensic anthropology since sex assessment is among the principal tasks when examining human skeletal remains. The present study explores a novel approach in assessing the most accurate metric traits of the human cranium for sex estimation based on 80 ectocranial landmarks from 176 modern individuals of known age and sex from the Athens Collection. The purpose of the study is to identify those distance and angle measurements that can be most effectively used in sex assessment. Three-dimensional landmark coordinates were digitized with a Microscribe 3DX and analyzed in GNU Octave. An iterative linear discriminant analysis of all possible combinations of landmarks was performed for each unique set of the 3160 distances and 246,480 angles. Cross-validated correct classification as well as multivariate DFA on top performing variables reported 13 craniometric distances with over 85% classification accuracy, 7 angles over 78%, as well as certain multivariate combinations yielding over 95%. Linear regression of these variables with the centroid size was used to assess their relation to the size of the cranium. In contrast to the use of generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) and principal component analysis (PCA), which constitute the common analytical work flow for such data, our method, although computational intensive, produced easily applicable discriminant functions of high accuracy, while at the same time explored the maximum of cranial variability.

  14. Classifying depression patients and normal subjects using machine learning techniques and nonlinear features from EEG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifard, Behshad; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Reza

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosing depression in the early curable stages is very important and may even save the life of a patient. In this paper, we study nonlinear analysis of EEG signal for discriminating depression patients and normal controls. Forty-five unmedicated depressed patients and 45 normal subjects were participated in this study. Power of four EEG bands and four nonlinear features including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), higuchi fractal, correlation dimension and lyapunov exponent were extracted from EEG signal. For discriminating the two groups, k-nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression as the classifiers are then used. Highest classification accuracy of 83.3% is obtained by correlation dimension and LR classifier among other nonlinear features. For further improvement, all nonlinear features are combined and applied to classifiers. A classification accuracy of 90% is achieved by all nonlinear features and LR classifier. In all experiments, genetic algorithm is employed to select the most important features. The proposed technique is compared and contrasted with the other reported methods and it is demonstrated that by combining nonlinear features, the performance is enhanced. This study shows that nonlinear analysis of EEG can be a useful method for discriminating depressed patients and normal subjects. It is suggested that this analysis may be a complementary tool to help psychiatrists for diagnosing depressed patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  16. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e infecções pulmonares pós revascularização miocárdica

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    Paulo Rogério Corrêa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC é um método diagnóstico não invasivo usado na avaliação da modulação autonômica do coração. A análise da VFC por métodos de dinâmica não linear no período pré-operatório da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio poderia ser preditora de morbidade no pós-operatório, como por exemplo, infecções pulmonares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento da VFC pela dinâmica não linear, no período pré-operatório da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio e sua relação com a ocorrência de infecções pulmonares no período pós-operatório hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 69 pacientes (média de idade de 58,6 ± 10,4 anos com doença arterial coronariana e indicação eletiva de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Para quantificar a dinâmica não linear da VFC, foram realizadas: análise das flutuações depuradas de tendências (DFA, seus componentes de curto (α1 e longo (α2 prazos, entropia aproximada (-ApEn, expoente de Lyapunov (LE, e expoente de Hurst (HE de séries temporais dos intervalos RR do ECG, captados com equipamento Polar S810i, na véspera da operação. RESULTADOS: Nos níveis de corte estipulado pela curva ROC, houve diferença significativa entre os grupos com e sem infecções pulmonares no pós-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio para a DFA total, entropia aproximada e expoente Lyapunov com p = 0, 0309, p = 0,0307 e p = 0,0006, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os métodos de dinâmica não linear, nos seus respectivos níveis de corte, permitiram diferenciar os casos que evoluíram com infecção pulmonar no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, sugerindo que, nesse grupo de pacientes, estes métodos podem ter caráter prognóstico.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  18. Variación morfométrica intra e interespecífica entre poblaciones de Odontophrynus (Anura: Cycloramphidae del área central de Argentina Intraand inter-specific morphometric variation between Odontophrynus populations (Anura: Cycloramphidae of central Argentina

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    Pablo Raúl Grenat

    2012-12-01

    variables on 211 individuals from 18 localities of Córdoba province. We found sexual dimorphism in six and three parameters in O. cordobae and O. americanus, respectively. Diploid and tetraploid males significantly differed in six morphometric variables. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA including all populations correctly classified a 76.37% of individuals within their respective species. DFA based on four groups (1- allopatric O. cordobae, 2-syntopic O. cordobae; 3- allopatric O. americanus; 4- syntopic O. americanus accurately classified a 73.45% of individuals within their respective groups. Allopatric individuals of each species and, allopatric and syntopic individuals within each species were clearly segregated. Syntopic individuals of O. cordobae and O. americanus showed the lowest percentages of correct classification. Morphometric differences between sympatric diploids and tetraploids were not greater than those observed in allopatry. These findings deviate from the expected results under the hypothesis of character displacement, and they suggest that external morphological characters would not have a major influence on the recognition and choice of conspecific males by females

  19. Development of a Scale to Address the Acceptance and Use of Online Social Networking Sites for Instructional Purposes [Çevrimiçi Sosyal Ağların Öğretim Amaçlı Kabul ve Kullanımı Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Buğra Kuzu Demir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to develop a scale to address the acceptance and use of online social networking sites (SNSs for instructional purposes among information technology teachers. The theoretical framework of the scale was based on The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT. Data were collected from computer education departments of three state universities to conduct an exploratory factor analysis (n: 302 followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (n: 210. Analyses revealed a four-factor structure which sheltered 36 items. It was observed that acceptance and use of SNSs for instructional purposes were composed of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and behavioral intention, which explained 67.02 percent of the total variance with a high internal consistency coefficient (α=.97. The confirmatory analysis on the four-factor structure revealed acceptable fit indices as well (RMSEA= 0.075; SRMR=0.080; NNFI= .094; CFI= .094; α=.93. Higher scores from the scale can be interpreted as higher acceptance rate and tendency to use SNSs for instructional purposes. [Bu çalışmada bilişim teknolojileri (BT öğretmen adaylarının çevrimiçi sosyal ağları (ÇSA öğretim amaçlı kabul ve kullanım süreçlerine ilişkin bir ölçek geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirilen ölçeğin kuramsal çerçevesini teknoloji kabul modellerinden “Teknoloji Kabul ve Kullanım Birleştirilmiş Model”i oluşturmuştur. Açımlayıcı faktör analizi (AFA için 302, doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA için 210 olmak üzere üç farklı devlet üniversitesinin Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Eğitimi (BÖTE bölümü öğrencilerinden veri toplanmıştır. Analizler sonucunda 36 maddeden oluşan dört faktörlü bir yapı ortaya konmuştur. ÇSA’ları öğretim amaçlı olarak kabul ve kullanım durumlarının performans beklentisi, çaba beklentisi, sosyal etki ve kullanma niyetlerinden etkilendiği sonucuna ula

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Ashok D.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Brill, Richard W.; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6 years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  1. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  2. Entropy of balance - some recent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxåback Gerd

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entropy when applied to biological signals is expected to reflect the state of the biological system. However the physiological interpretation of the entropy is not always straightforward. When should high entropy be interpreted as a healthy sign, and when as marker of deteriorating health? We address this question for the particular case of human standing balance and the Center of Pressure data. Methods We have measured and analyzed balance data of 136 participants (young, n = 45; elderly, n = 91 comprising in all 1085 trials, and calculated the Sample Entropy (SampEn for medio-lateral (M/L and anterior-posterior (A/P Center of Pressure (COP together with the Hurst self-similariy (ss exponent α using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. The COP was measured with a force plate in eight 30 seconds trials with eyes closed, eyes open, foam, self-perturbation and nudge conditions. Results 1 There is a significant difference in SampEn for the A/P-direction between the elderly and the younger groups Old > young. 2 For the elderly we have in general A/P > M/L. 3 For the younger group there was no significant A/P-M/L difference with the exception for the nudge trials where we had the reverse situation, A/P Eyes Open. 5 In case of the Hurst ss-exponent we have for the elderly, M/L > A/P. Conclusions These results seem to be require some modifications of the more or less established attention-constraint interpretation of entropy. This holds that higher entropy correlates with a more automatic and a less constrained mode of balance control, and that a higher entropy reflects, in this sense, a more efficient balancing.

  3. Evaluation of symbiotic performance of some mutant lines of soybean inoculated with two bradyrhizobium japonicum strains using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Mir-Ali, N.; Al-Nabulsi, I.

    2002-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the symbiotic performance of two soybean varieties and some of their mutants (that were obtained as a result of a previous mutation breeding program) with two bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (RG and FA3) using 15 N isotopic dilution method. Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD) was used to study the genetic relationships among the soybean genotypes and to make sure that the two rhizobial strains are different. The 25 random primers used discriminated the different soybean genotypes and the dendrogram resultants from shared polymorphic fragments put each variety and its mutants in two separate clusters asserting that the mutants and their mother lines are different. Both strains of B. japonicum were able to form effective nodules on all soybean plants. However, number of nodules, dry matter yield and N-uptake from the available sources by soybeans were affected by both plant genotype and rhizobial strains. N 2 -fixation was affected to a large extent by different strain and plant genotype combinations. Percentage of fixed N 2 (N dfa) ranged between 35 and 49%; whereas, the actual amounts of fixed N 2 were between 105 and 210 mg N/pot. Amounts of N 2 -fixed by FA3 strain were higher than of RG in both soybean varieties, whereas, the latter strain showed higher performance in the mutant lines. The results showed that total plant N estimation may not be a sufficient indicator for high N 2 -fixation. the results also showed that it is very important to determine both the amount of nitrogen derived from N 2 -fixation and N derived from soil for evaluating the symbiotic performance ability. Moreover, the performance of symbiotic N 2 -fixation in soybean was shown to depend on both plant genotype and rhizobial strain and the amount of N 2 -fixation can be increased by combining the best plant genotypes and the most adapted strain. (author)

  4. Nonlinear temperature effects on multifractal complexity of metabolic rate of mice

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    Fabio A. Labra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex physiological dynamics have been argued to be a signature of healthy physiological function. Here we test whether the complexity of metabolic rate fluctuations in small endotherms decreases with lower environmental temperatures. To do so, we examine the multifractal temporal scaling properties of the rate of change in oxygen consumption r(VO2, in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, assessing their long range correlation properties across seven different environmental temperatures, ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C. To do so, we applied multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA, finding that r(VO2 fluctuations show two scaling regimes. For small time scales below the crossover time (approximately 102 s, either monofractal or weak multifractal dynamics are observed depending on whether Ta  15 °C respectively. For larger time scales, r(VO2 fluctuations are characterized by an asymptotic scaling exponent that indicates multifractal anti-persistent or uncorrelated dynamics. For both scaling regimes, a generalization of the multiplicative cascade model provides very good fits for the Renyi exponents τ(q, showing that the infinite number of exponents h(q can be described by only two independent parameters, a and b. We also show that the long-range correlation structure of r(VO2 time series differs from randomly shuffled series, and may not be explained as an artifact of stochastic sampling of a linear frequency spectrum. These results show that metabolic rate dynamics in a well studied micro-endotherm are consistent with a highly non-linear feedback control system.

  5. Uso de las excretas de pollos de engorde (Pollinaza en la alimentacion animal. iii. rendimiento productivo de toretes de engorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tobía

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El experimento fue conducido para evaluar el efecto de 2 niveles de pollinaza (cama de polIo experide engorde complementados con 2 fuentes de energfa (melaza de caiia 0 pulpa de cftricos deshi- comdratada. Treinta y dos toretes mestizos cebu, con suun peso promedio de 3l6:t40 kg, se distribuyeron al azar en un diseiio cross over con arreglo factorial de tratamientos (2x2. Los 4 tratarnientos asigna- dos fueron: a2 kg de pollinaza+melaza; b2 kg de pollinaza+pulpa de cftricos deshidratada; c4 kg de pollinaza+melaza y d4 kg de pollinaza+pulpa de cftricos deshidratada. Los demas ingredientes fue- ron pasto de corte King grass y minerales. La dura- cion del ensayo rue de 156 dfas. La ganancia de pe- experiso diaria no evidencio diferencias significativas P>O.05 entre tratamientos con valores promedio kg/animaVdfa de 0.70:t0.53; 0.70:t0.50; 0.8l:t0.48 y 0.77:t0.43 para las dietas a, b, c y d, treatrespectivamente. En el mismo orden los valores pa- inraconsumodemateriasecakg/ lOOkgPV/dfa,fue- statistiron 1.98, 1.85,2.42 y 2.30, donde se encontro dife- rencias significativas (P0.05 entre trata- mientos. Los resultados indican que la inclusion de 4 kg de pollinaza en la racion, permitio un ma- comyor consumo de materia seca, una mayor ganancia

  6. Longitudinal association of short-term, metronome-paced heart rate variability and echocardiographically assessed cardiac structure at a 4-year follow-up: results from the prospective, population-based CARLA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwald, Daniel; Swenne, Cees A; Frantz, Stefan; Nuding, Sebastian; Kors, Jan A; Pietzner, Diana; Tiller, Daniel; Greiser, Karin H; Kluttig, Alexander; Haerting, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    To assess the value of cardiac structure/function in predicting heart rate variability (HRV) and the possibly predictive value of HRV on cardiac parameters. Baseline and 4-year follow-up data from the population-based CARLA cohort were used (790 men, 646 women, aged 45-83 years at baseline and 50-87 years at follow-up). Echocardiographic and HRV recordings were performed at baseline and at follow-up. Linear regression models with a quadratic term were used. Crude and covariate adjusted estimates were calculated. Missing values were imputed by means of multiple imputation. Heart rate variability measures taken into account consisted of linear time and frequency domain [standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), high-frequency power (HF), low-frequency power (LF), LF/HF ratio] and non-linear measures [detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA1), SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2 ratio]. Echocardiographic parameters considered were ventricular mass index, diastolic interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular diastolic dimension, left atrial dimension systolic (LADS), and ejection fraction (Teichholz). A negative quadratic relation between baseline LADS and change in SDNN and HF was observed. The maximum HF and SDNN change (an increase of roughly 0.02%) was predicted at LADS of 3.72 and 3.57 cm, respectively, while the majority of subjects experienced a decrease in HRV. There was no association between further echocardiographic parameters and change in HRV, and there was no evidence of a predictive value of HRV in the prediction of changes in cardiac structure. In the general population, LADS predicts 4-year alteration in SDNN and HF non-linearly. Because of the novelty of the result, analyses should be replicated in other populations. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyńska, Joanna; Paszczyk, Beata; Nowosad, Joanna; Łuczyński, Marek Jan

    2017-09-25

    Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch), Leuciscus idus L. (ide), Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp), Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout), Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder). and Clupea harengus L. (bream) from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp ( p ≤ 0.05). There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878), flounder (r = 0.925) and herring (r = 0.982) ( p ≤ 0.05). The atherogenic index (AI), thrombogenicity index (TI) and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ) were calculated as follows 0.33-0.70 (IA), 0.16-0.31 (IT) and 13.01-33.22 (FLQ). Hypocholesterolemic (OFA) and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA) in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length) and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish ( p > 0.05). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  8. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Łuczyńska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch, Leuciscus idus L. (ide, Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout, Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder. and Clupea harengus L. (bream from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp (p ≤ 0.05. There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878, flounder (r = 0.925 and herring (r = 0.982 (p ≤ 0.05. The atherogenic index (AI, thrombogenicity index (TI and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ were calculated as follows 0.33–0.70 (IA, 0.16–0.31 (IT and 13.01–33.22 (FLQ. Hypocholesterolemic (OFA and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish (p > 0.05. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  9. Investigation of the complexity of streamflow fluctuations in a large heterogeneous lake catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuchun; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Xianghu; Zhang, Qi

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of flood and drought frequency is highly correlated with the temporal fluctuations of streamflow series; understanding of these fluctuations is essential for the improved modeling and statistical prediction of extreme changes in river basins. In this study, the complexity of daily streamflow fluctuations was investigated by using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) in a large heterogeneous lake basin, the Poyang Lake basin in China, and the potential impacts of human activities were also explored. Major results indicate that the multifractality of streamflow fluctuations shows significant regional characteristics. In the study catchment, all the daily streamflow series present a strong long-range correlation with Hurst exponents bigger than 0.8. The q-order Hurst exponent h( q) of all the hydrostations can be characterized well by only two parameters: a (0.354 ≤ a ≤ 0.384) and b (0.627 ≤ b ≤ 0.677), with no pronounced differences. Singularity spectrum analysis pointed out that small fluctuations play a dominant role in all daily streamflow series. Our research also revealed that both the correlation properties and the broad probability density function (PDF) of hydrological series can be responsible for the multifractality of streamflow series that depends on watershed areas. In addition, we emphasized the relationship between watershed area and the estimated multifractal parameters, such as the Hurst exponent and fitted parameters a and b from the q-order Hurst exponent h( q). However, the relationship between the width of the singularity spectrum (Δ α) and watershed area is not clear. Further investigation revealed that increasing forest coverage and reservoir storage can effectively enhance the persistence of daily streamflow, decrease the hydrological complexity of large fluctuations, and increase the small fluctuations.

  10. Morning surge of ventricular arrhythmias in a new arrhythmogenic canine model of chronic heart failure is associated with attenuation of time-of-day dependence of heart rate and autonomic adaptation, and reduced cardiac chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Hanafy, Mohamed A; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Walcott, Gregory P; Young, Martin E; Pogwizd, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) exhibit a morning surge in ventricular arrhythmias, but the underlying cause remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate dynamics, autonomic input (assessed by heart rate variability (HRV)) and nonlinear dynamics as well as their abnormal time-of-day-dependent oscillations in a newly developed arrhythmogenic canine heart failure model are associated with a morning surge in ventricular arrhythmias. CHF was induced in dogs by aortic insufficiency & aortic constriction, and assessed by echocardiography. Holter monitoring was performed to study time-of-day-dependent variation in ventricular arrhythmias (PVCs, VT), traditional HRV measures, and nonlinear dynamics (including detrended fluctuations analysis α1 and α2 (DFAα1 & DFAα2), correlation dimension (CD), and Shannon entropy (SE)) at baseline, as well as 240 days (240 d) and 720 days (720 d) following CHF induction. LV fractional shortening was decreased at both 240 d and 720 d. Both PVCs and VT increased with CHF duration and showed a morning rise (2.5-fold & 1.8-fold increase at 6 AM-noon vs midnight-6 AM) during CHF. The morning rise in HR at baseline was significantly attenuated by 52% with development of CHF (at both 240 d & 720 d). Morning rise in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) HRV at baseline was markedly attenuated with CHF. DFAα1, DFAα2, CD and SE all decreased with CHF by 31, 17, 34 and 7%, respectively. Time-of-day-dependent variations in LF/HF, CD, DFA α1 and SE, observed at baseline, were lost during CHF. Thus in this new arrhythmogenic canine CHF model, attenuated morning HR rise, blunted autonomic oscillation, decreased cardiac chaos and complexity of heart rate, as well as aberrant time-of-day-dependent variations in many of these parameters were associated with a morning surge of ventricular arrhythmias.

  11. Morning surge of ventricular arrhythmias in a new arrhythmogenic canine model of chronic heart failure is associated with attenuation of time-of-day dependence of heart rate and autonomic adaptation, and reduced cardiac chaos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhu

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF exhibit a morning surge in ventricular arrhythmias, but the underlying cause remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate dynamics, autonomic input (assessed by heart rate variability (HRV and nonlinear dynamics as well as their abnormal time-of-day-dependent oscillations in a newly developed arrhythmogenic canine heart failure model are associated with a morning surge in ventricular arrhythmias. CHF was induced in dogs by aortic insufficiency & aortic constriction, and assessed by echocardiography. Holter monitoring was performed to study time-of-day-dependent variation in ventricular arrhythmias (PVCs, VT, traditional HRV measures, and nonlinear dynamics (including detrended fluctuations analysis α1 and α2 (DFAα1 & DFAα2, correlation dimension (CD, and Shannon entropy (SE at baseline, as well as 240 days (240 d and 720 days (720 d following CHF induction. LV fractional shortening was decreased at both 240 d and 720 d. Both PVCs and VT increased with CHF duration and showed a morning rise (2.5-fold & 1.8-fold increase at 6 AM-noon vs midnight-6 AM during CHF. The morning rise in HR at baseline was significantly attenuated by 52% with development of CHF (at both 240 d & 720 d. Morning rise in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF HRV at baseline was markedly attenuated with CHF. DFAα1, DFAα2, CD and SE all decreased with CHF by 31, 17, 34 and 7%, respectively. Time-of-day-dependent variations in LF/HF, CD, DFA α1 and SE, observed at baseline, were lost during CHF. Thus in this new arrhythmogenic canine CHF model, attenuated morning HR rise, blunted autonomic oscillation, decreased cardiac chaos and complexity of heart rate, as well as aberrant time-of-day-dependent variations in many of these parameters were associated with a morning surge of ventricular arrhythmias.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

    2014-12-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Detecting signatures of stochastic self-organization in US money and velocity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Uritskaya, Olga Y.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we continue the research by Serletis [Random walks, breaking trend functions, and the chaotic structure of the velocity of money, J. Bus. Econ. Stat. 13 (1995) 453-458] and Serletis and Shintani [Chaotic monetary dynamics with confidence, J. Macroeconomics 28 (2006) 228-252] by applying the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA)-introduced by Peng et al. [Mosaic organization of DNA nucleotides, Phys. Rev. E 49 (1994) 1685-1689] and adapted to the analysis of long-range correlations in economic data by Uritskaya [Forecasting of magnitude and duration of currency crises based on analysis of distortions of fractal scaling in exchange rate fluctuations, Noise and fluctuations in econophysics and finance, Proc. SPIE 5848 (2005) 17-26; Fractal methods for modeling and forecasting of currency crises, in: Proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Modeling and Analysis of Safety and Risk in Complex Systems, SPbSU Press, St.Petersburg, 2005, pp. 210-215]-to investigate the dynamical structure of United States money and velocity measures. We use monthly data over the time period from 1959:1 to 2006:2, at each of the four levels of monetary aggregation, M1, M2, M3, and MZM, making comparisons among simple-sum, Divisia, and currency equivalent (CE) methods of aggregation. The results suggest that the sum and Divisia monetary aggregates are more appropriate for measuring long-term tendencies in money supply dynamics while the CE aggregates are more sensitive measures of short-term processes in the economy.

  14. Comparison of sEMG-Based Feature Extraction and Motion Classification Methods for Upper-Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface electromyography (sEMG technique is proposed for muscle activation detection and intuitive control of prostheses or robot arms. Motion recognition is widely used to map sEMG signals to the target motions. One of the main factors preventing the implementation of this kind of method for real-time applications is the unsatisfactory motion recognition rate and time consumption. The purpose of this paper is to compare eight combinations of four feature extraction methods (Root Mean Square (RMS, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, Weight Peaks (WP, and Muscular Model (MM and two classifiers (Neural Networks (NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM, for the task of mapping sEMG signals to eight upper-limb motions, to find out the relation between these methods and propose a proper combination to solve this issue. Seven subjects participated in the experiment and six muscles of the upper-limb were selected to record sEMG signals. The experimental results showed that NN classifier obtained the highest recognition accuracy rate (88.7% during the training process while SVM performed better in real-time experiments (85.9%. For time consumption, SVM took less time than NN during the training process but needed more time for real-time computation. Among the four feature extraction methods, WP had the highest recognition rate for the training process (97.7% while MM performed the best during real-time tests (94.3%. The combination of MM and NN is recommended for strict real-time applications while a combination of MM and SVM will be more suitable when time consumption is not a key requirement.

  15. Deep Packet/Flow Analysis using GPUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Qian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wu, Wenji [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); DeMar, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-11-12

    Deep packet inspection (DPI) faces severe performance challenges in high-speed networks (40/100 GE) as it requires a large amount of raw computing power and high I/O throughputs. Recently, researchers have tentatively used GPUs to address the above issues and boost the performance of DPI. Typically, DPI applications involve highly complex operations in both per-packet and per-flow data level, often in real-time. The parallel architecture of GPUs fits exceptionally well for per-packet network traffic processing. However, for stateful network protocols such as TCP, their data stream need to be reconstructed in a per-flow level to deliver a consistent content analysis. Since the flow-centric operations are naturally antiparallel and often require large memory space for buffering out-of-sequence packets, they can be problematic for GPUs, whose memory is normally limited to several gigabytes. In this work, we present a highly efficient GPU-based deep packet/flow analysis framework. The proposed design includes a purely GPU-implemented flow tracking and TCP stream reassembly. Instead of buffering and waiting for TCP packets to become in sequence, our framework process the packets in batch and uses a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) with prefix-/suffix- tree method to detect patterns across out-of-sequence packets that happen to be located in different batches. In conclusion, evaluation shows that our code can reassemble and forward tens of millions of packets per second and conduct a stateful signature-based deep packet inspection at 55 Gbit/s using an NVIDIA K40 GPU.

  16. Predicting the future from the past in corrosion science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Digby D. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 201 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Engelhardt, George [OLI Systems Inc., 108 American Road, Morris Plains, NJ 07950 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The accumulation of damage due to localized corrosion (pitting, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), corrosion fatigue (CF), crevice corrosion (CC), and erosion-corrosion (EC)) in complex industrial systems, such as power plants, refineries, desalination systems, etc., poses a threat to continued safe and economic operation, primarily because of the sudden, catastrophic nature of the resulting failures. Of particular interest in managing these forms of damage is the development of robust algorithms that can be used to predict the integrated damage as a function of time and as a function of the operating conditions of the system. Because complex systems of the same design rapidly become unique, due to differences in operating histories, and because failures are rare events, there is generally insufficient data on any given system to derive reliable empirical models that capture the impact of all (or even some) of the important independent variables. Accordingly, empirical models have generally failed to provide a robust basis for predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage in complex systems under realistic operating conditions. The alternative prediction philosophy is determinism, in which the development of damage is described in terms of valid, physico-electrochemical mechanisms with the output being constrained by the natural laws. The differential damage is then integrated along the corrosion evolutionary path for the system (i.e., over the future operating history) to yield the desired integrated damage, which is the quantity that is most useful to an operator. In this paper, we review the theory of predicting corrosion damage within the framework of Damage Function Analysis (DFA), with particular emphasis on the pitting of aluminum in chloride solutions and on the accumulation of damage from SCC in Type 304 SS components in the primary coolant circuits of Boiling Water (Nuclear) Reactors (BWRs). These cases have been selected to illustrate the various phases

  17. Predicting the future from the past in corrosion science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Engelhardt, George

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation of damage due to localized corrosion (pitting, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), corrosion fatigue (CF), crevice corrosion (CC), and erosion-corrosion (EC)) in complex industrial systems, such as power plants, refineries, desalination systems, etc., poses a threat to continued safe and economic operation, primarily because of the sudden, catastrophic nature of the resulting failures. Of particular interest in managing these forms of damage is the development of robust algorithms that can be used to predict the integrated damage as a function of time and as a function of the operating conditions of the system. Because complex systems of the same design rapidly become unique, due to differences in operating histories, and because failures are rare events, there is generally insufficient data on any given system to derive reliable empirical models that capture the impact of all (or even some) of the important independent variables. Accordingly, empirical models have generally failed to provide a robust basis for predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage in complex systems under realistic operating conditions. The alternative prediction philosophy is determinism, in which the development of damage is described in terms of valid, physico-electrochemical mechanisms with the output being constrained by the natural laws. The differential damage is then integrated along the corrosion evolutionary path for the system (i.e., over the future operating history) to yield the desired integrated damage, which is the quantity that is most useful to an operator. In this paper, we review the theory of predicting corrosion damage within the framework of Damage Function Analysis (DFA), with particular emphasis on the pitting of aluminum in chloride solutions and on the accumulation of damage from SCC in Type 304 SS components in the primary coolant circuits of Boiling Water (Nuclear) Reactors (BWRs). These cases have been selected to illustrate the various phases

  18. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Complex Nonlinear Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Link Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinda eKhalaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiological interactions are abundant within, and between, body systems. These interactions may evolve into discrete states during pathophysiological processes resulting from common mechanisms. An association between arterial stenosis, identified by low ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI and cardiovascular disease (CVD as been reported. Whether an association between vascular calcification - characterized by high ABPI and a different pathophysiology - is similarly associated with CVD, has not been established. The current study aims to investigate the association between ABPI, and cardiac rhythm, as an indicator of cardiovascular health and functionality, utilising heart rate variability (HRV.Methods and Results: Two hundred and thirty six patients underwent ABPI assessment. Standard time and frequency domain, and non-linear HRV measures were determined from 5-minute electrocardiogram. ABPI data were divided into normal (n=101, low (n=67 and high (n=66 and compared to HRV measures.(DFAα1 and SampEn were significantly different between the low ABPI, high ABPI and control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: A possible coupling between arterial stenosis and vascular calcification with decreased and increased HRV respectively was observed. Our results suggest a model for interpreting the relationship between vascular pathophysiology and cardiac rhythm. The cardiovascular system may be viewed as a complex system comprising a number of interacting subsystems. These cardiac and vascular subsystems/networks may be coupled and undergo transitions in response to internal or external perturbations. From a clinical perspective, the significantly increased sample entropy compared to the normal ABPI group and the decreased and increased complex correlation properties measured by DFA for the low and high ABPI groups respectively, may be useful indicators that a more holistic treatment approach in line with this more complex clinical picture is required.

  1. Measuring the CCN and IN ability of bacterial isolates: implications for the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, S.; Waters, S.; Konstantinidis, K.; Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.

    2015-12-01

    Ice nucleation is an important process in the climate system as it influences global precipitation processes, and can affect the vertical distribution of clouds with effects that both cool and warm the atmosphere. Of the pathways to ice nucleation, immersion mode, which occurs when ice nuclei (IN) particles are surrounded by an aqueous phase that subsequently freezes, dominates primary ice production in mixed-phase clouds. A simple but effective method to study immersion freezing is to utilize a droplet freezing assay (DFA) that consists of an aluminum plate, precisely cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture. Using such a system we study the immersion IN characteristics of bacterial isolates (for temperatures ranging from -15oC to 0oC) isolated from rainwater and air collected in Atlanta, GA and Puerto Rico, over storms throughout the year. Despite their relatively large size and the presence of hydrophilic groups on the outer membranes of many bacteria, it is unclear if bacteria possess an inherent ability to nucleate an aqueous phase (a requirement for immersion freezing) for the wide range of supersaturations found in clouds. For this, we measure the cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity of each isolate (over the 0.05% to 0.6% supersaturation range) using a Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter. Initial results have shown certain isolates to be very efficient CCN, allowing them to form droplets even for the very low supersaturations found in radiation fogs. In combination, these experiments provide insight into the potential dual-ability of some bacteria, isolated from the southeastern United States and Puerto Rico, to act as both efficient CCN and IN.

  2. Chemical characterization of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients with malignant plueral mesothelioma from subjects with similar professional asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennaro, G. de; Longobardi, F.; Stallone, G.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Chemistry, Bari (Italy); Dragonieri, S. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Pulmonology, Bari (Italy); Musti, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bari (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour whose main aetiology is the long-term exposure to asbestos fibres. The diagnostic procedure of MPM is difficult and often requires invasive approaches; therefore, it is clinically important to find accurate markers for MPM by new noninvasive methods that may facilitate the diagnostic process and identify patients at an earlier stage. In the present study, the exhaled breath of 13 patients with histology-established diagnosis of MPM, 13 subjects with long-term certified professional exposure to asbestos (EXP) and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to asbestos (healthy controls, HC) were analysed. An analytical procedure to determine volatile organic compounds by sampling of air on a bed of solid sorbent and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis was developed in order to identify the compounds capable of discriminating among the three groups. The application of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate statistical treatments (PCA, DFA and CP-ANN) showed that cyclopentane and cyclohexane were the dominant variables able to discriminate among the three groups. In particular, it was found that cyclohexane is the only compound able to differentiate the MPM group from the other two; therefore, it can be a possible marker of MPM. Cyclopentane is the dominant compound in the discrimination between EXP and the other groups (MPM and HC); then, it can be considered a good indicator for long-term asbestos exposure. This result suggests the need to perform frequent and thorough investigations on people exposed to asbestos in order to constantly monitor their state of health or possibly to study the evolution of disease over time. (orig.)

  3. Children with chronic renal disease undergoing dialysis or conservative treatment--differences in structural and functional echocardiographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavarda, Valeska Tavares; Pinheiro, Aurelio Carvalho; Costa, Symône Damasceno; de Andrade, Zélia Maria; Carvalhaes, João Tomás de Abreu; Campos, Orlando; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Moises, Valdir Ambrosio

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac disease frequently occurs in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing dialysis (DI), but it is not well studied in patients undergoing conservative treatment (CT). The aim of our study was to use echocardiography to analyze and compare the cardiac involvement of children with CKD undergoing DI or CT. Seventy-one children with CKD were included; 41 undergoing DI and 30 undergoing CT. There were 33 controls. Measurements of arterial pressure and structural and functional echocardiographic variables were obtained; the children were followed up for 18 months. Tests of comparison and multiple regression were used; significant if P < 0.05. Arterial hypertension (AH) was present in 37 of 71 (52%) children with CKD: 27 (65.8%) in DI and 10 (33.3%) in CT (X2 = 8.7; P = 0.003). An abnormal left ventricular geometric pattern was present in 37/41 (90.3%) undergoing DI, 33 had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and in 14/30 (46.7%) undergoing CT, 5 had LVH. Ejection fraction was normal in all groups; diastolic function alteration (DFA) occurred in 28/41 (68.3%) children on DI and in 10/30 (33.3%) on CT (X2 = 9.2; P = 0.002). For children with CKD, DI (P = 0.002) and hypertension (P = 0.04) were associated with LVH; among those on DI, only AH was associated with LVH (P = 0.02). During the follow-up, 18 (43.9%) children undergoing DI had at least one cardiovascular event. Children with CKD undergoing CT had less cardiac involvement than those undergoing DI. LVH was associated with DI and AH in all children with CKD and with AH in those on DI.

  4. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  5. Real-world comparison of two molecular methods for detection of respiratory viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller E Kathryn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR based assays are increasingly used to diagnose viral respiratory infections and conduct epidemiology studies. Molecular assays have generally been evaluated by comparing them to conventional direct fluorescent antibody (DFA or viral culture techniques, with few published direct comparisons between molecular methods or between institutions. We sought to perform a real-world comparison of two molecular respiratory viral diagnostic methods between two experienced respiratory virus research laboratories. Methods We tested nasal and throat swab specimens obtained from 225 infants with respiratory illness for 11 common respiratory viruses using both a multiplex assay (Respiratory MultiCode-PLx Assay [RMA] and individual real-time RT-PCR (RT-rtPCR. Results Both assays detected viruses in more than 70% of specimens, but there was discordance. The RMA assay detected significantly more human metapneumovirus (HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, while RT-rtPCR detected significantly more influenza A. We speculated that primer differences accounted for these discrepancies and redesigned the primers and probes for influenza A in the RMA assay, and for HMPV and RSV in the RT-rtPCR assay. The tests were then repeated and again compared. The new primers led to improved detection of HMPV and RSV by RT-rtPCR assay, but the RMA assay remained similar in terms of influenza detection. Conclusions Given the absence of a gold standard, clinical and research laboratories should regularly correlate the results of molecular assays with other PCR based assays, other laboratories, and with standard virologic methods to ensure consistency and accuracy.

  6. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise.

  7. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  8. Complementary effects of surface water and groundwater on soil moisture dynamics in a degraded coastal floodplain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryRestoration of degraded floodplain forests requires a robust understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose zone hydrology. Soil moisture is of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival, but is difficult to monitor and often overlooked in wetland restoration studies. This research hypothesizes that the complex effects of surface water and shallow groundwater on the soil moisture dynamics of floodplain wetlands are spatially complementary. To test this hypothesis, 31 long-term (4-year) hydrological time series were collected in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River (Florida, USA), where watershed modifications have led to reduced freshwater flow, altered hydroperiod and salinity, and a degraded ecosystem. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a time series dimension reduction technique, was applied to model temporal and spatial variation in 12 soil moisture time series as linear combinations of common trends (representing shared, but unexplained, variability) and explanatory variables (selected from 19 additional candidate hydrological time series). The resulting dynamic factor models yielded good predictions of observed soil moisture series (overall coefficient of efficiency = 0.90) by identifying surface water elevation, groundwater elevation, and net recharge (cumulative rainfall-cumulative evapotranspiration) as important explanatory variables. Strong and complementary linear relationships were found between floodplain elevation and surface water effects (slope = 0.72, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001), and between elevation and groundwater effects (slope = -0.71, R2 = 0.71, p = 0.001), while the effect of net recharge was homogenous across the experimental transect (slope = 0.03, R2 = 0.05, p = 0.242). This study provides a quantitative insight into the spatial structure of groundwater and surface water effects on soil moisture that will be useful for refining monitoring plans and developing ecosystem restoration and management scenarios

  9. Stability of concentration-related self-interstitial atoms in fusion material tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhang; Shu-Long, Wen; Min, Pan; Zheng, Huang; Yong, Zhao; Xiang, Liu; Ji-Ming, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory, we calculated the structures of the two main possible self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as well as the migration energy of tungsten (W) atoms. It was found that the difference of the and formation energies is 0.05-0.3 eV. Further analysis indicated that the stability of SIAs is closely related to the concentration of the defect. When the concentration of the point defect is high, SIAs are more likely to exist, SIAs are the opposite. In addition, the vacancy migration probability and self-recovery zones for these SIAs were researched by making a detailed comparison. The calculation provided a new viewpoint about the stability of point defects for self-interstitial configurations and would benefit the understanding of the control mechanism of defect behavior for this novel fusion material. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. A0920502051411-5 and 2682014ZT30), the Program of International Science and Technology Cooperation, China (Grant No. 2013DFA51050), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program, China (Grant Nos. 2011GB112001 and 2013GB110001), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032701), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405138), the Southwestern Institute of Physics Funds, China, the Western Superconducting Technologies Company Limited, China, the Qingmiao Plan of Southwest Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. A0920502051517-6), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M560813).

  10. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  11. Lightweight Design and Welding Manufacturing of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Car’s Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Ch. Tsirogiannis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the chassis for the hydrogen fuel cell powered car has been involved in the designing and manufacturing aspects, while taking into consideration the mass, strength, stiffness, centre of gravity (COG, and manufacturing cost requirements. Towards this direction, a chassis design is proposed employing a space frame structure and constructed by an aluminium alloy with great strength. The structural design has been derived through the lightweight engineering approaches in conjunction with the part consolidation, Design for Assembly (DFA and Design for Manufacture methods. Moreover, it has been performed in compliance with the safety regulations of the Shell Eco Marathon racing competition. The material’s principal characteristics are the great strength, the low mass, as well as the great workability, machinability, and weldability. Following the national and global environmental issues, the recyclable characteristics of the aluminium alloy are an extra asset. Furthermore, the existence of aluminium alloy manufacturers around the fabricating area provides low cost supply and fast delivery benefits. The integration of the fuel cell powered vehicle is obtained through the designing and the manufacturing processes of the chassis and the parts fitted on the chassis. The manufacturing procedures are described thoroughly; mainly consisting of the cutting and welding processes and the assembling of the parts that are fitted on the chassis. Additionally, the proper welding parameters for the custom chassis design are investigated and are selected after deductive reasoning. The quality control of the weld joints is conducted by non-destructive methods (NDT ensuring the required structural properties of the welds. A combination of the selected material, the specific type of the chassis, and the manufacturing processes lead to construction simplicity in a low manufacturing cost by using the existing laboratory equipment. Furthermore, the

  12. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  13. Size and shape information serve as labels in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs Cynomys gunnisoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. SLOBODCHIKOFF, William R. BRIGGS, Patricia A DENNIS, Anne-Marie C. HODGE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some animals have the capacity to produce different alarm calls for terrestrial and aerial predators. However, it is not clear what cognitive processes are involved in generating these calls. One possibility is the position of the predator: Anything on the ground receives a terrestrial predator call, and anything in the air receives an aerial predator call. Another possibility is that animals are able to recognize the physical features of predators and incorporate those into their calls. As a way of elucidating which of these mechanisms plays a primary role in generating the structure of different calls, we performed two field experiments with Gunnison’s prairie dogs. First, we presented the prairie dogs with a circle, a triangle, and a square, each moving across the colony at the same height and speed. Second, we presented the prairie dogs with two squares of differing sizes. DFA statistics showed that 82.6 percent of calls for the circle and 79.2 percent of the calls for the triangle were correctly classified, and 73.3 percent of the calls for the square were classified as either square or circle. Also, 100 percent of the calls for the larger square and 90 percent of the calls for the smaller square were correctly classified. Because both squares and circles are features of terrestrial predators and triangles are features of aerial predators, our results suggest that prairie dogs might have a cognitive mechanism that labels the abstract shape and size of different predators, rather than the position of the predator [Current Zoology 58 (5: 741-748, 2012].

  14. Neurocognitive performance, psychopathology and social functioning in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia or psychotic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkintoni, Evgenia; Pallis, Eleftherios G; Bitsios, Panos; Giakoumaki, Stella G

    2017-01-15

    Although cognitive deficits are consistent endophenotypes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, findings in psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) are inconsistent. In this study we compared adult unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia and BDP patients on cognition, psychopathology, social functioning and quality of life. Sixty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (SUnR), 36 unaffected first-degree relatives of BDP patients (BDPUnR) and 102 controls participated in the study. Between-group differences were examined and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) predicted group membership. Visual memory, control inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and abstract reasoning were linearly impaired in the relatives' groups. Poorer verbal fluency and processing speed were evident only in the SUnR group. The SUnR group had higher depressive and somatization symptoms while the BDPUnR group had higher anxiety and lower social functioning compared with the controls. Individuals with superior cognition were more likely to be classified as controls; those with higher social functioning, prolonged processing speed and lower anxiety were more likely to be classified as SUnR. The relatives' sample is quite heterogeneous; the effects of genetic or environmental risk-factors were not examined. Cognitive functions mediated by a fronto-parietal network, show linear impairments in unaffected relatives of BDP and schizophrenia patients; processing speed and verbal fluency impairments were evident only in schizophrenia relatives. Self-perceived symptomatology and social functioning also differ between schizophrenia and BDP relatives. The continuum seen in patients in several indices was also seen in the cognitive impairments in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia and BDP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Análise Espacial e Temporal dos Dados de Precipitação das Estações de Entorno da Bacia do Ribeirão Concórdia, Lontras (SC Visando Sua Inserção no Contexto de Mudanças Climáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antonio Piazza

    Full Text Available Resumo Mudanças climáticas são cada vez mais evidentes no cenário atual, provocando alterações em processos físicos, químicos e biológicos. O aumento da precipitação, por exemplo, é uma consequência das mudanças do clima. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar o comportamento tendencial de dados mensais e anuais, assim como os máximos, das estações de entorno da bacia do Ribeirão Concórdia no município de Lontras no estado de Santa Catarina. Foi analisada a normalidade dos dados utilizados, além de três testes de aferição de tendências; o da análise da linha de tendência, o teste Mann-Kendall e a técnica da DFA (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, além de uma correlação com índices do clima global. Foram encontradas tendências positivas para grande parte das estações analisadas por ambos os métodos (16 de 20, com significância para 11 estações. Os dados de máxima precipitação diária no mês também apresentaram aumento. Por meio de métodos estatísticos simplificados não foi encontrada correlação entre os dados pluviométricos e os índices globais na área analisada.

  16. Visuomotor Entrainment and the Frequency-Dependent Response of Walking Balance to Perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie; Allen, Matt; Thelen, Darryl G

    2016-08-26

    Visuomotor entrainment, or the synchronization of motor responses to visual stimuli, is a naturally emergent phenomenon in human standing. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and resolution of visuomotor entrainment in walking and the frequency-dependent response of walking balance to perturbations. We used a virtual reality environment to manipulate optical flow in ten healthy young adults during treadmill walking. A motion capture system recorded trunk, sacrum, and heel marker trajectories during a series of 3-min conditions in which we perturbed a virtual hallway mediolaterally with systematic changes in the driving frequencies of perceived motion. We quantified visuomotor entrainment using spectral analyses and balance deficits using trunk sway, gait variability, and detrended fluctuation analyses (DFA). ML kinematics were highly sensitive to visual perturbations, and instinctively synchronized (i.e., entrained) to a broad range of driving frequencies of perceived ML motion. However, the influence of visual perturbations on metrics of walking balance was frequency-dependent and governed by their proximity to stride frequency. Specifically, we found that a driving frequency nearest to subjects' average stride frequency uniquely compromised trunk sway, gait variability, and step-to-step correlations. We conclude that visuomotor entrainment is a robust and naturally emerging phenomenon during human walking, involving coordinated and frequency-dependent adjustments in trunk sway and foot placement to maintain balance at the whole-body level. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how the visuomotor control of walking balance is disrupted by visual perturbations and important reference values for the emergence of balance deficits due to age, injury, or disease.

  17. İlişkide Karar Verme Ölçeğinin Türk Kültürüne Uyarlanması / The Turkish Adaptation of Relationship Deciding Scale

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    Cansu Tosun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of Relationship Deciding Scale (Vennum & Fincham, 2011 for Turkish culture. The sample of the study consisted of 880 students (EFA=439, CFA=441 studying at Karadeniz Technical University. Criterion-related validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for the validity of RDS while internal consistency, split half and test-retest techniques were performed to examine the reliability of RDS. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed that the scale had two-factor structures. However, two items were removed from the scale because they didn't have appropriate factor loadings. The scale consisting of 10 items explained 58.97% of the total variance. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that the model was compatible with the data. In the reliability analysis for EFA and CFA samples, Cronbach alpha coefficients were found as .87 and .86 respectively. Internal consistency coefficients of subscales were found as .83 and .80 for “Relationship Confidence”, .82 and .84 for “Directing Relationship”. According to test-retest reliability analysis results, the whole scale’s coefficient was r= .67. In addition, as a result of criterion validity analysis, correlations (r= .33 between Self-Control Scale (Duyan, Gülden & Gelbal, 2012 and Relationship Deciding Scale (RDS were found to be statistically significant. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RDS, which has two-factor structures with 10 items, can be suggested as a valid and reliable instrument in Turkish culture. Öz Bu araştırmanın amacı, Vennum ve Fincham (2011 tarafından geliştirilen İlişkide Karar Verme Ölçeği’nin (Relationship Deciding Scale Türk kültürüne uyarlanması ile ilgili geçerlik ve güvenirlik işlemlerini yapmaktır. Araştırma grubu Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören 880 öğrenciden (AFA=439, DFA=441 olu

  18. To what extent can global warming events influence scaling properties of climatic fluctuations in glacial periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    MultiFractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA), we show that a multifractal structure exists for both high- and low-frequency fluctuations in Northern and Southern hemispheres, with different scaling exponents, thus indicating a long-range persistence of the climatic variability within the whole Last Glacial Period. Our results evidence that both DO events and cooling/warming cycles must be considered as processes of the internal component of the Earth's climate, rather than processes related to external forcings. This study should be helpful for investigation of the internal origin of climate changes. References Shao, Z.G. and Ditlevsen, P.D., Nature Commun., 7, 10951, (2016). Alberti, T., Lepreti, F., Vecchio, A., Bevacqua, E., Capparelli, V. and Carbone, V., Clim. Past, 10, 1751 (2014).

  19. Study on the interaction mechanism between the special geological environment and their extreme geo-microbes in Dagang Oilfield by combined methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun

    2010-05-01

    . According to these research work listed above, we can reveal the mechanism of interaction between the special geological environment of Dagang Oilfield and the extreme geo-microbes, so as to clarify the effects of oil field environment on the extreme geo-microbes and especially the adverse effect of these geo-microbes to the geological environment, which may provide a practical foundation of theoretical basis for the reasons why the Dagang Oilfield can produce oil. Acknowledgement This work was supported in part by grants from National Outstanding Youth Research Foundation of China (40925010), International Joint Key Project from National Natural Science Foundation of China (40920134003), National Natural Science Foundation of China (40873060), and International Joint Key Project from Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (2009DFA92830), and the 111 Project (08030).

  20. Application of machine/statistical learning, artificial intelligence and statistical experimental design for the modeling and optimization of methylene blue and Cd(ii) removal from a binary aqueous solution by natural walnut carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, H; Ghaedi, M; Ahmadi Azqhandi, M H; Asfaram, A

    2017-05-10

    Analytical chemists apply statistical methods for both the validation and prediction of proposed models. Methods are required that are adequate for finding the typical features of a dataset, such as nonlinearities and interactions. Boosted regression trees (BRTs), as an ensemble technique, are fundamentally different to other conventional techniques, with the aim to fit a single parsimonious model. In this work, BRT, artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) models have been used for the optimization and/or modeling of the stirring time (min), pH, adsorbent mass (mg) and concentrations of MB and Cd 2+ ions (mg L -1 ) in order to develop respective predictive equations for simulation of the efficiency of MB and Cd 2+ adsorption based on the experimental data set. Activated carbon, as an adsorbent, was synthesized from walnut wood waste which is abundant, non-toxic, cheap and locally available. This adsorbent was characterized using different techniques such as FT-IR, BET, SEM, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) and also the determination of oxygen containing functional groups. The influence of various parameters (i.e. pH, stirring time, adsorbent mass and concentrations of MB and Cd 2+ ions) on the percentage removal was calculated by investigation of sensitive function, variable importance rankings (BRT) and analysis of variance (RSM). Furthermore, a central composite design (CCD) combined with a desirability function approach (DFA) as a global optimization technique was used for the simultaneous optimization of the effective parameters. The applicability of the BRT, ANN and RSM models for the description of experimental data was examined using four statistical criteria (absolute average deviation (AAD), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 )). All three models demonstrated good predictions in this study. The BRT model was more precise compared to the other models and this showed

  1. Modeling the origins of mammalian sociality: moderate evidence for matrilineal signatures in mouse lemur vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sharon E; Radespiel, Ute; Hasiniaina, Alida I F; Leliveld, Lisette M C; Nash, Leanne T; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-02-20

    Maternal kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity and it requires that kin are distinctive from nonkin. The transition from the ancestral state of asociality to the derived state of complex social groups is thought to have occurred via solitary foraging, in which individuals forage alone, but, unlike the asocial ancestors, maintain dispersed social networks via scent-marks and vocalizations. We hypothesize that matrilineal signatures in vocalizations were an important part of these networks. We used the solitary foraging gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) as a model for ancestral solitary foragers and tested for matrilineal signatures in their calls, thus investigating whether such signatures are already present in solitary foragers and could have facilitated the kin selection thought to have driven the evolution of increased social complexity in mammals. Because agonism can be very costly, selection for matrilineal signatures in agonistic calls should help reduce agonism between unfamiliar matrilineal kin. We conducted this study on a well-studied population of wild mouse lemurs at Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar. We determined pairwise relatedness using seven microsatellite loci, matrilineal relatedness by sequencing the mitrochondrial D-loop, and sleeping group associations using radio-telemetry. We recorded agonistic calls during controlled social encounters and conducted a multi-parametric acoustic analysis to determine the spectral and temporal structure of the agonistic calls. We measured 10 calls for each of 16 females from six different matrilineal kin groups. Calls were assigned to their matriline at a rate significantly higher than chance (pDFA: correct = 47.1%, chance = 26.7%, p = 0.03). There was a statistical trend for a negative correlation between acoustic distance and relatedness (Mantel Test: g = -1.61, Z = 4.61, r = -0.13, p = 0.058). Mouse lemur agonistic calls are

  2. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  3. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Regional Precipitation Sequences Based on the CEEMDAN-WPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Cheng, Chen; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Chunlei; Li, Mo; Faiz, Muhammad Abrar; Li, Tianxiao; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Cui, Song

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with the adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) algorithm is introduced into the complexity research of precipitation systems to improve the traditional complexity measure method specific to the mode mixing of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and incomplete decomposition of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). We combined the CEEMDAN with the wavelet packet transform (WPT) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to create the CEEMDAN-WPT-MFDFA, and used it to measure the complexity of the monthly precipitation sequence of 12 sub-regions in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. The results show that there are significant differences in the monthly precipitation complexity of each sub-region in Harbin. The complexity of the northwest area of Harbin is the lowest and its predictability is the best. The complexity and predictability of the middle and Midwest areas of Harbin are about average. The complexity of the southeast area of Harbin is higher than that of the northwest, middle, and Midwest areas of Harbin and its predictability is worse. The complexity of Shuangcheng is the highest and its predictability is the worst of all the studied sub-regions. We used terrain and human activity as factors to analyze the causes of the complexity of the local precipitation. The results showed that the correlations between the precipitation complexity and terrain are obvious, and the correlations between the precipitation complexity and human influence factors vary. The distribution of the precipitation complexity in this area may be generated by the superposition effect of human activities and natural factors such as terrain, general atmospheric circulation, land and sea location, and ocean currents. To evaluate the stability of the algorithm, the CEEMDAN-WPT-MFDFA was compared with the equal probability coarse graining LZC algorithm, fuzzy entropy, and wavelet entropy. The results show

  4. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao

  5. Perceptions of Organizational Politics Scale (POPS Questionnaire into Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim EROL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to make the studies of the translation of Perception of Organizational Politics Scale into Turkish and the validity and reliability of the scale. Perceptions of Organizational Politics Scale’s (POPS validities has been tested in terms of view, content and structure. The application is designed as a two-stage process. In the first stage, face and content validity was tested. In the second stage, it was sought evidences for the construct validity of the scale by making exploratory factor analysis (EFA and then the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA to the data obtained. In determining the reliability of the scale item-total score correlations and Cronbach alpha coefficient was used. The application made for the validity and reliability of the scale was conducted on the data collected from 277 faculty members working in universities’ education faculties. As a method of achieving those faculty members "Simple randomized (random sampling" is used. The psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Perception of Organizational Politics Scale showed that the scale has a satisfactory level of reliability and validity for the Turkish employee sample. Özet: Bu araştırmada Örgütsel Politika Algısı Ölçeğinin (Kacmar ve Ferris, 1991 Türkçeye çevrilmesi ve geçerlik-güvenirlik çalışmalarının yapılması amaçlanmıştır. Çeviri aşamasında Brislin, Lonner ve Thorndike (1973’den Akt. Basım, vd., 2006 tarafından geliştirilen model temel alınmıştır. Ardından Ölçeğin geçerliği için önce yüzey ve içerik geçerliği sınanmış, ardından elde edilen verilere açımlayıcı faktör analizi (AFA ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA yapılarak ölçeğin yapı geçerliği için kanıtlar aranmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirliğinin belirlenmesinde ise madde-toplam puan korelasyonları ve Cronbach alfa iç tutarlılık katsayısı değeri kullanılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda, basit seçkisiz

  6. Morphological classification of novice female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of physique have been the subject of several studies in sport sciences because high-level competitive sports place maximum demands on the physical constitution of players. Furthermore, the specifi c function performed by a player in a game may be related to a particular modality. The goals of this study were: (1 to describe and to compare, from a somatic point of view, the physiques of 71 female volleyball players at beginner levels A and B (aged 12-14 years; and (2 to identify the components of somatic structure that best differentiate the athletics by level of experience. In order to evaluate the players’ somatic structure,we performed 21 measurements including: weight and height, diameters, circumferences, upper and lower limb measurements and skinfolds thicknesses. Discriminant function analysis (DFA was used to identify the power of variables classifi cation. No difference was found in physique between level A and level B players. They were classifi ed by somatotype as mesomorphic endomorphs (A = 4.76 - 3.78 - 1.85; and B = 4.37 - 4.02 - 1.88. RESUMO As características morfológicas têm sido objeto de vários estudos em Ciências Desporto, pelo fato de o fenômeno do desporto de alta competição exigir o máximo da estrutura física dos atletas e pela expectativa da função que o atleta desempenha em jogo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo: (1 descrever e comparar, do ponto de vista somático, a estrutura morfológica de 71 atletas de voleibol do sexo feminino dos escalões de formação A e B (entre os 12 e 14 anos de idade; (2 identifi car os componentes da estrutura somática que melhor diferenciam as atletas de níveis distintos. Para a avaliação da estrutura somática das atletas foram efetuadas 21 avaliações, incluindo além do peso e altura, comprimento dos membros, perímetros, diâmetros e pregas de adiposidade subcutâneas. Com o intuito de verifi car o poder discriminatório das variáveis na

  7. Assessment of the accuracy of site-specific estimates of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wetness duration in the Northern Pacific region of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Gleason

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision de la estimacion en sitio especi- media diaria en aproximadamente 1.8°C y la tem- accuperatura minima en aproximadamente 4.4°C, prin- cipalmente por una subestimacion entre la media- noche y las 6:00 h. La duracion de perfodos de HR>90% foe subestimada en 6 h/dfa en promedio, y el error foe mayor en la noche 0 en dfas con llu- midvia. El CSI para la exactitud en la identificacion de cohoras con HR>90% foe de 0.40,10 cual excedio CSI observado en el medio oeste de los Estados Unidos (0.27. SkyBit sobrestimola duracion de humedadfoliaren 1.9 h/dia, mientrasquelasubes- timo en 1.4 h/dia en el medio oeste de los Estados Unidos. La proporcion de horas clasificadas co- rrectamente como htimedas 0 secas, 70.9%, foe ca- dusi identica a la observada en los Estados Unidos (70.1, pero el CSI para los datos de Costa Rica foe 2 veces mayor (0.56 vs. 0.27. En Costa Rica, los errores de estimacion de humedad fueron mayores durante dias con lluvia, y ocurrieron con mas fre- cuencia en el dia que durante la noche. La mayor cantidad de identificaciones incorrectas de horas secas 0 humedas se dieron entre las 8:00 y las 10:00 y entre las 15:00 y las 21:00 h. Estos resultados aportan informacion de base a partir de la cual se puede refinar la estirnacion de parametros meteorologicos en sitios especificos, para su aplicacion en la agricultura de Costa Rica. de novia, temperatura del aire, humedad hurelativa y periodo de humedad en el Pacifico Norte de Costa Rica. Se evalu61a exactitud de las meaestimaciones de variables meteorol6gicas horarias sitios especificos, calculadas por el sistema computarizado SkyBit Inc. La evaluaci6n se hizo mediante la comparaci6n con datos reales obteni- sobre el terreno en 5 sitios ubicados en la re- prigi6n del Pacifico Norte de Costa Rica, de abril a ocseptiembre de 1999. Las variables estimadas fue- lluvia, temperatura del aire, humedad relativa HR y duraci6n del periodo de humedad. El siste- SkyBit identific6

  8. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  9. Bireysel Barışa Yönelik Tutum Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışmaları / Development of a Scale Measuring Attitudes towards Individual Peace: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Kılcan

    2018-03-01

    ncesi Durum”, “Barışma İçin Etmenler”, “Küsme İçin Etmenler” ve “Barışmada Yardım” olmak üzere dört boyutta toplanmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında yapılan doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA sonuçlarına göre ölçek için oluşturulan modele uygun Ki-kare (X2 değeri ve istatistikî anlamlılık düzeyleri, önerilen modelin toplanan verilere uygun olduğunu göstermiştir. Ölçeğin geneline ve alt boyutlarına yönelik test edilen güvenirlik katsayıları, ortaokul sekizinci sınıf öğrencilerinin bireysel barışa yönelik tutumlarını ölçmede kullanılabilecek nitelikte olduğunu ortaya koymuştur.

  10. Lipid profile of lamb meat from different genotypes submitted to diets with different energy levels Perfil lipídico da carne ovina de diferentes genótipos mantidos com dietas com diferentes níveis energéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germano Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess the influence of genotype and diets with different energy levels on the lipid profile of sheep meat, 54 lambs were used (18 animals from each genotype: Morada Nova, Santa Inez and ½Dorper + ½Santa Inez crossbred, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arragement (three genotypes and two diets. The animals were submitted to two diets, 2.5 Mcal ME/kg DM and 3.0 Mcal ME/kg DM, receiving feed and water to reach the desired average live weight of 30 kg, when they were slaughtered. Total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids and fatty acids profile of the Longissimus muscle were assessed. Diet and genotype did not influence the total lipids, cholesterol and phospholipids contents. The diet with the highest energy value presented higher values for the concentration of C12:0, C14:0, C18:0, C19:0, C22:0 acids and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in relation to that with the lowest energy value. However, for the concentrations of C15:0 acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the highest values were recorded for diet with the lowest energy value. Genotype and diet influenced significantly the MUFA concentration, in which ½Dorper + ½Santa Inez crossbred genotype and diet with 2.5 Mcal ME/kg DM showed the highest values. Genotype influenced the saturated fatty acids (SFA concentration, with ½Dorper + ½Santa Inez crossbred obtaining the lowest mean, behavior similar to that observed for PUFA concentrations. Desirable fatty acids (DFA, atherogenicity index as well as PUFA:SFA, MUFA:SFA, (C18:0 + C18:1:C16:0 ratios were influenced by diet and genotype. ½Dorper + ½Santa Inez crossbred and diet with 2.5 Mcal ME/kg DM obtained the best results.Para avaliar a influência do genótipo e de dietas com diferentes níveis energéticos sobre o perfil lipídico da carne ovina, foram utilizados 54 cordeiros (18 animais de cada genótipo: Morada Nova, Santa Inês e mestiço ½Dorper + ½Santa Inês distribu

  11. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    , manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, rubidium, cadmium, tin, cesium, tungsten, barium, mercury and lead, mostly having industrial and automotive sources. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) has been used as verification to the results obtained from CA and PCA. There is some factor, which has a strong effect on some of the elements, and this factor is unidentified yet in the project. Overall, most of the elements are behaving as expected based on the earlier work of Shacklette and Connor (1973) and results from CA and PCA.

  12. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  13. Automatic Sample Changing System for Gamma-Ray Spectrometry; Changeur Automatique d'Echantillons Pourla Spectrometrie Gamma; Avtomaticheskaya sistema dlya smeny obraztsov pri gamma-spektrometrii; Cambiador Automatico de Muestras para Espectroscopia Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamson, K. C.; Sesko, W. J.; Nicholson, G. C. [Northeastern Radiological Health Laboratory, Winchester, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    intensement utilise pendant cette periode et s'est revele tout a fait satisfaisant. Son prix de revient, main-d'oeuvre comprise, est inferieur a 2000 dollars. (author) [Spanish] La deteccion en medios biologicos de radionuclidos emisores gamma de actividad poco superior a la ambiente requiere el empleo de un sistema de recuento muy sensible. Ademas, para lograr datos suficientemente precisos es necesario que el tiempo de recuento sea relativamente largo, a saber, de una a varias horas. Para utilizar con la mayor eficacia posible el equipo de recuento de espectrometria gamma de baja actividad de fondo, que es sumamente costoso, conviene hacerlo funcionar en forma continua durante 24 h al dfa. Para ello se requiere personal que lo atienda constantemente o un sistema de recuento enteramente automatico incluso para el cambio de muestras y el registro de los datos. En esta memoria se describe el sistema automatizado de recuento por espectroscopia gamma disenado, construido y utilizado en el Northeastern Radiological Health Laboratory de Winchester, Massachusetts. El cambiador de muestras funciona en conjuncion con un blindaje de acero que no necesita ser especial; cualquiera de los comerciales, si esta provisto de una puerta frontal, puede ser adaptado al cambiador. Dicho cambiador puede adaptarse a diversos tipos de muestras, incluidas las biologicas y medicas. Consta de una bandeja giratoria con capacidad para 16 muestras; un sistema localizador para las muestras; un brazo mecanico, con electroiman, para introducir o retirar las muestras desde el exterior, y una palanca para abrir y cerrar la puerta blindada. El cambiador se ha integrado completamente con un analizador multicanal provisto de dispositivos de seguridad que interrumpen el ciclo cuando se produce una averfa en cualquier punto. Despues de un periodo de recuento predeterminado, los datos pasan a una calculadora IBM 1620 transcritos en cinta de papel perforada. El primer modelo de cambiador de muestras, para el cual se

  14. Development of Radiation-Sterilized Sea Food Products. I. Enzyme-Inactivated Cod and Halibut Patties; Essais de Radiosterilisation des Produits Alimentaires d'Origine Marine. I. Pates de Morue et de Fletan a Enzymes Inactives; Primenenie izlucheniya dlya sterilizatsii morskikh pishchevykh produktov; Preparacion de Alimentos de Origen Marino Esterilizados por Irradiacion. I. Pastelillos de Bacalao y de Hipogloso con Enzimas Inactivadas