WorldWideScience

Sample records for devnagari character recognition

  1. Development of Comprehensive Devnagari Numeral and Character Database for Offline Handwritten Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas J. Dongre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In handwritten character recognition, benchmark database plays an important role in evaluating the performance of various algorithms and the results obtained by various researchers. In Devnagari script, there is lack of such official benchmark. This paper focuses on the generation of offline benchmark database for Devnagari handwritten numerals and characters. The present work generated 5137 and 20305 isolated samples for numeral and character database, respectively, from 750 writers of all ages, sex, education, and profession. The offline sample images are stored in TIFF image format as it occupies less memory. Also, the data is presented in binary level so that memory requirement is further reduced. It will facilitate research on handwriting recognition of Devnagari script through free access to the researchers.

  2. Devnagari numeral recognition by combining decision of multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Generic techniques cannot, in general, tackle problems associated with script specific peculiarities. In this paper, we present a neural network–based architecture for recognition of handwritten numerals. Although the architecture is generic, it has been found to be useful for recognition of hand- written Devnagari numerals.

  3. Devnagari numeral recognition by combining decision of multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From a thinned image of a numeral, junctions and individual segments are extracted and appropriately represented for the recognition task. These segments can be characterised by their lengths, average directivity, average directivity strength and the average directivity change. Though the length of individual segment can ...

  4. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  5. Kannada character recognition system using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh D. S.; Kamalapuram, Srinivasa K.; Kumar, Ajay B. R.

    2013-03-01

    Handwriting recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of pattern recognition. It has numerous applications which include, reading aid for blind, bank cheques and conversion of any hand written document into structural text form. As there is no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 15 major scripts in India. In this paper an attempt is made to recognize handwritten Kannada characters using Feed Forward neural networks. A handwritten Kannada character is resized into 20x30 Pixel. The resized character is used for training the neural network. Once the training process is completed the same character is given as input to the neural network with different set of neurons in hidden layer and their recognition accuracy rate for different Kannada characters has been calculated and compared. The results show that the proposed system yields good recognition accuracy rates comparable to that of other handwritten character recognition systems.

  6. Distortion Analysis Of Tamil Language Characters Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gowri N.; R. Bhaskaran

    2011-01-01

    This research work demonstrates how character recognition can be done with a back propagation network and shows how to implement this using the MATLAB Neural Network toolbox. This is a slightly enhanced version of the character recognition application based on the MATLAB Neural Network toolbox. In this research article we are focusing on the distortion analysis of Tamil Language Characters in order to recognize them effectively using the neural network we have developed. We have used the comm...

  7. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  8. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  9. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  10. Online Farsi Character Recognition Using Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghods

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, grouping and recognition of online Farsi discrete characters are presented according to their structural features. The letters are divided into 9 groups based on the form and structure of their main bodies. After feature extraction, grouping is performed using a decision tree. Final recognition of letters is carried out in each group by delayed strokes. The proposed method is a rapid method in character recognition because time-consuming methods have not been used. Our proposed method was tested on TMU-OFS dataset, and a recognition rate of 94% and 92% was achieved for character grouping and recognition, respectively. The mean processing time for recognizing a letter was 3ms.

  11. Handwritten Sindhi Character Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Ahmed Awan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OCR (OpticalCharacter Recognition is a technology in which text image is used to understand and write text by machines. The work on languages containing isolated characters such as German, English, French and others is at its peak. The OCR and ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition research in Sindhi script is currently at in starting stages and not sufficient work have been cited in this area even though Sindhi language is rich in culture and history. This paper presents one of the initial steps in recognizing Sindhi handwritten characters. The isolated characters of Sindhi script written by thesubjects have been recognized. The various subjects were asked to write Sindhi characters in unconstrained form and then the written samples were collected and scanned through a flatbed scanner. The scanned documents were preprocessedwith the help of binary conversion, removing noise by pepper noise and the lines were segmented with the help of horizontal profile technique. The segmented lines were used to extract characters from scanned pages.This character segmentation was done by vertical projection. The extracted characters have been used to extract features so that the characters can be classified easily. Zoning was used for the feature extraction technique. For the classification, neural network has been used. The recognized characters converted into editable text with an average accuracy of 85%.

  12. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...

  13. Guideline for Optical Character Recognition Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides materials relating to the design, preparation, acquisition, inspection, and application of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) forms in data entry systems. Since the materials are advisory and tutorial in nature, this publication has been issued as a guideline rather than as a standard in the Federal Information…

  14. Post processing for offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong

    2012-01-01

    Offline Chinese handwritten character string recognition is one of the most important research fields in pattern recognition. Due to the free writing style, large variability in character shapes and different geometric characteristics, Chinese handwritten character string recognition is a challenging problem to deal with. However, among the current methods over-segmentation and merging method which integrates geometric information, character recognition information and contextual information, shows a promising result. It is found experimentally that a large part of errors are segmentation error and mainly occur around non-Chinese characters. In a Chinese character string, there are not only wide characters namely Chinese characters, but also narrow characters like digits and letters of the alphabet. The segmentation error is mainly caused by uniform geometric model imposed on all segmented candidate characters. To solve this problem, post processing is employed to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters. On one hand, multi-geometric models are established for wide characters and narrow characters respectively. Under multi-geometric models narrow characters are not prone to be merged. On the other hand, top rank recognition results of candidate paths are integrated to boost final recognition of narrow characters. The post processing method is investigated on two datasets, in total 1405 handwritten address strings. The wide character recognition accuracy has been improved lightly and narrow character recognition accuracy has been increased up by 10.41% and 10.03% respectively. It indicates that the post processing method is effective to improve recognition accuracy of narrow characters.

  15. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written

  16. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokana, Denis

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author) [fr

  17. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing aspect ratio, position of centroid and ratio of pixels on the vertical halves of a character image. The recognition accuracy of 99.78% was achieved with minimum computational and storage requirement. Keywords. Gradient; RLC; handwritten character recognition; quadratic classi- fiers; MLP. 1. Introduction. Recognition ...

  18. Convolutional Neural Networks for Handwritten Javanese Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dewa, Chandra Kusuma; Fadhilah, Amanda Lailatul; Afiahayati, A

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional neural network (CNN) is state-of-the-art method in object recognition task. Specialized for spatial input data type, CNN has special convolutional and pooling layers which enable hierarchical feature learning from the input space. For offline handwritten character recognition problem such as classifying character in MNIST database, CNN shows better classification result than any other methods. By leveraging the advantages of CNN over character recognition task, in this paper we ...

  19. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  20. Character-based Recognition of Simple Word Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Insap Santosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available People with normal senses use spoken language to communicate with others. This method cannot be used by those with hearing and speech impaired. These two groups of people will have difficulty when they try to communicate to each other using their own language. Sign language is not easy to learn, as there are various sign languages, and not many tutors are available. This research focused on a simple word recognition gesture based on characters that form a word to be recognized. The method used for character recognition was the nearest neighbour method. This method identified different fingers using the different markers attached to each finger. Testing a simple word gesture recognition is done by providing a series of characters that make up the intended simple word. The accuracy of a simple word gesture recognition depended upon the accuracy of recognition of each character.

  1. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset ca...

  2. Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Handwriting recognition is a technique that converts handwritten characters into a machine-processable format. Handwritten characters can either be presented to machine online or offline. A good amount of research in this area has been carried out for English, Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. Research is also ...

  3. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character

    OpenAIRE

    El Kessab, B.; Daoui, C.; Bouikhalene, B.; Salouan, R.

    2015-01-01

    The territorial organization of Morocco during administratives division of 2009 is based on 16 regions. In this work we will create a system of recognition of handwritten words (names of regions) using the Amazigh language is an official language by the Moroccan Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture (IRCAM) (2003a) [1] such as this language is slightly treated by researchers in pattern recognition field that is why we decided to study this language (El Kessab et al., 2013 [3]; El Kessab et al., ...

  4. Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karun Verma

    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala 47004, India e-mail: karun.verma@thapar.edu; rksharma@thapar.edu .... classification of characters using decision trees. Pechwitz and Mдrgner [15] proposed a baseline ...... recognition using set theory. Int. J. Pattern Recognit. Artif. Intell. 27(4): ...

  5. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  6. Recognition of handprinted characters in Italian cadastral maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Buono, Monica; Boatto, L.; Consorti, Vincenzo; Eramo, Vincenzo; Esposito, Alessandra; Melcarne, F.; Tucci, M.

    1993-04-01

    Automatic understanding of line drawings is a fundamental task in order to feed a Geographic Information System. Furthermore, the amount of alphanumeric data in engineering drawings and maps makes it necessary to automatically process characters and to provide efficient interactive tools for recognition validation. In this paper, we present the character recognition subsystem implemented within a larger system for the automatic interpretation of Italian cadastral maps (A0 format monochrome drawings representing land properties by means of continuous lines, dashed lines, shading patterns, characters, and special symbols). The system relies upon quite general methodologies, and experiments are now in progress on different kinds of line drawings. The character recognition subsystem consists of a sequence of steps -- from the detection of characters within the raster image to the reconstruction of text strings by grouping single characters, from character recognition to the placement of recognized texts in the vector image. Fully automatic steps are followed by interactive sessions, during which an operator checks and corrects the results provided by the system. The system is currently running on two different platforms: (1) S/370 or S/390 architecture running VM/CMS, equipped with IBM 5080 graphic stations, (2) IBM RS/6000 workstation running AIX.

  7. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kessab, B; Daoui, C; Bouikhalene, B; Salouan, R

    2015-09-01

    The territorial organization of Morocco during administratives division of 2009 is based on 16 regions. In this work we will create a system of recognition of handwritten words (names of regions) using the Amazigh language is an official language by the Moroccan Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture (IRCAM) (2003a) [1] such as this language is slightly treated by researchers in pattern recognition field that is why we decided to study this language (El Kessab et al., 2013 [3]; El Kessab et al., 2014 [4]) that knowing the state make a decision to computerize the various public sectors by this language. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region). The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand.

  8. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  9. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. El Kessab

    2015-09-01

    In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region. The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand.

  10. Recognition of Tifinagh Characters with Missing Parts Using Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    El Mahdi Barrah; Said Safi; Abdessamad Malaoui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for reconstruction from incomplete 2D scans for tifinagh characters. This algorithm is based on using correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. This system proposed contains three main parts: pre-processing, features extraction and recognition. In the first step, we construct a database of tifinagh characters. In the second step, we will apply “shape analysis algorithm”. In classification part, we will use Neural Network. The simulation resul...

  11. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments

  12. AN OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968

    RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE LIBRARY SYSTEMS WHICH UTILIZE OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION INPUT HAS CENTERED AROUND OPTICAL PAGE READERS AND DOCUMENT READERS. THE STATE-OF-THE-ART OF BOTH THESE OPTICAL SCANNERS IS SUCH THAT BOTH ARE ACCEPTABLE FOR LIBRARY INPUT PREPARATION. A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT UTILIZING THE TWO TYPES OF READERS, SINCE…

  13. Teach Your Computer to Read: Scanners and Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Desktop scanners can be used with a software technology called optical character recognition (OCR) to convert the text on virtually any paper document into an electronic form. OCR offers educators new flexibility in incorporating text into tests, lesson plans, and other materials. (MLF)

  14. Optical character recognition reading aid for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Juan Carlos; Cremaschi, Fabian; Lombardo, Elva; Vitu, Ed; Dujovny, Manuel

    2008-06-01

    An optical character recognition (OCR) reading machine is a significant help for visually impaired patients. An OCR reading machine is used. This instrument can provide a significant help in order to improve the quality of life of patients with low vision or blindness.

  15. Recognition of online handwritten Gurmukhi characters based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karun Verma

    cessable format. Handwritten characters can either be presented to machine online or offline. A good amount of ... three zones. A zone identification algorithm is proposed and tested in this text for online handwriting recognition of Gurmukhi script. ..... dictionaries for extra phonetic information. Table 2(d) rep- resents numeral ...

  16. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  17. Recognition of handwritten characters using local gradient feature descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Karaaba, Mahir F.; Schomaker, Lambert R.B.; Wiering, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we propose to use local gradient feature descriptors, namely the scale invariant feature transform keypoint descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients, for handwritten character recognition. The local gradient feature descriptors are used to extract feature vectors

  18. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on optical character recognition (OCR) for Roman, Chinese, and Japanese scripts. A lot of work has been also reported on OCR efforts for various Indian scripts, like Devanagari, Bangla, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, etc.

  19. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In this paper, we propose a novel hand written character recognition systemusing a combination of gradient-based features and run length count (GBF–RLC). The performance of the proposed method has been tested on Malayalam script, a South Indian language. The gradient of image is the intensity at ...

  20. Dreaming and waking consciousness: a character recognition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, D; Stickgold, R; Pace-Schott, E F; Hobson, J A

    2000-12-01

    The formal features of dream characters were studied in a sample of 320 dream reports submitted by 33 adult subjects (13 male, 20 female) of varying ages in a university extension course. Subjects were queried by questionnaire about dream characters immediately after recording their dreams upon awakening in their normal home setting. It was found that 48% of characters represented a named personage known to the dreamer, 35% were generically identified by their social role (e.g., policeman) or abstract relation to the dreamer (e.g., a friend) while only 16% were wholly novel. Seventy-seven percent of characters were pseudosensorily present in the dream whereas 23% were present only by mention or thought. Subjects were allowed to endorse one or more of four bases of recognition and, among named characters, 32% were identified by 'appearance', 21% by 'behavior', 45% by 'face', and 44% by 'just knowing' (with the respective percentages for generic characters being 39%, 38%, 9% and 40%). Fourteen percent of named and generic characters had associated some element of bizarreness most frequently consisting of an incongruous feature. Comparing the 25 longest and 25 shortest reports, named subjects were significantly more common in the shortest reports whereas generic and unknown characters were more common in the longest reports. Results are interpreted in neurocognitive terms as possibly reflecting a decrease during dreaming relative to waking in the exchange of information between inferotemporal face identification areas and prefrontal areas subserving logic and working memory.

  1. Tifinagh Character Recognition Using Geodesic Distances, Decision Trees & Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    O.BENCHAREF; M.FAKIR; B. MINAOUI; B.BOUIKHALENE

    2011-01-01

    The recognition of Tifinagh characters cannot be perfectly carried out using the conventional methods which are based on the invariance, this is due to the similarity that exists between some characters which differ from each other only by size or rotation, hence the need to come up with new methods to remedy this shortage. In this paper we propose a direct method based on the calculation of what is called Geodesic Descriptors which have shown significant reliability vis-à-vis the change of s...

  2. Recognition of Handwritten Character by Fuzzy Neighbor Mesh Feature

    OpenAIRE

    "王,暁文/橋本,禮治"; "/ハシモト, レイジ"; "Wang,Xiaowen/Hashimoto,Reiji"

    1993-01-01

    "The fuzzy mesh feature (FM-feature) which is proposed in our previous work has been proved that it can absorb some handwriting variation. But the recognition rate got there is still not sufficient, one reason of which may be that this feature includes limited structural information about the character. In this work, we consider a modified fuzzy feature of mesh pattern (FNM-feature) by utilizing the neighbor meshes. And by the experiment about that, we have got the result that FNM-feature imp...

  3. Automated Degradation Diagnosis in Character Recognition System Subject to Camera Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation diagnosis plays an important role for degraded character processing, which can tell the recognition difficulty of a given degraded character. In this paper, we present a framework for automated degraded character recognition system by statistical syntactic approach using 3D primitive symbol, which is integrated by degradation diagnosis to provide accurate and reliable recognition results. Our contribution is to design the framework to build the character recognition submodels corresponding to degradation subject to camera vibration or out of focus. In each character recognition submodel, statistical syntactic approach using 3D primitive symbol is proposed to improve degraded character recognition performance. In the experiments, we show attractive experimental results, highlighting the system efficiency and recognition performance by statistical syntactic approach using 3D primitive symbol on the degraded character dataset.

  4. Latin Letters Recognition Using Optical Character Recognition to Convert Printed Media Into Digital Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Anugrah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Printed media is still popular now days society. Unfortunately, such media encountered several drawbacks. For example, this type of media consumes large storage that impact in high maintenance cost. To keep printed information more efficient and long-lasting, people usually convert it into digital format. In this paper, we built Optical Character Recognition (OCR system to enable automatic conversion the image containing the sentence in Latin characters into digital text-shaped information. This system consists of several interrelated stages including preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, classifier, model and recognition. In preprocessing, the median filter is used to clarify the image from noise and the Otsu’s function is used to binarize the image. It followed by character segmentation using connected component labeling. Artificial neural network (ANN is used for feature extraction to recognize the character. The result shows that this system enable to recognize the characters in the image whose success rate is influenced by the training of the system.

  5. Study on Feature Extraction Methods for Character Recognition of Balinese Script on Palm Leaf Manuscript Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kesiman, Made Windu Antara; Prum, Sophea; Burie, Jean-Christophe; Ogier, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The complexity of Balinese script and the poor quality of palm leaf manuscripts provide a new challenge for testing and evaluation of robustness of feature extraction methods for character recognition. With the aim of finding the combination of feature extraction methods for character recognition of Balinese script, we present, in this paper, our experimental study on feature extraction methods for character recognition on palm leaf manuscripts. We investigated and eva...

  6. A comparison study between MLP and convolutional neural network models for character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Driss, S.; Soua, M.; Kachouri, R.; Akil, M.

    2017-05-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems have been designed to operate on text contained in scanned documents and images. They include text detection and character recognition in which characters are described then classified. In the classification step, characters are identified according to their features or template descriptions. Then, a given classifier is employed to identify characters. In this context, we have proposed the unified character descriptor (UCD) to represent characters based on their features. Then, matching was employed to ensure the classification. This recognition scheme performs a good OCR Accuracy on homogeneous scanned documents, however it cannot discriminate characters with high font variation and distortion.3 To improve recognition, classifiers based on neural networks can be used. The multilayer perceptron (MLP) ensures high recognition accuracy when performing a robust training. Moreover, the convolutional neural network (CNN), is gaining nowadays a lot of popularity for its high performance. Furthermore, both CNN and MLP may suffer from the large amount of computation in the training phase. In this paper, we establish a comparison between MLP and CNN. We provide MLP with the UCD descriptor and the appropriate network configuration. For CNN, we employ the convolutional network designed for handwritten and machine-printed character recognition (Lenet-5) and we adapt it to support 62 classes, including both digits and characters. In addition, GPU parallelization is studied to speed up both of MLP and CNN classifiers. Based on our experimentations, we demonstrate that the used real-time CNN is 2x more relevant than MLP when classifying characters.

  7. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  8. Using K-Nearest Neighbor in Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth in computer vision technology has aided society with various kinds of tasks. One of these tasks is the ability of recognizing text contained in an image, or usually referred to as Optical Character Recognition (OCR. There are many kinds of algorithms that can be implemented into an OCR. The K-Nearest Neighbor is one such algorithm. This research aims to find out the process behind the OCR mechanism by using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm; one of the most influential machine learning algorithms. It also aims to find out how precise the algorithm is in an OCR program. To do that, a simple OCR program to classify alphabets of capital letters is made to produce and compare real results. The result of this research yielded a maximum of 76.9% accuracy with 200 training samples per alphabet. A set of reasons are also given as to why the program is able to reach said level of accuracy.

  9. A character recognition scheme based on object oriented design for Tibetan buddhist texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a plausible method to code and compile Buddhist texts from original Tibetan scripts into Romanized form. Using GUI (Graphical User Interface based on Object Oriented Design, a dictionary of Tibetan characters can be easily made for Buddhist literature researchers. It is hoped that a computer system capable of highly accurate character recognition will be actively used by all scholars engaged in Buddhist literature research. In the present study, an efficient automatic recognition method for Tibetan characters is established. The result of the experiments performed is that the recognition rate achieved is 99.4% for 28,954 characters.

  10. The nuclear fuel rod character recognition system based on neural network technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong-Ki; Park, Soon-Yong; Lee, Yong-Bum; Kim, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jong-Min; Chien, Sung-Il.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear fuel rods should be discriminated and managed systematically by numeric characters which are printed at the end part of each rod in the process of producing fuel assembly. The characters are used to examine manufacturing process of the fuel rods in the inspection process of irradiated fuel rod. Therefore automatic character recognition is one of the most important technologies to establish automatic manufacturing process of fuel assembly. In the developed character recognition system, mesh feature set extracted from each character written in the fuel rod is employed to train a neural network based on back-propagation algorithm as a classifier for character recognition system. Performance evaluation has been achieved on a test set which is not included in a training character set. (author)

  11. The influence of background music on recognition processes of Chinese characters: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baolin; Huang, Yizhou; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, we employed RSS (rapid stream stimulation) paradigm to study the recognition processes of Chinese characters in background music. Real Chinese characters (upright or rotated) were used as target stimuli, while pseudo-words were used as background stimuli. Subjects were required to detect real characters while listening to Mozart's Sonata K. 448 and in silence. Both behavioral results and ERP results supported that Mozart's music mainly served as a distracter in the recognition processes of real Chinese characters in the experiment. The modulation of Mozart's music on RP (recognition potential) was different across different orientations of Chinese characters; in particular, the modulation of RP elicited by upright Chinese characters was more significant, suggesting that the music factor and orientation factor interact to affect the RP component. In brief, the simultaneous playing of Mozart's music did not improve subjects' performance in the detection of real Chinese characters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Allograph based writer identification, handwriting analysis and character recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niels, R.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, techniques and features are described that were developed for the automatic comparison of handwritten characters by first matching them to prototypical character shapes (allographs). These techniques and features were evaluated in experiments simulating different real-world

  13. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have defined fuzzy sets on the Hough transform of character pattern pixels from which additional fuzzy sets are ...... tion permits the definition of automata representations and algorithms over a broad class of weight sets .... Bangla characters, In: Joint Workshop on Multilingual OCR and Analytics for Noisy Unstructured Text.

  14. Experimental Recognition of Loading Character of Transtibial Prosthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paloušek, D.; Návrat, Tomáš; Rosický, J.; Krejčí, Petr; Houfek, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2008), s. 355-364 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : transtibial prosthesis * strain gauge * loading character of prosthesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  15. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  16. A modular neural network classifier for the recognition of occluded characters in automatic license plate reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, JAG; Broersma, A; Spaanenburg, L; Ruan, D; Dhondt, P; Kerre, EE

    2002-01-01

    Occlusion is the most common reason for lowered recognition yield in free-flow license-plate reading systems. (Non-)occluded characters can readily be learned in separate neural networks but not together. Even a small proportion of occluded characters in the training set will already significantly

  17. CHARACTER RECOGNITION BY MATCHING SEQUENCES OF PSEUDO­STROKE POSITIONS AND DIRECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, H.; Givindaraju, V.

    2004-01-01

    Chain­coded contours are informative in off­line character recognition. As approximations to contours, sequences of pseudo­strokes consisting of both positional and directional information make up feature vectors for character images. In order to carry out fast pattern matching, a scheme of

  18. Common constraints limit Korean and English character recognition in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Kwon, MiYoung; Legge, Gordon E

    2018-01-01

    The visual span refers to the number of adjacent characters that can be recognized in a single glance. It is viewed as a sensory bottleneck in reading for both normal and clinical populations. In peripheral vision, the visual span for English characters can be enlarged after training with a letter-recognition task. Here, we examined the transfer of training from Korean to English characters for a group of bilingual Korean native speakers. In the pre- and posttests, we measured visual spans for Korean characters and English letters. Training (1.5 hours × 4 days) consisted of repetitive visual-span measurements for Korean trigrams (strings of three characters). Our training enlarged the visual spans for Korean single characters and trigrams, and the benefit transferred to untrained English symbols. The improvement was largely due to a reduction of within-character and between-character crowding in Korean recognition, as well as between-letter crowding in English recognition. We also found a negative correlation between the size of the visual span and the average pattern complexity of the symbol set. Together, our results showed that the visual span is limited by common sensory (crowding) and physical (pattern complexity) factors regardless of the language script, providing evidence that the visual span reflects a universal bottleneck for text recognition.

  19. Multi-script handwritten character recognition : Using feature descriptors and machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik

    2016-01-01

    Handwritten character recognition plays an important role in transforming raw visual image data obtained from handwritten documents using for example scanners to a format which is understandable by a computer. It is an important application in the field of pattern recognition, machine learning and

  20. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Information Technology, Kannur University, Kannur 670 567, India. 2School of Computer ... (PC), Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The gradient .... In Malayalam language, characters of the alphabet are rich in shape and they are subjected to many variations in terms ...

  1. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    houses do not always follow these new standards, as common people are still more comfort- able with the old style of writing of ..... centroid. Pal et al (2009) have used histogram of directional chain code of the contour pixels of the character image to recognize handwritten Bangla words. The classification is done by a mod-.

  2. A simple and efficient optical character recognition system for basic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Segmentation of characters from the document image is discussed in § 7. The method of feature extraction is presented in § 8. The architecture of RBF neural networks used as classifiers is presented in § 9. Experimental results and conclusions are discussed in. § 10 and 11. 2. Literature survey. Some of the schemes that ...

  3. Allograph Based Writer Adaptation for Handwritten Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chellapilla, Kumar; Simard, Patrice; Abdulkader, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; Writer adaptation is the process of converting a generic (writer-independent) handwriting recognizer into a personalized (writer-dependent) recognizer with improved accuracy for a particular user. While training the generic recognizer uses large amounts of data from several writers, the adaptation process uses only a few samples from a single user. In this paper we present a) an automatic approach for identifying allographs (character shapes/styles) from handwritten c...

  4. A simple and efficient optical character recognition system for basic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using Principal component analysis and later classified by Support Vector Machine. 3. Kannada script. Kannada is one of the four popular Dravidian languages of South India. ..... Hu M-K 1962 Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. Inf. Theory. IT-8: 179–187. Jawahar C V, Pavan Kumar, Ravi Kiran S S ...

  5. Russian Character Recognition using Self-Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, D.; Arisandi, D.; Ginting, F. M.; Rahmat, R. F.; Amalia, A.

    2017-01-01

    The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in 2014 released that there are 28 million visitors who visit Russia. Most of the visitors might have problem in typing Russian word when using digital dictionary. This is caused by the letters, called Cyrillic that used by the Russian and the countries around it, have different shape than Latin letters. The visitors might not familiar with Cyrillic. This research proposes an alternative way to input the Cyrillic words. Instead of typing the Cyrillic words directly, camera can be used to capture image of the words as input. The captured image is cropped, then several pre-processing steps are applied such as noise filtering, binary image processing, segmentation and thinning. Next, the feature extraction process is applied to the image. Cyrillic letters recognition in the image is done by utilizing Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm. SOM successfully recognizes 89.09% Cyrillic letters from the computer-generated images. On the other hand, SOM successfully recognizes 88.89% Cyrillic letters from the image captured by the smartphone’s camera. For the word recognition, SOM successfully recognized 292 words and partially recognized 58 words from the image captured by the smartphone’s camera. Therefore, the accuracy of the word recognition using SOM is 83.42%

  6. Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    1992-01-01

    Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

  7. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  8. A word language model based contextual language processing on Chinese character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Ding, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The language model design and implementation issue is researched in this paper. Different from previous research, we want to emphasize the importance of n-gram models based on words in the study of language model. We build up a word based language model using the toolkit of SRILM and implement it for contextual language processing on Chinese documents. A modified Absolute Discount smoothing algorithm is proposed to reduce the perplexity of the language model. The word based language model improves the performance of post-processing of online handwritten character recognition system compared with the character based language model, but it also increases computation and storage cost greatly. Besides quantizing the model data non-uniformly, we design a new tree storage structure to compress the model size, which leads to an increase in searching efficiency as well. We illustrate the set of approaches on a test corpus of recognition results of online handwritten Chinese characters, and propose a modified confidence measure for recognition candidate characters to get their accurate posterior probabilities while reducing the complexity. The weighted combination of linguistic knowledge and candidate confidence information proves successful in this paper and can be further developed to achieve improvements in recognition accuracy.

  9. Semi-Supervised Methods for Handwritten Character Recognition using Active Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefakis, L.; Wiering, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of supervised machine learning methods such as classiffers pretrained using restricted Boltzmann machines and convolutional networks that work very well for handwritten character recognition. However, they require a large amount of labeled training data to achieve good

  10. Optical character recognition of camera-captured images based on phase features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays most of digital information is obtained using mobile devices specially smartphones. In particular, it brings the opportunity for optical character recognition in camera-captured images. For this reason many recognition applications have been recently developed such as recognition of license plates, business cards, receipts and street signal; document classification, augmented reality, language translator and so on. Camera-captured images are usually affected by geometric distortions, nonuniform illumination, shadow, noise, which make difficult the recognition task with existing systems. It is well known that the Fourier phase contains a lot of important information regardless of the Fourier magnitude. So, in this work we propose a phase-based recognition system exploiting phase-congruency features for illumination/scale invariance. The performance of the proposed system is tested in terms of miss classifications and false alarms with the help of computer simulation.

  11. Handwritten Character Recognition Based on the Specificity and the Singularity of the Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Boulid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A good Arabic handwritten recognition system must consider the characteristics of Arabic letters which can be explicit such as the presence of diacritics or implicit such as the baseline information (a virtual line on which cursive text are aligned and/join. In order to find an adequate method of features extraction, we have taken into consideration the nature of the Arabic characters. The paper investigate two methods based on two different visions: one describes the image in terms of the distribution of pixels, and the other describes it in terms of local patterns. Spatial Distribution of Pixels (SDP is used according to the first vision; whereas Local Binary Patterns (LBP are used for the second one. Tested on the Arabic portion of the Isolated Farsi Handwritten Character Database (IFHCDB and using neural networks as a classifier, SDP achieve a recognition rate around 94% while LBP achieve a recognition rate of about 96%.

  12. A comparative study of local descriptors for Arabic character recognition on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Maroua; Moalla, Ikram; Alimi, Adel M.; Lebourgeois, Franck

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, the number of mobile applications based on image registration and recognition is increasing. Most interesting applications include mobile translator which can read text characters in the real world and translates it into the native language instantaneously. In this context, we aim to recognize characters in natural scenes by computing significant points so called key points or features/interest points in the image. So, it will be important to compare and evaluate features descriptors in terms of matching accuracy and processing time in a particular context of natural scene images. In this paper, we were interested on comparing the efficiency of the binary features as alternatives to the traditional SIFT and SURF in matching Arabic characters descended from natural scenes. We demonstrate that the binary descriptor ORB yields not only to similar results in terms of matching characters performance that the famous SIFT but also to faster computation suitable for mobile applications.

  13. The role of lexical variables in the visual recognition of Chinese characters: A megastudy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yap, Melvin J; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Logographic Chinese orthography partially represents both phonology and semantics. By capturing the online processing of a large pool of Chinese characters, we were able to examine the relative salience of specific lexical variables when this nonalphabetic script is read. Using a sample of native mainland Chinese speakers (N = 35), lexical decision latencies for 1560 single characters were collated into a database, before the effects of a comprehensive range of variables were explored. Hierarchical regression analyses determined the unique item-level variance explained by orthographic (frequency, stroke count), semantic (age of learning, imageability, number of meanings), and phonological (consistency, phonological frequency) factors. Orthographic and semantic variables, respectively, accounted for more collective variance than the phonological variables. Significant main effects were further observed for the individual orthographic and semantic predictors. These results are consistent with the idea that skilled readers tend to rely on orthographic and semantic information when processing visually presented characters. This megastudy approach marks an important extension to existing work on Chinese character recognition, which hitherto has relied on factorial designs. Collectively, the findings reported here represent a useful set of empirical constraints for future computational models of character recognition.

  14. Development of an optical character recognition pipeline for handwritten form fields from an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Peissig, Peggy L; McCarty, Catherine A; Starren, Justin

    2012-06-01

    Although the penetration of electronic health records is increasing rapidly, much of the historical medical record is only available in handwritten notes and forms, which require labor-intensive, human chart abstraction for some clinical research. The few previous studies on automated extraction of data from these handwritten notes have focused on monolithic, custom-developed recognition systems or third-party systems that require proprietary forms. We present an optical character recognition processing pipeline, which leverages the capabilities of existing third-party optical character recognition engines, and provides the flexibility offered by a modular custom-developed system. The system was configured and run on a selected set of form fields extracted from a corpus of handwritten ophthalmology forms. The processing pipeline allowed multiple configurations to be run, with the optimal configuration consisting of the Nuance and LEADTOOLS engines running in parallel with a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a sensitivity of 13.5%. While limitations exist, preliminary experience from this project yielded insights on the generalizability and applicability of integrating multiple, inexpensive general-purpose third-party optical character recognition engines in a modular pipeline.

  15. P2-36: Spatial Frequency Characteristics of Chinese Character Recognition in Different Complexity Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    On-Ting Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human visual system is able to recognize objects in large complexity variation. Despite such capability, little is known about the effects of complexity on object recognition. Here we studied the spatial frequency (SF characteristics in identifying Chinese characters (CCs of different complexity levels. Method: Stimuli were 150 frequently used CCs categorized into 3 complexity groups. Each character was digitally band-passed by 11 cosine log filters (bandwidth = 2 octaves, center frequency = 1.27 to 12.8 cycles/character in 0.1 log step. We measured contrast sensitivity for recognizing CCs of sizes 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. Peak SF (cycles/deg and bandwidth (octaves were plotted against character size in nominal character frequency (cycles/deg. A CSF ideal observer model (Chung et al., 2002 Vision Research 42 2137–2152 was formulated to examine whether early CSF filtering followed by template matching could explain human performance. Results: Log-log slopes of peak SF vs. size functions were 0.60±0.04 (M±SD, 0.67±0.02, and 0.72±0.05 for the low, medium, and high complexity groups. Bandwidth of the tuning functions was approximately 2 octaves for all complexity groups. Preliminary results from the CSF ideal observer analysis showed shallower slopes for the peak SF vs. size functions, but a similar trend for the bandwidth data compared with human performance. Conclusions: Peak SF of the tuning function did not scale perfectly with character size (log-log slopes < 1. The SF characteristics of CC recognition exhibited size-dependence, which differed across complexity groups. The ideal observer model utilizing human CSF and character-identity information failed to explain our data.

  16. A method of neighbor classes based SVM classification for optical printed Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xiaohong; Yu, Yanmei; Luo, Daisheng

    2013-01-01

    In optical printed Chinese character recognition (OPCCR), many classifiers have been proposed for the recognition. Among the classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) might be the best classifier. However, SVM is a classifier for two classes. When it is used for multi-classes in OPCCR, its computation is time-consuming. Thus, we propose a neighbor classes based SVM (NC-SVM) to reduce the computation consumption of SVM. Experiments of NC-SVM classification for OPCCR have been done. The results of the experiments have shown that the NC-SVM we proposed can effectively reduce the computation time in OPCCR.

  17. A method of neighbor classes based SVM classification for optical printed Chinese character recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available In optical printed Chinese character recognition (OPCCR, many classifiers have been proposed for the recognition. Among the classifiers, support vector machine (SVM might be the best classifier. However, SVM is a classifier for two classes. When it is used for multi-classes in OPCCR, its computation is time-consuming. Thus, we propose a neighbor classes based SVM (NC-SVM to reduce the computation consumption of SVM. Experiments of NC-SVM classification for OPCCR have been done. The results of the experiments have shown that the NC-SVM we proposed can effectively reduce the computation time in OPCCR.

  18. Recognition characters and new records of two species of Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de P. Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Phylloscyrtini occurs from eastern United States to Argentina and includes 21 valid species. It is a highly neglected group of crickets and little is known about its biology and distribution. Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 and Phylloscyrtus amoenus (Burmeister, 1880 were recorded for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and information on calling song, stridulatory file and recognition characters were provided.

  19. Lexical activation during the recognition of Chinese characters: evidence against early phonological activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H C; Shu, H

    2001-09-01

    In two primed-naming experiments involving Chinese character recognition, one with native Mandarin-speaking subjects and another with native Cantonese-speaking subjects, we varied both the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and the prime-target similarity along various lexical dimensions. Across both experiments, the results were as follows: (1) Relatively strong and reliable semantic priming appeared very early across various SOAs, and its onset was not affected by meaning precision, (2) either homophonic priming had negligible effects on target naming or the effects appeared relatively late (only at 57 msec), and (3) graphic inhibition was found across different SOAs. Since the same set of stimuli and procedure were adopted as those in the study of Perfetti and Tan (1998), the present findings raise questions about the reliability and validity of the results from their study that have been used to support the notion that phonology is a constitutive element of character recognition and precedes meaning access in the identification process. Instead, the present results suggest that phonology is optional for accessing meaning in Chinese character recognition among skilled adult readers.

  20. Optimizing Chinese character displays improves recognition and reading performance of simulated irregular phosphene maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanyu; Kan, Han; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jing; Tao, Chen; Chen, Yao; Ren, Qiushi; Hu, Jie; Chai, Xinyu

    2013-04-26

    A visual prosthesis may elicit an irregular phosphene map relative to a regular electrode array. This study used simulated irregular phosphene maps as a way of optimizing the display methods of Chinese characters (CCs) to improve recognition and reading performance. TWENTY SUBJECTS WITH NORMAL OR CORRECTED SIGHT PARTICIPATED IN TWO EXPERIMENTS (9 FEMALES, 11 MALES, 2030 YEARS OF AGE). EXPERIMENT 1: two character display methods were proposed: selecting phosphenes covered by character strokes on a simulated phosphene array (projection method) and finding the phosphene closest to the expected location in some range of an irregular phosphene array as a substitute (nearest neighbor search [NNS] method). The recognition accuracy of CCs was investigated using six levels for the coverage ratio of stroke and phosphene area and for search range, respectively, for two methods, for several irregularity levels. Experiment 2: reading accuracy (RA) and reading efficiency (RE) were measured using the regular array correspondence and NNS methods. EXPERIMENT 1: projection and NNS methods were significantly affected by coverage ratio or search range. NNS significantly improved CC recognition accuracy to the highest at 81.3 ± 2.7% and 59.1 ± 5.2%, respectively, for different irregularity levels, compared with the projection method. Experiment 2: RA and RE significantly decreased as the distortion level increased; NNS significantly improved RA (from approximately 40% to >80%) and RE (from approximately 13 char/min to >40 char/min) when reading more irregular paragraphs. The performance of CC recognition and paragraph reading when using an irregular phosphene array can be improved through optimizing the display method.

  1. Classification of remotely sensed data using OCR-inspired neural network techniques. [Optical Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks have been applied to classifications of remotely sensed data with some success. To improve the performance of this approach, an examination was made of how neural networks are applied to the optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten digits and letters. A three-layer, feedforward network, along with techniques adopted from OCR, was used to classify Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data. Good results were obtained. To overcome the difficulties that are characteristic of remote sensing applications and to attain significant improvements in classification accuracy, a special network architecture may be required.

  2. Optimizing Statistical Character Recognition Using Evolutionary Strategies to Recognize Aircraft Tail Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Berlanga

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of statistical classification systems for optical character recognition (OCR is a cumbersome task. This paper proposes a method using evolutionary strategies (ES to evolve and upgrade the set of parameters in an OCR system. This OCR is applied to identify the tail number of aircrafts moving on the airport. The proposed approach is discussed and some results are obtained using a benchmark data set. This research demonstrates the successful application of ES to a difficult, noisy, and real-world problem.

  3. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Laslo; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Elzobi, Moftah; El-Etriby, Sherif

    2016-03-11

    Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers-that we proposed earlier-improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  4. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laslo Dinges

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers—that we proposed earlier—improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  5. Kinect Who’s Coming - Applying Kinect to Human Body Height Measurement to Improve Character Recognition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of relevant research on character recognition has been carried out, but a certain amount of time is needed to compare faces from a large database. The Kinect is able to obtain three-dimensional coordinates for an object (x & y axes and depth, and in recent years research on its applications has expanded from use in gaming to that of image measurement. This study uses Kinect skeleton information to conduct body height measurements with the aim of improving character recognition performance. Time spent searching and comparing characters is reduced by creating height categories. The margin of error for height used in this investigation was ± 5 cm; therefore, face comparisons were only executed for people in the database within ±5 cm of the body height measured, reducing the search time needed. In addition, using height and facial features simultaneously to conduct character recognition can also reduce the frequency of mistaken recognition. The Kinect was placed on a rotary stage and the position of the head on the body frame was used to conduct body tracking. Body tracking can be used to reduce image distortion caused by the lens of the Kinect. EmguCV was used for image processing and character recognition. The methods proposed in this study can be used in public safety, student attendance registration, commercial VIP recognition and many others.

  6. A Bayesian computational model for online character recognition and disability assessment during cursive eye writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eDiard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research involves a novel apparatus, in which the user is presented with an illusion inducing visual stimulus. The user perceives illusory movement that can be followed by the eye, so that smooth pursuit eye movements can be sustained in arbitrary directions. Thus, free-flow trajectories of any shape can be traced. In other words, coupled with an eye-tracking device, this apparatus enables "eye writing", which appears to be an original object of study. We adapt a previous model of reading and writing to this context. We describe a probabilistic model called the Bayesian Action-Perception for Eye On-Line model (BAP-EOL. It encodes probabilistic knowledge about isolated letter trajectories, their size, high-frequency components of the produced trajectory, and pupil diameter. We show how Bayesian inference, in this single model, can be used to solve several tasks, like letter recognition and novelty detection (i.e., recognizing when a presented character is not part of the learned database. We are interested in the potential use of the eye writing apparatus by motor impaired patients: the final task we solve by Bayesian inference is disability assessment (i.e., measuring and tracking the evolution of motor characteristics of produced trajectories. Preliminary experimental results are presented, which illustrate the method, showing the feasibility of character recognition in the context of eye writing. We then show experimentally how a model of the unknown character can be used to detect trajectories that are likely to be new symbols, and how disability assessment can be performed by opportunistically observing characteristics of fine motor control, as letter are being traced. Experimental analyses also help identify specificities of eye writing, as compared to handwriting, and the resulting technical challenges.

  7. Aplikasi Penerjemah Bahasa Inggris – Indonesia dengan Optical Character Recognition Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Eka Utami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perangkat lunak untuk pengenalan karakter yang terdapat dalam ponsel pintar khususnya berbasis Android dikembangkan dengan penekanan pada mobilitas, portabilitas, ruang penyimpanan, perangkat keras, dan keterbatasan jangkauan dapat dipecahkan. Akan tetapi, kinerja sebuah ponsel pintar berbasis Android dan komputer berbeda maka kecepatan pengenalan karakter juga akan berpengaruh. Masalah ini tampaknya akan menunjukkan suatu solusi, yaitu dengan salah satu inovasi yang diterapkankan ke dalam perangkat Android dengan teknologi OCR (Optical Character Recognition. Perencanaan sistem menggunakan pengembangan perangkat lunak berorientasi pemakaian ulang karena menggunakan komponen yang dapat dipakai ulang dalam pengembangannya. Sistem ini dibuat dengan memanfaatkan engine Tesseract OCR yang dikembangkan oleh Google bersifat open source. Perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk merancang layout dan implementasi sistem, yaitu menggunakan lingkungan pengembang Android Studio yang ditulis dengan bahasa pemrograman Java dan XML. Pengujian aplikasi penerjemah dengan OCR ini menggunakan metode white box dan menghitung akurasi pendeteksian karakter. Hasil perhitungan presentase akurasi deteksi karakter yang diberikan aplikasi terhadap keseluruhan sampel yang diuji mencapai 97,5%.

  8. [Delays produced by prolonged viewing in the recognition of Kanji characters: analysis of the "Gestaltzerfall" phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninose, Y; Gyoba, J

    1996-08-01

    It is a well-known observation that when a Kanji character is viewed steadily and continuously, the viewer often becomes unable to recognize the Kanji as a whole pattern and it becomes difficult to judge whether or not the Kanji is orthographically correct. Such a phenomenon is called the "Gestaltzerfall" of Kanji characters. In the present study, two experiments were carried out to examine delays in the recognition of test Kanji following 25 s of prolonged viewing of adaptation Kanji, which were comprised of either the same or different parts and structures. When the size of the adaptation Kanji was equal to that of the test Kanji, there were significant delays of more than 50 ms, both when the stimuli were of the same pattern, and when they had the same structure but different components. However, when their sizes were different, delays were found only when the test and the adaptation Kanji were of the same pattern. These results suggest that a Kanji pattern may be internally represented as a whole, independent of its size, while the processing of Kanji structure may be dependent upon its size. Prolonged viewing may produce an adaptation effect specific to such representations.

  9. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence From Modeling Chinese Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Cheung, Kit

    2016-03-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether this is due to phonetic radical position or character type frequency. Through computational modeling with artificial lexicons, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception but do not assume phonological processing being LH lateralized, we show that the difference in character type frequency alone is sufficient to exhibit the effect that the dominant type has a stronger LH lateralization than the minority type. This effect is due to higher visual similarity among characters in the dominant type than the minority type, demonstrating the modulation of visual similarity of words on hemispheric lateralization. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The Compensatory Effectiveness of Optical Character Recognition/Speech Synthesis on Reading Comprehension of Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Eleanor L.; Raskind, Marshall H.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-seven college students with learning disabilities were given a reading comprehension task under the following conditions: (1) using an optical character recognition/speech synthesis system; (2) having the text read aloud by a human reader; or (3) reading silently without assistance. Findings indicated that the greater the disability, the…

  11. Preliminary Study of the Effect of Incremental Rehearsal with a Morphological Component for Teaching Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Elena; Burns, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal (IR) for teaching Chinese character recognition using a single-case experimental design. In addition, a morphological component was added to standard IR procedures (IRM) to take into account the role of morphological awareness in Chinese reading. Three kindergarten students in…

  12. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Drinkwater

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed.When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  13. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Robyn E; Cubey, Robert W N; Haston, Elspeth M

    2014-01-01

    At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed. When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  14. Handwritten Devanagari Character Recognition Using Layer-Wise Training of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and Adaptive Gradient Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jangid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is currently getting the attention of researchers because of possible applications in assisting technology for blind and visually impaired users, human–robot interaction, automatic data entry for business documents, etc. In this work, we propose a technique to recognize handwritten Devanagari characters using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN which are one of the recent techniques adopted from the deep learning community. We experimented the ISIDCHAR database provided by (Information Sharing Index ISI, Kolkata and V2DMDCHAR database with six different architectures of DCNN to evaluate the performance and also investigate the use of six recently developed adaptive gradient methods. A layer-wise technique of DCNN has been employed that helped to achieve the highest recognition accuracy and also get a faster convergence rate. The results of layer-wise-trained DCNN are favorable in comparison with those achieved by a shallow technique of handcrafted features and standard DCNN.

  15. The Effects of Graphic Similarity on Japanese Recognition of Simplified Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaochun; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The pedagogical and theoretical questions addressed in this study relate to the extent to which native Japanese readers with little or no knowledge of Chinese characters recognize Chinese characters that are viewed as abbreviations of the kanji they already know. Three graphic similarity functions (i.e., an orthographically acceptable similarity,…

  16. Comparing word, character, and phoneme n-grams for subjective utterance recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, T.; Raaijmakers, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of classifiers trained using word n-grams, character n-grams, and phoneme n-grams for recognizing subjective utterances in multiparty conversation. We show that there is value in using very shallow linguistic representations, such as character n-grams, for

  17. Target locations in visual field and character recognition by students of Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho; Hsu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2003-02-01

    The potential influence of target location in a visual field on search should be considered in layouts of control panels and advertisements. This investigation was done to verify the assumption that the upper-left portion of a page or its equivalent naturally attracts the attention of the viewer. Exp. 1 used a tachistoscope to test which of eight Chinese characters first attracted the attention of viewers. The eight Chinese characters are arranged in a square and a circular configuration. In the square layout, a large square (18 cm x 18 cm) was first conceptually subdivided into nine equal parts (6 cm x 6 cm). Then, the eight Chinese characters were put in the center of each part, leaving the central part blank. In the circular layout, the same Chinese characters were symmetrically placed on the conceptual circumference (r = 6 cm) of a circle within a large square. Exp. 2 was a paper-and-pencil test. An embedded-fault-character-search was used to examine the location of the first faulty character discovered by the subjects. 60 college students and 36 schoolchildren were selected as subjects for the tachistoscopic experiment and paper-and-pencil test. Finally, five graduate students participated in Exp. 3 in which an eye camera registered subjects' eye movements to measured distribution of durations of looking over eight locations. The measurements indicated a slight predominance of the upper-left portion for college students and graduate students, and a slight predominance of the upper-right portion for schoolchildren.

  18. OFF-LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION USING VARIOUS HYBRID MODELING TECHNIQUES AND CHARACTER N-GRAMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakensiek, A.; Rottland, J.; Kosmala, A.; Rigoll, G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a system for on-line cursive handwriting recognition is described. The system is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) using discrete and hybrid modeling techniques. Here, we focus on two aspects of the recognition system. First, we present different hybrid modeling techniques, whereas

  19. Morphological structure processing during word recognition and its relationship to character reading among third-grade Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject analysis when reaction time difference was considered as dependent variable. In the regression analyses, the children's implicit morphological structure processing demonstrated a significant effect on Chinese character reading, even though its effect became non-significant when morphological awareness was entered. We achieved this result after controlling for the children's age, non-verbal intelligence, and phonological awareness. These findings indicate that third grade Chinese children are sensitive to morphological structure information in the processing of compound words. Moreover, such sensitivity is, to some extent, a good predictor of Chinese children's word reading performance.

  20. A New Database of Digits Extracted from Coins with Hard-to-Segment Foreground for Optical Character Recognition Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Pan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the release date struck on a coin is important information of its monetary type, recognition of extracted digits may assist in identification of monetary types. However, digit images extracted from coins are challenging for conventional optical character recognition methods because the foreground of such digits has very often the same color as their background. In addition, other noises, including the wear of coin metal, make it more difficult to obtain a correct segmentation of the character shape. To address those challenges, this article presents the CoinNUMS database for automatic digit recognition. The database CoinNUMS, containing 3,006 digit images, is divided into three subsets. The first subset CoinNUMS_geni consists of 606 digit images manually cropped from high-resolution photographs of well-conserved coins from GENI coin photographs; the second subset CoinNUMS_pcgs_a consists of 1,200 digit images automatically extracted from a subset of the USA_Grading numismatic database containing coins in different quality; the last subset CoinNUMS_pcgs_m consists of 1,200 digit images manually extracted from the same coin photographs as CoinNUMS_pcgs_a. In CoinNUMS_pcgs_a and CoinNUMS_pcgs_m, the digit images are extracted from the release date. In CoinNUMS_geni, the digit images can come from the cropped date, the face value, or any other legends containing digits in the coin. To show the difficulty of these databases, we have tested recognition algorithms of the literature. The database and the results of the tested algorithms will be freely available on a dedicated website.1

  1. Learning representation hierarchies by sharing visual features: a computational investigation of Persian character recognition with unsupervised deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Zahra; Testolin, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    In humans, efficient recognition of written symbols is thought to rely on a hierarchical processing system, where simple features are progressively combined into more abstract, high-level representations. Here, we present a computational model of Persian character recognition based on deep belief networks, where increasingly more complex visual features emerge in a completely unsupervised manner by fitting a hierarchical generative model to the sensory data. Crucially, high-level internal representations emerging from unsupervised deep learning can be easily read out by a linear classifier, achieving state-of-the-art recognition accuracy. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that handwritten digits and letters share many common visual features: A generative model that captures the statistical structure of the letters distribution should therefore also support the recognition of written digits. To this aim, deep networks trained on Persian letters were used to build high-level representations of Persian digits, which were indeed read out with high accuracy. Our simulations show that complex visual features, such as those mediating the identification of Persian symbols, can emerge from unsupervised learning in multilayered neural networks and can support knowledge transfer across related domains.

  2. The Recognition of Dual Character of Water: Human Right and of the Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Paiva Marques Júnior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The water transcends the status of human rights, also being recognized as a right of nature. The conformation of the human right to drinking water is a corollary of social demands molded by Letters Constitutional of Bolivia and Ecuador, which has spread across the planet from the UN General Assembly resolution RES / 64/292/2010. The research has scope to investigate the recognition of access to drinking water as a human right and right of nature, advocated by the New Constitutionalism Democratic Latin American against a context of scarcity and need for enhancement of water resources for life on Planet Earth.

  3. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a radiology reporting tool by using optical character recognition (OCR) and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2012-12-01

    The objectives are (1) to introduce a new concept of making a quantitative computed tomography (QCT) reporting system by using optical character recognition (OCR) and macro program and (2) to illustrate the practical usages of the QCT reporting system in radiology reading environment. This reporting system was created as a development tool by using an open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The main module was designed for OCR to report QCT images in radiology reading process. The principal processes are as follows: (1) to save a QCT report as a graphic file, (2) to recognize the characters from an image as a text, (3) to extract the T scores from the text, (4) to perform error correction, (5) to reformat the values into QCT radiology reporting template, and (6) to paste the reports into the electronic medical record (EMR) or picture archiving and communicating system (PACS). The accuracy test of OCR was performed on randomly selected QCTs. QCT as a radiology reporting tool successfully acted as OCR of QCT. The diagnosis of normal, osteopenia, or osteoporosis is also determined. Error correction of OCR is done with AutoHotkey-coded module. The results of T scores of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae had an accuracy of 100 and 95.4 %, respectively. A convenient QCT reporting system could be established by utilizing open-source OCR software and open-source macro program. This method can be easily adapted for other QCT applications and PACS/EMR.

  4. The Impact of a Modified Repeated-Reading Strategy Paired with Optical Character Recognition on the Reading Rates of Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattillo, Suzan Trefry; Heller, Kathryn Wolf; Smith, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    The repeated-reading strategy and optical character recognition were paired to demonstrate a functional relationship between the combined strategies and two factors: the reading rates of students with visual impairments and the students' self-perceptions, or attitudes, toward reading. The results indicated that all five students increased their…

  5. Digitization of Full-Text Documents Before Publishing on the Internet: A Case Study Reviewing the Latest Optical Character Recognition Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Clare M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews strengths and weaknesses of five optical character recognition (OCR) software packages used to digitize paper documents before publishing on the Internet. Outlines options available and stages of the conversion process. Describes the learning experience of Eurotext, a United Kingdom-based electronic libraries project (eLib). (PEN)

  6. A usability evaluation of an interactive application for halal products using optical character recognition and augmented reality technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Meng Chun; Nizam, Siti Soleha Muhammad; Arshad, Haslina; A'isyah Ahmad Shukri, Saidatul; Hashim, Nurhazarifah Che; Putra, Haekal Mozzia; Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the usability of an interactive application for halal products using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. Among the problems that have been identified in this study is that consumers have little knowledge about the E-Code. Therefore, users often have doubts about the halal status of the product. Nowadays, the integrity of halal status can be doubtful due to the actions of some irresponsible people spreading false information about a product. Therefore, an application that uses OCR and AR technology developed in this study will help the users to identify the information content of a product by scanning the E-Code label and by scanning the product's brand to know the halal status of the product. In this application, E-Code on the label of a product is scanned using OCR technology to display information about the E-Code. The product's brand is scan using augmented reality technology to display halal status of the product. The findings reveal that users are satisfied with this application and it is useful and easy to use.

  7. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/034/05/0755-0765. Keywords. OCR; document analysis; multi-oriented character recognition; Indian script; Bangla and Devnagari scripts. Abstract. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme towards the recognition of multi-oriented and multi-sized isolated characters of printed script.

  8. Invention and validation of an automated camera system that uses optical character recognition to identify patient name mislabeled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Charles D; McCarthy, William; Cleveland, David; Messinger, Bonnie L

    2014-03-01

    Mislabeled samples are a serious problem in most clinical laboratories. Published error rates range from 0.39/1000 to as high as 1.12%. Standardization of bar codes and label formats has not yet achieved the needed improvement. The mislabel rate in our laboratory, although low compared with published rates, prompted us to seek a solution to achieve zero errors. To reduce or eliminate our mislabeled samples, we invented an automated device using 4 cameras to photograph the outside of a sample tube. The system uses optical character recognition (OCR) to look for discrepancies between the patient name in our laboratory information system (LIS) vs the patient name on the customer label. All discrepancies detected by the system's software then require human inspection. The system was installed on our automated track and validated with production samples. We obtained 1 009 830 images during the validation period, and every image was reviewed. OCR passed approximately 75% of the samples, and no mislabeled samples were passed. The 25% failed by the system included 121 samples actually mislabeled by patient name and 148 samples with spelling discrepancies between the patient name on the customer label and the patient name in our LIS. Only 71 of the 121 mislabeled samples detected by OCR were found through our normal quality assurance process. We have invented an automated camera system that uses OCR technology to identify potential mislabeled samples. We have validated this system using samples transported on our automated track. Full implementation of this technology offers the possibility of zero mislabeled samples in the preanalytic stage.

  9. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  10. S¯adhan¯a Vol. 27, 2002 Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Automatic recognition of printed Oriya script. 23. Charater recognition. Document image analysis: A primer. 3. Classifers combination. Devnagari numerical recognition by combin- ing decision of mutiple connectionists clas- sifers. 59. Classification. Two-tier architecture for unconstrained hand- written character recognitiion.

  11. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Yu, Xi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT). For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable) nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed.

  12. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  13. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory must...... be evaluated. In the first section, I will introduce the concept of recognition as a travelling concept playing a role both on the intellectual stage and in real life. In the second section, I will concentrate on the presentation of Honneth’s theory of recognition, emphasizing the construction of the concept...... and its explanatory power. Finally, I will discuss Honneth’s concept in relation to the critique that has been raised, addressing the debate between Honneth and Fraser. In a short conclusion, I will return to the question of the explanatory power of the concept of recognition....

  14. Character Recognition Using Correlation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    TEMPLATE ENERGY C C C C ; C C ................ ......................... ;..................... C c CC ; C C C ER-E2/ El C WRITE FREE(1O)"TARGET IS",ER... OIDO )GOTO 67 THE ENERGIES C TYPE"ENERGIES ARE THE SAME" ARE EQUAL C GOTO 91 ; C C C C...IBUF2,IR,ICO,ILX,IARY) ; C * C 󈧬 CONTINUE ; C 103 C ............ ;......................... .C C C El .0.000 c E2-0 .ODO INITIALIZE C E3-0 ; ALL

  15. Simple and efficient method for region of interest value extraction from picture archiving and communication system viewer with optical character recognition software and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Park, Eun Hae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are: 1) to introduce a simple and efficient method for extracting region of interest (ROI) values from a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) viewer using optical character recognition (OCR) software and a macro program, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy of this method with a PACS workstation. This module was designed to extract the ROI values on the images of the PACS, and created as a development tool by using open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The principal processes are as follows: (1) capture a region of the ROI values as a graphic file for OCR, (2) recognize the text from the captured image by OCR software, (3) perform error-correction, (4) extract the values including area, average, standard deviation, max, and min values from the text, (5) reformat the values into temporary strings with tabs, and (6) paste the temporary strings into the spreadsheet. This principal process was repeated for the number of ROIs. The accuracy of this module was evaluated on 1040 recognitions from 280 randomly selected ROIs of the magnetic resonance images. The input times of ROIs were compared between conventional manual method and this extraction module-assisted input method. The module for extracting ROI values operated successfully using the OCR and macro programs. The values of the area, average, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum could be recognized and error-corrected with AutoHotkey-coded module. The average input times using the conventional method and the proposed module-assisted method were 34.97 seconds and 7.87 seconds, respectively. A simple and efficient method for ROI value extraction was developed with open-source OCR and a macro program. Accurate inputs of various numbers from ROIs can be extracted with this module. The proposed module could be applied to the next generation of PACS or existing PACS that have not yet been upgraded. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Dyslexic Individuals Present a Reduced Visual Attention Span? Evidence from Visual Recognition Tasks of Non-Verbal Multi-Character Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; Isser, Michal; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A controversy has recently developed regarding the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia may be caused, in some cases, by a reduced visual attention span (VAS). To examine this hypothesis, independent of phonological abilities, researchers tested the ability of dyslexic participants to recognize arrays of unfamiliar visual characters. Employing…

  17. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  18. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  19. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  20. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  1. Two-tier architecture for unconstrained handwritten character ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    recognition. Character extraction and recognition techniques have potential application in any domain where a large mass of document image-bearing texts must be interpreted or analysed. Con- ventionally, such images are processed by human operators who act according to what has been written or simply key in what ...

  2. Handwritten Character Classification using the Hotspot Feature Extraction Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction techniques can be important in character recognition, because they can enhance the efficacy of recognition in comparison to featureless or pixel-based approaches. This study aims to investigate the novel feature extraction technique called the hotspot technique in order to use it

  3. Social character of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Hunt, J M; Kernan, J B

    2000-06-01

    Scores for 170 undergraduates on Richins and Dawson's Materialism scale were correlated with scores on Kassarjian's Social Preference Scale, designed to measure individuals' character structure. A correlation of .26 between materialism and other-directed social character suggested that an externally oriented reference system guides materialists' perceptions, judgments, acquisitions, and possessions.

  4. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  5. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  6. The Varieties of Character and Some Implications for Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, Jason

    2017-06-01

    The moral and civic dimensions of personal character have been widely recognized and explored. Recent work by philosophers, psychologists, and education theorists has drawn attention to two additional dimensions of character: intellectual character and "performance" character. This article sketches a "four-dimensional" conceptual model of personal character and some of the character strengths or "virtues" proper to each dimension. In addition to exploring how the dimensions of character are related to each other, the article also examines the implications of this account for character education undertaken in a youth or adolescent context. It is argued that "intellectual character education," which emphasizes the development of intellectual virtues like curiosity, open-mindedness, and intellectual courage, is an underexplored but especially promising approach in this context. The relationship between intellectual character education and traditional character education, which emphasizes the development of moral and civic virtues like kindness, generosity, and tolerance, is also explored.

  7. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Character development in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, G R; Ibrahim, F A; Kahn, H

    1986-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a program consisting of communication and counseling skills, assertiveness training and moral dilemmas on the character development, i.e., moral reasoning, ego development, and assertiveness of high school students. It was hypothesized that exposure to the experimental treatment would enhance the character development of high school students. Fifty-four high school seniors enrolled in three psychology classes were assigned randomly to two treatment groups and one control group. Assessment instruments were the Defining Issues Test, to measure moral reasoning, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test, to measure ego development, and the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, to measure assertiveness. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences between control and treatment posttest means with respect to the dependent variables--moral reasoning, ego development, and assertiveness. The results demonstrated that the character development of the students in the experimental treatment group was affected significantly over time by the program.

  9. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  10. A Study Of The Effects Of Computer Animated Character Body Style On Perception Of Facial Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Cissell, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if there is a difference in viewer perception of computer animated character facial expressions based on character body style, specifically, realistic and stylized character body styles. Participants viewed twenty clips of computer animated characters expressing one of five emotions: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise and fear. They then named the emotion and rated the sincerity, intensity, and typicality of each clip. The results indicated that for recognition, participa...

  11. Character Development Is Nonnegotiable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeau, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that Catholic educators have a proven and lasting program to guide character building in their students. States that the basis for this important moral development is teaching good habits, and that the values presented in the Gospel are integrated into all curriculum areas, providing opportunities for students and faculty to reflect,…

  12. of some generic characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-06-12

    Jun 12, 1986 ... The new species is closest to Homopholis fascists of East Africa and Ethiopia Some generic characters are discussed. 'n Nuwe geitjie-spesie, Homopholis mulleri, van Noord-Transvaal (Suid-Afrika), word beskryf. Dit word met die ander twee spesies van die genus in Afrika vergelyk. Die nuwe spesie is ...

  13. Effect of structural composition and position of occlusion on the legibility of occluded Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yung-Chin; Liao, Ching-Chih

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the effect of structural composition, position of occlusion, and education background on response time and accuracy rate of adult participants in recognition of occluded Chinese characters used in graphic design. Based on 18 Chinese characters selected from the top 4,000 most commonly used characters, a recognition experiment was conducted. Results indicated that, for the characters with two different composition structures, the right position was the best position of occlusion because the recognition of the radical or feature of a character would be least affected, leading to a shorter response time and more accurate reading comprehension. Educational background did not have a significant influence on response time and recognition accuracy.

  14. Interspecific aggression and character displacement in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Rantala, M J; Suhonen, J

    2004-07-01

    Problems in species recognition are thought to affect the evolution of secondary sexual characters mainly through avoidance of maladaptive hybridization. Another, but much less studied avenue for the evolution of sexual characters due to species recognition problems is through interspecific aggression. In the damselfly, Calopteryx splendens, males have pigmented wing spots as a sexual character. Large-spotted males resemble males of another species, Calopteryx virgo, causing potential problems in species recognition. In this study, we investigate whether there is character displacement in wing spot size and whether interspecific aggression could cause this pattern. We found first that wing spot size of C. splendens in populations decreased with increasing relative abundance of C. virgo. Secondly, C. virgo males were more aggressive towards large- than small-spotted C. splendens males. Thirdly, in interspecific contests C. virgo males had better territory holding ability than C. splendens males. These results suggest that interspecific aggression may have caused character displacement in wing spot size of C. splendens, because the intensity of aggression towards large-spotted males is likely to increase with relative abundance of C. virgo males. Thus, interspecific aggression may be an evolutionarily significant force that is able to cause divergence in secondary sexual characters. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  15. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  16. Automatic recognition of printed Oriya script

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. This paper deals with an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for printed Oriya script. The development of OCR for this script is difficult because a large number of character shapes in the script have to be recognized. In the proposed system, the document image is first captured using a flat-bed scanner.

  17. Handwritten recognition of Tamil vowels using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Prashanth, N.; Siddarth, B.; Ganesh, Anirudh; Naveen Kumar, Vaegae

    2017-11-01

    We come across a large volume of handwritten texts in our daily lives and handwritten character recognition has long been an important area of research in pattern recognition. The complexity of the task varies among different languages and it so happens largely due to the similarity between characters, distinct shapes and number of characters which are all language-specific properties. There have been numerous works on character recognition of English alphabets and with laudable success, but regional languages have not been dealt with very frequently and with similar accuracies. In this paper, we explored the performance of Deep Belief Networks in the classification of Handwritten Tamil vowels, and conclusively compared the results obtained. The proposed method has shown satisfactory recognition accuracy in light of difficulties faced with regional languages such as similarity between characters and minute nuances that differentiate them. We can further extend this to all the Tamil characters.

  18. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention...... to different matters. This results in the inherent conflict of typefaces that they on one hand need to draw attention to themselves, and on the other hand need to let go of this attention for the content to be read....

  19. Character Education: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Stacey; Tatman, Robert; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examined the history behind character education because we believe that character education an integral component of the educational enterprise. Major contributors to the importance of character education in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries were discussed. Then we focused on the highlights of the last five decades of the 20th…

  20. Character Education: An Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Stacey; Tatman, Robert; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Character education is integral to the educational enterprise. Recent character education endeavors across the educational landscape have originated from a variety of different organizational sources. This article provides a review of the progress character education from the 18th century up through the 21st.

  1. Bring Character Education into Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Alex; Tsai, Kaun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Character education is a growing discipline with the deliberate attempt to optimize students' ethical behavior. The outcome of character education has always been encouraging, solidly, and continually preparing the leaders of tomorrow. The promotion of character education should not just a leap service but has an action plan for practice. In order…

  2. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  3. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  4. Developing Multimedia Supplementary Materials to Support Learning Beginning Level Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lisha

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating beginner Chinese learners' character learning strategies found that learners considered orthographic knowledge the most useful factor (Ke, 1998; Shen, 2005). Orthographic recognition correlates with character identification and production and can be used by advanced learners to solve word identification problems (Everson,…

  5. Artificial neural network model for Yoruba character recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Computer Science and Its Application. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  7. Chinese-character crowding-I. Effects of structural similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leo Yuk Ting; Cheung, Sing-Hang

    2017-09-01

    Crowding impedes the identification of flanked objects in peripheral vision. Prior studies have shown crowding strength decreases with target-flanker similarity. Research on crowding in Chinese-character recognition has been scarce in the literature. We aimed to fill the research gap by examining the effects of structural similarity on Chinese-character crowding. Regularity in within-character configuration, i.e., orthographic legality, of flankers was manipulated in Experiment 1. Target-flanker similarity in orthographic legality did not affect crowding strength, measured as contrast threshold elevation. Crowding weakened only when the strokes in the flankers were scrambled. Contour integrity of flankers was manipulated by randomly perturbing the phase spectra of the stimulus images in Experiments 2a and 2b. Crowding by perturbed-phase flankers remained robust but was weaker compared with intact-phase flankers. Target-flanker similarity in contour integrity modulated crowding strength. Our findings were consistent with the postulation that faulty integration of low-level visual features contributed to crowding of Chinese characters. Studies on Chinese-character recognition and crowding can provide important insights into how the visual system processes complex daily objects.

  8. THE NEED FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Character education is a national movement creatingschools that foster ethical,responsible and caring young people by modelling and teaching good characterthrough emphasis on universal values that we all share. It is the intentional,proactive effort by schools, districts and states to instil in their students importantcore ethical values such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility and respect forself and others.Good character is not formed automatically; it is developed over time through asustained process of teaching, example, learning and practice. It is developedthrough character education. The intentional teaching of good character isparticularly important in today’s society since ouryouth face many opportunitiesand dangers unknown to earlier generations. They are bombarded with many morenegative influences through the media and other external sources prevalent intoday’s culture. Since children spend about 900 hours a year in school, it isessential that schools resume a proactive role in assisting families andcommunities by developing caring, respectful environments where students learncore, ethical values. When a comprehensive approachto character education isused, a positive moral culture is created in the school—a total school environmentthat supports the values taught in the classroom (Character Education Partnership,2010.The aim of this study is to provide guidelines forthe elements need for effectiveand comprehensive character education. And to emphasize the need of charactereducation to help students develop good character, which includes knowing,caring about and acting upon core ethical values such as respect, responsibility,honesty, fairness and compassion.

  9. First Steps in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patty Smith

    2017-01-01

    For many centuries, there has been theoretical statements asserting faith in character as the main objective in education, but it is only comparatively recently enough has been known about character and the scientific conditions for its development to make an honored place for it in the curricula. Today, it is creeping into curricula under new…

  10. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  11. The Visual Word Form Area: evidence from an fMRI study of implicit processing of Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Wu-Tian; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Mai, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Tardif, Twila; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2008-04-15

    A notable controversy in neurolinguistics is whether there is a particular brain area specialized for visual word recognition within the visual ventral stream. We investigated this question via implicit processing of Chinese characters. Implicit processing of four types of stimuli--real characters, pseudo characters, artificial characters, and checkerboard--in two different sizes, were compared in 14 normal participants using functional MRI (fMRI) with a size judgment task. The results showed that when the three character types were contrasted to one another, there was significantly greater activation in the left middle fusiform gyrus during real and pseudo character processing compared to artificial characters. Moreover, individual analysis revealed that the coordinates were consistent with the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) reported for alphabetic scripts. Results also showed a consistent activation in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) for real and pseudo characters. The relation between this region and the VWFA in Characters processing still needs further investigation.

  12. Interspecific aggression causes negative selection on sexual characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, Katja; Kotiaho, Janne S; Luojumäki, Mari; Suhonen, Jukka

    2005-08-01

    Interspecific aggression originating from mistaken species recognition may cause selection on secondary sexual characters, but this hypothesis has remained untested. Here we report a field experiment designed to test directly whether interspecific aggression causes selection on secondary sexual characters, wing spots, in wild damselfly populations. Males of Calopteryx virgo are more aggressive toward males of C. splendens with large than with small wing spots. This differential interspecific aggression may cause negative selection on wing spot size. Indeed, our results show that directional survival selection on wing spot size of C. splendens males was changed by experimental removal of C. virgo males. Without removal, directional selection went from positive to negative with increasing relative abundance of C. virgo males. In populations where C. virgo males were removed, this relationship disappeared. These results verify that interspecific aggression can cause negative selection on sexual characters. Thus, interspecific aggression has the potential to cause divergence on these characters between two species offering an alternative explanation for reinforcement for generating character displacement in secondary sexual characters.

  13. BACS: The Brussels Artificial Character Sets for studies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Camille; Content, Alain; Chetail, Fabienne

    2017-12-01

    Written symbols such as letters have been used extensively in cognitive psychology, whether to understand their contributions to written word recognition or to examine the processes involved in other mental functions. Sometimes, however, researchers want to manipulate letters while removing their associated characteristics. A powerful solution to do so is to use new characters, devised to be highly similar to letters, but without the associated sound or name. Given the growing use of artificial characters in experimental paradigms, the aim of the present study was to make available the Brussels Artificial Character Sets (BACS): two full, strictly controlled, and portable sets of artificial characters for a broad range of experimental situations.

  14. Holistic Processing of Chinese Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Chun-Nang Wong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced holistic processing (obligatory attention to all parts of an object has been associated with different types of perceptual expertise involving faces, cars, fingerprints, musical notes, English words, etc. Curiously Chinese characters are regarded as an exception, as indicated by the lack of holistic processing found for experts (Hsiao and Cottrell, 2009. The ceiling performance of experts, however, may have caused this null effect. We revisit this issue by adopting the often-used face-composite sequential-matching task to two-part Chinese characters. Participants matched the target halves (left or right of two characters while ignoring the irrelevant halves. Both Chinese readers (experts and non-Chinese readers (novices showed holistic processing. Follow-up experiments suggested different origins of the effects for the two groups. For experts, holistic processing was sensitive to the amount of experience with the characters, as it was larger for words than non-words (formed by swapping the two parts of a valid character. Novices, however, showed similar degree of holistic processing to words and non-words, suggesting that their effects were more related to their inefficient decomposition of a complex, character-like pattern into parts. Overall these findings suggest that holistic processing may be a marker of expertise with Chinese characters, contrary to previous claims.

  15. Chinese license plate character segmentation using multiscale template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiangmin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo; Xia, Yuanchun

    2016-09-01

    Character segmentation (CS) plays an important role in automatic license plate recognition and has been studied for decades. A method using multiscale template matching is proposed to settle the problem of CS for Chinese license plates. It is carried out on a binary image integrated from maximally stable extremal region detection and Otsu thresholding. Afterward, a uniform harrow-shaped template with variable length is designed, by virtue of which a three-dimensional matching space is constructed for searching of candidate segmentations. These segmentations are detected at matches with local minimum responses. Finally, the vertical boundaries of each single character are located for subsequent recognition. Experiments on a data set including 2349 license plate images of different quality levels show that the proposed method can achieve a higher accuracy at comparable time cost and is robust to images in poor conditions.

  16. Character profiles and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwanjin; Suh, Byung Seong; Kim, Won Sool; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Kounseok

    2015-04-01

    There is a surge of interest in subjective well-being (SWB), which concerns how individuals feel about their happiness. Life satisfaction tends to be influenced by individual psychological traits and external social factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual character and SWB. Data from 3522 university students were analyzed in this study. Character profiles were evaluated using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS). Life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). All statistical tests regarding the correlations between each character profile and life satisfaction were conducted using ANOVAs, t-tests, multiple linear regression models and correlation analyses. The creative (SCT) profile was associated with the highest levels of life satisfaction, whereas the depressive (sct) profile was associated with the lowest levels of life satisfaction. Additionally, high self-directedness, self-transcendence and cooperation were associated with high life satisfaction. The results of gender-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that the effects of self-directedness were the strongest in the assessment of one's quality of life, followed by self-transcendence and cooperativeness, in that order. All of the three-character profiles were significantly correlated with one's quality of life, and the character profiles of TCI-RS explained 27.6% of life satisfaction in total. Among the three-character profiles, the self-directedness profile was most associated with life satisfaction. Our study was cross-sectional, and self-reported data from students at a single university were analyzed. The results of this study showed that, among the character profiles, the effects of self-directedness were the strongest for predicting life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive Morse code recognition using variable degree variable step size LMS for persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we applied variable degree, variable step size LMS algorithm to adaptive Morse code recognition for persons with impaired hand coordination and dexterity. The automatic recognition of Morse code by the disabled is difficult because they cannot maintain a stable typing rate. Therefore, a suitable adaptive automatic recognition method is needed. In this adaptive Morse code recognition method, three processes are involved: character separation, character recognition, and adaptive processing. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the proposed method resulted in a better recognition rate compared to alternative methods from the literature.

  18. BanglaLekha-Isolated: A multi-purpose comprehensive dataset of Handwritten Bangla Isolated characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Biswas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BanglaLekha-Isolated, a Bangla handwritten isolated character dataset is presented in this article. This dataset contains 84 different characters comprising of 50 Bangla basic characters, 10 Bangla numerals and 24 selected compound characters. 2000 handwriting samples for each of the 84 characters were collected, digitized and pre-processed. After discarding mistakes and scribbles, 1,66,105 handwritten character images were included in the final dataset. The dataset also includes labels indicating the age and the gender of the subjects from whom the samples were collected. This dataset could be used not only for optical handwriting recognition research but also to explore the influence of gender and age on handwriting. The dataset is publicly available at https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/hf6sf8zrkc/2.

  19. Multi-font printed Mongolian document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hua; Jin, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mongolian is one of the major ethnic languages in China. Large amount of Mongolian printed documents need to be digitized in digital library and various applications. Traditional Mongolian script has unique writing style and multi-font-type variations, which bring challenges to Mongolian OCR research. As traditional Mongolian script has some characteristics, for example, one character may be part of another character, we define the character set for recognition according to the segmented components, and the components are combined into characters by rule-based post-processing module. For character recognition, a method based on visual directional feature and multi-level classifiers is presented. For character segmentation, a scheme is used to find the segmentation point by analyzing the properties of projection and connected components. As Mongolian has different font-types which are categorized into two major groups, the parameter of segmentation is adjusted for each group. A font-type classification method for the two font-type group is introduced. For recognition of Mongolian text mixed with Chinese and English, language identification and relevant character recognition kernels are integrated. Experiments show that the presented methods are effective. The text recognition rate is 96.9% on the test samples from practical documents with multi-font-types and mixed scripts.

  20. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  1. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  2. Factorized combinations of Virasoro characters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytsko, A.G.; Fring, A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate linear combinations of characters for minimal Virasoro models which are representable as a product of several basic blocks. Our analysis is based on consideration of asymptotic behaviour of the characters in the quasi-classical limit. In particular, we introduce a notion of the secondary effective central charge. We find all possible cases for which factorization occurs on the base of the Gauss-Jacobi or the Watson identities. Exploiting these results, we establish various types of identities between different characters. In particular, we present several identities generalizing the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Applications to quasi-particle representations, modular invariant partition functions, super-conformal theories and conformal models with boundaries are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  3. The Influence of Brand Equity Characters on Children's Food Preferences and Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGale, Lauren Sophie; Halford, Jason Christian Grovenor; Harrold, Joanne Alison; Boyland, Emma Jane

    2016-10-01

    To assess the influence of brand equity characters displayed on food packaging on children's food preferences and choices, 2 studies were conducted. Brand equity characters are developed specifically to represent a particular brand or product. Despite existing literature suggesting that promotional characters influence children's food choices, to date, no research has assessed the influence of brand equity characters specifically. We recruited 209 children 4-8 years of age from schools and childcare centers in the UK. In a mixed-measures design, the children were asked to rate their taste preferences and preferred snack choice for 3 matched food pairs, presented either with or without a brand equity character displayed on packaging. Study 1 addressed congruent food-character associations and study 2 addressed incongruent associations. Participants were also asked to rate their recognition and liking of characters used. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and χ(2) analyses were used where appropriate. Children were significantly more likely to show a preference for foods with a brand equity character displayed on the packaging compared with a matched food without a brand equity character, for both congruent and incongruent food-character associations. The presence of a brand equity character also significantly influenced the children's within-pair preferences, within-pair choices, and overall snack choice (congruent associations only). Displaying brand equity characters promotes unhealthy food choices in children. The findings are consistent with those of studies exploring other types of promotional characters. In the context of a childhood obesity epidemic, the use of brand equity characters in the promotion of foods high in fat, salt, and sugar to children should be restricted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  5. Effect of pattern complexity on the visual span for Chinese and alphabet characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; He, Xuanzi; Legge, Gordon E

    2014-07-03

    The visual span for reading is the number of letters that can be recognized without moving the eyes and is hypothesized to impose a sensory limitation on reading speed. Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied using alphabet letters. There may be common constraints applying to recognition of other scripts. The aim of this study was to extend the concept of the visual span to Chinese characters and to examine the effect of the greater complexity of these characters. We measured visual spans for Chinese characters and alphabet letters in the central vision of bilingual subjects. Perimetric complexity was used as a metric to quantify the pattern complexity of binary character images. The visual span tests were conducted with four sets of stimuli differing in complexity--lowercase alphabet letters and three groups of Chinese characters. We found that the size of visual spans decreased with increasing complexity, ranging from 10.5 characters for alphabet letters to 4.5 characters for the most complex Chinese characters studied. A decomposition analysis revealed that crowding was the dominant factor limiting the size of the visual span, and the amount of crowding increased with complexity. Errors in the spatial arrangement of characters (mislocations) had a secondary effect. We conclude that pattern complexity has a major effect on the size of the visual span, mediated in large part by crowding. Measuring the visual span for Chinese characters is likely to have high relevance to understanding visual constraints on Chinese reading performance. © 2014 ARVO.

  6. Recognition of the smart card iconic numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xue Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual way of recognizing and inputting the smart card iconic numbers leads to much time consuming, high resources consuming and low accuracy. This paper presents a new automatic method based on the technology of computer vision, including Harr operator for face detection, Fast operator for number location, image binarization, character segmentation and BP neural network for number recognition. Experimental results on 100 ID cards show that by adjusting the parameters of the BP neural network properly, the recognition accuracy is more than 99%, and the recognition time for each ID card is within 0.05 seconds.

  7. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  8. Speech Recognition Technology for Disabilities Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. Wendy; Kamoua, Ridha; Sutan, Victor; Farooq, Omer; Eng, Gilbert; Chu, Wei Chern; Hou, Guofeng

    2005-01-01

    Speech recognition is an alternative to traditional methods of interacting with a computer, such as textual input through a keyboard. An effective system can replace or reduce the reliability on standard keyboard and mouse input. This can especially assist dyslexic students who have problems with character or word use and manipulation in a textual…

  9. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  10. An Historical Analysis of Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    What is termed "character education" in today's world has been called many things throughout the history of education in this country. Character education has been both a formal and informal part of schools. Much of character education in the United States can be closely tied in its roots to the education of character in Europe, which…

  11. Understanding Agency and Educating Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    How can we understand human agency, and what does it mean to educate character? In this essay Klas Roth develops a Kantian notion, one that suggests we render ourselves efficacious and autonomous in education and elsewhere. This requires, among other things, that we are successful in bringing about the intended result through our actions and the…

  12. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  13. On characters of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Broué, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the classical and beautiful character theory of finite groups. It does it by using some rudiments of the language of categories. Originally emerging from two courses offered at Peking University (PKU), primarily for third-year students, it is now better suited for graduate courses, and provides broader coverage than books that focus almost exclusively on groups. The book presents the basic tools, notions and theorems of character theory (including a new treatment of the control of fusion and isometries), and introduces readers to the categorical language at several levels. It includes and proves the major results on characteristic zero representations without any assumptions about the base field. The book includes a dedicated chapter on graded representations and applications of polynomial invariants of finite groups, and its closing chapter addresses the more recent notion of the Drinfeld double of a finite group and the corresponding representation of GL_2(Z).

  14. A note on generalized characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. For a compactly generated LCA group G, it is shown that the set H (G) of all generalized characters on G equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and H (G) = ̂G (the dual group of G) if and only if G is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if G is second countable, then the ...

  15. License plate recognition algorithm for passenger cars in Chinese residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lisheng; Xian, Huacai; Bie, Jing; Sun, Yuqin; Hou, Haijing; Niu, Qingning

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for the license plate recognition problem in residential community administrations in China. License plate images are pre-processed through gradation, middle value filters and edge detection. In the license plate localization module the number of edge points, the length of license plate area and the number of each line of edge points are used for localization. In the recognition module, the paper applies a statistical character method combined with a structure character method to obtain the characters. In addition, more models and template library for the characters which have less difference between each other are built. A character classifier is designed and a fuzzy recognition method is proposed based on the fuzzy decision-making method. Experiments show that the recognition accuracy rate is up to 92%.

  16. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kamaruddin, Syamsu

    2012-01-01

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these tw...

  17. Effects on Learning Logographic Character Formation in Computer-Assisted Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-hui; Kuo, Chin-Hwa; Horng, Wen-Bing; Chen, Chun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigates how different learning methods might affect the learning process of character handwriting among beginning college learners of Chinese, as measured by tests of recognition, approximate production, precise production, and awareness of conventional stroke sequence. Two methodologies were examined during…

  18. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  19. A Review of Virtual Character's Emotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Emotional virtual characters are essential to digital entertainment, an emotion is related to virtual environment and a virtual character's inner variables, emotion model of virtual character is a hot topic in many fields, domain knowledge is very important for modeling emotion, and the current research of emotion expression in the world was also summarized, and some new research directions of emotion model are presented.

  20. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  1. Is There a Place for Character Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, Kim L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends in school curricula place a heavy focus on the improvement of basic skills test scores. As a result, the role of character education has been diminished. This article provides a rationale for the incorporation of a character education program within the school curricula, a working definition of character education, and the role of…

  2. Promoting Character Development through Coach Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, F. Clark; Seroczynski, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Can youth sports build character? Research suggests that the answer to this question leads to 2 further questions: (1) can youth sport coaches be effectively prepared to become character educators, and (2) can character education take place in today's competitive youth sport environment? (Bredemeier & Shields, 2006; Power, 2015; Power &…

  3. AMHARIC CHARACTER GENERATOR Gebre Amanuel Gessesse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually a visual display terminal (VDT); file storage ... character code into a visual image of the character. Several techniques ... Memory ll 7'. In the second alternative considered, the complete syllabary with punctuation marks and numerals is put within one character generator. The font selected is show in Fig. 1. The matrix.

  4. Comparing the minimum spatial-frequency content for recognizing Chinese and alphabet characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Legge, Gordon E

    2018-01-01

    Visual blur is a common problem that causes difficulty in pattern recognition for normally sighted people under degraded viewing conditions (e.g., near the acuity limit, when defocused, or in fog) and also for people with impaired vision. For reliable identification, the spatial frequency content of an object needs to extend up to or exceed a minimum value in units of cycles per object, referred to as the critical spatial frequency. In this study, we investigated the critical spatial frequency for alphabet and Chinese characters, and examined the effect of pattern complexity. The stimuli were divided into seven categories based on their perimetric complexity, including the lowercase and uppercase alphabet letters, and five groups of Chinese characters. We found that the critical spatial frequency significantly increased with complexity, from 1.01 cycles per character for the simplest group to 2.00 cycles per character for the most complex group of Chinese characters. A second goal of the study was to test a space-bandwidth invariance hypothesis that would represent a tradeoff between the critical spatial frequency and the number of adjacent patterns that can be recognized at one time. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the critical spatial frequencies in cycles per character from the current study and visual-span sizes in number of characters (measured by Wang, He, & Legge, 2014) for sets of characters with different complexities. For the character size (1.2°) we used in the study, we found an invariant product of approximately 10 cycles, which may represent a capacity limitation on visual pattern recognition.

  5. Lexical processing of Chinese sub-character components: Semantic activation of phonetic radicals as revealed by the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; Chou, Wei-Lun; Ho, Pokuan

    2017-11-17

    Most Chinese characters are compounds consisting of a semantic radical indicating semantic category and a phonetic radical cuing the pronunciation of the character. Controversy surrounds whether radicals also go through the same lexical processing as characters and, critically, whether phonetic radicals involve semantic activation since they can also be characters when standing alone. Here we examined these issues using the Stroop task whereby participants responded to the ink color of the character. The key finding was that Stroop effects were found when the character itself had a meaning unrelated to color, but contained a color name phonetic radical (e.g., "guess", with the phonetic radical "cyan", on the right) or had a meaning associated with color (e.g., "pity", with the phonetic radical "blood" on the right which has a meaning related to "red"). Such Stroop effects from the phonetic radical within a character unrelated to color support that Chinese character recognition involves decomposition of characters into their constituent radicals; with each of their meanings including phonetic radicals activated independently, even though it would inevitably interfere with that of the whole character. Compared with the morphological decomposition in English whereby the semantics of the morphemes are not necessarily activated, the unavoidable semantic activation of phonetic radicals represents a unique feature in Chinese character processing.

  6. Group discriminatory power of handwritten characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomai, Catalin I.; Kshirsagar, Devika M.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2003-12-01

    Using handwritten characters we address two questions (i) what is the group identification performance of different alphabets (upper and lower case) and (ii) what are the best characters for the verification task (same writer/different writer discrimination) knowing demographic information about the writer such as ethnicity, age or sex. The Bhattacharya distance is used to rank different characters by their group discriminatory power and the k-nn classifier to measure the individual performance of characters for group identification. Given the tasks of identifying the correct gender/age/ethnicity or handedness, the accumulated performance of characters varies between 65% and 85%.

  7. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  8. Professional Development for Character Education: An Evaluation of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Alice T.

    2011-01-01

    Today's teachers and administrators must educate students for character. But, teachers are inconsistently prepared for this challenge. This descriptive study examined teachers' sense of efficacy for character education among pre-K-12 teachers based on their type of character education training. The Character Education Efficacy Belief Instrument…

  9. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  10. Recognition tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  11. Recognition tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Stuart; He Jin; Zhang Peiming; Chang Shuai; Huang Shuo [Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Sankey, Otto [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 1862 53, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-02

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode ('tethered molecule-pair' configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the 'free-analyte' configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. (topical review)

  12. Indirect recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Government institutions and local people in Indonesia have entrenched, resurrected, and reinvented space through their different territorial and property claims. From colonial times, onward, government institutions have dissolved local political orders and territorialized and reordered spatial...... categories are struggled over, and groups of actors seek to legitimate their presence, their activities, and their resource use by occupation, mapping, and construction of "public" infrastructure. In the case of conservation in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, we find that rather than one overarching...... important legal and political work. After the authoritarian New Order regime, in particular, claims to citizenship worked as indirect property claims, and indirect recognition of such claims are important because they serve as pragmatic proxies for formal property rights. Two case studies examine how people...

  13. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  14. Advances in image processing and pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappellini, V.

    1986-01-01

    The conference papers reported provide an authorative and permanent record of the contributions. Some papers are more theoretical or of review nature, while others contain new implementations and applications. They are conveniently grouped into the following 7 fields (after a general overview): Acquisition and Presentation of 2-D and 3-D Images; Static and Dynamic Image Processing; Determination of Object's Position and Orientation; Objects and Characters Recognition; Semantic Models and Image Understanding; Robotics and Computer Vision in Manufacturing; Specialized Processing Techniques and Structures. In particular, new digital image processing and recognition methods, implementation architectures and special advanced applications (industrial automation, robotics, remote sensing, biomedicine, etc.) are presented. (Auth.)

  15. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  16. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  17. Building innovative and creative character through mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyitno, Hardi; Suyitno, Amin

    2018-03-01

    21st century is predicted as the century with rapid development in all aspects of life. People require creative and innovative character to exist. Specifically, mathematics has been given to students from the kindergarten until the middle school. Thus, building character through mathematics should begin since the early age. The problem is how to build creative and innovative character through mathematics education? The goal expected from this question is to build innovative and creative characters to face the challenges of the 21st century. This article discusses the values of mathematics, the values in mathematics education, innovative and creative character, and the integration of these values in teaching mathematics that support the innovative and creative character building, and applying the values in structurely programmed, measurable, and applicable learning activities.

  18. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System for IPhone Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Enăchescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for automatic number plate recognition, implemented for devices running the iOS operating system. The methods used for number plate recognition are based on existing methods, but optimized for devices with low hardware resources. To solve the task of automatic number plate recognition we have divided it into the following subtasks: image acquisition, localization of the number plate position on the image and character detection. The first subtask is performed by the camera of an iPhone, the second one is done using image pre-processing methods and template matching. For the character recognition we are using a feed-forward artificial neural network. Each of these methods is presented along with its results.

  19. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  20. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  1. Advances in oriental document analysis and recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress has been made in computer processing of oriental languages, and the research developments in this area have resulted in tremendous changes in handwriting processing, printed oriental character recognition, document analysis and recognition, automatic input methodologies for oriental languages, etc. Advances in computer processing of oriental languages can also be seen in multimedia computing and the World Wide Web. Many of the results in those domains are presented in this book.

  2. Electrooculography-based continuous eye-writing recognition system for efficient assistive communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fuming; Shinozaki, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Human-computer interface systems whose input is based on eye movements can serve as a means of communication for patients with locked-in syndrome. Eye-writing is one such system; users can input characters by moving their eyes to follow the lines of the strokes corresponding to characters. Although this input method makes it easy for patients to get started because of their familiarity with handwriting, existing eye-writing systems suffer from slow input rates because they require a pause between input characters to simplify the automatic recognition process. In this paper, we propose a continuous eye-writing recognition system that achieves a rapid input rate because it accepts characters eye-written continuously, with no pauses. For recognition purposes, the proposed system first detects eye movements using electrooculography (EOG), and then a hidden Markov model (HMM) is applied to model the EOG signals and recognize the eye-written characters. Additionally, this paper investigates an EOG adaptation that uses a deep neural network (DNN)-based HMM. Experiments with six participants showed an average input speed of 27.9 character/min using Japanese Katakana as the input target characters. A Katakana character-recognition error rate of only 5.0% was achieved using 13.8 minutes of adaptation data.

  3. Electrooculography-based continuous eye-writing recognition system for efficient assistive communication systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuming Fang

    Full Text Available Human-computer interface systems whose input is based on eye movements can serve as a means of communication for patients with locked-in syndrome. Eye-writing is one such system; users can input characters by moving their eyes to follow the lines of the strokes corresponding to characters. Although this input method makes it easy for patients to get started because of their familiarity with handwriting, existing eye-writing systems suffer from slow input rates because they require a pause between input characters to simplify the automatic recognition process. In this paper, we propose a continuous eye-writing recognition system that achieves a rapid input rate because it accepts characters eye-written continuously, with no pauses. For recognition purposes, the proposed system first detects eye movements using electrooculography (EOG, and then a hidden Markov model (HMM is applied to model the EOG signals and recognize the eye-written characters. Additionally, this paper investigates an EOG adaptation that uses a deep neural network (DNN-based HMM. Experiments with six participants showed an average input speed of 27.9 character/min using Japanese Katakana as the input target characters. A Katakana character-recognition error rate of only 5.0% was achieved using 13.8 minutes of adaptation data.

  4. Relationships between Character Education and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaburk, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between character education and school climate based on the lived experiences and beliefs of teachers. The research was conducted in a public middle school to explore understandings and beliefs of teachers about character education and its perceived impact on school climate. Social…

  5. 3D Character Modeling in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint

  6. Aristotelian versus Virtue Ethical Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2016-01-01

    This article examines some central aspects of Kristján Kristjánsson's book, "Aristotelian Character Education," beginning with the claim that contemporary virtue ethics provides methodological, ontological, epistemological, and moral foundations for Aristotelian character education. It considers three different formulations of what…

  7. Primary School Teachers' Perceptions about Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Melek; Özmat, Demet; Elgün, Imgehan Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of primary school teachers about character education. In this descriptive study, data were collected by using a survey questionnaire which required descriptive analysis. Based on the findings, it was revealed that primary school teachers (n = 60) defined the character education as moral values…

  8. Virtue and Character in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent concern with the possibilities of moral character education in elementary schooling and professional training, the university and higher educational prospects of such education have only lately received much attention. This paper begins by considering--and largely endorsing--the general case for character education in contexts…

  9. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  10. Improving Social Competence through Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Lee, Tak-yan

    2010-01-01

    Character education is supposed to meet early adolescents' need (i.e., eighth and ninth graders) for strengthening social competence. Moreover, adolescents' engagement in character education is integral to their learning from the education. The engagement and deficit in social competence are therefore plausible conditions for the effectiveness of…

  11. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  12. A database application for wilderness character monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley Adams; Peter Landres; Simon Kingston

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Wilderness Stewardship Division, in collaboration with the Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program, developed a database application to facilitate tracking and trend reporting in wilderness character. The Wilderness Character Monitoring Database allows consistent, scientifically based...

  13. THE CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION VIEWPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaswidi Al Hamdani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study the concept of character and moral education according to the terminology, approaches, and methods of learning from the point of view of Islamic education. The approach used in this paper is a discussion of the linguistic (al-lughah. The results showed that the conceptual basis of character education in the curriculum in Indonesia too much because it has a number of terminological problems. The concept of morals, values, and characters have a special meaning that may be different from one another. As a result, the concept of the character presented in the curriculum subject is far from the actual context of the moral and less with actually happening in the community. Character education is also too much use of the approach and methods indoctrinasi than critical, reflective and empirical and is not integrated with the system and school culture. 

  14. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  15. A Missing Piece of the Contemporary Character Education Puzzle: The Individualisation of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The different sorts of virtuous people who display various virtues to a remarkable degree have brought the issue of individualisation of moral character to the forefront. It signals a more personal dimension of character development which is notoriously ignored in the current discourse on character education. The case is made that since in…

  16. Anorectic family dynamics: temperament and character data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Svrakic, Dragan; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Leombruni, Paolo; Amianto, Federico; Stanic, Stana; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo

    2002-01-01

    Modern psychobiologic research conceptualizes personality as a complex adaptive system involving a bidirectional interaction between heritable neurobiologic dispositions (temperament) and social learning (character). In this study, we evaluated temperament and character traits of patients with anorexia nervosa and their mothers and fathers, and we analyzed the correlation of temperament and character traits among family members in anorectic families. Finally, we tested the ability of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to discriminate between normal controls and anorectic subjects, their parents, and their families. Temperament and character features of 50 restricter anorectic patients and their parents (23 fathers and 25 mothers) were analyzed and then compared with a control group of 60 women and their 20 fathers and 20 mothers using the TCI. Data suggest that both temperament and character factors are involved in anorexia nervosa (AN). Anorectic individuals were high in harm avoidance (HA), low in novelty seeking (NS), and high in persistence (P) ("obsessive temperament type"). Their character was remarkable for low self-directedness (SD). Their mothers were distinguished by low SD. The fathers were high in HA, but also low in P, and high in reward dependence (RD). Again, they were low in SD. The anorectic family had low SD as a common denominator observed in all family members. This finding indicates that the psychopathology of AN extends beyond obsessiveness, but combines obsessiveness with low character development. None of the above temperament and character profiles is pathognomic of restricter anorectics. The observation that both temperament and character have an important role in the etiopathogenesis of AN has important treatment ramifications. The TCI was useful in discriminating between normal controls and anorectic subjects, their parents, and the whole anorectic family.

  17. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  18. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  19. Recognition of handwriting from electromyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Linderman

    Full Text Available Handwriting--one of the most important developments in human culture--is also a methodological tool in several scientific disciplines, most importantly handwriting recognition methods, graphology and medical diagnostics. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of handwritten traces or kinematic analysis of handwriting; whereas electromyographic (EMG signals associated with handwriting have received little attention. Here we show for the first time, a method in which EMG signals generated by hand and forearm muscles during handwriting activity are reliably translated into both algorithm-generated handwriting traces and font characters using decoding algorithms. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of recreating handwriting solely from EMG signals - the finding that can be utilized in computer peripherals and myoelectric prosthetic devices. Moreover, this approach may provide a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosing a variety of neurogenerative diseases before other symptoms become clear.

  20. Fuel-number recognition by means of multidirectional lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senoh, M.; Siguyama, S.; Sasaki, M.

    1986-01-01

    Lighting and image-processing techniques for automatic fuel-number recognition in boiling water reactors (BWRs) are described. High-contrast images of fuel numbers are obtained for various types of fuel subassemblies by intorducing shallow-angle lighting. Moreover, high-quality binary-valued images can be obtained by miltidirectional lighting and character reconstruction techniques. These techniques are esperimentally confirmed using subassemblies. The multidirectional lighting is verified to be superior to unidirectional lighting in terms of its recognition rate and its applicability to an automatic fuel-number recognition system for BWRs

  1. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  2. The character bill and migration rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    Many foreigners apply for visas to visit or live in Australia. A small proportion of these applications are refused, however, because they are judged to be of bad character and a danger to Australian society. Some have their visas canceled after they have been issued. Australia's executive branch and judiciary have been struggling for a decade and a half to see who should have the final say on questions of immigration control. The Character Bill is the most recent development in this struggle. The Bill aims to protect communities from non-citizens who may be of bad character, especially those who may be criminals, when they apply for visas. It does this by making such people prove that they are of good character, by limiting their capacity to seek review of character-based decisions to deny them visas or to cancel already issued visas, and by restricting their access to information about them provided by law enforcement agencies. In some cases, non-citizens who are refused or deprived of visas on the basis of character will not have access to proper justice. The political and legal backgrounds to the Character Bill are described, as well as the substance and status of, and responses to the new bill.

  3. QUANTIFYING THE CONTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGE MODELING TO WRITER­INDEPENDENT ON­LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitrelli, J.F.; Ratzlaf, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe experiments varying the degree of language­model constraint applied to writer­independent on­line handwriting recognition. Six types of models are used, varying statistical components and hard constraints which govern recognition search during the sequencing of characters to form valid

  4. Classification and recognition of handwritten digits by using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (the scanned images of handwritten digit or the digital images transformed from the real handwritten). Many methods have been proposed to solve offline ... for segmentation-free character recognition via the morphological hit-or-miss transform for. Courier font. Both hit and miss structuring elements are selected so that the ...

  5. A structural query system for Han characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skala, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The IDSgrep structural query system for Han character dictionaries is presented. This dictionary search system represents the spatial structure of Han characters using Extended Ideographic Description Sequences (EIDSes), a data model and syntax based on the Unicode IDS concept. It includes a query...... language for EIDS databases, with a freely available implementation and format translation from popular third-party IDS and XML character databases. The system is designed to suit the needs of font developers and foreign language learners. The search algorithm includes a bit vector index inspired by Bloom...... filters to support faster query operations. Experimental results are presented, evaluating the effect of the indexing on query performance....

  6. Submatrices of character tables and basic sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation of character tables of nite groups we study basic sets and associated representation theoretic data for complementary sets of conjugacy lasses. For the symmetric groups we nd unexpected properties of characters on restricted sets of conjugacy classes, like beautiful...... combinatorial determinant formulae for submatrices of the character table and Cartan matrices with respect to basic sets; we observe that similar phenomena occur for the transition matrices between power sum symmetric functions to bounded partitions and the k-Schur functions dened by Lapointe and Morse...

  7. Arabic Handwritten Word Recognition Using HMMs with Explicit State Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sellami

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe an offline unconstrained Arabic handwritten word recognition system based on segmentation-free approach and discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs with explicit state duration. Character durations play a significant part in the recognition of cursive handwriting. The duration information is still mostly disregarded in HMM-based automatic cursive handwriting recognizers due to the fact that HMMs are deficient in modeling character durations properly. We will show experimentally that explicit state duration modeling in the HMM framework can significantly improve the discriminating capacity of the HMMs to deal with very difficult pattern recognition tasks such as unconstrained Arabic handwriting recognition. In order to carry out the letter and word model training and recognition more efficiently, we propose a new version of the Viterbi algorithm taking into account explicit state duration modeling. Three distributions (Gamma, Gauss, and Poisson for the explicit state duration modeling have been used, and a comparison between them has been reported. To perform word recognition, the described system uses an original sliding window approach based on vertical projection histogram analysis of the word and extracts a new pertinent set of statistical and structural features from the word image. Several experiments have been performed using the IFN/ENIT benchmark database and the best recognition performances achieved by our system outperform those reported recently on the same database.

  8. A hybrid neural network model in handwritten word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, J H

    1998-03-01

    A hybrid neural network model is developed and applied to handwritten word recognition. The word recognition system requires a module that assigns character class confidence values to segments of images of handwritten words. The module must accurately represent ambiguities between character classes and assign low confidence values to a wide variety of non-character segments resulting from erroneous segmentations. The proposed hybrid neural model is a cascaded system. The first stage is a self-organizing feature map algorithm (SOFM). The second stage maps distances into allograph membership values using a gradient descent learning algorithm. The third stage is a multi-layer feedforward network (MLFN). The new system performs better than the baseline system. Experiments were performed on a standard test set from the SUNY/USPS Database.

  9. Character Strengths and Academic Achievements of Undergraduate College Students of Guwahati, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Alam Choudhury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths, as conceptualised by the Values-In-Action (VIA strengths classification system, are core characteristics of individuals that allow people to be virtuous (Seligman 2002. They are moral, intrinsically valuable, and ubiquitous traits that can be developed and enhanced. Social psychologists and sociologists consider achievements in college or university level, because of recognition and proper utilisation of the character strengths possessed by the individual students. The current study was conducted amongst 240 undergraduate college students of arts stream (60 males and 60 females and science stream (60 males and 60 females falling within the age group of 18-21 years, with the aim of finding out if the character strengths of the male and female undergraduate students are associated with their college academic achievements. It was found that significant correlation existed between appreciation of beauty and excellence, fairness, forgiveness, honesty, humour, kindness, love of learning and humility with the academic achievement of the students.

  10. Facilitating memory for novel characters by reducing neural repetition suppression in the left fusiform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Poldrack, Russell A; Dong, Qi

    2010-10-06

    The left midfusiform and adjacent regions have been implicated in processing and memorizing familiar words, yet its role in memorizing novel characters has not been well understood. Using functional MRI, the present study examined the hypothesis that the left midfusiform is also involved in memorizing novel characters and spaced learning could enhance the memory by enhancing the left midfusiform activity during learning. Nineteen native Chinese readers were scanned while memorizing the visual form of 120 Korean characters that were novel to the subjects. Each character was repeated four times during learning. Repetition suppression was manipulated by using two different repetition schedules: massed learning and spaced learning, pseudo-randomly mixed within the same scanning session. Under the massed learning condition, the four repetitions were consecutive (with a jittered inter-repetition interval to improve the design efficiency). Under the spaced learning condition, the four repetitions were interleaved with a minimal inter-repetition lag of 6 stimuli. Spaced learning significantly improved participants' performance during the recognition memory test administered one hour after the scan. Stronger left midfusiform and inferior temporal gyrus activities during learning (summed across four repetitions) were associated with better memory of the characters, based on both within- and cross-subjects analyses. Compared to massed learning, spaced learning significantly reduced neural repetition suppression and increased the overall activities in these regions, which were associated with better memory for novel characters. These results demonstrated a strong link between cortical activity in the left midfusiform and memory for novel characters, and thus challenge the visual word form area (VWFA) hypothesis. Our results also shed light on the neural mechanisms of the spacing effect in memorizing novel characters.

  11. Alterations in subspecific characters of groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouli, C.; Patil, S.H.; Kale, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recombination of beneficial characters associated in the cultivars of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) belonging to the two subspecies hypogaea and fastigiata had little success in conventional breeding programme. The cultures of ssp. hypogaea have the desirable characters for the crop improvement viz; various growth habits, profuse branching, large pod, seed dormancy and stress tolerance. Sequential flowering, early maturity, compact fruiting habit and high kernel outturn are the other useful characters present in ssp. fastigiata cultures. Mutation research in a popular variety, Spanish Improved belonging to ssp. fastigiata led to the selection of various mutants. One among the mutants had large pod, a characteristic of hypogaea ssp. Hybridization among the mutants and improved cultivars as well as radiation treatment of selected cultures resulted in the isolation of cultures having not only combinations and alterations of characters in both subspecies, but also modifications. These cultures are classified into major groups and their significance in the groundnut improvement is discussed. (author)

  12. Character strenghts and sex differences in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Reyes Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the association between character strengths and happiness and global health in adolescents by gender. The participants comprised 117 high-school students (μ =16.90, σ =.81 from Málaga (Spain. All participants completed the Values in Action 120-Items Questionnaire (VIA-120, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, and the Happiness Item. The results showed higher levels of character strengths and lower levels of temperance and religiousness in the humanity score. Moderately significant associations were found between all character strengths and general health, happiness, and especially hope. Boys had significantly higher scores on zest, prudence, self-regulation, and hope (Student t test. The study suggests that character strengths could contribute to increased life satisfaction and health among adolescents.

  13. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaczo, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  14. Loose, Falling Characters and Sentences: The Persistence of the OCR Problem in Digital Repository E-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichuk, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The electronic conversion of scanned image files to readable text using optical character recognition (OCR) software and the subsequent migration of raw OCR text to e-book text file formats are key remediation or media conversion technologies used in digital repository e-book production. Despite real progress, the OCR problem of reliability and…

  15. Type-2 fuzzy graphical models for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how to combine type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models to solve a range of real-world pattern recognition problems such as speech recognition, handwritten Chinese character recognition, topic modeling as well as human action recognition. It covers these recent developments while also providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models. Though primarily intended for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in fuzzy logic and pattern recognition, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers without any previous knowledge of these fields. Dr. Jia Zeng is a Professor at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, China. Dr. Zhi-Qiang Liu is a Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, China.

  16. Fuzzy Logic Module of Convolutional Neural Network for Handwritten Digits Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, E. A.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Optical character recognition is one of the important issues in the field of pattern recognition. This paper presents a method for recognizing handwritten digits based on the modeling of convolutional neural network. The integrated fuzzy logic module based on a structural approach was developed. Used system architecture adjusted the output of the neural network to improve quality of symbol identification. It was shown that proposed algorithm was flexible and high recognition rate of 99.23% was achieved.

  17. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  18. Stage character of the oxidation of dialkylthiophenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M.N.; Kazakova, O.A.

    1988-07-20

    The reasons for the stage character of the oxidation of dialkylthiophenes catalyzed by a cobalt bromide catalyst are examined. The stage character of oxidation is due to the deactivation of the catalyst by the corresponding alcohol formed during oxidation. At the first stage of the process only the products from oxidation of the /alpha/-alkyl group, i.e., the corresponding ketone, ester, and thiophenecarboxylic acid, are formed. The rate constants for their formation were calculated.

  19. Strengthening Islamic character through Mathematics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Istiqlal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mathematics learning which is integrated with Islamic character education is still limited; this is one of logical reasons why this research is conducted. The basic motivation of carrying out this research is to describe a concept of mathematics learning which is contextualized with Islamic character education. This research aims at describing concept of mathematics learning which is integrated with Islamic character education. This research uses a qualitative approach by emphasizing its analysis on the comparative inference process as well as on phenomena relationship dynamics observed by using scientific logic. Qualitative research is an approach that produces descriptive data in the form of written words from observed people that are not written in terms used in quantitative research. Research method used in this study is case study in which the researcher is trying to find out how the process of strengthening Islamic character through mathematics learning. This research was carried out at MA Nurul Ummah Kotagede Yogyakarta which has innovatively implemented mathematics learning using various methods through interactive learning multimedia which is integrated with strengthening Islamic character. Research finding showed that strengthening Islamic character through mathematics learning at MA Nurul Ummah is integrated into several aspects, namely learning methods, learning materials, and all aspect directly related to learning process in the classroom including putting statement of honesty on the answer sheet and giving reward and punishment to students.

  20. The character of free topological groups II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nickolas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis is made of the character of the free and free abelian topological groups on metrizable spaces and compact spaces, and on certain other closely related spaces. In the first case, it is shown that the characters of the free and the free abelian topological groups on X are both equal to the “small cardinal” d if X is compact and metrizable, but also, more generally, if X is a non-discrete k!-space all of whose compact subsets are metrizable, or if X is a non-discrete Polish space. An example is given of a zero-dimensional separable metric space for which both characters are equal to the cardinal of the continuum. In the case of a compact space X, an explicit formula is derived for the character of the free topological group on X involving no cardinal invariant of X other than its weight; in particular the character is fully determined by the weight in the compact case. This paper is a sequel to a paper by the same authors in which the characters of the free groups were analysed under less restrictive topological assumptions.

  1. Multimodal character viewpoint in quoted dialogue sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashmiri Stec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the multimodal production of character viewpoint in spoken American English narratives by performing complementary qualitative and quantitative analyses of two quoted dialogues, focusing on the storyteller’s use of character viewpoint gestures, character intonation, character facial expression, spatial orientation and gaze. A micro-analysis revealed that the extent of multimodal articulation depends on (i the quoted speaker, with different multimodal articulatory patterns found for quotes by the speaker’s past self vs. a third-person character, and (ii the position of the quoted utterance within the quoted dialogue, with mid-dialogue utterances garnering less co-articulation than initial or final utterances within the quoted dialogue. We further investigated these observations using a quantitative approach, which was based on 'generalized additive modeling' (GAM. The GAM analysis revealed different multimodal patterns for each quoted character, as indicated by the number of co-produced multimodal articulators. These patterns were found to hold regardless of the quote’s position within the narrative. We discuss these findings with respect to previous work on multimodal quotation. This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking

  2. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  3. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Object recognition based on reflectance and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Shree K.; Bolle, Ruud M.

    1993-06-01

    In the past, recognition systems have relied solely on geometric properties of objects. This paper discusses the simultaneous use of geometric as well as reflectance properties for object recognition. Neighboring points on a smoothly curved surface have similar surface orientations and illumination conditions. Hence, their brightness values can be used to compute the ratio of their reflectance coefficients. Based on this observation, we develop an algorithm that estimates a reflectance ratio for each region in an image with respect to its background. The algorithm is computationally efficient as it computes ratios for all image regions in just two raster scans. The region reflectance ratio represents a physical property of a region that is invariant to the illumination conditions. The reflectance ratio invariant is used to recognize three-dimensional objects from a single brightness image. Object models are automatically acquired and represented using a hash table. Recognition and pose estimation algorithms are presented that use the reflectance ratios of scene regions as well as their geometric properties to index the hash table. The result is a hypothesis for the existence of an object in the image. This hypothesis is verified using the ratios and locations of other regions in the scene. The proposed approach to recognition is very effective for objects with printed characters and pictures. We conclude with experimental results on the invariance of reflectance ratios and their application to object recognition.

  5. Contemporary deep recurrent learning for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale feed-forward neural networks have seen intense application in many computer vision problems. However, these networks can get hefty and computationally intensive with increasing complexity of the task. Our work, for the first time in literature, introduces a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) based hierarchical neural network for object detection. CSRN has shown to be more effective to solving complex tasks such as maze traversal and image processing when compared to generic feed forward networks. While deep neural networks (DNN) have exhibited excellent performance in object detection and recognition, such hierarchical structure has largely been absent in neural networks with recurrency. Further, our work introduces deep hierarchy in SRN for object recognition. The simultaneous recurrency results in an unfolding effect of the SRN through time, potentially enabling the design of an arbitrarily deep network. This paper shows experiments using face, facial expression and character recognition tasks using novel deep recurrent model and compares recognition performance with that of generic deep feed forward model. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of incorporating our proposed deep SRN based recognition framework in a humanoid robotic platform called NAO.

  6. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  7. On being of good character: nurse education and the assessment of good character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, Derek

    2007-10-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council sets good character as a condition not only of entry to the UK register of nurses but also for entry to and continuation on pre-registration nursing programmes in the UK. This requires education providers to assess the character of potential and actual nursing students yet the guidance offered by the NMC for making such assessments is insufficiently developed and serves to provide criteria by which determination can be made of good character only in a narrow sense. Assessment of character requires making value judgements about others and lends support to the idea that nurse education has an explicit moral component. This paper outlines some of the difficulties in assessing character, explores the idea that good character can be assessed in both a thin and a thick sense, and considers some of the consequent implications for nurse educationalists.

  8. Acquisition of Chinese characters: The effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen eKuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  9. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  10. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  11. Performance-Driven Hybrid Full-Body Character Control for Navigation and Interaction in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a hybrid character control interface that provides the ability to synthesize in real-time a variety of actions based on the user's performance capture. The proposed methodology enables three different performance interaction modules: the performance animation control that enables the direct mapping of the user's pose to the character, the motion controller that synthesizes the desired motion of the character based on an activity recognition methodology, and the hybrid control that lies within the performance animation and the motion controller. With the methodology presented, the user will have the freedom to interact within the virtual environment, as well as the ability to manipulate the character and to synthesize a variety of actions that cannot be performed directly by him/her, but which the system synthesizes. Therefore, the user is able to interact with the virtual environment in a more sophisticated fashion. This paper presents examples of different scenarios based on the three different full-body character control methodologies.

  12. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  13. APLIKASI SPOKES-CHARACTERS DALAM KAITAN DENGAN MEREK PRODUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Widjoyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertisement by using spokes-characters have potency to alter the choice of consumer brand with the compared to bigger impact which do not use the spokes-character. A lot of producer which hence spokes-character to increase assess to sell from a product. Spokes-Characters experience of the evolution from time to time keep abreast of the era%2C now emerge the new type of spokes-character and its application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Iklan dengan spokes-characters berpotensi mengubah pilihan merek konsumen dengan dampak lebih besar dibanding yang tidak menggunakan spokes-character. Banyak produsen yang memakai spokes-character untuk meningkatkan nilai jual dari sebuah produk. Spokes-characters mengalami evolusi dari masa ke masa mengikuti perkembangan jaman%2C sekarang muncul jenis baru spokes-character dan aplikasinya. spokes-characters%2C advertising%2C branding.

  14. RECOGNITION AND DEALING WITH ATHLETES’ ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Čokorilo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The work analizes the impact of excitement, anxiety and stress on athletes. The most common causes of anxiety have been reviewed (increased muscle tension, difficul- ties in movement coordination, differences in attention and concentration levels and so have the co-factors on the road from excitement to performance: character, the comple- xity of the task, and the presence of an audience. The most important strategies of recog- nition of, and dealing with, anxiety are thus proposed: identification the optimum combi- nation of emotions, recongition of personal and situation-caused factors, recognition of athletes’ anxiety symptoms, individual training strategy and developing self confidence

  15. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  16. The Inaccuracy of National Character Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Chan, Wayne; Jussim, Lee; De Fruyt, Filip; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Reátigui, Norma; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Purić, Danka; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Consensual stereotypes of some groups are relatively accurate, whereas others are not. Previous work suggesting that national character stereotypes are inaccurate has been criticized on several grounds. In this article we (a) provide arguments for the validity of assessed national mean trait levels as criteria for evaluating stereotype accuracy; and (b) report new data on national character in 26 cultures from descriptions (N=3,323) of the typical male or female adolescent, adult, or old person in each. The average ratings were internally consistent and converged with independent stereotypes of the typical culture member, but were weakly related to objective assessments of personality. We argue that this conclusion is consistent with the broader literature on the inaccuracy of national character stereotypes. PMID:24187394

  17. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  18. The Character of Achievement: An Analysis of Teachers' Instructional Practices for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson-Kraft, Claire; Austin, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    From kindergarten classrooms to college campuses, educators are becoming increasingly invested in developing students' character in addition to their intellect. Despite a growing body of scholarship that demonstrates the positive association of character and life outcomes, findings related to the efficacy of programs designed to develop character…

  19. Character Issues: Reality Character Problems and Solutions through Education in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidek, Abdul Rahim; Islami, Raisul; Abdoludin

    2016-01-01

    Weak character education raises the problem of corruption, a fight between students, free sex, drugs and rape/abortion indicate that the issue of character education of the nation must be improved and the concern of all parties, the nation's leaders, law enforcement officers, educators, religious leaders, groups and other etc. There are two…

  20. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  1. Reading Character in Children's Literature A Character Trait Study of Newbery Medal Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Dorothy J.; Glascock, Catherine H.; Mitchell, Deirdre; Wasserman, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    Selects and evaluates a sampling of great children's literature to ascertain what values and character messages were being communicated to readers. Indicates that Newbery books are indeed "a compelling vision of the goodness of goodness itself." Notes that character trait analysis and discussion can be a fruitful forum for increased…

  2. Effects of licensed characters on children's taste and snack preferences in Guatemala, a low/middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, P; Chacon, V; Roberto, C; Barnoya, J

    2014-11-01

    Marketing of high-energy, low-nutrient foods is one of the contributing factors to the obesity-promoting environment. Licensed characters are typically used to market these foods to children because they increase brand recognition and sales, and data suggest that they affect the taste and snack preferences of children in high-income countries, but it has not yet been explored in low/middle income countries (LMICs). We sought to examine how licensed characters on food packaging influence children's taste and snack preferences in Guatemala, a LMIC. One hundred twenty-one children (mean ± s.d. age, 7.4 ± 1.9 years) from four (two preschool and two elementary) public schools in Guatemala tasted three food types: potato chips, crackers and carrots. Each was presented in two identical packages, except that one had a licensed character and the other did not. Children tasted the foods (six total) in each package and answered whether they tasted the same or one tasted better. Snack preference was also evaluated. Children were significantly (Pprefer the taste of the foods inside the package with the licensed character compared with the one with no character (mean ± s.d., 0.24 ± 0.54). Most (66%) chose the food in the package with the character for a snack. Younger children (P prefer the taste of the food inside the package with the character. Licensed characters on food packaging influence Guatemalan children's taste and snack preferences. Given that these characters are typically used to promote high-energy, low-nutrient foods, their influence could contribute toward overconsumption of these foods and consequently increased risk of obesity in Guatemalan children. Therefore, public health advocates, in Guatemala and elsewhere, might explore restricting the use of licensed characters on food packaging as a public health strategy.

  3. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  4. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  5. A rough set approach to speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhigang

    1992-09-01

    Speech recognition is a very difficult classification problem due to the variations in loudness, speed, and tone of voice. In the last 40 years, many methodologies have been developed to solve this problem, but most lack learning ability and depend fully on the knowledge of human experts. Systems of this kind are hard to develop and difficult to maintain and upgrade. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using a machine learning approach in solving speech recognition problems. The system is based on rough set theory. It first generates a set of decision rules using a set of reference words called training samples, and then uses the decision rules to recognize new words. The main feature of this system is that, under the supervision of human experts, the machine learns and applies knowledge on its own to the designated tasks. The main advantages of this system over a traditional system are its simplicity and adaptiveness, which suggest that it may have significant potential in practical applications of computer speech recognition. Furthermore, the studies presented demonstrate the potential application of rough-set based learning systems in solving other important pattern classification problems, such as character recognition, system fault detection, and trainable robotic control.

  6. 8 CFR 316.10 - Good moral character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good moral character. 316.10 Section 316.10... NATURALIZATION § 316.10 Good moral character. (a) Requirement of good moral character during the statutory period... prescribed period, he or she has been and continues to be a person of good moral character. This includes the...

  7. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  8. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  9. 7 CFR 52.1009 - Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... fairly well fleshed. (2) Pieces; macerated. The character may be variable throughout the units or mass...

  10. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  11. DIALOGUE AND CHARACTER CLASSIFICATION IN WOLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . In an essay entitled “The Power Triangle in. Soyinka's Kongi's Harvest”, Okpure Obuke examines the power posts of the three major characters and their conflicts in the play (132-143). In yet another thematic study, Tunde Adeniran says that ...

  12. Moral-Character Development for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel; Woodbury, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors accept the common view that moral-character education is immanent to the life of classroom and schools and inevitable even when remanded to the hidden curriculum. Most schools claim to address the moral formation of students, and many educators enter the profession for values-laden reasons. Yet the language of values,…

  13. On the Prospects for Aristotelian Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for Aristotelian character education (ACE) is considered. Seven important claims that should win wide acceptance are reviewed; and also two challenges that are impediments. I argue many of the assumptions of ACE turn out not to be distinctive. The conflation of realism and naturalism is ill-considered, and the account of…

  14. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  15. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  16. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  17. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  18. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  19. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  20. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five- Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor : 2.011, year: 2013

  1. Character Education: It's a Joint Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Young children's beliefs about what is right and wrong traditionally have been strongly influenced by their families. However, in today's American family and current culture, children often are coming to school with problematic behaviors and attitudes. Therefore, character education has become a necessity in schools. As children enter school,…

  2. Aristotelian Character Education: A Response to Commentators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2016-01-01

    This article contains the responses of the author of Aristotelian Character Education (Routledge, 2015), Kristján Kristjánsson, to responses by three commentators, Randall Curren, Daniel Laspley and Christian Miller, published in this same issue of "JME."

  3. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  4. Theological Education and Character Formation in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents theological education and character formation in Nigerian Christianity. Some theologians and religious scholars do not offer any practical recipes in dealing with the major pressing problems of theological training for Christian ministry today in the 21st century Nigerian society. Some priests, lay workers ...

  5. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  6. variation, correlation and heritability of interest characters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... correlation matrix between the characters was generated using the Xlstat Version 7.5.2 software. The genotypic and phenotypic variances (VG and VP), the coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic variation (PCV and GCV), the broad- sense heritability (H2) and expected genetic gain. (GA) accessions were ...

  7. Integrating cultural resources and wilderness character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Cowley; Peter Landres; Melissa Memory; Doug Scott; Adrienne Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    Cultural resources are an integral part of wilderness and wilderness character, and all wilderness areas have a human history. This article develops a foundation for wilderness and cultural resource staffs to continue communicating with one another in order to make better decisions for wilderness stewardship. Following a discussion of relevant legislative history, we...

  8. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  9. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  10. Redefining the magic square on numerical characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sawaluddin

    2018-02-01

    As a number system, the magic square is different from the others. Characteristic depends not only on size but also depends on numerical character in computation. This paper has redefined the term of magic square formally, by exposing the inductive general characteristics of cases to numerical ordering of numbers.

  11. Inheritance of characters in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    David and Adam, 1988). The plant belongs to the order Malvales, the family Malvaceae and the genus Hibiscus ... The varieties in relation to the character studied are as follows: NRG-NG-R5: Pink flowers with resistance to root ...

  12. Amharic Character Generator | Gessesse | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Amharic Character Generator. GA Gessesse. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  13. Computer Animation for Articulated 3D Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK),

  14. The inaccuracy of national character stereotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R. R.; Chan, W.; Jussim, L.; De Fruyt, F.; Löckenhoff, C.E.; De Bolle, M.; Costa Jr., P.T.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Reátigui, N.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, Ch.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Knežević, G.; Purić, D.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P.B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2013), s. 831-842 ISSN 0092-6566 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : national character * stereotypes * Five-Factor Model of Personality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.011, year: 2013

  15. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  16. Printed Persian Subword Recognition Using Wavelet Packet Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Nasrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to offline OCR (optical character recognition for printed Persian subwords using wavelet packet transform. The proposed algorithm is used to extract font invariant and size invariant features from 87804 subwords of 4 fonts and 3 sizes. The feature vectors are compressed using PCA. The obtained feature vectors yield a pictorial dictionary for which an entry is the mean of each group that consists of the same subword with 4 fonts in 3 sizes. The sets of these features are congregated by combining them with the dot features for the recognition of printed Persian subwords. To evaluate the feature extraction results, this algorithm was tested on a set of 2000 subwords in printed Persian text documents. An encouraging recognition rate of 97.9% is got at subword level recognition.

  17. Sampling diverse characters improves phylogenies: Craniodental and postcranial characters of vertebrates often imply different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross C P; Sansom, Robert; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-03-01

    Morphological cladograms of vertebrates are often inferred from greater numbers of characters describing the skull and teeth than from postcranial characters. This is either because the skull is believed to yield characters with a stronger phylogenetic signal (i.e., contain less homoplasy), because morphological variation therein is more readily atomized, or because craniodental material is more widely available (particularly in the palaeontological case). An analysis of 85 vertebrate datasets published between 2000 and 2013 confirms that craniodental characters are significantly more numerous than postcranial characters, but finds no evidence that levels of homoplasy differ in the two partitions. However, a new partition test, based on tree-to-tree distances (as measured by the Robinson Foulds metric) rather than tree length, reveals that relationships inferred from the partitions are significantly different about one time in three, much more often than expected. Such differences may reflect divergent selective pressures in different body regions, resulting in different localized patterns of homoplasy. Most systematists attempt to sample characters broadly across body regions, but this is not always possible. We conclude that trees inferred largely from either craniodental or postcranial characters in isolation may differ significantly from those that would result from a more holistic approach. We urge the latter. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Semi-automated contour recognition using DICOMautomaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H; Duzenli, C; Wu, J; Moiseenko, V; Lee, R; Gill, B; Thomas, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been developed which recognizes and classifies Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine contour data with minimal human intervention. It allows researchers to overcome obstacles which tax analysis and mining systems, including inconsistent naming conventions and differences in data age or resolution. Methods: Lexicographic and geometric analysis is used for recognition. Well-known lexicographic methods implemented include Levenshtein-Damerau, bag-of-characters, Double Metaphone, Soundex, and (word and character)-N-grams. Geometrical implementations include 3D Fourier Descriptors, probability spheres, boolean overlap, simple feature comparison (e.g. eccentricity, volume) and rule-based techniques. Both analyses implement custom, domain-specific modules (e.g. emphasis differentiating left/right organ variants). Contour labels from 60 head and neck patients are used for cross-validation. Results: Mixed-lexicographical methods show an effective improvement in more than 10% of recognition attempts compared with a pure Levenshtein-Damerau approach when withholding 70% of the lexicon. Domain-specific and geometrical techniques further boost performance. Conclusions: DICOMautomaton allows users to recognize contours semi-automatically. As usage increases and the lexicon is filled with additional structures, performance improves, increasing the overall utility of the system.

  19. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  20. Pattern recognition principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

  1. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  2. Detection and recognition of analytes based on their crystallization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Victor [Manassas, VA; Bailey, Charles L [Cross Junction, VA; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N [Kensington, MD; Elliott, Adam [Manassas, VA

    2008-05-06

    The invention contemplates a method for recognition of proteins and other biological molecules by imaging morphology, size and distribution of crystalline and amorphous dry residues in droplets (further referred to as "crystallization pattern") containing predetermined amount of certain crystal-forming organic compounds (reporters) to which protein to be analyzed is added. It has been shown that changes in the crystallization patterns of a number of amino-acids can be used as a "signature" of a protein added. It was also found that both the character of changer in the crystallization patter and the fact of such changes can be used as recognition elements in analysis of protein molecules.

  3. Character Play – The use of game characters in multi- player Role Playing Games across platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, M.; Brolund, T.

    2008-01-01

    Avatars are a commonly used mechanism for representing the player within the world of a game. The avatar forms the main point of interaction between the player and the game, and thus the avatar is an important game design feature. Character-based games combine the concept of an avatar...... with that of a character, enhancing the avatar with specific features that commonly are changeable, and which can be defined within or outside the framework of the game rules. Within digital games, the rules-based features have received comparatively more attention than, for example, the personalities and background...... histories of game characters. This article presents results from a comprehensive empirical study of the way complex game characters are utilized by players in multiplayer role-playing games across two different media platforms. The results indicate that adult players are capable of comprehending...

  4. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  5. Recognition and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Reagan

    2016-01-01

    The complexities of the meanings of “to recognize” and “recognition” are important in their roles in the realm of justice. I include in the concept of justice, the judiciary, both civil and criminal; distributive justice; and, social and political justice. For each one of these, there are multiple meanings of recognition that are important to understanding their foundation and their scope. There are meanings of recognition that are relevant to other aspects of social justice as the recognition of marginal, oppressed, devalued, groups as deserving of being treated as equals. The structure of my paper is to go through the various meanings and categories of meanings of “to recognize” and “recognition.” I give an account of each of the types of justice and show how various kinds of recognition are relevant to each kind of justice.

  6. Orchestra of Change: Strategically Harmonizing National Character, Military Forces, and the Character of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    89 Jason Healey , ed., A Fierce Domain : Conflict in Cyberspace, 1986 to 2012 (Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2013), 70–72. 90... A Fierce Domain : Conflict in Cyberspace, 1986 to 2012. Washington, DC: Atlantic Council, 2013. Hoffman, David E. The Dead Hand: The Untold Story...ORCHESTRA OF CHANGE: STRATEGICALLY HARMONIZING NATIONAL CHARACTER, MILITARY FORCES, AND THE CHARACTER OF WAR BY SCOTT GUNN A THESIS

  7. Automatic facility drawing recognition. ; Simple circuit drawing recognition. Setsubi zumen no jido ninshiki. ; Tanjunna kairo zumen no ninshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T.; Yazawa, T. (Central Reserach Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    A method is described to automatically recognize facility drawings as an improved version of the existing pattern recognition technologies. Its pattern recognizing and processing unit analyzes and extracts features of symbols, characters and lines from a vector data and run length data. The extracted features are compared with the pattern features stored in a dictionary to determine what the pattern is. This recognition and processing was applied to an addition circuit drawing. It had a recognition factor for characters and symbols at 99% and for lines at 100%, but no capability of recognizing branch points. Therefore, an intelligence base was structured that expresses the logic relations among patterns and symbols as meaning'', and a mechanism was devised to understand the meaning of the contents of a drawing. Symbols recognized by the pattern recognition and processing process are applied to the above intelligence base to check the consistency. If a consistency is verified, the drawing written into the intelligence base can be identified as the subjected addition circuit drawing. If the consistency is not taken, the intelligence is utilized to feedback the information for re-implementation of the pattern recognition and processing process hypothesizing symbols that should be in existence. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Cultivating characters (moral value) through internalization strategy in science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M.; Abadi

    2018-01-01

    It is still in a crucial debate that characters play an important learning outcome to be realized by design. So far, most people think that characters were reached as nurturance effect with the assumption that students who are knowledgeable and skillful will have good characters automatically. Lately, obtained evidence that this assumption is not true. Characters should be taught deliberately or by design. This study was designed to culture elementary school students’ characters through science classroom. The teaching-learning process was conducted to facilitate and bridge the students from the known (concrete images: Science phenomena) to the unknown (abstract ideas: characters: care, and tolerance. Characters were observed five weeks before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed from observation of 24 students in internalization strategy-based courses. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that the internalization strategy that use of science phenomena to represent abstract ideas (characters) in science classroom positively cultivating characters.

  9. On the total character of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Prajapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group $G$, we study the total character $tau_G$ afforded by the direct sum of all the non-isomorphic irreducible complex representations of $G$. We resolve for several classes of groups (the Camina $p$-groups, the generalized Camina $p$-groups, the groups which admit $(G,Z(G$ as a generalized Camina pair, the problem of existence of a polynomial $f(x in mathbb{Q}[x]$ such that $f(chi = tau_G$ for some irreducible character $chi$ of $G$. As a consequence, we completely determine the $p$-groups of order at most $p^5$ (with $p$ odd which admit such a polynomial. We deduce the characterization that these are the groups $G$ for which $Z(G$ is cyclic and $(G,Z(G$ is a generalized Camina pair and, we conjecture that this holds good for $p$-groups of any order.

  10. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  11. [Iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungurian, V M; Grinev, M V; Demko, A E; Povzun, S A

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyzed the data of 281 cases of iatrogenes of manipulator character in abdominal surgery in order to investigate the circumstances and character of origin. There were 187 cases of operative confirmation and 84 cases of unintentional intraoperative retained foreign bodies. It was detected, that primary planned intervention of higher category of complexity should be related to the high risk group of the development of the operative confirmation. Retained foreign bodies with soft fabric base were diagnosed in early postoperative period as the result of the beginning of postoperative complications. The retained foreign bodies with tough backer material as a rule didn't cause the complications in early postoperative period. They were diagnosed in long-term postoperative period in majority of cases.

  12. Correlators in tensor models from character calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    We explain how the calculations of [20], which provided the first evidence for non-trivial structures of Gaussian correlators in tensor models, are efficiently performed with the help of the (Hurwitz) character calculus. This emphasizes a close similarity between technical methods in matrix and tensor models and supports a hope to understand the emerging structures in very similar terms. We claim that the 2m-fold Gaussian correlators of rank r tensors are given by r-linear combinations of dimensions with the Young diagrams of size m. The coefficients are made from the characters of the symmetric group Sm and their exact form depends on the choice of the correlator and on the symmetries of the model. As the simplest application of this new knowledge, we provide simple expressions for correlators in the Aristotelian tensor model as tri-linear combinations of dimensions.

  13. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Born, Kenton; Gustafson, David

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a simil...

  14. Fermionic expressions for minimal model virasoro characters

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, Trevor A

    2005-01-01

    Fermionic expressions for all minimal model Virasoro characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ are stated and proved. Each such expression is a sum of terms of {\\em fundamental fermionic form} type. In most cases, all these terms are written down using certain trees which are constructed for $s$ and $r$ from the Takahashi lengths and truncated Takahashi lengths associated with the continued fraction of $p'/p$. In the remaining cases, in addition to such terms, the fermionic expression for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ contains a different character $\\chi^{\\hat p, \\hat p'}_{\\hat r,\\hat s}$, and is thus recursive in nature. Bosonic-fermionic $q$-series identities for all characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ result from equating these fermionic expressions with known bosonic expressions. In the cases for which $p=2r$, $p=3r$, $p'=2s$ or $p'=3s$, Rogers-Ramanujan type identities result from equating these fermionic expressions with known product expressions for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$. The fermionic expressions are proved by first obta...

  15. Recognition and defect detection of dot-matrix text via variation-model based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Wataru; Suzuki, Koushi; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi

    2017-03-01

    An algorithm for recognition and defect detection of dot-matrix text printed on products is proposed. Extraction and recognition of dot-matrix text contains several difficulties, which are not involved in standard camera-based OCR, that the appearance of dot-matrix characters is corrupted and broken by illumination, complex texture in the background and other standard characters printed on product packages. We propose a dot-matrix text extraction and recognition method which does not require any user interaction. The method employs detected location of corner points and classification score. The result of evaluation experiment using 250 images shows that recall and precision of extraction are 78.60% and 76.03%, respectively. Recognition accuracy of correctly extracted characters is 94.43%. Detecting printing defect of dot-matrix text is also important in the production scene to avoid illegal productions. We also propose a detection method for printing defect of dot-matrix characters. The method constructs a feature vector of which elements are classification scores of each character class and employs support vector machine to classify four types of printing defect. The detection accuracy of the proposed method is 96.68 %.

  16. Foreign Language Optical Character Recognition, Phase II: Arabic and Persian Training and Test Data Sets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davidson, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The samples were systematically chosen to represent current vocabulary, usage, typography, and publication practices in major newspapers and news magazines, and in recent books and journals dealing...

  17. Kurzweil Reading Machine: A Partial Evaluation of Its Optical Character Recognition Error Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A study designed to assess the ability of the Kurzweil reading machine (a speech reading device for the visually handicapped) to read three different type styles produced by five different means indicated that the machines tested had different error rates depending upon the means of producing the copy and upon the type style used. (Author/CL)

  18. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIANCES IN BACKPROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK USED FOR HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Vairaprakash Gurusamy *1 & K.Nandhini2

    2017-01-01

    A Neural Network is a powerful data modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex input/output relationships. The motivation for the development of neural network technology stemmed from the desire to develop an artificial system that could perform "intelligent" tasks similar to those performed by the human brain.Back propagation was created by generalizing the Widrow-Hoff learning rule to multiple-layer networks and nonlinear differentiable transfer functions. The term back pro...

  19. THE RECOGNITION OF SPOKEN MONO-MORPHEMIC COMPOUNDS IN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-da Lai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the auditory lexical access of mono-morphemic compounds in Chinese as a way of understanding the role of orthography in the recognition of spoken words. In traditional Chinese linguistics, a compound is a word written with two or more characters whether or not they are morphemic. A monomorphemic compound may either be a binding word, written with characters that only appear in this one word, or a non-binding word, written with characters that are chosen for their pronunciation but that also appear in other words. Our goal was to determine if this purely orthographic difference affects auditory lexical access by conducting a series of four experiments with materials matched by whole-word frequency, syllable frequency, cross-syllable predictability, cohort size, and acoustic duration, but differing in binding. An auditory lexical decision task (LDT found an orthographic effect: binding words were recognized more quickly than non-binding words. However, this effect disappeared in an auditory repetition and in a visual LDT with the same materials, implying that the orthographic effect during auditory lexical access was localized to the decision component and involved the influence of cross-character predictability without the activation of orthographic representations. This claim was further confirmed by overall faster recognition of spoken binding words in a cross-modal LDT with different types of visual interference. The theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.

  20. Realization for Chinese vehicle license plate recognition based on computer vision and fuzzy neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Zhang, Weigang; Guo, Pan

    2010-07-01

    The proposed approach in this paper is divided into three steps namely the location of plate, the segmentation of the characters and the recognition of the characters. The location algorithm is firstly consisted of two video captures to get high quality images, and estimates the size of vehicle plate in these images via parallel binocular stereo vision algorithm. Then the segmentation method extracts the edge of vehicle plate based on second generation non-orthogonal Haar wavelet transformation, and locates the vehicle plate according to the estimated result in the first step. Finally, the recognition algorithm is realized based on the Radial Basis Function Fuzzy Neural Network. Experiments have been conducted for real images. The results show this method can decrease the error recognition rate of Chinese license plate recognition.

  1. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  2. Character and Dimension Formulae for Queer Lie Superalgebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yucai; Zhang, R. B.

    2015-02-01

    Closed formulae are constructed for the characters and dimensions of the finite dimensional simple modules of the queer Lie superalgebra . This is achieved by refining Brundan's algorithm for computing simple -characters.

  3. Work and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean......-Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised...

  4. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  5. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  6. Wood Species Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Bremananth R; Nithya B; Saipriya R

    2009-01-01

    The proposed system identifies the species of the wood using the textural features present in its barks. Each species of a wood has its own unique patterns in its bark, which enabled the proposed system to identify it accurately. Automatic wood recognition system has not yet been well established mainly due to lack of research in this area and the difficulty in obtaining the wood database. In our work, a wood recognition system has been designed based on pre-processing te...

  7. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  8. The application of the neural network on Morse code recognition for users with physical impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Yang, C H; Chuang, L Y; Truong, T K

    2001-01-01

    Morse code is a simple, speedy and low cost means of communication composed of a series of dots, dashes and space intervals. Each tone element (either a dot, dash or space interval) is transmitted by sending a signal for a defined length of time. This poses a challenge as the automatic recognition of Morse code is dependent upon maintaining a stable typing rate. In this paper, a suitable adaptive automatic recognition method, combining the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm with a neural network, was applied to this problem. The method presented in this paper is divided into five modules: space recognition, tone recognition, learning process, adaptive processing and character recognition. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the proposed method elicited a better recognition rate in comparison with other methods in the literature.

  9. Character trees from transcriptome data: Origin and individuation of morphological characters and the so-called "species signal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jacob M; Wagner, Günter P

    2015-11-01

    We elaborate a framework for investigating the evolutionary history of morphological characters. We argue that morphological character trees generated by phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes provide a useful tool for identifying causal gene expression differences underlying the development and evolution of morphological characters. They also enable rigorous testing of different models of morphological character evolution and origination, including the hypothesis that characters originate via divergence of repeated ancestral characters. Finally, morphological character trees provide evidence that character transcriptomes undergo concerted evolution. We argue that concerted evolution of transcriptomes can explain the so-called "species signal" found in several recent comparative transcriptome studies. The species signal is the phenomenon that transcriptomes cluster by species rather than character type, even though the characters are older than the respective species. We suggest the species signal is a natural consequence of concerted gene expression evolution resulting from mutations that alter gene regulatory network interactions shared by the characters under comparison. Thus, character trees generated from transcriptomes allow us to investigate the variational independence, or individuation, of morphological characters at the level of genetic programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. License plate recognition algorithm for passenger cars in Chinese residential areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, L.; Xian, H.; Bie, Jing; Sun, Y.; Hou, H.; Niu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for the license plate recognition problem in residential community administrations in China. License plate images are pre-processed through gradation, middle value filters and edge detection. In the license plate localization module the number of edge points, the length of license plate area and the number of each line of edge points are used for localization. In the recognition module, the paper applies a statistical character method combined with a structure c...

  11. Animated Character Analysis and Costume Design with Structured Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım Artaç, Berna; Ağaç, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    In various genres, costumes complement fictional characters and not onlyconstitute the external appearance of the fictional character, but are alsoused for purposes of fun or style by fans who dress up as the character andinternalize that character’s state of mind. This phenomenon is calledcosplay. A literature review of the field has revealed no study made previouslyon the cosplay costume design process according to character analysis. Thepresent study emphasizes the link between an...

  12. The Strategy Of Character Education In Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fatoni

    2017-01-01

    Education can determine the formation of learners character personality and manners. Therefore education is considered to be the most responsible for juvenile delinquency among students like brawl drugs and free sex. Those deviances and crime indicate the low moral manner and character of the nation. responding that phenomenon the government through the Ministry of National Education made a new effort of establishing character education model to improve the character and manner of learners. T...

  13. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  14. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  15. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  16. Implementation of Korean and Chinese Characters through Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    the Korean ministry of Education suggested that 1,800 Chinese characters be learned and used for educational purposes [Ref. 3]. In this study, the...Duplicate Code character acrcnym sound c a- and meanin code racter codel character code ------ -I ------S 1 ,980- 7.57 2.3% 18 I 3. 16-hit Code for Roman

  17. Character Education of the Most Developed Countries in ASEAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningsih

    2016-01-01

    Character education into an international issue, especially in developing countries. More specifically in Indonesia, character education is a major issue in the 2012's to the present. What kind of education that may build character? To be able to answer this question, we need a broad and deep research. Research simpler related to character…

  18. Physical Education Teachers' Views about Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkun, Erkut; Görgüt, Ilyas; Erdemir, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the views of teachers of physical education about how they define character education, whether they think national education curriculum and the curriculum of private schools are suitable for character education and whether they think character education can be applied in physical education lessons. Case…

  19. WWC Evidence Review Protocol for Character Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Character education is an inclusive concept regarding all aspects of how families, schools, and related social institutions support the positive character development of children and adults. "Character" in this context refers to the moral and ethical qualities of persons as well as the demonstration of those qualities in their emotional…

  20. Resolving Conflict: Methods Used by TV Characters and Teenage Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.; Greenberg, Bradley S.

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypotheses that action/adventure characters are perceived by teenagers as likely to engage in antisocial conflict resolution; situation comedy/family drama characters, in prosocial modes. Also tested was hypothesis that, as favorite character's perceived use of a mode increases, so does the viewer's intention to use the same mode. (SW)

  1. School-Based Character Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Character education has been a part of schooling in the United States since the early years of its public education system. Starting with a religious emphasis on moral development, character education eventually transformed into more secular approaches, like the values clarification model, character word-of-the-month approach, performance…

  2. Character Education in Three Schools: Catholic, Quaker and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidl, Christopher; Meidl, Tynisha

    2013-01-01

    Character education has always played a role in the purpose of schools. Most US states have a statement about character education as a part of the mission of the schools. This research studied how character education was perceived by participants in regards to school mission statements/philosophies, school atmosphere and curriculum in a Catholic…

  3. Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lisa; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children's and adolescents' well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012). The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years) and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years). The students completed the VIA-Youth (Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth), a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students' positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1), teachers rated the students' overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2), we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples, school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of some of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  4. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  5. Integrating Character Education Model With Spiral System In Chemistry Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartutik; Rusdarti; Sumaryanto; Supartono

    2017-04-01

    Integrating character education is the responsibility of all subject teachers including chemistry teacher. The integration of character education is just administrative requirements so that the character changes are not measurable. The research objective 1) describing the actual conditions giving character education, 2) mapping the character integration of chemistry syllabus with a spiral system, and 3) producing syllabus and guide system integrating character education in chemistry lessons. Of the eighteen value character, each character is mapped to the material chemistry value concepts of class X and repeated the system in class XI and class XII. Spiral system integration means integrating the character values of chemistry subjects in steps from class X to XII repeatedly at different depth levels. Besides developing the syllabus, also made the integration of characters in a learning guide. This research was designed with research and development [3] with the scope of 20 chemistry teachers in Semarang. The focus of the activities is the existence of the current character study, mapping the character values in the syllabus, and assessment of the integration guides of character education. The validity test of Syllabus and Lesson Plans by experts in FGD. The data were taken with questionnaire and interviews, then processed by descriptive analysis. The result shows 1) The factual condition, in general, the teachers designed learning one-time face-to-face with the integration of more than four characters so that behaviour changes and depth of character is poorly controlled, 2) Mapping each character values focused in the syllabus. Meaning, on one or two basic competence in four or five times, face to face, enough integrated with the value of one character. In this way, there are more noticeable changes in students behaviour. Guidance is needed to facilitate the integration of character education for teachers integrating systems. Product syllabus and guidelines

  6. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    When game studies has tackled the player-character, it has tended to do so by means of an opposition to the notion of the avatar, with the result that the ontological and semiotic nature of the character in itself has not been given due attention. This paper draws on understandings of character...... from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...

  7. Model Pembelajaran Character Building dan Implikasinya Terhadap Perilaku Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Masrukhin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Character Building Subject is required for students in preparation to face the world outside the campus, workplace, society, peers, and even family. Character Building is a process or efforts done to develop, improve and/or to shape characters, dispositions, psychological nature, morals (manners of human beings (people that indicate attitudes and good behaviors. Values and factors that influence the Character Building are spirit, togetherness, and caring. The concept of Character Building which could be obtained in formal institutions (campus, informal institutions (family, and non-formal institutions (courses, student spiritual clubs has an influence and impact on the character of students, whether intentional or not. Nevertheless, it will not happen if there is no self-consciousness in the student. Good Character Building will also be a benchmark in the workplace. Learning Character Building that students get apparently contributes to the formation of student character, of which influences their behaviors. The effect can be seen from the attitude of students such as honesty, trustworthiness in maintaining trust and job given. Character Building is a subject that imparts the values of good behavior to students; and therefore when they jump into the workplace, there will no longer happen the cases of corruption and fraud resulting from the dishonesty because people like that do not have a good character.  

  8. The Strategy Of Character Education In Globalization Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fatoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Education can determine the formation of learners character personality and manners. Therefore education is considered to be the most responsible for juvenile delinquency among students like brawl drugs and free sex. Those deviances and crime indicate the low moral manner and character of the nation. responding that phenomenon the government through the Ministry of National Education made a new effort of establishing character education model to improve the character and manner of learners. This does not mean that previously there was no character education however todays government emphasizes systematic character education. In this regard teacher is the key factor of the successful implementation of character education because teacher makes direct interaction with learners. Teacher is required to prepare learning device and he then implement character education in the classroom. However most of teachers still do not understand how to prepare Lesson Plan of character education let alone to carry it out. On the other hand an education system that is supposed to be successful in establishing character building is the educational system in pesantren or madrasa. In principle implanting characters is more effective through habituation and good example that is more likely pesantren or boarding school that is directly supervised by the teacher.

  9. READING LITERATURE, TAKING PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND OBTAINING CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Maisaroh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the philosophical ideas and characters containing in trilogy of 'RaraMendut's' novel by YB Mangunwijaya. The method used is the knowledge archeology of Michel Foucault. The research proves that the philosophical ideas as follows: 1 wife's faithfulness contains characters of wife’s strong determination and true faithfulness sense; 2 The women seizing fate's  contains the character of high struggle spirit;3 women as a glory’s symbol contains character of self-actualization ability; 4 women and a country's defense contains a character of clever to take on the role / responsive; 5 women and their benefits contains the character as a source of love and life spirit; 6 women as good mothers contains the character of conciliatory, reassuring, joyful, sincere, and full of love; 7 the anxiety to old age contains the character of religious and strong self-awareness; 8 the glory contains the character of the glory of battle with themselves; 9 the child's nature contains the character of belief in the skill/ creativity of children and believe to God the Evolver; And 10 the essence of wisdom and usefulness of life contain  the characters of uniting the scattered things, receiving and embracing sincerely things bad/ broken/ waste, understanding and forgiving, voice sincerity and excitement, not easy to complain.

  10. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  11. Accelerating Progress: A New Era of Research on Character Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sarah; Bollinger, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent character development is a high priority for educators, policymakers, and front-line youth workers. To meet this growing demand, and as exemplified in the five articles in this special section, character development scholars are drawing from a range of academic disciplines to push beyond the traditional boundaries of the science of character development. These articles highlight important trends in character research, including the co-development of a subset of character strengths, the articulation of developmental trajectories of character, the use of advanced methodological approaches, and the implications for education. Studies such as these are critically important for establishing the research base that will be used to design the character development programs of tomorrow.

  12. Character education in perspective of chemistry pre-service teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdekawati, Krisna

    2017-12-01

    As one of the pre-service teacher education programs, Chemistry Education Department Islamic University of Indonesia (UII) is committed to providing quality education. It is an education that can produce competent and characteristic chemistry pre-service teacher. The focus of research is to describe the perception of students as a potential teacher of chemistry on character education and achievement of character education. The research instruments include questionnaires and observation sheets. Research data show that students have understood the importance of character education and committed to organizing character education later in schools. Students have understood the ways in which character education can be used. The students stated that Chemistry Education Department has tried to equip students with character education. The observation result shows that students generally have character as a pre-service teacher.

  13. Explaining the role of character development in the evaluation of morally ambiguous characters in entertainment media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Ommen, M.E. van; Weijers, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The current project aims at better understanding how narrative characteristics in stories function in the liking, moral evaluation, and enjoyment of narratives featuring morally ambiguous characters (MACs). Shafer and Raney (2012) found that viewers differently enjoyed a heroic versus MAC-centered

  14. No-Excuses for Character: A Critique of Character Education in No-Excuses Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon; Goodman, Joan F.

    2017-01-01

    The "no-excuses" model of education has become one of the most prominent educational alternatives for urban youth. Recently, notable no-excuses charter schools have begun a concerted effort to develop students' character strengths, striving to increase their chances of future success. In this article, we situate the no-excuses approach…

  15. Games of Character: Team Sports, Games, and Character Development in Victorian Public Schools, 1850-1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…

  16. Photoluminescence character of Xe ion irradiated sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Song; Xie Erqing; Zhang Chonghong; Wang Zhiguang; Zhou Lihong; Ma YiZhong; Yao Cunfeng; Zang Hang; Liu Chunbao; Sheng Yanbin; Gou Jie

    2008-01-01

    In the present work the photoluminescence (PL) character of sapphire implanted with 180 keV Xe and irradiated with 308 MeV Xe ions was studied. The virgin, implanted and irradiated samples were investigated by PL and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra measurements. The obtained PL spectra showed the maximum emission bands at 2.75, 3.0 and 3.26 eV for the implanted fluence of 1.0 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 and at 2.4 and 3.47 eV for the irradiated fluence of 1.0 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The FTIR spectra showed a broaden absorption band between 460 and 630 cm -1 , indicating that strong damaged region formed in Al 2 O 3

  17. Photoluminescence character of Xe ion irradiated sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Song [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: songyin@impcas.ac.cn; Xie Erqing [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Chonghong; Wang Zhiguang; Zhou Lihong; Ma YiZhong; Yao Cunfeng; Zang Hang; Liu Chunbao; Sheng Yanbin; Gou Jie [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the present work the photoluminescence (PL) character of sapphire implanted with 180 keV Xe and irradiated with 308 MeV Xe ions was studied. The virgin, implanted and irradiated samples were investigated by PL and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra measurements. The obtained PL spectra showed the maximum emission bands at 2.75, 3.0 and 3.26 eV for the implanted fluence of 1.0 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} and at 2.4 and 3.47 eV for the irradiated fluence of 1.0 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The FTIR spectra showed a broaden absorption band between 460 and 630 cm{sup -1}, indicating that strong damaged region formed in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  18. Image based book cover recognition and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhadan, Kalyani; Vijayarajan, V.; Krishnamoorthi, A.; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    In this we are developing a graphical user interface using MATLAB for the users to check the information related to books in real time. We are taking the photos of the book cover using GUI, then by using MSER algorithm it will automatically detect all the features from the input image, after this it will filter bifurcate non-text features which will be based on morphological difference between text and non-text regions. We implemented a text character alignment algorithm which will improve the accuracy of the original text detection. We will also have a look upon the built in MATLAB OCR recognition algorithm and an open source OCR which is commonly used to perform better detection results, post detection algorithm is implemented and natural language processing to perform word correction and false detection inhibition. Finally, the detection result will be linked to internet to perform online matching. More than 86% accuracy can be obtained by this algorithm.

  19. Container code recognition in information auto collection system of container inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jianping; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan; Kang Kejun

    2003-01-01

    Now custom needs electrical application and automatic detection. Container inspection should not only give the image of the goods, but also auto-attain container's code and weight. Its function and track control, information transfer make up the Information Auto Collection system of Container Inspection. Code Recognition is the point. The article is based on model match, the close property of character, and uses it to recognize. Base on checkout rule, design the adjustment arithmetic, form the whole recognition strategy. This strategy can achieve high recognition ratio and robust property

  20. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  1. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  2. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli…

  3. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  4. Object Attention Patches for Text Detection and Recognition in Scene Images using SIFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriman, Bowornrat; Schomaker, Lambertus; De Marsico, Maria; Figueiredo, Mário; Fred, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Natural urban scene images contain many problems for character recognition such as luminance noise, varying font styles or cluttered backgrounds. Detecting and recognizing text in a natural scene is a difficult problem. Several techniques have been proposed to overcome these problems. These are,

  5. Comparative study between deep learning and bag of visual words for wild-animal recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambert; Wiering, Marco

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 IEEE.Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed

  6. Bark Morphology as an aid to Forest-Recognition and Taxonomy of Dipterocarpaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitmore, T.C.

    1963-01-01

    Different trees have different sorts of hark, the variation is of two main kinds. The hark of an individual changes as it grows, and there are differences between mature trees of different species. The recognition of large trees in tropical forest depends on living as opposed to herbarium characters

  7. Comparative Study Between Deep Learning and Bag of Visual Words for Wild-Animal Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okafor, Emmanuel; Pawara, Pornntiwa; Karaaba, Mahir; Surinta, Olarik; Codreanu, Valeriu; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Most research in image classification has focused on applications such as face, object, scene and character recognition. This paper examines a comparative study between deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and bag of visual words (BOW) variants for recognizing animals. We developed two variants

  8. THE CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF GLEN HANSARD IN ONCE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nani Rosnani Thamrin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characterization of talented actor named Glen Hansard in Once film. This study employed a descriptive qualitative research design based on theories of Rahardjo (1985, Robert (1965, and Card (1988. Primary data sources were whole Once scenes film directed by John Carney which had low-budgeting production with two stars, Glen Hansard and Irglova, while secondary data sources were collected from the articles related to this study. This research mainly investigated two aspects involved two character analyses of the main actor, Hansard. The first one was the construction of Hansard’s characters and the second one was the effect between his character and another actors’ character. The study showed that Hansard’s characters were constructed by five factors: from what the character did and said, what the other characters said about him, how the appearance and its milieu were, influencing one and another.The study also found that he had struggle, visionary, ambitious, introvert, sensitive, straightforward and curious characters, but more characters that showed strong characters of his were struggle, visionary and ambitious, because the scenes reflected them more.

  9. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  10. The influence of media characters on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.

  11. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells...... out Galeotti's justification for recognition as a requirement of liberal justice in detail and asks in what sense the policies supported by Galeotti are policies of recognition. It is argued that Jones misrepresents Galeotti's theory, insofar as this sense of recognition actually is compatible...... in respects that need to be filled out in order to secure compatibility with liberalism, and that this may prove problematic. Keywords: liberalism; multiculturalism; recognition; toleration...

  12. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  13. Tolerance and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Marius Hansteen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  14. Importance of ECM recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Importance of ECM recognition. Leishmaniasis transmitted by parasite injection into blood during blood meal of insect vector. Parasites home in macrophages of liver and spleen - adhere, penetrate, transform and replicate. Macrophage lysis - attack of neighbouring ...

  15. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  16. The Processing of Visual and Phonological Configurations of Chinese One- and Two-Character Words in a Priming Task of Semantic Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bosen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Degao

    2015-01-01

    To separate the contribution of phonological from that of visual-orthographic information in the recognition of a Chinese word that is composed of one or two Chinese characters, we conducted two experiments in a priming task of semantic categorization (PTSC), in which length (one- or two-character words), relation, prime (related or unrelated prime-target pairs), and SOA (47, 87, or 187 ms) were manipulated. The prime was similar to the target in meaning or in visual configuration in Experiment A and in meaning or in pronunciation in Experiment B. The results indicate that the two-character words were similar to the one-character words but were less demanding of cognitive resources than the one-character words in the processing of phonological, visual-orthographic, and semantic information. The phonological primes had a facilitating effect at the SOA of 47 ms but an inhibitory effect at the SOA of 187 ms on the participants' reaction times; the visual-orthographic primes only had an inhibitory influence on the participants' reaction times at the SOA of 187 ms. The visual configuration of a Chinese word of one or two Chinese characters has its own contribution in helping retrieve the word's meanings; similarly, the phonological configuration of a one- or two-character word plays its own role in triggering activations of the word's semantic representations.

  17. Younger and Older Users’ Recognition of Virtual Agent Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jenay M.; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    As technology advances, robots and virtual agents will be introduced into the home and healthcare settings to assist individuals, both young and old, with everyday living tasks. Understanding how users recognize an agent’s social cues is therefore imperative, especially in social interactions. Facial expression, in particular, is one of the most common non-verbal cues used to display and communicate emotion in on-screen agents (Cassell, Sullivan, Prevost, & Churchill, 2000). Age is important to consider because age-related differences in emotion recognition of human facial expression have been supported (Ruffman et al., 2008), with older adults showing a deficit for recognition of negative facial expressions. Previous work has shown that younger adults can effectively recognize facial emotions displayed by agents (Bartneck & Reichenbach, 2005; Courgeon et al. 2009; 2011; Breazeal, 2003); however, little research has compared in-depth younger and older adults’ ability to label a virtual agent’s facial emotions, an import consideration because social agents will be required to interact with users of varying ages. If such age-related differences exist for recognition of virtual agent facial expressions, we aim to understand if those age-related differences are influenced by the intensity of the emotion, dynamic formation of emotion (i.e., a neutral expression developing into an expression of emotion through motion), or the type of virtual character differing by human-likeness. Study 1 investigated the relationship between age-related differences, the implication of dynamic formation of emotion, and the role of emotion intensity in emotion recognition of the facial expressions of a virtual agent (iCat). Study 2 examined age-related differences in recognition expressed by three types of virtual characters differing by human-likeness (non-humanoid iCat, synthetic human, and human). Study 2 also investigated the role of configural and featural processing as a

  18. Prevalence of smoking among major movie characters: 1996–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D

    2006-01-01

    Background Reports of a relationship between watching smoking in movies and smoking among adolescents have prompted greater scrutiny of smoking in movies by the public health community. Objective To assess the smoking prevalence among adult and adolescent movie characters, examine trends in smoking in movies over time, and compare the data with actual smoking prevalence among US adults and adolescents. Design and methods Smoking status of all major human adolescent and adult movie characters in the top 100 box office hits from 1996 to 2004 (900 movies) was assessed, and smoking prevalence was examined by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and year of release. Results The movies contained 5944 major characters, of whom 4911 were adults and 466 were adolescents. Among adult movie characters, the overall smoking prevalence was 20.6%; smoking was more common in men than in women (22.6% v 16.1%, respectively, pmovies rated R (restricted, people aged movie characters (25.7%) was similar to that in the actual US population (24.7%). Smoking prevalence among adult movie characters declined to 18.4% in 2004 (p for trend movie characters was statistically significant in movies rated G/PG and R, but not in those rated PG‐13. A downward trend over time was also found for smoking among adolescent movie characters. There was no smoking among adult characters in 43.3% of the movies; however, in 39% of the movies, smoking prevalence among adult characters was higher than that in the US adult population in the year of release. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among major adolescent and adult movie characters is declining, with the downward trend among adult characters weakest for PG‐13‐rated movies. Although many movies depict no adult smoking, more than one third depict smoking as more prevalent than that among US adults at the time of release. PMID:17130372

  19. Prevalence of smoking among major movie characters: 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Keilah A; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D

    2006-12-01

    Reports of a relationship between watching smoking in movies and smoking among adolescents have prompted greater scrutiny of smoking in movies by the public health community. To assess the smoking prevalence among adult and adolescent movie characters, examine trends in smoking in movies over time, and compare the data with actual smoking prevalence among US adults and adolescents. Smoking status of all major human adolescent and adult movie characters in the top 100 box office hits from 1996 to 2004 (900 movies) was assessed, and smoking prevalence was examined by Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and year of release. The movies contained 5944 major characters, of whom 4911 were adults and 466 were adolescents. Among adult movie characters, the overall smoking prevalence was 20.6%; smoking was more common in men than in women (22.6% v 16.1%, respectively, pmovies rated R (restricted, people aged movie characters (25.7%) was similar to that in the actual US population (24.7%). Smoking prevalence among adult movie characters declined to 18.4% in 2004 (p for trend movie characters was statistically significant in movies rated G/PG and R, but not in those rated PG-13. A downward trend over time was also found for smoking among adolescent movie characters. There was no smoking among adult characters in 43.3% of the movies; however, in 39% of the movies, smoking prevalence among adult characters was higher than that in the US adult population in the year of release. Smoking prevalence among major adolescent and adult movie characters is declining, with the downward trend among adult characters weakest for PG-13-rated movies. Although many movies depict no adult smoking, more than one third depict smoking as more prevalent than that among US adults at the time of release.

  20. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  1. Variable length and context-dependent HMM letter form models for Arabic handwritten word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianne-Bernard, Anne-Laure; Menasri, Fares; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence; Mokbel, Chafic; Kermorvant, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper an HMM-based recognizer for the recognition of unconstrained Arabic handwritten words. The recognizer is a context-dependent HMM which considers variable topology and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. We propose an algorithm to adapt the topology of each HMM to the character to be modeled. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on decision tree clustering is introduced which significantly reduces the number of parameters. Decision trees are built according to a set of expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions yielding larger clusters and precise questions yielding smaller ones. We apply this modeling to the recognition of Arabic handwritten words. Experiments conducted on the OpenHaRT2010 database show that variable length topology and contextual information significantly improves the recognition rate.

  2. [Japanese radiological report creation with continuous speech recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Taro; Nakajima, Mika; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Hachiya, Junichi

    2002-01-01

    Ten Japanese radiological reports consisting of 1381 characters (681 words) were created by two board-certified radiologists who used conventional typing and a continuous speech-recognition system called AmiVoice (Advanced Media, Inc., Tokyo, Japan). The two radiologists had not had any special training prior to their use of the continuous speech-recognition system. The model of speech-to-text analysis was generated from 22,589 radiological reports (5.7 MB). Dedicated pronunciations for loan words (i.e., English words) were registered by a board-certified radiologist in consideration of variations in Japanese pronunciation. Misrecognition occurred in 40 of 1362 words, corresponding to a 97.1% rate of accuracy of recognition. The average speech recognition time per report was 31.3 sec, and the additional time required for corrections was 25.0 sec. The total speech input time of 56.2 sec was much less than the conventional input time of 142.8 sec for typing. Continuous speech recognition is faster than typing, even considering the additional time required for corrections, and is acceptable in view of the overall reduction in report turn-around time.

  3. Handwritten Digits Recognition Using Neural Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Enăchescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for the recognition of handwritten digits and a practical implementation of this method for real-time recognition. A theoretical framework for the neural networks used to classify the handwritten digits is also presented.The classification task is performed using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. CNN is a special type of multy-layer neural network, being trained with an optimized version of the back-propagation learning algorithm.CNN is designed to recognize visual patterns directly from pixel images with minimal preprocessing, being capable to recognize patterns with extreme variability (such as handwritten characters, and with robustness to distortions and simple geometric transformations.The main contributions of this paper are related to theoriginal methods for increasing the efficiency of the learning algorithm by preprocessing the images before the learning process and a method for increasing the precision and performance for real-time applications, by removing the non useful information from the background.By combining these strategies we have obtained an accuracy of 96.76%, using as training set the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology database.

  4. Identification of Mendel's white flower character.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger P Hellens

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea.We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates.We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.

  5. Identification of Mendel's white flower character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellens, Roger P; Moreau, Carol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Schwinn, Kathy E; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark W E J; Frew, Tonya J; Murray, Sarah R; Hofer, Julie M I; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Davies, Kevin M; Allan, Andrew C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M; Ellis, T H Noel

    2010-10-11

    The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea. We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates. We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.

  6. Photoluminescence character of Xe ion irradiated sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yin; Xie Erqing; Li Yuhong; Zhang Chonghong; Zhou Lihong; Yang Yitao; Yao Cunfeng; Li Bingsheng; Ma Yizhun; Hou Jie

    2008-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) character of sapphire irradiated with 460 keV, 3 MeV and 308 MeV Xe ions were studied. The PL measurements show that the absorption peaks located at 380, 413, and 450 nm are increased, and new peaks are appeared at 390 and 564 nm in irradiated samples with 460 keV Xe ions. The PL measurements also show that the absorption peaks located at 516 and 564 nm appear in irradiated samples with 3 MeV Xe ions, and w hen the Xe ions fluency is increased to 1 × 10 16 cm -2 , the peak at 564 nm is disappeared. The PL measurements show that the absorption peaks are appeared at 357 and 516 nm for the irradiated samples with 308 MeV Xe ions, and the peak become more and more strong with increase of Xe ions fluencies. Infrared spectra show a broadening of the absorption band between 460 cm -1 and 630 cm -1 indicating strongly damaged regions formed in the Al 2 O 3 samples and position shift of the absorption band in 1000-1300 cm -1 towards to low wavenumber. (authors)

  7. Learning through hand- or typewriting influences visual recognition of new graphic shapes: behavioral and functional imaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcamp, Marieke; Boucard, Céline; Gilhodes, Jean-Claude; Anton, Jean-Luc; Roth, Muriel; Nazarian, Bruno; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2008-05-01

    Fast and accurate visual recognition of single characters is crucial for efficient reading. We explored the possible contribution of writing memory to character recognition processes. We evaluated the ability of adults to discriminate new characters from their mirror images after being taught how to produce the characters either by traditional pen-and-paper writing or with a computer keyboard. After training, we found stronger and longer lasting (several weeks) facilitation in recognizing the orientation of characters that had been written by hand compared to those typed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings indicated that the response mode during learning is associated with distinct pathways during recognition of graphic shapes. Greater activity related to handwriting learning and normal letter identification was observed in several brain regions known to be involved in the execution, imagery, and observation of actions, in particular, the left Broca's area and bilateral inferior parietal lobules. Taken together, these results provide strong arguments in favor of the view that the specific movements memorized when learning how to write participate in the visual recognition of graphic shapes and letters.

  8. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  9. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial Intelligence 17(1): 41–62. Hu M K 1962 Visual pattern recognition by moment invariants. IRE Trans. on Information Theory, IT-8,. 179–187. Huang F T, Zhou Z, Zhang H-J and Chen T 2000 Pose invariant face recognition, Proc. Fourth IEEE. International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, ...

  10. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  11. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  12. Pattern recognition and modelling of earthquake registrations with interactive computer support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manova, Katarina S.

    2004-01-01

    The object of the thesis is Pattern Recognition. Pattern recognition i.e. classification, is applied in many fields: speech recognition, hand printed character recognition, medical analysis, satellite and aerial-photo interpretations, biology, computer vision, information retrieval and so on. In this thesis is studied its applicability in seismology. Signal classification is an area of great importance in a wide variety of applications. This thesis deals with the problem of (automatic) classification of earthquake signals, which are non-stationary signals. Non-stationary signal classification is an area of active research in the signal and image processing community. The goal of the thesis is recognition of earthquake signals according to their epicentral zone. Source classification i.e. recognition is based on transformation of seismograms (earthquake registrations) to images, via time-frequency transformations, and applying image processing and pattern recognition techniques for feature extraction, classification and recognition. The tested data include local earthquakes from seismic regions in Macedonia. By using actual seismic data it is shown that proposed methods provide satisfactory results for classification and recognition.(Author)

  13. CHARACTER EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOL- BASED SMA AMANAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Herdiana Abdurrahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe findings of the study in pesantren-based SMA Amanah covering: 1 the principal policy in developing character education, 2 the methods used in developing character education, 3 students’ characteristics as the result of the character education process, 4 the problems encountered in the implementation of character education and the efforts made in addressing the implementation of character education at the school. This study applied qualitative method using descriptive technique. The data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation. The findings of study showed that: 1 the principal’s policy in developing character education was carried out by implementing government policies in line with the school’s vision, mission, and programs; 2 the methods used in the process of character education were through role-modelling, assignments and nurturing, habituation, training programs, and  students’ participation in various types of activities, as well as the application of rewards and punishments; 3 the student's characteristics resulted from the character  education process were piousness and devotion as well as being able to apply their knowledge and piety in everyday life; 4 problems encountered in the implementation of character education  were different values and norms students brought from home; imbalance of facilities compared to the number of students; as well as teachers’ readiness to actually implement the new program, which  was character education. Meanwhile the efforts made to overcome those problems were namely developing personal, family, neighborhood or community characters, and making commitment of all related parties/stakeholdres of SMA Amanah.

  14. Pattern recognition in calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Negra, M.

    1980-07-01

    It is probable that LEP detectors will often include 4π calorimeters. Since this is a novel technique, not much expertise exists yet in the field of pattern recognition for large calorimeter systems. A fast method to simulate calorimeter signals, based on an analytical parametrization of electromagnetic and hadronic showers, developped by the UAl software group on calorimetry, is presented. Some reconstruction problems are discussed, in particular the question of disentangling individual showers within an energetic jet

  15. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    with the opportunity to start export sales. In contrast, harmonization, in particular the prospect that one’s own national (but not the foreign) standard becomes the only globally accepted standard, opens the foreign market without balancing entry at home. We study these scenarios in a reduced form lobby game with two......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  16. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  17. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  18. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  19. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  20. A Chinese Named Entity Recognition System with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity recognition (NER is a typical sequential labeling problem that plays an important role in natural language processing (NLP systems. In this paper, we discussed the details of applying a comprehensive model aggregating neural networks and conditional random field (CRF on Chinese NER tasks, and how to discovery character level features when implement a NER system in word level. We compared the difference between Chinese and English when modeling the character embeddings. We developed a NER system based on our analysis, it works well on the ACE 2004 and SIGHAN bakeoff 2006 MSRA dataset, and doesn’t rely on any gazetteers or handcraft features. We obtained F1 score of 82.3% on MSRA 2006.

  1. Morality predicts enjoyment but not appreciation of morally ambiguous characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Johnson, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of morally ambiguous characters such as anti-heroes in entertainment experiences has become a central concern for media researchers. Some have argued that different character schemas or tropes may vary along specific moral domains, whereas others promote a linear progression

  2. Mapping wilderness character in Denali National Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Burrows; James Tricker; Dan Abbe; Peter Landres; Jon Paynter; David Schirokauer; Philip Hooge

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of an interagency strategy to monitor wilderness character allows on-the-ground managers and decision-makers to assess whether stewardship actions for an individual wilderness are fulfilling the legislative mandate to "preserve wilderness character." By using credible data that are consistently collected, one can assess how wilderness...

  3. Adult Age Differences in Processing Narrative Text: Managing Character Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim

    2009-01-01

    Understanding a narrative situation depends on keeping track of multiple characters that enter and exit dynamically as the plot unfolds. Because there has been no systematic investigation of age differences in the ability to manage multiple characters during narrative comprehension, this project was designed to examine those differences in this…

  4. Dialogue and character classification in Wole Soyinka's Kongi's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines Wole Soyinka's use of dialogue-one of the major elements of drama to paint portraits of various characters in his play, Kongi's Harvest. It explores the playwright's artistic realisation of characters that can be identified and classified by what they say and what is said of them. The study concludes that with ...

  5. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on…

  6. Heterosis of Qualitative and Quantitative Characters in Sweet Gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heterotic effects and genetic components of variation for qualitative and quantitative characters were estimated in sweet gourd. The phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters indicating that environment played a considerable role on the expression of ...

  7. dramatization of character in selected nigerian short stories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization in the short story endears the short story genre more to the conventions of the stage because of its dramatization of character. By paying strict attention to the manipulation of action and dialogue, the short story writer creates dramatic characters who illuminate setting, promote the plot and ultimately realize ...

  8. The Relationship Between Personalities and Faces of Manga Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Mangaka' ('manga' artists are limited to portraying the personalities of characters through static images and limited changes in facial expression. It is imperative that the personality and appearance of a character complement each other.  In this study, we found that participants rely heavily on facial features to identify the personalities of characters. However, we also found that their first impressions are inclined towards two out of a total of sixteen specific personality types. This preference for specific personality types may be a unique feature of manga. Perhaps because readers are entirely reliant on the visual presentation of manga, facial features provide a relatively rich source of information when determining the personality of a character. The physical appearance of characters is somewhat limited by the stylization typical of manga. Possibly the facial features of characters have become restricted to a few select types, enforcing stereotypical images in the minds of readers.  This encapsulation of personalities is important to the development of manga. Simplifying personality types helps readers to identify with characters and understand the plot. However, over-simplification can make characters dull or indistinguishable from each other

  9. Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    "Faculty Virtues and Character Strengths: Reflective Exercises for Sustained Renewal" is a transdisciplinary faculty handbook to enhance the quality of learning and teaching. The author applies six multicultural virtues and 24 character strengths from Positive Psychology research to the tasks of course design, managing critical incidents, and…

  10. High School Athletes' Perspectives on Character Development through Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, Martin; Trudel, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background: Results from empirical research on character development in sport remain mixed concerning the outcomes of sport participation, in part because character is a socially constructed concept that can be interpreted in a wide variety of manners. Furthermore, the majority of research in this field has been conducted employing quantitative…

  11. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  12. An interpretation of suicide and murder character elimination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is noticed that women characters in particular are most likely to commit suicide when they are frustrated by something. In the selected texts, the characters who commit suicide or murder do not do so by choice, but as a result of reaching a point of absolute desperation in their lives or because of having to be loyal to ...

  13. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  14. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  15. Character Education in the Inner City: Making It Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Constance

    2016-01-01

    St. HOPE (Helping Others Pursue Excellence) has embraced the character education movement and worked tirelessly to become a National School of Character. There is a commitment to relevant, student-driven service learning that develops every facet of their scholars' burgeoning identities, experiences that truly cultivate the whole child. St. HOPE…

  16. Widening the Lens to Teach Character Education Alongside Standards Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Williams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article challenges policymakers, school leaders, and teachers to implement wide-scale and systematic teaching of character education in every classroom. In support of the idea that student character development should be a priority in all classes, I explain that youth need "decision-filters" to negotiate life's challenges. Further,…

  17. Fostering Character Education in an Urban Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszka, Carla; Smith, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the character education program in Donald Stewart School No. 51, in Elizabeth, NJ, a dual-language preschool serving 300 students that first opened its doors in 2004. Over the years this school has been committed to laying the foundation of character development with its preschoolers. Their pillar "Friends Care, Friends…

  18. The Effects of Character Education in South Carolina's Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on the use of Character Education in South Carolina's public high schools. Every high school in South Carolina is given a yearly survey from the South Carolina Department of Education that deals with both character education and violence in the school. This quantitative study used public accessed data,…

  19. "Reel" Character Education: Using Film to Promote Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William Benedict, III; Waters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This article explores using films to spark moral dilemma discussions and thereby promote critical thinking and character education for global citizenship in elementary classrooms. After clarifying some of the basic concepts associated with the fields of character education and global citizenship, and the interrelationship between the two, the…

  20. Christianity and Character Education: Faith in Core Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Character education is important within the Christian tradition but tends to be viewed with suspicion by educators who privilege autonomy as the aim of a liberal education. Equally, Christians may have concerns that character education places too great an emphasis upon good works rather than God's grace. This article reasons that character…

  1. Inculcating Character Education through EFL Teaching in Indonesian State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qoyyimah, Uswatun

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…

  2. Forgiveness as Character Education for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…

  3. College Access, Student Success, and the "New" Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutter, Madora; Seider, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in--and reconceptualizing of-- character education in primary and secondary schools across the United States. An important question, then, is how this new emphasis on character development at the K-12 level impacts the work of university faculty and student affairs professionals.…

  4. The Implementation of Character Education through Scout Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislia; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Manda, Darman

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at describing the factors influencing the extracurricular activities especially scouting. This research also aims at describing the Scouts skills that can form the students' character. This research is also to describe the strategies for the formation of the students' character through scout activities. This research was a…

  5. Character Development among Youth: Linking Lives in Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2018-01-01

    This article embeds the study of character development within the two-decades-long research program framed by the Lerner and Lerner model of positive youth development. Character development involves attaining the feelings, thoughts, and skills needed to act coherently across time and place to serve self and others in mutually beneficial, positive…

  6. Representations of Deaf Characters in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters,…

  7. Mapping wilderness character: New tools for new concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of an interagency strategy to monitor wilderness character (Landres et al. 2008) allows on-the-ground managers and decision makers to assess whether stewardship actions for an individual wilderness are fulfilling the mandate to "preserve wilderness character." Since nearly all wilderness monitoring data depict spatial features, a recent...

  8. Character Reversal in Children: The Prominent Role of Writing Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has established that 5- to 6-year-old typically developing children in a left-right writing culture spontaneously reverse left-oriented characters (e.g., they write a [reversed J] instead of J) when they write single characters. Thus, children seem to implicitly apply a right-writing rule (RWR: see Fischer & Koch, 2016a). In…

  9. Dynamic Characters with Communication Disorders in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Carolyn D.; Ball, Angel L.

    2006-01-01

    Using quality children's literature with portrayals of characters that have communication impairments can be an effective teaching tool. Storybook characters with communication disorders can provide positive role models and promote understanding of diverse populations. Eighteen children's books were selected based on the following criteria:…

  10. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    p) variance, genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variation, heritability (h2 b) and genetic advance (GA) as percentage of mean for 12 characters are presented in. Table 1. The range of variation was much pronounced in most of the characters. The phenotypic variance and phenotypic coefficient of variation ...

  11. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  12. Building Strengths of Character: Keys to Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nansook

    2009-01-01

    Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…

  13. character association and path coefficient analysis between some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    some growth characters and grain yield in Soybean, a basis of selection for further improvement. Treatments consisted of two levels ... number of leaves as criteria for selection of Soybean for increased grain yield. Keywords: Correlation, Grain ... objective of observing the mutual relationship of different characters and also ...

  14. Keeping it wild: mapping wilderness character in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter

    2013-12-15

    A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  16. Teaching Character Education to College Students Using Bildungsromans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, Nita

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports a study on the teaching of character education in higher education using English Bildungsroman, "Jane Eyre." The participants were 35 sixth-semester students of English Literature program in an Indonesian state university. Guided by the approach to teaching character education exemplified by Ryan & Bohlin (1999),…

  17. The Development of Leader Character through Crucible Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alyson; Crossan, Mary; Seijts, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character.…

  18. Character displacement in the fighting colours of Hetaerina damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher N; Grether, Gregory F

    2010-12-07

    Aggression between species is a seldom-considered but potentially widespread mechanism of character displacement in secondary sexual characters. Based on previous research showing that similarity in wing coloration directly influences interspecific territorial aggression in Hetaerina damselflies, we predicted that wing coloration would show a pattern of character displacement (divergence in sympatry). A geographical survey of four Hetaerina damselfly species in Mexico and Texas showed evidence for character displacement in both species pairs that regularly occurs sympatrically. Hetaerina titia, a species that typically has large black wing spots and small red wing spots, shifted to having even larger black spots and smaller red wing spots at sites where a congener with large red wing spots is numerically dominant (Hetaerina americana or Hetaerina occisa). Hetaerina americana showed the reverse pattern, shifting towards larger red wing spots where H. titia is numerically dominant. This pattern is consistent with the process of agonistic character displacement, but the ontogenetic basis of the shift remains to be demonstrated.

  19. The General Factor of Personality and Character: A Reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S; van der Linden, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Texas Twin Project, it was recently reported that 7 measures of character covaried to the extent that they formed a general factor of character (Tucker-Drob, Briley, Engelhardt, Mann, & Harden, 2016 ). In turn the relationship between the general factor of character and the Big Five personality traits were examined. It was found that personality was associated with the general factor of character primarily through the traits of conscientiousness and openness. For several reasons we propose that a more accurate interpretation of the data is that a Big Five personality traits form a general factor of personality, and that the relationship between the general character factor and personality is primarily through the general factor of personality. The results lend some support to this contention and are discussed in relation to the growing interest in covariation among multiple personality traits.

  20. Representations of deaf characters in children's picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B; Moses, Annie M

    2011-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive people of different backgrounds, including people with disabilities whose cultures differ from their own. Researchers have examined the portrayal of multicultural characters with disabilities in children's literature. However, few have specifically considered the portrayal of deaf characters, despite increased inclusion of deaf characters in children's literature over the past two decades. The present study analyzed the portrayal of deaf characters in picture books for children ages 4-8 years. A content analysis of 20 children's picture books was conducted in which the books were analyzed for messages linked to pathological and cultural categories. Results indicated that these books did not portray Deaf characters from a cultural perspective but, rather, highlighted aspects of deafness as a medical condition, one that requires fixing and that perpetuates stereotypes of deafness as a disability.

  1. Visual Antipriming Effect: Evidence from Chinese Character Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marsolek et al. (2006 have differentiated antipriming effects from priming effects, by adopting a novel priming paradigm comprised of four phases that include a baseline measurement. The general concept of antipriming supports the overlapping representation theory of knowledge. This study extended examination of the Marsolek et al. (2006 paradigm by investigating antipriming and priming effects in a series of Chinese character identification tasks. Results showed that identification accuracy of old characters was significantly higher than baseline measurements (i.e., the priming effect, while identification accuracy of novel characters was significantly lower than baseline measurements (i.e., the antipriming effect. This study demonstrates for the first time the effect of visual antipriming in Chinese character identification. It further provides new evidence for the overlapping representation theory of knowledge, and supports generalizability of the phenomenon to Chinese characters.

  2. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  3. WARACS: Wrappers to Automate the Reconstruction of Ancestral Character States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Reconstructions of ancestral character states are among the most widely used analyses for evaluating the morphological, cytological, or ecological evolution of an organismic lineage. The software application Mesquite remains the most popular application for such reconstructions among plant scientists, even though its support for automating complex analyses is limited. A software tool is needed that automates the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states with Mesquite and similar applications. A set of command line-based Python scripts was developed that (a) communicates standardized input to and output from the software applications Mesquite, BayesTraits, and TreeGraph2; (b) automates the process of ancestral character state reconstruction; and (c) facilitates the visualization of reconstruction results. WARACS provides a simple tool that streamlines the reconstruction and visualization of ancestral character states over a wide array of parameters, including tree distribution, character state, and optimality criterion.

  4. Character Building with Students in Learning Science Approach scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmaweti ,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Building character, especially the younger generation of learners is very important and very urgent, if we look at the phenomena that occur and future challenges more complex. Characters such as honest, disimplin, obey the rules, responsibility, etc. are getting lost. The problems of this paper outlines "build character fantasize learners with scientific approach to learning science." Characters can be seen as a way of thinking and behaving that are typical of every individual to live, socialize, and work together in the family, community, nation, and state. The characters are well demonstrated with morals, budipekerti, and commendable behavior and become role models in the family, community, nation. Character education in school settings as learning that lead to the strengthening and development of the child's behavior as a whole is based on a certain value that is referenced by the school "which means that character education is integrated in all subjects were directed to develop the behavior of learners in their entirety. Learning the scientific approach to learning science is able to apply those values by providing exemplary, build and develop kreaktivitas willingness of learners in the learning process. Learning activities not only in the classroom, but also can be done outside the classroom and school environment with the use of information technology. Common characters such as honesty, discipline, obey the rules, or responsible, respectful, thorough, communicative, collaboration can be built through a scientific approach to the learning activities during work. It can be concluded that the learning process can build character scientifik approach learners.Keywords: , Pembelajaran , sains, character scientific, approach.

  5. Korean and Japanese as Chinese-Characters Cultural Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya OKIMORI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea and Japan belong to Chinese-characters cultural spheres. In the time of Han Dynasty and thereafter, tributary states connected with the monarchy of Chinese Kingdom and its surrounding countries. They imported Chinese state regulations, accepted and developed many thoughts and cultures by bringing in Chinese characters of Chinese classics. However, there have been some different points in the treatment of Chinese characters in each nation. The Korean modern writing system does not use Chinese characters in general, while on the contrary in Japanese, there is a tendency to increase the number of regularly-used Chinese characters, for example in the official list of jōyō kanji 常用漢字 announced by the Ministry of Education, with the latest increase in 2010. Therefore, it is necessary to observe more about some aspects of the languages to know why this different treatment occurred. The oldest Korean document is the History of the Three Kingdoms, Samguk Sagi 『三国史記』 that contains geographical proper names. The Buyeo-Kingdom languages were recorded there, including place names. It is no doubt that the use of Chinese characters of Silla have significantly affected Goguryeo and Paekche. The Silla and Buyeo-Kingdom languages have closed syllables with a consonant at the end of each syllable, while in Japanese, the syllables end with vowels as open syllables. There are further phonological characteristics as well. This article discusses how each language encountered Chinese characters, and how they related to their specific languages, and also how Chinese characters particularly reflected syllable structures of different languages. It can be said that the use of Chinese characters in proper names estranged the futures of Korean and Japanese in history. Focus is laid on the history of Korean and Japanese through Chinese characters, with their falsely similar language dispositions.

  6. Developing Character and Values for Global Citizens: Analysis of pre-service science teachers' moral reasoning on socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Chang, Hyunsook; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sung-Won; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2012-04-01

    Character and values are the essential driving forces that serve as general guides or points of reference for individuals to support decision-making and to act responsibly about global socioscientific issues (SSIs). Based on this assumption, we investigated to what extent pre-service science teachers (PSTs) of South Korea possess character and values as global citizens; these values include ecological worldview, socioscientific accountability, and social and moral compassion. Eighteen PSTs participated in the SSI programs focusing on developing character and values through dialogical and reflective processes. SSIs were centered on the use of nuclear power generation, climate change, and embryonic stem cell research. The results indicated that PSTs showed three key elements of character and values, but failed to apply consistent moral principles on the issues and demonstrated limited global perspectives. While they tended to approach the issues with emotion and sympathy, they nonetheless failed to perceive themselves as major moral agents who are able to actively resolve large-scale societal issues. This study also suggests that the SSI programs can facilitate socioscientific reasoning to include abilities such as recognition of the complexity of SSIs, examine issues from multiple perspectives, and exhibit skepticism about information.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IMMIGRANT/FOREIGN CHARACTERS AND NATIONAL/AUTOCHTHONOUS CHARACTERS IN SPANISH TELEVISION FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an empirical research in which it were analysed the interactions between immigrants and national characters in a sample of Spanish television fictional programs broadcasted on prime time. This study is a content analysis of 282 interactions between immigrant/foreign and national characters. Thus, it was found that the largest number of relationships between the characters involved was produced in a working context. Moreover, there was a higher proportion of the use of aggressive humour from the national characters to the immigrant/foreigners than in the reverse way. It was also observed that the immigrant/foreigner characters hardly spoke about their feelings, nor were heard by the nationals when they did it, although there were a high number of interactions in which immigrant characters were expressing their opinions and these were attended by national characters. The analysis of the interactions between immigrant and national characters in television fiction is a very important research issue, because it has been proposed that the parasocial interactions are complementary of the interpersonal interactions taking place in daily life (Müller, 2009; Park, 2012.

  8. The Effect of Realistic Appearance of Virtual Characters in Immersive Environments - Does the Character's Personality Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibrek, Katja; Kokkinara, Elena; Mcdonnell, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Virtual characters that appear almost photo-realistic have been shown to induce negative responses from viewers in traditional media, such as film and video games. This effect, described as the uncanny valley, is the reason why realism is often avoided when the aim is to create an appealing virtual character. In Virtual Reality, there have been few attempts to investigate this phenomenon and the implications of rendering virtual characters with high levels of realism on user enjoyment. In this paper, we conducted a large-scale experiment on over one thousand members of the public in order to gather information on how virtual characters are perceived in interactive virtual reality games. We were particularly interested in whether different render styles (realistic, cartoon, etc.) would directly influence appeal, or if a character's personality was the most important indicator of appeal. We used a number of perceptual metrics such as subjective ratings, proximity, and attribution bias in order to test our hypothesis. Our main result shows that affinity towards virtual characters is a complex interaction between the character's appearance and personality, and that realism is in fact a positive choice for virtual characters in virtual reality.

  9. Children's Contemporary Realistic Fiction Portraying Dyslexic Characters: An Examination of the Issues Confronted and the Gender of the Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-seven contemporary realistic fiction children's books portraying a dyslexic character were published in the United States between 1993 and 2003. This study examined the texts to determine what types of issues the reading difficulty posed for the character. Texts were analyzed to determine if there was a relationship between the gender of…

  10. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  11. Assessing Leaders’ Character. Character and Leadership: A Theoretical Integration of Two Emerging Concepts. Implications for Research and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership : Development and validation of a theory ...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0053 Assessing Leader’s Character Character and Leadership : A Theoretical Integration... Leadership and Communication Studies Casern Birmensdorf, Switzerland 8903 EOARD GRANT 10-3099 November 2011 Final Report for 14 September

  12. Temperament and character profile of eating disorders: a controlled study with the Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Amianto, Federico; Leombruni, Paolo; Boggio, Sonia; Rovera, Gian Giacomo

    2002-12-01

    The question whether anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are different disorders or the extremes of a psychopathologic spectrum still has no definite answer. A way to face this problem is to examine the personality traits underlying these disorders. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered to 141 anorectics (70 Restrictor and 71 Binge-purging), to 102 bulimics, and to 100 controls. The Temperament and Character Inventory main scales are Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence. The personality profiles that emerged are characterized by low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, high Persistence, and low Self-Directedness in AN, and by high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, and low Self-Directedness in BN. Binge-purging anorectics showed a personality profile midway between anorectics and bulimics. The dimensional study of personality through the TCI and its facets seems effective in discriminating the personality traits underlying the different subtypes of Eating Disorders. The hypothesis of an Eating Disorders spectrum and its clinical implications are discussed. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 32: 412-425, 2002.

  13. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  14. Virtual Character Personality Influences Participant Attitudes and Behavior - An Interview with a Virtual Human Character about Her Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueni ePan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique for the study of human-virtual character interaction in immersive virtual reality. The human participants verbally administered a standard questionnaire about social anxiety to a virtual female character, that responded to each question through speech and body movements. The purpose was to study the extent to which participants responded differently to characters that exhibited different personalities, even though the verbal content of their answers was always the same. A separate online study provided evidence that our intention to create two different personality types had been successful. In the main between-groups experiment that utilized a Cave system there were 24 male participants, where 12 interacted with a female virtual character portrayed to exhibit shyness and the remaining 12 with an identical but more confident virtual character. Our results indicate that although the content of the verbal responses of both virtual characters was the same, participants showed different subjective and behavioral responses to the two different personalities. In particular participants evaluated the shy character more positively, for example, expressing willingness to spend more time with her. Participants evaluated the confident character more negatively and waited for a significantly longer time to call her back after she had left the scene in order to answer a telephone call. The method whereby participants interviewed the virtual character allowed naturalistic conversation while avoiding the necessity of speech processing and generation, and natural language understanding. It is therefore a useful method for the study of the impact of virtual character personality on participant responses.

  15. Moral character predominates in person perception and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Piazza, Jared; Rozin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    What sorts of trait information do people most care about when forming impressions of others? Recent research in social cognition suggests that "warmth," broadly construed, should be of prime importance in impression formation. Yet, some prior research suggests that information about others' specifically moral traits--their moral "character"--may be a primary dimension. Although warmth and character have sometimes been conceived of as interchangeable, we argue that they are separable, and that across a wide variety of contexts, character is usually more important than warmth in impression formation. We first showed that moral character and social warmth traits are indeed separable (Studies 1 and 2). Further studies that used correlational and experimental methods showed that, as predicted, in most contexts, moral character information is more important in impression formation than is warmth information (Studies 2-6). Character information was also more important than warmth information with respect to judgments of traits' perceived fundamentalness to identity, their uniquely human quality, their context-independence, and their controllability (Study 2). Finally, Study 7 used an archival method to show that moral character information appears more prominently than warmth information in obituaries, and more strongly determines the impressions people form of the individuals described in those obituaries. We discuss implications for current theories of person perception and social cognition.

  16. Recognition Number of The Vehicle Plate Using Otsu Method and K-Nearest Neighbour Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulidia Rahmah Hidayah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current topic that is interesting as a solution of the impact of public service improvement toward vehicle is License Plate Recognition (LPR, but it still needs to develop the research of LPR method. Some of the previous researchs showed that K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN succeed in car license plate recognition. The Objectives of this research was to determine the implementation and accuracy of Otsu Method toward license plate recognition. The method of this research was Otsu method to extract the characteristics and image of the plate into binary image and KNN as recognition classification method of each character. The development of the license plate recognition program by using Otsu method and classification of KNN is following the steps of pattern recognition, such as input and sensing, pre-processing, extraction feature Otsu method binary, segmentation, KNN classification method and post-processing by calculating the level of accuracy. The study showed that this program can recognize by 82% from 100 test plate with 93,75% of number recognition accuracy and 91,92% of letter recognition accuracy. 

  17. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  18. ALGORITHM OF OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey Alexeevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The second important problem to be resolved to the algorithm and its software, that comprises an automatic design of a complex closed circuit television system, represents object recognition, by virtue of which an image is transmitted by the video camera. Since imaging of almost any object is dependent on many factors, including its orientation in respect of the camera, lighting conditions, parameters of the registering system, static and dynamic parameters of the object itself, it is quite difficult to formalize the image and represent it in the form of a certain mathematical model. Therefore, methods of computer-aided visualization depend substantially on the problems to be solved. They can be rarely generalized. The majority of these methods are non-linear; therefore, there is a need to increase the computing power and complexity of algorithms to be able to process the image. This paper covers the research of visual object recognition and implementation of the algorithm in the view of the software application that operates in the real-time mode

  19. Xerostomia: recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Philip C

    2008-01-01

    Awareness and recognition of xerostomia are essential in order to help patients minimize dryness symptoms, to institute preventive measures and to limit oral complications. The dental professional has the opportunity to ask every patient if they are experiencing dry mouth. In particular, complaints of dryness while eating, or difficulty swallowing dry foods, or the necessity of using liquids to ease swallowing are important clues that salivary function may be impaired. As part of a routine oral examination, one should examine the oral cavity carefully for signs of salivary gland dysfunction. Findings such as an increase in caries activity, mucosal alterations, infection or salivary gland enlargement may indicate salivary dysfunction. Evaluation should be conducted proactively at each patient visit. Early recognition will minimize damage and dysfunction and allow appropriate management to begin. Although the salivary dysfunction may be irreversible, preventive measures and conservative treatments can avoid or limit mucosal breakdown, infections and permanent damage to teeth. Adequate symptomatic relief is possible with local palliative and systemic measures in many patients. Appropriate management of symptoms and increasing saliva output may help patients feel more comfortable and improve their quality of life.

  20. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  1. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  3. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...... been authored to allow developers to design either for or against the uncanny for antipathetic or empathetic-type characters. This research is relevant to embodied conversational agents used in a wider context such as therapeutic and e-learning applications and has an outreach to the disciplines...... of psychology, social psychology, game studies, animation and graphics, and human computer interaction....

  4. A cognitive network for oracle bone characters related to animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, Andreas; Grünewald, Stefan; Zeng, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of oracle bone characters for animals from a “cognitive” point of view. After some general remarks on oracle-bone characters presented in Sec. 1 and a short outline of the paper in Sec. 2, we collect various oracle-bone characters for animals from published resources in Sec. 3. In the next section, we begin analyzing a group of 60 ancient animal characters from www.zdic.net, a highly acclaimed internet dictionary of Chinese characters that is strictly based on historical sources, and introduce five categories of specific features regarding their (graphical) structure that will be used in Sec. 5 to associate corresponding feature vectors to these characters. In Sec. 6, these feature vectors will be used to investigate their dissimilarity in terms of a family of parameterized distance measures. And in the last section, we apply the SplitsTree method as encoded in the NeighborNet algorithms to construct a corresponding family of dissimilarity-based networks with the intention of elucidating how the ancient Chinese might have perceived the “animal world” in the late bronze age and to demonstrate that these pictographs reflect an intuitive understanding of this world and its inherent structure that predates its classification in the oldest surviving Chinese encyclopedia from approximately the third century BC, the Er Ya, as well as similar classification systems in the West by one to two millennia. We also present an English dictionary of 70 oracle bone characters for animals in Appendix A. In Appendix B, we list various variants of animal characters that were published in the Jia Gu Wen Bian (cf. 甲骨文编, A Complete Collection of Oracle Bone Characters, edited by the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, published by the Zhonghua Book Company in 1965). We recall the frequencies of the 521 most frequent oracle bone characters in Appendix C as reported in [T. Chen, Yin-Shang Jiaguwen Zixing

  5. Discriminative Block-Diagonal Representation Learning for Image Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Shao, Ling; Yang, Jian

    2017-07-04

    Existing block-diagonal representation studies mainly focuses on casting block-diagonal regularization on training data, while only little attention is dedicated to concurrently learning both block-diagonal representations of training and test data. In this paper, we propose a discriminative block-diagonal low-rank representation (BDLRR) method for recognition. In particular, the elaborate BDLRR is formulated as a joint optimization problem of shrinking the unfavorable representation from off-block-diagonal elements and strengthening the compact block-diagonal representation under the semisupervised framework of LRR. To this end, we first impose penalty constraints on the negative representation to eliminate the correlation between different classes such that the incoherence criterion of the extra-class representation is boosted. Moreover, a constructed subspace model is developed to enhance the self-expressive power of training samples and further build the representation bridge between the training and test samples, such that the coherence of the learned intraclass representation is consistently heightened. Finally, the resulting optimization problem is solved elegantly by employing an alternative optimization strategy, and a simple recognition algorithm on the learned representation is utilized for final prediction. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves superb recognition results on four face image data sets, three character data sets, and the 15 scene multicategories data set. It not only shows superior potential on image recognition but also outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Research on Recognition and Evaluation of Traffic Guide Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic guide signs are effective only when they are clearly recognized by drivers. Three experiments were conducted in this study. In the first, the influence factors of guide sign recognition were studied. This study investigated 11 main factors with a convenience sample of drivers from Nanjing city in China. Weights of different influence factors were obtained through analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results showed that the setting position, occlusion degree, and character size of guide sign had the most significant influence on the guide sign recognition, while other factors were less important. In the second stage, an evaluation model of guide sign recognition was developed based on weights of different factors. Four equations were presented to calculate the comprehensive score of guide sign, and the level of recognition was divided into five grades according to the comprehensive score. At last, a typical case in Nanjing was studied to verify the rationality and reliability of the evaluation model. Results from the real application indicate that the method had good applicability and can be used by traffic engineers.

  7. Music reading expertise modulates hemispheric lateralization in English word processing but not in Chinese character processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sara Tze Kwan; Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen

    2018-03-17

    Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience. This effect was not observed in Chinese character naming. A follow-up ERP study showed that in a sequential matching task, musicians had reduced RH N170 responses to English non-words under the processing of musical segments as compared with non-musicians, suggesting a shared visual processing mechanism in the RH between music notation and English non-word reading. This shared mechanism may be related to the letter-by-letter, serial visual processing that characterizes RH English word recognition (e.g., Lavidor & Ellis, 2001), which may consequently facilitate English word processing in the RH in musicians. Thus, music reading experience may have differential influences on the processing of different languages, depending on their similarities in the cognitive processes involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  9. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...... in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within...... command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry....

  10. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Odor Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anholt, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... We characterized the transduction pathway for the recognition of pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and also characterized subpopulations of olfactory neurons expressing different axonal G proteins...

  12. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  13. The influence of role-players on the character-development and character-building of South African college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Ebrihiam Freeks

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present world is in a moral crisis and it seems as though educational institutions experience both challenges and enormous behavioural problems. Statistics prove that there is a drastic decline in morals, values, standards, ethics, character and behaviour and schools, where colleges and even universities seem to indulge in crisis after crisis. It is perceived that behavioural problems such as substance and drug abuse, violence, theft, vandalism, bullying, aggression, immorality, examination fraud, amongst others, are increasing among students. The goal of this article is to determine how college students' lives are influenced by involved role-players in character-development and in character-building. Value and character education provides the building blocks for the inherent preservation of a healthy society. It is the art of life that keeps the environment friendly, free and safe, allowing earth's inhabitants to work, live and play together in peace. The influence of relevant role-players and institutions with regard to values and character-developmentare likely to be able to ensure the provision of a successful life and future for South African college students. The conclusions arrived at in this research indicate parents, lecturers and other specific individuals to be important role-players when it comes to character-development and character-building.

  14. Optical and digital pattern recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 13-15, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang (Editor); Schenker, Paul (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of current research in both optical and digital pattern recognition, with a theme of identifying overlapping research problems and methodologies. Topics discussed include image analysis and low-level vision, optical system design, object analysis and recognition, real-time hybrid architectures and algorithms, high-level image understanding, and optical matched filter design. Papers are presented on synthetic estimation filters for a control system; white-light correlator character recognition; optical AI architectures for intelligent sensors; interpreting aerial photographs by segmentation and search; and optical information processing using a new photopolymer.

  15. Self Adaptive Hypermedia Navigation Based On Learner Model Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassileva, Dessislava; Bontchev, Boyan

    2006-01-01

    Dessislava Vassileva, Boyan Bontchev "Self Adaptive Hypermedia Navigation Based On Learner Model Characters", IADAT-e2006, 3rd International Conference on Education, Barcelona (Spain), July 12-14, 2006, ISBN: 84-933971-9-9

  16. The tragicomic realisation of life and destiny of Kocic's characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleša Biljana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the collective identity of the characters of Kocic's prose. It examines the archetypal traits, oddify, originality and impressiveness of these unique characters in Serbian literature as well as the presence of collective memory, the awareness of one self and the others, historical, social and economic circumstances that surround Kocic's heroes. Looking back at the elements of the creative process, the artist's motivation and the presence of the tragical and the comical can be singled out. The characters of Simeun Djak, David Strbac, Mracajski prota, Relja Knezevic have been analyzed, and a short review of the female characters is given. Revealing the extent to which the creativity of Petar Kocic coincides with the elements of history, psychology, sociology and anthropogeography, a literary-scientific thought on his work gets completed and the versality to approach to the reading is allowed.

  17. Evolution of the placenta and associated reproductive characters in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined...... a range of characters and character states associated with female reproduction, early development, placentation and the neonate. These were then mapped on a pre-existing hypothesis of bat relationships that represents the current view from molecular studies. Our purpose was threefold. First......, on the assumption of bat monophyly, we wished to establish the stem species pattern of extant chiropterans. Secondly, we asked whether there are derived character conditions in support of a common origin for Rhinolophoidea and the megabats. Thirdly, we looked for evolutionary character transformations...

  18. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  19. Perceiving and experiencing fictional characters: an integrative account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Konijn, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fictional characters (PCs) and mediated persons in literature, theater, film, art, TV, and digital media fulfill basic psychological functions, although the processes involved remain unspecified. Departing from identification and empathy hypotheses, a new context-sensitive model draws upon

  20. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  1. Beyond the Story Map: Inferential Comprehension via Character Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, Erin; Douglass, April; Wright, Katherine L.; Hodges, Tracey S.; Franks, Amanda D.

    2015-01-01

    Inferential comprehension requires both emotional intelligence and cognitive skills, however instructional comprehension strategies typically underemphasize the emotional contribution. This article documents an intervention used by diverse third grade students which centers on teaching story comprehension through character perspective-taking…

  2. correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance DAC

    academicjournals.org/AJEST. African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length Research Paper. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara (Vigna subterranea L.Verdc.) S. M. Maunde. 1. *, B. Tanimu.

  3. Character, Social-Emotional, and Academic Outcomes among Underachieving Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of a character assessment scale (the Character Assessment for School Age Children; CASAC) based on 6 pillars of character (Josephson Institute, 2009). Many youth development and character education programs utilize some, if not all, of the pillars of character explicitly or…

  4. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  5. A critical study of crusoe's mind and character

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, M. Habib

    1990-01-01

    Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe is considered as the most important precursor of the English Novel or even as the first English Novel. Literary critics have discussed the character of Robinson Crusoe from different literary perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to examine Crusoe's attitude towards business, religion arid non-Europeans in its historical context. These three elements of Crusoe's character are inseparably linked to each other and are therefore essential to an appreciation of...

  6. BPS States, Torus Links and Wild Character Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony

    2018-02-01

    A string theoretic framework is constructed relating the cohomology of wild character varieties to refined stable pair theory and torus link invariants. Explicit conjectural formulas are derived for wild character varieties with a unique irregular point on the projective line. For this case, this leads to a conjectural colored generalization of existing results of Hausel, Mereb and Wong as well as Shende, Treumann and Zaslow.

  7. Corruption, corporate character-formation and "value-strategy"

    OpenAIRE

    Fatić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    While most discussions of corruption focus on administration, institutions, the law and public policy, little attention in the debate about societal reform is paid to the “internalities” of anti-corruption efforts, specifically to character-formation and issues of personal and corporate integrity. While the word “integrity” is frequently mentioned as the goal to be achieved through institutional reforms, even in criminal prosecutions, the specifically philosophical aspects of character-...

  8. SIMMAP: Stochastic character mapping of discrete traits on phylogenies

    OpenAIRE

    Bollback Jonathan P

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Character mapping on phylogenies has played an important, if not critical role, in our understanding of molecular, morphological, and behavioral evolution. Until very recently we have relied on parsimony to infer character changes. Parsimony has a number of serious limitations that are drawbacks to our understanding. Recent statistical methods have been developed that free us from these limitations enabling us to overcome the problems of parsimony by accommodating uncertai...

  9. Systematic review of character development and childhood chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N

    2016-05-08

    To review empirical evidence on character development among youth with chronic illnesses. A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed and PSYCHINFO from inception until November 2013 to find quantitative studies that measured character strengths among youth with chronic illnesses. Inclusion criteria were limited to English language studies examining constructs of character development among adolescents or young adults aged 13-24 years with a childhood-onset chronic medical condition. A librarian at Duke University Medical Center Library assisted with the development of the mesh search term. Two researchers independently reviewed relevant titles (n = 549), then abstracts (n = 45), and finally manuscripts (n = 3). There is a lack of empirical research on character development and childhood-onset chronic medical conditions. Three studies were identified that used different measures of character based on moral themes. One study examined moral reasoning among deaf adolescents using Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Instrument; another, investigated moral values of adolescent cancer survivors with the Values In Action Classification of Strengths. A third study evaluated moral behavior among young adult survivors of burn injury utilizing the Tennessee Self-Concept, 2(nd) edition. The studies observed that youth with chronic conditions reasoned at less advanced stages and had a lower moral self-concept compared to referent populations, but that they did differ on character virtues and strengths when matched with healthy peers for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Yet, generalizations could not be drawn regarding character development of youth with chronic medical conditions because the studies were too divergent from each other and biased from study design limitations. Future empirical studies should learn from the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature on character development among youth with chronic medical conditions.

  10. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Koh, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Oliveco set-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A 1 /sup (1)/ Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface

  11. Language Empowering in Character Building (Pemberdayaan Bahasa dalam Pembentukan Karakter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsinah Kamsinah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Character building is the most important thing to do as it is a striving system which underly behavior (Freud.  Even more, good character is more to be praised than outstanding talent. Most talents are to some extent a gift. Good character, however, is not given to us. we have to build it peace by peace by thought, choice, courage, and determination.  So important it is that it is said that  if there is no more character every thing is lost (Mahatma Gandhi. The best way to build it is  to develop   the function of all  individual potential,  including cognitive, affective,  and psychomotoric aspects simultanously in the context of socio-cultural interaction (in family, in  school, and in society. Character  is gained by nature and nurture. It can be done begin from the golden age to the old one through the three character building components: moral knowing, moral feeling, and moral action as suggested by Lickona. They make it possible since human beings, as  the best-formed creature of all, are the ones and the only creature posessing culture, and that,  they can educate and be educated in terms of   the model of  person of character.  Everybody must have character. Therefore,  to apply Lickona’s,  one must  empower her/his language, in which  she/he/ perform her/his competence in using language creativity (Chomsky in   both ordinary  and literary language. In this case, Buginese language is used as the sample.

  12. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  13. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  14. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  15. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  17. SIMMAP: Stochastic character mapping of discrete traits on phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollback Jonathan P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Character mapping on phylogenies has played an important, if not critical role, in our understanding of molecular, morphological, and behavioral evolution. Until very recently we have relied on parsimony to infer character changes. Parsimony has a number of serious limitations that are drawbacks to our understanding. Recent statistical methods have been developed that free us from these limitations enabling us to overcome the problems of parsimony by accommodating uncertainty in evolutionary time, ancestral states, and the phylogeny. Results SIMMAP has been developed to implement stochastic character mapping that is useful to both molecular evolutionists, systematists, and bioinformaticians. Researchers can address questions about positive selection, patterns of amino acid substitution, character association, and patterns of morphological evolution. Conclusion Stochastic character mapping, as implemented in the SIMMAP software, enables users to address questions that require mapping characters onto phylogenies using a probabilistic approach that does not rely on parsimony. Analyses can be performed using a fully Bayesian approach that is not reliant on considering a single topology, set of substitution model parameters, or reconstruction of ancestral states. Uncertainty in these quantities is accommodated by using MCMC samples from their respective posterior distributions.

  18. SIMMAP: stochastic character mapping of discrete traits on phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollback, Jonathan P

    2006-02-23

    Character mapping on phylogenies has played an important, if not critical role, in our understanding of molecular, morphological, and behavioral evolution. Until very recently we have relied on parsimony to infer character changes. Parsimony has a number of serious limitations that are drawbacks to our understanding. Recent statistical methods have been developed that free us from these limitations enabling us to overcome the problems of parsimony by accommodating uncertainty in evolutionary time, ancestral states, and the phylogeny. SIMMAP has been developed to implement stochastic character mapping that is useful to both molecular evolutionists, systematists, and bioinformaticians. Researchers can address questions about positive selection, patterns of amino acid substitution, character association, and patterns of morphological evolution. Stochastic character mapping, as implemented in the SIMMAP software, enables users to address questions that require mapping characters onto phylogenies using a probabilistic approach that does not rely on parsimony. Analyses can be performed using a fully Bayesian approach that is not reliant on considering a single topology, set of substitution model parameters, or reconstruction of ancestral states. Uncertainty in these quantities is accommodated by using MCMC samples from their respective posterior distributions.

  19. How to Develop Character Education of Madrassa Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Abu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the  teachers criticized for failing to integrate the knowledge in the behavior of virtue. Therefore the character education is always considered in every design education, including in madrassas. The character education is the deliberate attempt to influence the behavior of students through customizing repeatedly. making it easy to do virtue and avoid crime. The research has focused on the approach to character education at madrassa. The qualitative method by interviewing, observation, and focus groups have been used in this study.A total of 16 teachers at four madrassas in South Sulawesi has been selected through purposive Sampling. The  research suggest: Madrassa teachers have not managed to practice the concept of teaching character. Both conceptually and contextually. The failure of conceptually caused teachers do not embed character values are extracted from the behavior of student’s virtue. While the failure of the contextually is has caused teachers failed in an attempt to develop character values, such as social relationships, honesty, and discipline. In addition, the teachers are not managed to practice courteous and not empowered to detain students of behavior lie.

  20. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.