WorldWideScience

Sample records for developmental craniofacial anthropometry

  1. Application of Digital Anthropometry for Craniofacial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas S. N.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry is an objective technique based on a series of measurements and proportions, which facilitate the characterization of phenotypic variation and quantification of dysmorphology. With the introduction of stereophotography, it is possible to acquire a lifelike three-dimensional (3D) image of the face with natural color and texture. Most of the traditional anthropometric landmarks can be identified on these 3D photographs using specialized software. Therefore, it has become possible to compute new digital measurements, which were not feasible with traditional instruments. The term “digital anthropometry” has been used by researchers based on such systems to separate their methods from conventional manual measurements. Anthropometry has been traditionally used as a research tool. With the advent of digital anthropometry, this technique can be employed in several disciplines as a noninvasive tool for quantifying facial morphology. The aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of digital anthropometry and discuss its clinical applications. PMID:25050146

  2. A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, Jodi; Stephan, Carl N

    2016-05-01

    Standardized terms and methods have long been recognized as crucial to reduce measurement error and increase reliability in anthropometry. The successful prior use of craniometric landmarks makes extrapolation of these landmarks to the soft tissue context, as analogs, intuitive for forensic craniofacial analyses and facial photogrammetry. However, this extrapolation has not, so far, been systematic. Instead, varied nomenclature and definitions exist for facial landmarks, and photographic analyses are complicated by the generalization of 3D craniometric landmarks to the 2D face space where analogy is subsequently often lost, complicating anatomical assessments. For example, landmarks requiring palpation of the skull or the examination of the 3D surface typology are impossible to legitimately position; similar applies to median landmarks not visible in lateral photographs. To redress these issues without disposing of the craniometric framework that underpins many facial landmarks, we provide an updated and transparent nomenclature for facial description. This nomenclature maintains the original craniometric intent (and base abbreviations) but provides clear distinction of ill-defined (quasi) landmarks in photographic contexts, as produced when anatomical points are subjectively inferred from shape-from-shading information alone.

  3. The society for craniofacial genetics and developmental biology 39th annual meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer L; Albertson, Craig; Harris, Matthew P; Lozanoff, Scott; Marcucio, Ralph S; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Trainor, Paul A

    2017-04-01

    The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology (SCGDB) aims to promote education, research, and communication, about normal and abnormal development of the tissues and organs of the head. Membership of the SCGDB is broad and diverse-including clinicians, orthodontists, scientists, and academics-but with all members sharing an interest in craniofacial biology. Each year, the SCGDB hosts a meeting where members can share their latest research, exchange ideas and resources, and build on or establish new collaborations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Modes of developmental outgrowth and shaping of a craniofacial bone in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Kimmel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of individual bones are crucial for their functions within the skeleton, and vary markedly during evolution. Recent studies have begun to reveal the detailed molecular genetic pathways that underlie skeletal morphogenesis. On the other hand, understanding of the process of morphogenesis itself has not kept pace with the molecular work. We examined, through an extended period of development in zebrafish, how a prominent craniofacial bone, the opercle (Op, attains its adult morphology. Using high-resolution confocal imaging of the vitally stained Op in live larvae, we show that the bone initially appears as a simple linear spicule, or spur, with a characteristic position and orientation, and lined by osteoblasts that we visualize by transgenic labeling. The Op then undergoes a stereotyped sequence of shape transitions, most notably during the larval period occurring through three weeks postfertilization. New shapes arise, and the bone grows in size, as a consequence of anisotropic addition of new mineralized bone matrix along specific regions of the pre-existing bone surfaces. We find that two modes of matrix addition, spurs and veils, are primarily associated with change in shape, whereas a third mode, incremental banding, largely accounts for growth in size. Furthermore, morphometric analyses show that shape development and growth follow different trajectories, suggesting separate control of bone shape and size. New osteoblast arrangements are associated with new patterns of matrix outgrowth, and we propose that fine developmental regulation of osteoblast position is a critical determinant of the spatiotemporal pattern of morphogenesis.

  5. Pediatric Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D.; Reed, Matthew P.

    Anthropometry is the measurement of human size, shape, and physical capabilities. Most pediatric anthropometry data are gathered to describe child growth patterns, but data on body size, mass distribution, range of motion, and posture are used to develop crash test dummies and computational models of child occupants. Pediatric anthropometry data are also used to determine child restraint dimensions, so they will accommodate the applicable population of child occupants.

  6. Evolution of craniofacial novelty in parrots through developmental modularity and heterochrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Kiyoshi, Takuya; Armstrong, Kyle N

    2007-01-01

    Parrots (order Psittaciformes) have developed novel cranial morphology. At the same time, they show considerable morphological diversity in the cranial musculoskeletal system, which includes two novel structures: the suborbital arch and the musculus (M.) pseudomasseter. To understand comprehensively the evolutionary pattern and process of novel cranial morphology in parrots, phylogenetic and developmental studies were conducted. Firstly, we undertook phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene sequences to obtain a robust phylogeny among parrots, and secondly we surveyed the cranial morphology of parrots extensively to add new information on the character states. Character mapping onto molecular phylogenies indicated strongly the repeated evolution of both the suborbital arch and the well-developed M. pseudomasseter within parrots. These results also suggested that the direction of evolutionary change is not always identical in the two characters, implying that these characters are relatively independent or decoupled structures behaving as separate modules. Finally, we compared the developmental pattern of jaw muscles among bird species and found a difference in the timing of M. pseudomasseter differentiation between the cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus (representative of a well-developed condition) and the peach-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (representative of an underdeveloped condition). On the basis of this study, we suggest that in the development of novel traits, modularity and heterochrony facilitate the diversification of parrot cranial morphology.

  7. Dental approach to craniofacial syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2012-01-01

    is essential for insight into craniofacial syndromes. The dentition, thus, becomes central in diagnostics and evaluation of the pathogenesis. Developmental fields can explore and advance the concept of dental approaches to craniofacial syndromes. Discussion. As deviations in teeth persist and do not reorganize...

  8. Anthropometry of craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefánková, Eva; Horn, František; Neščáková, Eva; Kabát, Michal; Petrík, Michal; Trnka, Ján

    2015-01-01

    Anthropometry is becoming a popular method for diagnostics of various diseases in pediatric clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the growth changes in craniofacial parameters in patients with craniosynostosis and positional plagiocephaly. Inclusion criteria for the study were presence of craniostenosis or positional plagiocephaly in a patient with at least three anthropometric evaluations at our department. Studied patients were aged from 1.0 month to 2.5 years with median age at the first and last anthropometric evaluation as 1.83 and 25.27 months, respectively. Further anthropometric results in patients older than 2.5 years were excluded from the study. Statistical significance was tested by the Mann-Whitney test. The studied group consisted of 70.5% male patients. The type of craniosynostosis was represented by scaphocephaly in 44.1%, by trigonocephaly in 45.6% and by coronal craniosynostosis in 10.3% of the cases. Cranial index was proven as a suitable parameter for evaluating differences in the trend of growth in craniosynostosis (p<0.001) and also for evaluating post-operative results. Significance was found in width of the head (p=0.038) for scaphocephaly and in length of the head for trigonocephaly (p=0.001) in surgically treated patients. Trend of cranial growth in operated patients copied the curve of the norm but in higher or lower values which depends on the type of prematurely closed suture. Longitudinal anthropometric follow-up is an objective and measurable method that can accurately non-invasively and non-expensively assess skull growth in pediatric patients with cranial deformity. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface landmark quantification of embryonic mouse craniofacial morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Marcucio, Ralph; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Background Morphometric quantification of subtle craniofacial variation in studies of experimentally modified embryonic mice has proved valuable in determining the effects of developmental perturbations on craniofacial morphogenesis. The direct comparison of landmark coordinate data from embryos of many different mouse strains and mouse models can advance our understanding of the bases for craniofacial variation. We propose a standard set of craniofacial surface landmarks, for use with embryo...

  10. Quantifying Normal Craniofacial Form and Baseline Craniofacial Asymmetry in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Jeong; Hallac, Rami R; Ramesh, Jananie; Seaward, James R; Hermann, Nuno V; Darvann, Tron A; Lipira, Angelo; Kane, Alex A

    2018-03-01

    Restoring craniofacial symmetry is an important objective in the treatment of many craniofacial conditions. Normal form has been measured using anthropometry, cephalometry, and photography, yet all of these modalities have drawbacks. In this study, the authors define normal pediatric craniofacial form and craniofacial asymmetry using stereophotogrammetric images, which capture a densely sampled set of points on the form. After institutional review board approval, normal, healthy children (n = 533) with no known craniofacial abnormalities were recruited at well-child visits to undergo full head stereophotogrammetric imaging. The children's ages ranged from 0 to 18 years. A symmetric three-dimensional template was registered and scaled to each individual scan using 25 manually placed landmarks. The template was deformed to each subject's three-dimensional scan using a thin-plate spline algorithm and closest point matching. Age-based normal facial models were derived. Mean facial asymmetry and statistical characteristics of the population were calculated. The mean head asymmetry across all pediatric subjects was 1.5 ± 0.5 mm (range, 0.46 to 4.78 mm), and the mean facial asymmetry was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm (range, 0.4 to 5.4 mm). There were no significant differences in the mean head or facial asymmetry with age, sex, or race. Understanding the "normal" form and baseline distribution of asymmetry is an important anthropomorphic foundation. The authors present a method to quantify normal craniofacial form and baseline asymmetry in a large pediatric sample. The authors found that the normal pediatric craniofacial form is asymmetric, and does not change in magnitude with age, sex, or race.

  11. Anthropometry for HMD design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen

    1992-10-01

    The importance of fit for helmet ensembles is not limited to just comfort. It impacts most other safety and performance needs of the helmets, including helmet retention, and optical and acoustical performance. The addition of optical systems to helmet ensembles increases the need for precision in fit. Helmet systems which were previously acceptable in terms of fit do not necessarily fit well enough to accommodate new performance requirements. The increased need for precision has introduced the need for better definition of human anthropometry for helmet design as well as definition of the head and helmet interface. Traditional anthropometry (human body measurements taken with calipers, or head boards, etc.) is no longer adequate. For advanced helmet systems, data on the shape, or change in the surface curvature and how this relates to helmet systems in three-dimensional space, is now a necessity. In fact, use of the old style of anthropometry can and has created problems rather than resolve them. This paper discusses some of the problems with the old methods and introduces new technologies and research which is being done to address the needs.

  12. Postnatal Craniofacial Skeletal Development of Female C57BL/6NCrl Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The craniofacial skeleton is a complex and unique structure. The perturbation of its development can lead to craniofacial dysmorphology and associated morbidities. Our ability to prevent or mitigate craniofacial skeletal anomalies is at least partly dependent on our understanding of the unique physiological development of the craniofacial skeleton. Mouse models are critical tools for the study of craniofacial developmental abnormalities. However, there is a lack of detailed normative data of mouse craniofacial skeletal development in the literature. In this report, we employed high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT in combination with morphometric measurements to analyze the postnatal craniofacial skeletal development from day 7 (P7 through day 390 (P390 of female C57BL/6NCrl mice, a widely used mouse strain. Our data demonstrates a unique craniofacial skeletal development pattern in female C57BL/6NCrl mice, and differentiates the early vs. late craniofacial growth patterns. Additionally, our data documents the complex and differential changes in bone parameters (thickness, bone volume, bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, and tissue mineral density of various craniofacial bones with different embryonic origins and ossification mechanisms during postnatal growth, which underscores the complexity of craniofacial bone development and provides a reference standard for future quantitative analysis of craniofacial bones.

  13. Generation of Boundary Manikin Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karen S.; Margerum, Sarah; Barr, Abbe; Ferrer, Mike A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D digital boundary manikins that are representative of the anthropometry of a unique population. These digital manikins can be used by designers to verify and validate that the components of the spacesuit design satisfy the requirements specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Currently, the HSIR requires the suit to accommodate the 1st percentile American female to the 99th percentile American male. The manikin anthropometry was derived using two methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Whole Body Posture Based Analysis (WBPBA). PCA is a statistical method for reducing a multidimensional data set by using eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The goal is to create a reduced data set that encapsulates the majority of the variation in the population. WBPBA is a multivariate analytical approach that was developed by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to identify the extremes of the population for a given body posture. WBPBA is a simulation-based method that finds extremes in a population based on anthropometry and posture whereas PCA is based solely on anthropometry. Both methods yield a list of subjects and their anthropometry from the target population; PCA resulted in 20 female and 22 male subjects anthropometry and WBPBA resulted in 7 subjects' anthropometry representing the extreme subjects in the target population. The subjects anthropometry is then used to 'morph' a baseline digital scan of a person with the same body type to create a 3D digital model that can be used as a tool for designers, the details of which will be discussed in subsequent papers.

  14. Mouse Models of Rare Craniofacial Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Annita; Trainor, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    A rare disease is defined as a condition that affects less than 1 in 2000 individuals. Currently more than 7000 rare diseases have been documented, and most are thought to be of genetic origin. Rare diseases primarily affect children, and congenital craniofacial syndromes and disorders constitute a significant proportion of rare diseases, with over 700 having been described to date. Modeling craniofacial disorders in animal models has been instrumental in uncovering the etiology and pathogenesis of numerous conditions and in some cases has even led to potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. In this chapter, we focus primarily on two general classes of rare disorders, ribosomopathies and ciliopathies, and the surprising finding that the disruption of fundamental, global processes can result in tissue-specific craniofacial defects. In addition, we discuss recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of an extremely rare and specific craniofacial condition known as syngnathia, based on the first mouse models for this condition. Approximately 1% of all babies are born with a minor or major developmental anomaly, and individuals suffering from rare diseases deserve the same quality of treatment and care and attention to their disease as other patients. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immigrants into society. Children with craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, S H; Bernstein, N R; Kapp, K A

    1981-01-01

    Some of the adaptive coping styles of children with craniofacial anomalies are discussed. Three cases of children with microtia are described to illustrate developmental pathways used in adapting to their deformities. The complexity of the chronic medical and psychological challenges these children face is illustrated and discussed. In contrast to previous frameworks dealing with the problems of deviance and stigmatization, we use a psychological historical framework, drawing an analogy to Handlin's work on immigration. These children are born into a world that considers them strange and abhorent. They can be considered aliens entering a society of normal, non-disfigured people. The craniofacial center is conceptualized as a "naturalization" office where highly valued health care professionals are counted upon to reconstruct facial appearance and function. An enduring attachment and bonding process to the staff takes place, and the center becomes of considerable importance to the craniofacial patient's identity. The craniofacial patient often has to carry the pain of social isolation and stigma. Physicians caring for these children should be cognizant of their coping styles; so that development can be directed to move away from deviance to successful "immigration into the country of normals" and adaptation to life.

  16. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  17. Anthropometry. A Bibliography with Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    population strengths with anthropometry matching that of astronauts. (Author) DESCRIPTORS: *Biodynamics, * Bionics # *Hand (anatomy), *Huscular...PTB sockets with a thermoplastic material; Human locomotion ; Multichannel myoelectric control—experimental report; Guidelines for standards tor...years of wheelchair evaluation; Some observations on the transverse rotations of the human trunk during locomotion ; Hydraulic knee controls for knee

  18. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  19. Surface landmark quantification of embryonic mouse craniofacial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Marcucio, Ralph; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

    2014-07-24

    Morphometric quantification of subtle craniofacial variation in studies of experimentally modified embryonic mice has proved valuable in determining the effects of developmental perturbations on craniofacial morphogenesis. The direct comparison of landmark coordinate data from embryos of many different mouse strains and mouse models can advance our understanding of the bases for craniofacial variation. We propose a standard set of craniofacial surface landmarks, for use with embryonic day (E) 10.5-12.5 mice, to serve as the foundation for this type of data compilation and analysis. We quantify the intra- and inter-observer landmark placement variation associated with each landmark and determine how the results of a simple ontogenetic analysis might be influenced by selection of landmark set. Intraobserver landmark placement error for experienced landmarkers generally remains below 0.1 mm, with some landmarks exhibiting higher values at E11.5 and E12.5. Interobserver error tends to increase with embryonic age and those landmarks defined on wide inflections of curves or facial processes exhibit the highest error. Landmarks with highest intra- or inter-observer are identified and we determine that their removal from the dataset does not significantly change the vectors of craniofacial shape change associated with an ontogenetic regression. Our quantification of landmark placement error demonstrates that it is preferable for a single observer to identify all landmark coordinates within a single study and that significant training and experience are necessary before a landmarker can produce data for use in larger meta-analyses. However, we are confident that this standard landmark set, once landmarks with higher error are removed, can serve as a foundation for a comparative dataset of facial morphogenesis across various mouse populations to help identify the developmental bases for phenotypic variation in the craniofacial complex.

  20. Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconville, J. T.; Laubach, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Data on body-size measurement are presented to aid in spacecraft design. Tabulated dimensional anthropometric data on 59 variables for 12 selected populations are given. The variables chosen were those judged most relevant to the manned space program. A glossary of anatomical and anthropometric terms is included. Selected body dimensions of males and females from the potential astronaut population projected to the 1980-1990 time frame are given. Illustrations of drawing-board manikins based on those anticipated body sizes are included.

  1. A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Army Equipment Evaluation Mark Edwards, Alistair Furnell...Jemma Coleman and Sheena Davis Land Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TR-3006 ABSTRACT Anthropometry is the...Preliminary Anthropometry Standard for Australian Defence Force Army Equipment Evaluation Executive Summary Anthropometry is the

  2. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  3. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junli; Liu, Cuiting; Wu, Zhongke; Duan, Fuqing; Wang, Kang; Jia, Taorui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the or...

  4. Craniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate orthodontic training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... Introduction: Craniofacial orthodontics has been shown to be a critical component of the care of patients with craniofacial anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions and clinical experience in cleft and craniofacial care, of orthodontic residents in ...

  5. Biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevlin, R; McArdle, A; Atashroo, D; Walmsley, G G; Senarath-Yapa, K; Zielins, E R; Paik, K J; Longaker, M T; Wan, D C

    2014-12-01

    Conditions such as congenital anomalies, cancers, and trauma can all result in devastating deficits of bone in the craniofacial skeleton. This can lead to significant alteration in function and appearance that may have significant implications for patients. In addition, large bone defects in this area can pose serious clinical dilemmas, which prove difficult to remedy, even with current gold standard surgical treatments. The craniofacial skeleton is complex and serves important functional demands. The necessity to develop new approaches for craniofacial reconstruction arises from the fact that traditional therapeutic modalities, such as autologous bone grafting, present myriad limitations and carry with them the potential for significant complications. While the optimal bone construct for tissue regeneration remains to be elucidated, much progress has been made in the past decade. Advances in tissue engineering have led to innovative scaffold design, complemented by progress in the understanding of stem cell-based therapy and growth factor enhancement of the healing cascade. This review focuses on the role of biomaterials for craniofacial bone engineering, highlighting key advances in scaffold design and development. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  6. Photogrammetry procedures applied to anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimoto, Maria Lúcialeite Ribeiro; Klein, Alison Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability and establish procedures for the use of digital photogrammetry in anthropometric measurements of the human hand. The methodology included the construction of a platform to allow the placement of the hand always equivalent to a distance of the camera lens and to annul the effects of parallax. We developed a software to perform the measurements from the images and built up a subject of proof in a cast from a negative mold, this object was subjected to measurements with digital photogrammetry using the data collection platform in caliper and the Coordinate Measuring Machine (MMC). The results of the application of photogrammetry in the data collection segment hand, allow us to conclude that photogrammetry is an effective presenting precision coefficient below 0.940. Within normal and acceptable values, given the magnitude of the data used in anthropometry. It was concluded photogrammetry then be reliable, accurate and efficient for carrying out anthropometric surveys of population, and presents less difficulty to collect in-place.

  7. "Oriental anthropometry" in plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senna-Fernandes Vasco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to Chinese medicine, the acupuncture-points′ (acupoints locations are proportionally and symmetrically distributed in well-defined compartment zones on the human body surface Oriental Anthropometry" (OA. Acupoints, if considered as aesthetic-loci, might be useful as reference guides in plastic surgery (PS. Aim: This study aimed to use aesthetic-loci as anatomical reference in surgical marking of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Method: This was an observational study based on aesthetic surgeries performed in private clinic. This study was based on 106 cases, comprising of 102 women and 4 men, with ages varying from 07 to 73 years, and with heights of between 1.34 m and 1.80 m. Patients were submitted to aesthetic surgical planning by relating aesthetic-loci to conventional surgical marking, including breast surgeries, abdominoplasty, rhytidoplasty, blepharoplasty, and hair implant. The aesthetic-surgical-outcome (ASO of the patients was assessed by a team of plastic surgeons (who were not involved in the surgical procedures over a follow-up period of one year by using a numeric-rating-scale in percentage (% terms. A four-point-verbal-rating-scale was used to record the patients′ opinion of therapeutic-satisfaction (TS. Results: ASO was 75.3 ± 9.4% and TS indicated that most patients (58.5% obtained "good" results. Of the remainder, 38.7% found the results "excellent", and 2.8% found them "fair". Discussion and Conclusion : The data suggested that the use of aesthetic-loci may be a useful tool for PS as an anatomical reference for surgical marking. However, further investigation is required to assess the efficacy of the OA by providing the patients more reliable balance and harmony in facial and body contours surgeries.

  8. FishFace: interactive atlas of zebrafish craniofacial development at cellular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton may exhibit anatomical complexity and diversity, but its genesis and evolution can be understood through careful dissection of developmental programs at cellular resolution. Resources are lacking that include introductory overviews of skeletal anatomy coupled with descriptions of craniofacial development at cellular resolution. In addition to providing analytical guidelines for other studies, such an atlas would suggest cellular mechanisms underlying development. Description We present the Fish Face Atlas, an online, 3D-interactive atlas of craniofacial development in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Alizarin red-stained skulls scanned by fluorescent optical projection tomography and segmented into individual elements provide a resource for understanding the 3D structure of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. These data provide the user an anatomical entry point to confocal images of Alizarin red-stained zebrafish with transgenically-labelled pharyngeal arch ectomesenchyme, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts, which illustrate the appearance, morphogenesis, and growth of the mandibular and hyoid cartilages and bones, as viewed in live, anesthetized zebrafish during embryonic and larval development. Confocal image stacks at high magnification during the same stages provide cellular detail and suggest developmental and evolutionary hypotheses. Conclusion The FishFace Atlas is a novel learning tool for understanding craniofacial skeletal development, and can serve as a reference for a variety of studies, including comparative and mutational analyses. PMID:23714426

  9. Population Analysis: Communicating About Anthropometry in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of communications about anthropometry and population analysis in particular for the design of aerospace systems. The difficulty of providing anthropometric accomodation an entire range of the population is reviewed, and the importance of communication of the issues with human system integration is emphasized, and the analysis of population as it applies to existing human factors methodologies is a novel way to assist with the communication. The issues of space suit design and anthropometry is reviewed as an example.

  10. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia - A review of current management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadavalli Guruprasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a pathologic condition of bone of unknown etiology with no apparent familial, hereditary or congenital basis. Lichtenstein first coined the term in 1938 and in 1942 he and Jaffe separated it from other fibro-osseous lesions. It is a bone tumor that, although benign, has the potential to cause significant cosmetic and functional disturbance, particularly in the craniofacial skeleton. Its management poses significant challenges to the surgeon. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is 1 of 3 types of fibrous dysplasia that can affect the bones of the craniofacial complex, including the mandible and maxilla. Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal developmental disorder of the bone-forming mesenchyme that manifests as a defect in osteoblastic differentiation and maturation. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Fibrous dysplasia represents about 2, 5% of all bone tumors and over 7% of all benign tumours. Over the years, we have gained a better understanding of its etiology, clinical behavior, and both surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  11. Treatment of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, F; Saggese, V; Porcaro, G; Baldoni, M

    2014-01-01

    The concept of "fibro-osseous lesions" of bone has evolved over the last several years and now includes two mayor entities: the fibrous dysplasia (FD) and the cement-ossifying fibroma (COF). Fibrous dysplasia is considered to be a developmental, tumor-like (hamartomatous), fibro-osseous disease of unknown etiology. There is a maxillary predominance when craniofacial FD occurs in the jaws and the maxillary sinus is commonly involved. Differentiation of OF from FD is important because of differences in treatment and behaviour. This article report a case of 60-year-old female with a history of painless unilateral palatal swelling.

  12. the foundation of anthropometry and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening and assessment initiate the nutrition care process of individuals and groups and are also core in nutrition monitoring and evaluation.1 Anthropometry is an objective nutritional assessment method, and, in the case of infants and children, growth monitoring is also a sensitive indicator of health status.

  13. Anthropometry of young competitive sport rock climbers

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P; Joubert, L; Lish, A; Mast, J; Wilkins, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Adult elite competitive rock climbers are small in stature with low body mass and very low body fat percentage. These characteristics have generated concern that young climbers may attempt body mass reduction to extreme levels with adverse consequences for health and performance. No published anthropometry data for young competitive climbers exist.

  14. Anthropometry and body composition do not predict bioavailable androgen or progesterone concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lea J; Vella, Emily T; Kiparissis, Yiannis; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that anthropometry and body composition were independently associated with sex-steroid concentration in adolescent girls. Premenarcheal (age, mean +/- SD = 10.9 +/- 0.6, N = 51), perimenarcheal (age = 13.7 +/- 0.6, N = 74), and postmenarcheal (age = 16.7 +/- 0.6, N = 44) cohorts provided saliva at morning recess during the schoolday over 6 weeks. Estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were quantified. Age, developmental cohort, self-reported Tanner stage of breast development and pubic-hair distribution, gynecological age, height, weight, waist/hip ratio, and percent body fat (by impedance) were assessed. Repeated measures were reduced to a mean. Data were hierarchically standardized for sexual maturation status, and then used to predict anthropometry/percent body fat. After intensive repeated sampling, individuals still varied widely in testosterone, progesterone, and DHEA concentrations within a developmental cohort (35.0 fat, or waist/hip ratio, whether or not measures were age-adjusted (21 univariate tests; 0.19 Low estradiol assay precision precluded analyses. In conclusion, despite considerable population variation in hormone concentration after repeated sampling, no evidence supported an association between anthropometry or pecent body fat and testosterone, progesterone, or DHEA in adolescent girls.

  15. Craniofacial proportions and anthropometric measurements among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Untreated children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) have typical somatic features, including short stature, acromicria and distinctive craniofacial features including small head circumference. Patients and Methods: By using a cross sectional study design, we investigated the effect of GHD on craniofacial ...

  16. Dental and Nondental Stem Cell Based Regeneration of the Craniofacial Region: A Tissue Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial reconstruction may be a necessary treatment for those who have been affected by trauma, disease, or pathological developmental conditions. The use of stem cell therapy and tissue engineering shows massive potential as a future treatment modality. Currently in the literature, there is a wide variety of published experimental studies utilising the different stem cell types available and the plethora of available scaffold materials. This review investigates different stem cell sources and their unique characteristics to suggest an ideal cell source for regeneration of individual craniofacial tissues. At present, understanding and clinical applications of stem cell therapy remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to overcome. In spite of this, the field displays immense capacity and will no doubt be utilised in future clinical treatments of craniofacial regeneration.

  17. Making headway: the roles of Hox genes and neural crest cells in craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Paul A

    2003-04-14

    Craniofacial development is an extraordinarily complex process requiring the orchestrated integration of multiple specialized tissues such as the surface ectoderm, neural crest, mesoderm, and pharyngeal endoderm in order to generate the central and peripheral nervous systems, axial skeleton, musculature, and connective tissues of the head and face. How do the characteristic facial structures develop in the appropriate locations with their correct shapes and sizes, given the widely divergent patterns of cell movements that occur during head development? The patterning information could depend upon localized interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues or alternatively, the developmental program for the characteristic facial structures could be intrinsic to each individual tissue precursor. Understanding the mechanisms that control vertebrate head development is an important issue since craniofacial anomalies constitute nearly one third of all human congenital defects. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of neural crest cell patterning and the dynamic nature of the tissue interactions that are required for normal craniofacial development.

  18. Craniofacial and dental anomalies among mentally challenged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of craniofacial and dental anomalies among different developmental disorders in mentally challenged subjects of various special schools. Material and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in four rehabilitation centers for mentally disabled subjects in Bhopal City. Atotal o f296 subjects with age range of 5-15 years were screened and findings were recorded in specially prepared proforma. Results: Among 296 subjects, 73 were of Down′s syndrome (DS, 168 of mental retardation (MR, 31 of autism (AT and 24 of cerebral Palsy (CP. The anomalies were found to be predominant in syndromic mental disability compared to non-syndromic disorders. High vault palate was the most common developmental anomaly amongst all the four disabilities. Gingivitis & hypersalivation was noted as an additional finding in all the subgroups. Conclusion: Craniofacial and dental anomalies usually supplement mentally challenged children, leading to poor performance of stomatognathic complex. Therefore critical appraisal of oral health status of such subjects is imperative.

  19. Anthropometry of the Medan - North Sumatera Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Muchtar, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted on 780 students at a university in Medan, North Sumatra. The taken data is divided into two sub-groups, namely men and women, where the data of 343 men and women as many as 437 people. Taken anthropometry data is standing position, sitting position, hands, feet and body weight. This study presents statistical data in the form of standard deviation, average and percentiles. This research needs to be done because the population of the city of Medan is around 2,497,183 people, and Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia. The objectives this study is to collect the anthropometry data for ergonomics application and design product base on the customer need in Medan territory. Data retrieval is necessary because with this data is expected to be applied in the application of science of ergonomics, work station design, equipment design; tooling makes it convenient in everyday use.

  20. Pten regulates neural crest proliferation and differentiation during mouse craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianfang; Moore, Matthew; He, Fenglei

    2018-02-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome TEN (Pten) is implicated in a broad range of developmental events and diseases. However, its role in neural crest and craniofacial development has not been well illustrated. Using genetically engineered mouse models, we showed that inactivating Pten specifically in neural crest cells causes malformation of craniofacial structures. Pten conditional knockout mice exhibit perinatal lethality with overgrowth of craniofacial structures. At the cellular level, Pten deficiency increases cell proliferation rate and enhances osteoblast differentiation. Our data further revealed that inactivating Pten elevates PI3K/Akt signaling activity in neural crest derivatives, and confirmed that attenuation of PI3K/Akt activity led to decreased neural crest cell proliferation and differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Our study revealed that Pten is essential for craniofacial morphogenesis in mice. Inactivating Pten in neural crest cells increases proliferation rate and promotes their differentiation toward osteoblasts. Our data further indicate that Pten acts via modulating PI3K/Akt activity during these processes. Developmental Dynamics 247:304-314, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. More are awaiting for craniofacial intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong

    2006-01-01

    The scale of craniofacial intervention lies between the fields of neuro-intervention and peripheral interventional for the main purpose to investigate, diagnose and treat the disease entities originating from or supplied by the external carotid arterial system. Patients are usually refered to the oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery and otolaryngeal surgery. Craniofacial intervention includes mainly the diagnosis and treatment with adjuvant embolization of high-flow vascular diseases, intra-arterial chemotherapy of malignant tumors, embolization of epistaxis, etc. At present, there is no consensus with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of some craniofacial diseases, therefore further investigation and discussion are needed. (authors)

  2. Face off against ROS: Tcof1/Treacle safeguards neuroepithelial cells and progenitor neural crest cells from oxidative stress during craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    One-third of all congenital birth defects affect the head and face, and most craniofacial anomalies are considered to arise through defects in the development of cranial neural crest cells. Cranial neural crest cells give rise to the majority of craniofacial bones, cartilages and connective tissues. Therefore, understanding the events that control normal cranial neural crest and subsequent craniofacial development is important for elucidating the pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial anomalies and for the exploring potential therapeutic avenues for their prevention. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a congenital disorder characterized by severe craniofacial anomalies. An animal model of TCS, generated through mutation of Tcof1, the mouse (Mus musculus) homologue of the gene primarily mutated in association with TCS in humans, has recently revealed significant insights into the pathogenesis of TCS. Apoptotic elimination of neuroepithelial cells including neural crest cells is the primary cause of craniofacial defects in Tcof1 mutant embryos. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that induce tissue-specific apoptosis remains incomplete. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis TCS. Furthermore, we discuss the role of Tcof1 in normal embryonic development, the correlation between genetic and environmental factors on the severity of craniofacial abnormalities, and the prospect for prenatal prevention of craniofacial anomalies. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Core issues in craniofacial myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Robert G., E-mail: kelly@ibdml.univ-mrs.fr [Developmental Biology Institute of Marseilles-Luminy, UMR6216 CNRS Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 France (France)

    2010-11-01

    Branchiomeric craniofacial muscles control feeding, breathing and facial expression. These muscles differ on multiple counts from all other skeletal muscles and originate in a progenitor cell population in pharyngeal mesoderm characterized by a common genetic program with an adjacent population of cardiac progenitor cells, the second heart field, that gives rise to much of the heart. The transcription factors and signaling molecules that trigger the myogenic program at sites of branchiomeric muscle formation are correspondingly distinct from those in somite-derived muscle progenitor cells. Here new insights into the regulatory hierarchies controlling branchiomeric myogenesis are discussed. Differences in embryological origin are reflected in the lineage, transcriptional program and proliferative and differentiation properties of branchiomeric muscle satellite cells. These recent findings have important implications for our understanding of the diverse myogenic strategies operative both in the embryo and adult and are of direct biomedical relevance to deciphering the mechanisms underlying the cause and progression of muscle restricted myopathies.

  4. Orthognathic Surgery in Craniofacial Microsomia: Treatment Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fariña, DDS, Med

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Craniofacial microsomia is a broad term that covers a variety of craniofacial malformation conditions that are caused by alterations in the derivatives of the first and second pharyngeal arches. In general terms, diverse therapeutic alternatives are proposed according to the growth stage and the severity of the alteration. When craniofacial growth has concluded, conventional orthognathic surgery (Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, and genioplasty provides good alternatives for MI and MIIA type cases. Reconstruction of the mandibular ramus and temporomandibular joint before orthognathic surgery is the indicated treatment for cases MIIB and MIII. The goal of this article is to establish a surgical treatment algorithm for orthognathic surgery on patients with craniofacial microsomia, analyzing the points that allow the ideal treatment for each patient to be chosen.

  5. Head development. Craniofacial genetics makes headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J M

    1995-04-01

    Studies of neural crest migration in animal models, and of human syndromes in which craniofacial development is abnormal, are helping us to understand both prenatal and postnatal development of the head.

  6. Association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern

    OpenAIRE

    CLARO, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Abrao , Jorge; REIS, Silvia Augusta Braga

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern. The sample comprised eighty-six cephalograms obtained during the orthodontic pretreatment phase and analyzed using the Radiocef program to identify the craniofacial landmarks and perform orthodontic measurements. The variables utilized were overbite, the Jarabak percentage and the Vert index, as well as classifications resulting from the interpretation of these measurements. In all...

  7. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  8. Relationships between craniofacial pain and bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, P; Jadidi, F; Arima, T; Baad-Hansen, L; Sessle, B J

    2008-07-01

    A still commonly held view in the literature and clinical practice is that bruxism causes pain because of overloading of the musculoskeletal tissue and craniofacial pain, on the other hand, triggers more bruxism. Furthermore, it is often believed that there is a dose-response gradient so that more bruxism (intensity, duration) leads to more overloading and pain. Provided the existence of efficient techniques to treat bruxism, it would be straightforward in such a simple system to target bruxism as the cause of pain and hence treat the pain. Of course, human biological systems are much more complex and therefore, it is no surprise that the relationship between bruxism and pain is far from being simple or even linear. Indeed, there are unexpected relationships, which complicate the establishment of adequate explanatory models. Part of the reason is the complexity of the bruxism in itself, which presents significant challenges related to operationalized criteria and diagnostic tools and underlying pathophysiology issues, which have been dealt with in other reviews in this issue. However, another important reason is the multifaceted nature of craniofacial pain. This review will address our current understanding of classification issues, epidemiology and neurobiological mechanisms of craniofacial pain. Experimental models of bruxism may help to further the understanding of the relationship between craniofacial pain and bruxism in addition to insights from intervention studies. The review will enable clinicians to understand the reasons why simple cause-effect relationships between bruxism and craniofacial pain are inadequate and the current implications for management of craniofacial pain.

  9. Anthropometry: Basic Studies ad Applications. Volume 1. 1964-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    of cadaver dissection, anthropometry, radiography and cinetluoroscopy, photogrammetric, and computer analysis. Seventy-two antnropoaetric...harness), Males, Mobility, Radiography , photogrammetry, Spinal column, Head, Motion, Statistical analysis, Positioning reactions. Programming...Anatomy), Thorax , Vulnerability, Design standards, Impact tests, Performance standards, Evaluation, Acceleration, Motion, Anthropometry

  10. Sh3pxd2b mice are a model for craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Tian, Cong; Zhang, Zhi-guang; Han, Feng-chan; Azem, Rami; Yu, Heping; Zheng, Ye; Jin, Ge; Arnold, James E; Zheng, Qing Y

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial defects that occur through gene mutation during development increase vulnerability to eustachian tube dysfunction. These defects can lead to an increased incidence of otitis media. We examined the effects of a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee)) on the progression of otitis media and hearing impairment at various developmental stages. We found that all mice that had the Sh3pxd2b(nee) mutation went on to develop craniofacial dysmorphologies and subsequently otitis media, by as early as 11 days of age. We found noteworthy changes in cilia and goblet cells of the middle ear mucosa in Sh3pxd2b(nee) mutant mice using scanning electronic microscopy. By measuring craniofacial dimensions, we determined for the first time in an animal model that this mouse has altered eustachian tube morphology consistent with a more horizontal position of the eustachian tube. All mutants were found to have hearing impairment. Expression of TNF-α and TLR2, which correlates with inflammation in otitis media, was up-regulated in the ears of mutant mice when examined by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The mouse model with a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee)) mirrors craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media in humans.

  11. Sh3pxd2b mice are a model for craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects that occur through gene mutation during development increase vulnerability to eustachian tube dysfunction. These defects can lead to an increased incidence of otitis media. We examined the effects of a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee on the progression of otitis media and hearing impairment at various developmental stages. We found that all mice that had the Sh3pxd2b(nee mutation went on to develop craniofacial dysmorphologies and subsequently otitis media, by as early as 11 days of age. We found noteworthy changes in cilia and goblet cells of the middle ear mucosa in Sh3pxd2b(nee mutant mice using scanning electronic microscopy. By measuring craniofacial dimensions, we determined for the first time in an animal model that this mouse has altered eustachian tube morphology consistent with a more horizontal position of the eustachian tube. All mutants were found to have hearing impairment. Expression of TNF-α and TLR2, which correlates with inflammation in otitis media, was up-regulated in the ears of mutant mice when examined by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The mouse model with a mutation in the Sh3pxd2b gene (Sh3pxd2b(nee mirrors craniofacial dysmorphology and otitis media in humans.

  12. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  13. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the original face are built, respectively, by geodesics and isogeodesics, whose intersections are network vertices. Then, the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of the features of all corresponding geodesic network vertices between two models is taken as the holistic similarity, where the weighted average of the shape index values in a neighborhood is defined as the feature of each network vertex. Moreover, the geodesic network vertices of each model are divided into six subareas, that is, forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin, and the local similarity is measured for each subarea. Experiments using 100 pairs of reconstructed craniofacial faces and their corresponding original faces show that the evaluation by our method is roughly consistent with the subjective evaluation derived from thirty-five persons in five groups.

  14. Craniofacial neurofibromatosis: treatment of the midface deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Tsai, Yueh-Ju; Yu, Chung-Chih; Chen, Hung Chang; Chen, Yu-Ray; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting

    2014-07-01

    Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis is a benign but devastating disease. While the most common location of facial involvement is the orbito-temporal region, patients often present with significant mid-face deformities. We reviewed our experience with Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis from June 1981 to June 2011 and included patients with midface soft tissue deformities defined as gross alteration of nasal or upper lip symmetry. Data reviewed included the medical records and photobank. Over 30 years, 52 patients presented to and underwent surgical management for Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis at the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center. 23 patients (43%) demonstrated gross mid-facial deformities at initial evaluation. 55% of patients with lip deformities and 28% of patients with nasal deformities demonstrated no direct tumour involvement. The respective deformity was solely due to secondary gravitational effects from neurofibromas of the cheek subunit. Primary tumour infiltration of the nasal and/or labial subunits was treated with excision followed by various methods of reconstruction including lower lateral cartilage repositioning, forehead flaps, free flaps, and/or oral commissure suspension. Soft tissue deformities of the midface are very common in patients with Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis and profoundly affect overall aesthetic outcomes. Distinguishing primary from secondary involvement of the midface assists in surgical decision making. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnoea : a cephalometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; Hovinga, B; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    The craniofacial morphology of 31 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and 37 healthy male subjects were compared using cephalometric evaluation of lateral skull radiographs. The aim was to evaluate which cephalometric variables related to craniofacial morphology

  16. Genes, forces, and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2006-05-01

    Current knowledge of molecular signaling during craniofacial development is advancing rapidly. We know that cells can respond to mechanical stimuli by biochemical signaling. Thus, the link between mechanical stimuli and gene expression has become a new and important area of the morphological sciences. This field of research seems to be a revival of the old approach of developmental mechanics, which goes back to the embryologists His (1874), Carey (1920), and Blechschmidt (1948). These researchers argued that forces play a fundamental role in tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. They understood morphogenesis as a closed system with living cells as the active part and biological, chemical, and physical laws as the rules. This review reports on linking mechanical aspects of developmental biology with the contemporary knowledge of tissue differentiation. We focus on the formation of cartilage (in relation to pressure), bone (in relation to shearing forces), and muscles (in relation to dilation forces). The cascade of molecules may be triggered by forces, which arise during physical cell and tissue interaction. Detailed morphological knowledge is mandatory to elucidate the exact location and timing of the regions where forces are exerted. Because this finding also holds true for the exact timing and location of signals, more 3D images of the developmental processes are required. Further research is also required to create methods for measuring forces within a tissue. The molecules whose presence and indispensability we are investigating appear to be mediators rather than creators of form. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Genes, forces and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2007-12-01

    Current knowledge of molecular signaling during craniofacial development is advancing rapidly. We know that cells can respond to mechanical stimuli by biochemical signaling. Thus, the link between mechanical stimuli and gene expression has become a new and important area of the morphological sciences. This field of research seems to be a revival of the old approach of developmental mechanics, which goes back to the embryologists His [36], Carey [13, 14], and Blechschmidt [5]. These researchers argued that forces play a fundamental role in tissue differentiation and morphogenesis. They understood morphogenesis as a closed system with living cells as the active part and biological, chemical, and physical laws as the rules. This review reports on linking mechanical aspects of developmental biology with the contemporary knowledge of tissue differentiation. We focus on the formation of cartilage (in relation to pressure), bone (in relation to shearing forces), and muscles (in relation to dilation forces). The cascade of molecules may be triggered by forces, which arise during physical cell and tissue interaction. Detailed morphological knowledge is mandatory to elucidate the exact location and timing of the regions where forces are exerted. Because this finding also holds true for the exact timing and location of signals, more 3D images of the developmental processes are required. Further research is also required to create methods for measuring forces within a tissue. The molecules whose presence and indispensability we are investigating appear to be mediators rather than creators of form.

  18. Craniofacial ontogeny in Centrosaurus apertus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Frederickson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrosaurus apertus, a large bodied ceratopsid from the Late Cretaceous of North America, is one of the most common fossils recovered from the Belly River Group. This fossil record shows a wide diversity in morphology and size, with specimens ranging from putative juveniles to fully-grown individuals. The goal of this study was to reconstruct the ontogenetic changes that occur in the craniofacial skeleton of C. apertus through a quantitative cladistic analysis. Forty-seven cranial specimens were independently coded in separate data matrices for 80 hypothetical multistate growth characters and 130 hypothetical binary growth characters. Both analyses yielded the max-limit of 100,000 most parsimonious saved trees and the strict consensus collapsed into large polytomies. In order to reduce conflict resulting from missing data, fragmentary individuals were removed and the analyses were rerun. Among both the complete and the reduced data sets the multistate analyses recovered a shorter tree with a higher consistency index (CI than the additive binary data sets. The arrangement within the trees shows a progression of specimens with a recurved nasal horn in the least mature individuals, followed by specimens with straight nasal horns in relatively more mature individuals, and finally specimens with procurved nasal horns in the most mature individuals. The most mature individuals are further characterized by the reduction of the cranial horn ornamentations in late growth stages, a trait that similarly occurs in the growth of other dinosaurs. Bone textural changes were found to be sufficient proxies for relative maturity in individuals that have not reached adult size. Additionally, frill length is congruent with relative maturity status and makes an acceptable proxy for ontogenetic status, especially in smaller individuals. In adult-sized individuals, the fusion of the epiparietals and episquamosals and the orientation of the nasal horn are the best

  19. Anthropometry of an aging work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J F; Case, H W; Clauser, C E; Bradtmiller, B

    1991-01-01

    Faced with an aging labor force, industrial planners are worried about the possible need to redesign jobs and workspaces in the future. One area of concern is the changes that occur in body size characteristics as people age. Although no true database for the anthropometry of the American worker exists, available surveys and studies that include older individuals (40 to 70 years), and errors associated with these studies, are discussed. Using sample mean values from selected cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, the changes in weight and selected body dimensions are traced from the third to the eighth decade of life. As a practical exercise, age-associated changes in a number of workspace dimensions are tested against recommended design values for seated work stations. While acknowledging the need for flexibility in future workplace designs the authors conclude that age-related changes in body size are insufficient in themselves to justify the resizing of existing ergonomically-designed workplaces.

  20. Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilesh, Kumar; Punde, Prashant; Parkar, M I

    2017-09-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is a benign bone disease first described by Lichtenstein in 1938. It is characterized by progressive replacement of normal bone with fibro-osseous connective tissue. When the disease involves craniofacial skeleton, it results in significant disfigurement and other functional problems. This paper reports a case of large craniofacial fibrous dysplasia involving zygomaticomaxillary complex in a 24-year old male patient. Clinical presentation and imaging characteristics of the pathology is discussed in detail. The disease caused significant facial asymmetry which was satisfactorily managed by surgical recontouring.

  1. Oculo-motor disorders in craniofacial malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S

    1984-02-01

    Based on 77 observations including telorbitism, craniofacial stenosis (C.F.S.), and plagiocephalies, oculo-motor disorders involving horizontal and vertical imbalance occur very frequently. Abnormalities in the transverse plane (telorbitisms, craniofacial stenoses) give orbital divergence and exotropia. Orbital extorsion with a significant antimongoloid palpebral fissure, may be the cause of rectus muscle extorsion. Abnormalities in the vertical plane (plagiocephalies) induce hypertropia. Abnormalities in the sagittal plane (C.F.S.) lead to exotropia with exorbitism, the V syndrome with double up-shoot. These oculo-motor disorders seem to be the consequence of these orbital structure abnormalities, sometimes combined with sensory factors.

  2. Morphometric analysis of craniofacial features in mono- and dizygotic twins discordant for unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexis Y; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-09-01

    To compare craniofacial differences between twins discordant for surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) during the developmental ages and to test the effect of zygosity on the shape and size of the craniofacial skeleton of the same twins by means of thin plate spline (TPS) analysis. Lateral and posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric films from 19 sets of monozygotic (MZ) twins (15 male and 4 female) and 10 dizygotic (DZ) twins (7 male and 3 female) were analyzed. TPS analysis evaluated statistically significant differences in the craniofacial shape and size between affected and unaffected twins within MZ and DZ twin couples. No statistically significant differences in craniofacial shape or size between CLP and non-CLP MZ or DZ twins were observed. The level of morphological similarity in CLP vs non-CLP MZ twins was statistically greater than in DZ twins. Morphometric analysis showed that surgically repaired CLP does not produce significant shape or size differences in the craniofacial features of MZ or DZ twins discordant for unilateral CLP.

  3. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of human craniofacial development that results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. Although this gene has been demonstrated to encode the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, the developmental mechanism underlying TCS...... remains elusive, particularly as expression studies have shown that the murine orthologue, Tcof1, is widely expressed. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of TCS, we replaced exon 1 of Tcof1 with a neomycin-resistance cassette via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Tcof1 heterozygous...... of the highest levels of Tcof1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TCS arises from haploinsufficiency of a protein that plays a crucial role in craniofacial development and indicate that correct dosage of treacle is essential for survival of cephalic neural crest cells....

  4. Association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern. The sample comprised eighty-six cephalograms obtained during the orthodontic pretreatment phase and analyzed using the Radiocef program to identify the craniofacial landmarks and perform orthodontic measurements. The variables utilized were overbite, the Jarabak percentage and the Vert index, as well as classifications resulting from the interpretation of these measurements. In all the statistical tests, a significance level of 5% was considered. Measurement reliability was checked by calculating method error. Weighted Kappa analysis showed that agreement between the facial types defined by the Vert index and the direction of growth trend established by the Jarabak percentage was not satisfactory. Owing to this lack of equivalency, a potential association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern was evaluated using the chi-square test, considering the two methods separately. No relationship of dependence between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern was revealed by the results obtained. Therefore, it can be concluded that the classification of facial growth pattern will not be the same when considering the Jarabak and the Ricketts anayses, and that increased overbite cannot be associated with a braquifacial growth pattern, nor can openbite be associated with a dolichofacial growth pattern.

  5. Association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Abrão, Jorge; Reis, Silvia Augusta Braga

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern. The sample comprised eighty-six cephalograms obtained during the orthodontic pretreatment phase and analyzed using the Radiocef program to identify the craniofacial landmarks and perform orthodontic measurements. The variables utilized were overbite, the Jarabak percentage and the Vert index, as well as classifications resulting from the interpretation of these measurements. In all the statistical tests, a significance level of 5% was considered. Measurement reliability was checked by calculating method error. Weighted Kappa analysis showed that agreement between the facial types defined by the Vert index and the direction of growth trend established by the Jarabak percentage was not satisfactory. Owing to this lack of equivalency, a potential association between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern was evaluated using the chi-square test, considering the two methods separately. No relationship of dependence between overbite and craniofacial growth pattern was revealed by the results obtained. Therefore, it can be concluded that the classification of facial growth pattern will not be the same when considering the Jarabak and the Ricketts anayses, and that increased overbite cannot be associated with a braquifacial growth pattern, nor can openbite be associated with a dolichofacial growth pattern.

  6. Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis: a case report | Onyenyirionwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 21 year old boy with Neurofibromatosis (NF 1-GROUP 1) affecting the craniofacial region and hoe he was subsequently managed to emphasize that the condition is a complicated one and should be dealt with by those experienced with this condition. Jnl of Med Investigation & Practice Vol.3 2001: 12-14 ...

  7. Craniofacial characteristics of children with mild hypodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vucic, S.; Dhamo, B.; Kuijpers, M.A.R.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Wolvius, E.B.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to evaluate the craniofacial characteristics of children with mild hypodontia using conventional and principal component (PC) analysis. METHODS: We used radiographic images of 124 children (8-12 years old) with up to 4 missing teeth (55 boys, 69 girls) and of

  8. Advances in bioprinting technologies for craniofacial reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, D.O.; Farré-Guasch, E.; Helder, M.N.; Gibbs, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van Zuijlen, P.P.; Wolff, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in craniofacial reconstruction have shown important advances in both the materials and methods used. While autogenous tissue is still considered to be the gold standard for these reconstructions, the harvesting procedure remains tedious and in many cases causes significant donor

  9. Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Adolescents with Craniofacial Microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltz, Matthew L; Wallace, Erin R; Collett, Brent R; Heike, Carrie L; Luquetti, Daniela V; Werler, Martha M

    2017-09-01

    The authors compared the IQ and academic achievement of adolescents with craniofacial microsomia (cases) and unaffected children (controls). Among cases, the authors analyzed cognitive functioning by facial phenotype. The authors administered standardized tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, writing, and mathematics to 142 cases and 316 controls recruited from 26 cities across the United States and Canada. Phenotypic classification was based on integrated data from photographic images, health history, and medical chart reviews. Hearing screens were conducted for all participants. After adjustment for demographics, cases' average scores were lower than those of controls on all measures, but the magnitude of differences was small (standardized effect sizes, -0.01 to -0.3). There was little evidence that hearing status modified case-control group differences (Wald p > 0.05 for all measures). Twenty-five percent of controls and 38 percent of cases were classified as having learning problems (adjusted OR, 1.5; 95 percent CI, 0.9 to 2.4). Comparison of cases with and without learning problems indicated that those with learning problems were more likely to be male, Hispanic, and to come from lower income, bilingual families. Analyses by facial phenotype showed that case-control group differences were largest for cases with both microtia and mandibular hypoplasia (effect sizes, -0.02 to -0.6). The highest risk of cognitive-academic problems was observed in patients with combined microtia and mandibular hypoplasia. Developmental surveillance of this subgroup is recommended, especially in the context of high socioeconomic risk and bilingual families. Given the early stage of research on craniofacial microsomia and neurodevelopment, replication of these findings is needed. Risk, II.

  10. Sella turcica-Its importance in orthodontics and craniofacial morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Pottipalli Sathyanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sella turcica is a structure which can be readily seen on lateral cephalometric radiographs and sella point is routinely traced for various cephalometric analyses. The search was carried out using the following key words (sella turcica, bridging of sella, size, shape of sella turcica and with the following search engine (Pubmed, Cochrane, Google scholar. The morphology is very important for the cephalometric position of the reference point sella, not only for evaluating craniofacial morphology, but also when growth changes and orthodontic treatment results are to be evaluated. This makes it a good source of additional diagnostic information related to pathology of the pituitary gland, or to various syndromes that affect the craniofacial region. Clinicians should be familiar with the normal radiographic anatomy and morphologic variability of this area, in order to recognize and investigate deviations that may reflect pathological situations, even before these become clinically apparent. During embryological development, the sella turcica area is the key point for the migration of the neural crest cells to the frontonasal and maxillary developmental fields. The neural crest cells are involved in the formation and development of sella turcica and teeth. The size of sella turcica ranges from 4 to 12 mm for the vertical and 5 to 16 mm for the anteroposterior dimension. There are many classification systems regarding the shape of sella turcica. Majority of the studies show that about 67% of the subjects had normal appearance and about 33% showed variations. The prevalence of sella turcica bridging is high in class III malocclusions and dental anomalies.

  11. Postnatal Ontogeny of the Cranial Base and Craniofacial Skeleton in Male C57BL/6J Mice: A Reference Standard for Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Siddharth R; Camci, Esra D; Cox, Timothy C

    2015-01-01

    Growth of the craniofacial skeleton is a complex process controlled by both genetic and epigenetic factors, perturbations of which can lead to varying degrees of dysmorphology. Mouse models that recapitulate clinical craniofacial phenotypes are instrumental in studying the morphogenetic progression of diseases as well as uncovering their genetic and molecular bases. Commonly encountered phenotypes in these models include defects in the cranial base synchondroses, calvarial sutures, mandible or the midface, or any combination thereof, with the concurrent presence of altered overall craniofacial growth. However, the literature lacks an adequate normative timeline of developmental events and growth trends that shape the mouse craniofacial skeleton. In this report, we analyzed the postnatal craniofacial ontogeny (from postnatal day 7 [P7] through to P112) of male mice from the most widely used inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J, using high-resolution microcomputed tomography (μCT) in combination with classic morphometric approaches. We also evaluated cranial base synchondroses at the histological level, and compared it to μCT-generated data to assess the timing and pattern of closure of these structures. Our data underscore the complex and unique growth patterns of individual bones and cranial regions and highlight the need to include younger animals in studies aimed at analyzing craniofacial growth processes. Furthermore, these data serve as a reference standard for future quantitative work.

  12. Postnatal ontogeny of the cranial base and craniofacial skeleton in male C57BL/6J mice: A reference standard for quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth R Vora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the craniofacial skeleton is a complex process controlled by both genetic and epigenetic factors, perturbations of which can lead to varying degrees of dysmorphology. Mouse models that recapitulate clinical craniofacial phenotypes are instrumental in studying the morphogenetic progression of diseases as well as uncovering their genetic and molecular bases. Commonly encountered phenotypes in these models include defects in the cranial base synchondroses, calvarial sutures, mandible or the midface, or any combination thereof, with the concurrent presence of altered overall craniofacial growth. However, the literature lacks an adequate normative timeline of developmental events and growth trends that shape the mouse craniofacial skeleton. In this report, we analyzed the postnatal craniofacial ontogeny (from postnatal day 7 [P7] through to P112 of male mice from the most widely used inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6J, using high-resolution microcomputed tomography (μCT in combination with classic morphometric approaches. We also evaluated cranial base synchondroses at the histological level, and compared it to μCT-generated data to assess the timing and pattern of closure of these structures. Our data underscore the complex and unique growth patterns of individual bones and cranial regions and highlight the need to include younger animals in studies aimed at analyzing craniofacial growth processes. Furthermore, these data serve as a reference standard for future quantitative work.

  13. CT Imaging of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Unal Erzurumlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia is a benign fibroosseous bone dysplasia that can involve single (monostotic or multiple (polyostotic bones. Monostotic form is more frequent in the jaws. It is termed as craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, when it involves, though rarely, adjacent craniofacial bones. A 16-year-old girl consulted for a painless swelling in the right posterior mandible for two years. Panoramic radiography revealed ground-glass ill-defined lesions in the three different regions of the maxilla and mandible. Axial CT scan (bone window showed multiple lesions involving skull base and facial bones. Despite lesions in the skull base, the patient had no abnormal neurological findings. The lesion was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia based on radiological and histopathological examination. In this paper, CT findings and differential diagnosis of CFD are discussed. CT is a useful imaging technique for CFD cases.

  14. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  15. Circulatory CNP Rescues Craniofacial Hypoplasia in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, S; Nakao, Kazumasa; Koyama, N; Isobe, Y; Ueda, Y; Kanai, Y; Kondo, E; Fujii, T; Miura, M; Yasoda, A; Nakao, Kazuwa; Bessho, K

    2017-12-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common genetic form of human dwarfism, characterized by midfacial hypoplasia resulting in occlusal abnormality and foramen magnum stenosis, leading to serious neurologic complications and hydrocephalus. Currently, surgery is the only way to manage jaw deformity, neurologic complications, and hydrocephalus in patients with achondroplasia. We previously showed that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a potent stimulator of endochondral bone growth of long bones and vertebrae and is also a potent stimulator in the craniofacial region, which is crucial for midfacial skeletogenesis. In this study, we analyzed craniofacial morphology in a mouse model of achondroplasia, in which fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is specifically activated in cartilage ( Fgfr3 ach mice), and investigated the mechanisms of jaw deformities caused by this mutation. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of CNP on the maxillofacial area in these animals. Fgfr3 ach mice exhibited midfacial hypoplasia, especially in the sagittal direction, caused by impaired endochondral ossification in craniofacial cartilage and by premature closure of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis, an important growth center in craniomaxillofacial skeletogenesis. We crossed Fgfr3 ach mice with transgenic mice in which CNP is expressed in the liver under the control of the human serum amyloid-P component promoter, resulting in elevated levels of circulatory CNP ( Fgfr3 ach /SAP-Nppc-Tg mice). In the progeny, midfacial hypoplasia in the sagittal direction observed in Fgfr3 ach mice was improved significantly by restoring the thickness of synchondrosis and promoting proliferation of chondrocytes in the craniofacial cartilage. In addition, the foramen magnum stenosis observed in Fgfr3 ach mice was significantly ameliorated in Fgfr3 ach /SAP-Nppc-Tg mice due to enhanced endochondral bone growth of the anterior intraoccipital synchondrosis. These results clearly demonstrate the therapeutic

  16. Anthropometry and it application in ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romelio Rodriguez-Añez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry, is the branch of the human science that studies the physical measurement of the human body, particularly size and shape. Ergonomics is the science of work: of the people who do it and the way it is done; the tools and equipment they use, the places they work in, and the psychological aspects of the working environment. In a simplifi ed way can be understood as the adaptation of work to man. One characteristic of the ergonomic is its interdisciplinarity; since it is based on many different areas of knowledge. Anthropometry has a special importance because of the emergence of complex work systems where knowledge of the physicaldimensions of man with accuracy is important. One application of anthropometrical measurement in ergonomics is the design of working space and the development of industrialized products such as furnishing, cars, tools, etc. With advances in technology, the precision and automation of measurement techniques will increase, improving definition of human size, and the mechanics of workspaces, clothing and equipment. A well-developed tool will perform better in a worker’s hand without injuring his bodily structures. On the other hand, anthropometric data is only meaningful if the workers’ activities are also analyzed. RESUMO A antropometria é o ramo das ciências humanas que estuda as medidas do corpo, particularmente o tamanho e a forma. A ergonomia é a ciência do trabalho e envolve: as pessoas que o fazem, a forma como é feito, as ferramentas e equipamentos que elas usam, os lugares em que elas trabalham e os aspectos psicossociais nas situações de trabalho. De forma bastante simplifi cada, pode ser entendida como a adaptação do trabalho ao homem. Uma característica da ergonomia é a sua interdisciplinaridade, pois diversas áreas do conhecimento lhe dão sustentação. A antropometria assumiu uma importância especial com o surgimento dos sistemas complexos de trabalho onde o conhecimento das

  17. Etiology and treatment in craniofacial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail D. L.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Facial trauma remains an important pathology in present days because of its effects. Facial deformities and functional alteration affect patient’s life quality and his society reinsertion. First evaluation has to be thorough to avoid any secondary complications .This type of pathology involves a pluridisciplinary approach: ENT, OMF, neurosurgeon,plastic surgeon,intensive care doctor. Healing implies complex biological process .A healed bone is capable to perform normal duties without titanium plates help. Osteosynthesis allows a faster and correct recovery. Doctors need to possess profound knowledge with regard to anatomy and physiology and to be acquainted with the reconstructive methods used in craniofacial surgery. Material and methods. This study evaluates craniofacial trauma patients who suffered different types of surgical interventions at the ENT Clinic and OMF Department of Constanta County Hospital since January the 1st 2013 until June the 1st 2017. Results. The group involves 133 cases, both genders and all ages. These 2 elements play an important role in this pathology because of the fact that the vast majority of patients are young active males. The sex ratio in the study is 7:1. In most of cases, craniofacial traumas appear after aggressions and car accidents. The nose and mandibular are fractured in a higher percentage in comparison to other parts of facial structures. Discussions. Important and sensitive structures located at this level increase the risk of possible important and definitive damages.

  18. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  19. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  20. Susuks (charm needles) in the craniofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, P.; Ibrahim, N.; Tandjung, Y.R.M.; Shanmuhasuntharam, P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the numbers of susuks (charm needles) and their distribution in the craniofacial region of susuk wearers, and the sex, racial affiliation, and age of the wearers. In addition, we sought to determine whether the presence of susuks posed any potential hazard to patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied various radiographs of 33 susuk wearers (age range, 33-69 years) and investigated the most common sites of insertion in the craniofacial region. A susuk was also suspended inside a 1.5-T MRI machine to determined whether it was attracted by the machine's magnet. The largest number of susuks that we observed in the craniofacial region was 39 pins, and susuks were particularly numerous in Malay Muslim women. Other sites with susuks were the maxillofacial region (except the temporomandibular region) and the forehead. The susuks showed no ferromagnetic characteristics. As susuks are made from gold, they are generally biocompatible with human tissue and do not cause problems to their wearers. Gold and the other minor metal constituents found in susuks have no ferromagnetic characteristics and therefore pose no hazard to patients undergoing MRI. (author)

  1. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R; Dixon, M J

    2000-06-12

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of human craniofacial development that results from loss-of-function mutations in the gene TCOF1. Although this gene has been demonstrated to encode the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, the developmental mechanism underlying TCS remains elusive, particularly as expression studies have shown that the murine orthologue, Tcof1, is widely expressed. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of TCS, we replaced exon 1 of Tcof1 with a neomycin-resistance cassette via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Tcof1 heterozygous mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site of the highest levels of Tcof1 expression. Our results demonstrate that TCS arises from haploinsufficiency of a protein that plays a crucial role in craniofacial development and indicate that correct dosage of treacle is essential for survival of cephalic neural crest cells.

  2. Making Headway: The Roles of Hox Genes and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Trainor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial development is an extraordinarily complex process requiring the orchestrated integration of multiple specialized tissues such as the surface ectoderm, neural crest, mesoderm, and pharyngeal endoderm in order to generate the central and peripheral nervous systems, axial skeleton, musculature, and connective tissues of the head and face. How do the characteristic facial structures develop in the appropriate locations with their correct shapes and sizes, given the widely divergent patterns of cell movements that occur during head development? The patterning information could depend upon localized interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues or alternatively, the developmental program for the characteristic facial structures could be intrinsic to each individual tissue precursor. Understanding the mechanisms that control vertebrate head development is an important issue since craniofacial anomalies constitute nearly one third of all human congenital defects. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of neural crest cell patterning and the dynamic nature of the tissue interactions that are required for normal craniofacial development.

  3. Predictors of mental health in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions attending the Australian craniofacial unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2013-07-01

    Objective : Adults with craniofacial conditions experience more psychosocial problems than adults in the general population, but little is known about the factors that render a person more or less susceptible to these problems. Guided by research on adults with other conditions that affect appearance, this study examined predictors of psychosocial outcome in adults with craniofacial conditions. Design : Single-sample cross-sectional design. Setting : The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Participants : Adults (N  =  93; 36.9% of the potential sample) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip and/or cleft palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. Main Outcome Measures : All participants completed measures assessing anxiety, depression, and quality of life (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form Health Survey) and variables predicted to affect these outcomes (SF-36 Health Survey - Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cleft Satisfaction Profile, Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Derriford Appearance Scale). Results : Multiple regression analyses revealed that anxiety was predicted by social support, self-esteem, and fear of negative evaluation, while depression was predicted by self-esteem and social support. Physical quality of life was not predicted by any of the measures. Satisfaction with appearance, gender, age, and education were not related to outcome. Conclusions : Interventions designed to increase perceived social support and self-esteem and reduce fear of negative evaluation appear to be indicated and may assist in establishing a causal relationship between these variables.

  4. Top five craniofacial techniques for training in plastic surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kenneth; Kawamoto, Henry K; McCarthy, Joseph G; Bartlett, Scott P; Matthews, David C; Wolfe, S Anthony; Tanna, Neil; Vu, Minh-Thien; Bradley, James P

    2012-03-01

    Despite increasing specialization of craniofacial surgery, certain craniofacial techniques are widely applicable. The authors identified five such craniofacial techniques and queried American Society of Plastic Surgeons members and plastic surgery program directors regarding their comfort level with the procedures and their opinion on resident training for these selected procedures. First, a select group of senior craniofacial surgeons discussed and agreed on the top five procedures. Second, active American Society of Plastic Surgeons were surveyed regarding their opinion on training and their comfort level with each procedure. Third, plastic surgery residency program directors were studied to see which of the top five procedures are taught as part of the plastic surgery residency curriculum. The top five widely applicable craniofacial procedures are technically described and include the following: (1) cranial or iliac bone graft for nasal reconstruction, (2) perialar rim bone graft, (3) lateral canthopexy, (4) osseous genioplasty, and (5) bone graft harvest for orbital floor defects. For practicing plastic surgeons, comfort level in all procedures increased with advancing years in practice (except those with 75 percent), especially those with craniofacial fellowship training, felt competent in all procedures except osseous genioplasty (53 percent). Plastic surgery program directors agreed that all top five procedures should be mastered by graduation. Although program directors felt that all five selected craniofacial procedures should be taught and mastered during residency training, plastic surgeons without craniofacial fellowship training were less comfortable with the techniques. Residency training goals should include competence in core craniofacial techniques.

  5. [Body composition assessment by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos; Restrepo, María Teresa; Estrada, Alejandro

    2007-06-01

    Anthropometry and electric impedance methods are widely used for body composition assessment. However the evidence is unclear whether the results obtained from the two methods can be compared. Two methods are compared for assessment of body composition; anthropometry and electric impedance. Body composition was measured in 70 women; aged 22 to 56 and 53 men; aged 24 to 54, using anthropometry (Durning/Womersley and Jackson/Pollock skinfolds equations) and electric impedance (foot to foot electric impedance) to obtain percentage body fat. The mean percentage body fat was significant higher with Durning/Womersley (25.2%) than Jackson/Pollock (20.1%) and electric impedance (19.3%) for men (pimpedance (27.6%) for women (p0.77) however, the concordance between methods to classify obesity subjects was low (Kbioelectrical impedance method. A significant difference was found between methods applied in men and women, and therefore these methods are not comparable.

  6. Visualization of individual growth-related craniofacial changes based on cephalometric landmark data: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Christopher J; Starke, Jens; Rübel, Jan; Stellzig, Angelika; Komposch, Gerda

    2002-05-01

    An approach based on Euclidean distances between cephalometric landmarks is presented (1) to visualize and localize the individual shape changes of the complex craniofacial skeleton during growth and (2) to depict the individual dynamic behavior of developmental size and shape changes. Growth-related craniofacial changes were investigated exemplarily for two male orthodontically untreated subjects from the Belfast Growth Study on the basis of lateral cephalograms at 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 years. The interlandmark distances among seven skeletal cephalometric landmarks served as a database for the study. A modified Karhunen-Loève decomposition based on orthogonal modes and time-dependent scalar amplitudes was used to describe the growth process. The individual shape changes of the various craniofacial regions were visualized by allocation of colors to the respective distances, and overdrawn representations were reconstructed by means of multidimensional scaling. This visualization technique allows anatomical regions to be characterized with respect to reduced or strengthened growth, compared with pure size changes. The clinically relevant mechanisms of craniofacial changes are visualized (e.g., shifts in the anteroposterior or vertical dimensions of the jaws in relation to cranial base and structural imbalances during development). In addition, overdrawing the effects of shape change on the skeletal structures gives a more readily comprehensible impression of the growth process. Taking account of the methodical limitations of this approach (e.g., the restrictions concerning the number of landmarks), the clinician may take advantage of this technique in orthodontic or surgical diagnostics to gain additional insight into the individual complex size and shape changes during development along with their dynamic behavior.

  7. Caries management by risk assessment in a cleft and craniofacial center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudilliere, Dyani; Thakur, Yogita; Ku, Manwai; Kaur, Ankita; Shrestha, Puja; Girod, Sabine C

    2014-11-01

    Patients with craniofacial anomalies have an increased incidence of dental caries. The prevention program "Caries Management By Risk Assessment" (CAMBRA) has been previously validated but has not yet been introduced at a widespread level in a medical setting, particularly for this high-risk population.In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of implementing CAMBRA during the medical visit at an institutional tertiary care center, which treats children with craniofacial anomalies. The study included 161 participants aged 1 to 18 years. Patients and parents received a personalized educational session, toothbrushing tutorial, and fluoride varnish application. We assessed the prevalence of dental caries, caries risk factors, and knowledge of oral hygiene in this patient population.The overall caries prevalence in this group was higher than average (57% compared with 42%, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The most prevalent risk factors were developmental delay, deep pits/fissures, low socioeconomic status, orthodontic appliances, and carbohydrate snacks. The greatest predictors of dental caries were having 1 or more risk factors and having low socioeconomic status. In summary, children with craniofacial anomalies were at high risk for dental caries, with high rates of risk factors and low rates of preventive factors.Our findings revealed that basic oral hygiene standards are not being met in this high-risk population, highlighting the need for implementation of protocols such as CAMBRA. The results of this study can aid healthcare workers in craniofacial centers and children's hospitals to improve the understanding of oral hygiene and dental care of their patients.

  8. Opitz C syndrome: Trigonocephaly, mental retardation and craniofacial dysmorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Avina Fierro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 4-year-old female child with a dysmorphic and neurological syndrome of trigonocephaly, mental and psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic facial features. The anomalies of the face were the following: slight upward palpebral fissures, ocular hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, hypoplastic nasal root, short nose with anteverted nares; small low set ears, smooth broad philtrum and thin upper lip. The patient had important cerebral anomalies with diffuse alterations in white matter that caused developmental delay with verbal and nonverbal disabilities and severe learning difficulties. This clinical presentation is compatible with the diagnosis of the Opitz C syndrome, a heterogeneous disease of multiple neurological and craniofacial abnormalities. The physical sign more detectable and notorious is the trigonocephaly that is manifested by a prominent metopic suture, but also can be distinguished the other minor facial anomalies that are found in the eyes, nose, mouth and ears that constitute the phenotype of the disorder. The neurological development was altered by the compression of the cerebral frontal lobes with narrowing of this cerebral area, producing hypotonia with muscle weakness, epileptic episodes manifested by seizures, and neurobehavioral and neurocognitive disorders. This syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance trait; our patient had no chromosomal abnormality in the usual karyotype but the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique showed a balanced translocation between the chromosomes two and eleven: t(2:11 (q32.2/q24.

  9. A virtual reality atlas of craniofacial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren M; Oliker, Aaron; Carter, Christina R; Kirov, Miro; McCarthy, Joseph G; Cutting, Court B

    2007-11-01

    Head and neck anatomy is complex and represents an educational challenge to the student. Conventional two-dimensional illustrations inherently fall short in conveying intricate anatomical relationships that exist in three dimensions. A gratis three-dimensional virtual reality atlas of craniofacial anatomy is presented in an effort to address the paucity of readily accessible and customizable three-dimensional educational material available to the student of head and neck anatomy. Three-dimensional model construction was performed in Alias Maya 4.5 and 6.0. A basic three-dimensional skull model was altered to include surgical landmarks and proportions. Some of the soft tissues were adapted from previous work, whereas others were constructed de novo. Texturing was completed with Adobe Photoshop 7.0 and Maya. The Internet application was designed in Viewpoint Enliven 1.0. A three-dimensional computer model of craniofacial anatomy (bone and soft tissue) was completed. The model is compatible with many software packages and can be accessed by means of the Internet or downloaded to a personal computer. As the three-dimensional meshes are publicly available, they can be extensively manipulated by the user, even at the polygonal level. Three-dimensional computer graphics has yet to be fully exploited for head and neck anatomy education. In this context, the authors present a publicly available computer model of craniofacial anatomy. This model may also find applications beyond clinical medicine. The model can be accessed gratis at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Web site or obtained as a three-dimensional mesh, also gratis, by contacting the authors.

  10. Craniofacial dysmorphology: Studies in honor of Samuel Pruzansky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.M.; Rollnick, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 31 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Regional Specification of Cell-Specific Gene Expression During Craniofacial Development; Timing Cleft Palate Closure - Age Should Not Be the Sole Determinant; Excess of Parental Non-Righthandedness in Children with Right-Sided Cleft Lip: A Preliminary Report; and The Application of Roentgencephalometry to the Study of Craniofacial Anomalies

  11. Achondroplasia: Craniofacial manifestations and considerations in dental management

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saleem, Afnan; Al-Jobair, Asma

    2010-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia dwarfism that manifests with stunted stature and disproportionate limb shortening. Achondroplasia is of dental interest because of its characteristic craniofacial features which include relative macrocephaly, depressed nasal bridge and maxillary hypoplasia. Presence of large head, implanted shunt, airway obstruction and difficulty in head control require special precautions during dental management. Craniofacial manifestations and c...

  12. Rare craniofacial clefts in Ibadan | Iyun | Nigerian Journal of Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Congenital craniofacial clefts are anatomical distortions of the face and cranium with deficiencies of excess of tissue in a linear pattern. The exact incidence of craniofacial clefts is unknown because cases are rare and series tend to be small. The aim of this study is to document our experience with congenital ...

  13. OCT imaging of craniofacial anatomy in xenopus embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Engin; Jonas, Stephan M.; Griffin, John; Hooper, Michael C.; Choma, Michael A.; Khokha, Mustafa K.

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of craniofacial defects is incompletely understood. The ability to obtain large amounts of gene sequence data from families affected by craniofacial defects is opening up new ways to understand molecular genetic etiological factors. One important link between gene sequence data and clinical relevance is biological research into candidate genes and molecular pathways. We present our recent research using OCT as a nondestructive phenotyping modality of craniofacial morphology in Xenopus embryos, an important animal model for biological research in gene and pathway discovery. We define 2D and 3D scanning protocols for a standardized approach to craniofacial imaging in Xenopus embryos. We define standard views and planar reconstructions for visualizing normal anatomy and landmarks. We compare these views and reconstructions to traditional histopathology using alcian blue staining. In addition to being 3D, nondestructive, and having much faster throughout, OCT can identify craniofacial features that are lost during traditional histopathological preparation. We also identify quantitative morphometric parameters to define normative craniofacial anatomy. We also note that craniofacial and cardiac defects are not infrequently present in the same patient (e.g velocardiofacial syndrome). Given that OCT excels at certain aspects of cardiac imaging in Xenopus embryos, our work highlights the potential of using OCT and Xenopus to study molecular genetic factors that impact both cardiac and craniofacial development.

  14. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    the two images. To elaborate further: a computational atlas of the average anatomy was constructed. Using non-rigid registration, image data from a subject is automatically transformed into the coordinate space of the atlas. In this process, all knowledge built into the atlas is transferred to the subject......-subject variation etc. Besides image registration, a volumetric segmentation method using graph cuts was developed and applied for intracranial volume estimation. Graph cut is a fast method for segmentation utilizing a suitable graph. Three different craniofacial anomalies were examined in this thesis: Cleft lip...

  15. Validity of self-reported anthropometry in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare direct and self-reported anthro­pometry in Mexican women. Materials and methods. Women aged 30-72 years, participating in the Mexican Teach­ers’ Cohort, completed a questionnaire with their anthropo­metric data in 2006-2008. After eleven months (median time, technicians performed anthropometry in 3 756 participants. We calculated correlations and multivariable-adjusted mean differences between direct and self-reported anthropomet­ric measures. Results. Correlations between direct and self-reported anthropometric measures ranged from 0.78 (waist circumference to 0.93 (weight. On average, women over-reported their height by 2.2 cm and underreported their weight, body mass index (BMI and waist and hip circumfer­ences by 1.3 kg, 1.3 kg/m2, 1.8 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. Errors in self-reported anthropometry increased with rising measured BMI and were also independently associated with age, education and socioeconomic status. Conclusion. Self-reported anthropometry is sufficiently valid for epide­miological purposes in adult Mexican women. Errors in self-reported anthropometry might result in underestimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  16. Longitudinal Changes in Anthropometry and Body Composition in University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootman, Katie C.; Guertin, Kristin A.; Cassano, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated predictors of weight gain in college freshmen. Participants: A longitudinal cohort study followed a representative sample of freshmen (N = 264) from 8/2011 to 6/2012. Methods: Repeated measurements of anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), physical activity, and diet were collected. We investigated…

  17. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  18. Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding pattern, anthropometry and health status of infants attending child welfare clinics of a teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Maternal older age, multiparity and delivery at a government health facility were positively associated with higher rates of EBF (p < 0.05). Only 110 (48.2%) babies were put to the breast ...

  19. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissu...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  20. Nasofacial Anthropometry of Adult Bini Tribe In Nigeria | Omotoso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation is a common phenomenon in the physiognomy of humans. Therefore, physical anthropometry provides the techniques to assess human body dimensions and to describe morphological variations that exist among different human population. This study was conducted to describe the physical morphometric ...

  1. Three-dimensional surface anthropometry: Applications to the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter R. M.; Rioux, Marc

    1997-09-01

    Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body. By tradition this has been carried out taking the measurements from body surface landmarks, such as circumferences and breadths, using simple instruments like tape measures and calipers. Three-dimensional (3D) surface anthropometry enables us to extend the study to 3D geometry and morphology of mainly external human body tissues. It includes the acquisition, indexing, transmission, archiving, retrieval, interrogation and analysis of body size, shape, and surface together with their variability throughout growth and development to adulthood. While 3D surface anthropometry surveying is relatively new, anthropometric surveying using traditional tools, such as calipers and tape measures, is not. Recorded studies of the human form date back to ancient times. Since at least the 17th century 1 investigators have made attempts to measure the human body for physical properties such as weight, size, and centre of mass. Martin documented 'standard' body measurement methods in a handbook in 1928. 2 This paper reviews the past and current literature devoted to the applications of 3D anthropometry because true 3D scanning of the complete human body is fast becoming a reality. We attempt to take readers through different forms of technology which deal with simple forms of projected light to the more complex advanced forms of laser and video technology giving low and/or high resolution 3D data. Information is also given about image capture of size and shape of the whole as well as most component parts of the human body. In particular, the review describes with explanations a multitude of applications, for example, medical, product design, human engineering, anthropometry and ergonomics etc.

  2. Craniofacial morphology in unoperated infants with isolated cleft palate. A cephalometric analysis in three projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Kreiborg, S.; Jensen, B.L.

    58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections......58th Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, Minneapolis, Craniofacial morphology, unoperated infants, isolated cleft palate, cephalometric analysis, three projections...

  3. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Health Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes HIV/AIDS Order Free Publications English and Spanish ...

  4. Cervical column morphology and craniofacial profiles in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Pallisgaard, Carsten; Kjaer, Inger

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have described the relationships between cervical column morphology and craniofacial morphology. The aims of the present study were to describe cervical column morphology in 38 pairs of adult monozygotic (MZ) twins, and compare craniofacial morphology in twins with fusions with craniofacial morphology in twins without fusion. Visual assessment of cervical column morphology and cephalometric measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on profile radiographs. In the cervical column, fusion between corpora of the second and third vertebrae was registered as fusion. In the twin group, 8 twin pairs had fusion of the cervical column in both individuals within the pair (sub-group A), 25 pairs had no fusions (subgroup B), and in 5 pairs, cervical column morphology was different within the pair (subgroup C), as one twin had fusion and the other did not. Comparison of craniofacial profiles showed a tendency to increased jaw retrognathia, larger cranial base angle, and larger mandibular inclination in subgroup A than in subgroup B. The same tendency was observed within subgroup C between the individual twins with fusion compared with those without fusion. These results confirm that cervical fusions and craniofacial morphology may be interrelated in twins when analysed on profile radiographs. The study also documents that differences in cervical column morphology can occur in individuals within a pair of MZ twins. It illustrates that differences in craniofacial morphology between individuals within a pair of MZ twins can be associated with cervical fusion.

  5. Psychosocial functioning in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2012-05-01

    To examine the psychosocial functioning of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions relative to normative data. Single sample cross-sectional design. The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, which is one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Adults (N  =  93) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip/palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. All participants completed self-report scales assessing health-related quality of life (SF-36); life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression (HADS); self-esteem (Rosenberg); appearance-related concerns; perceived social support; and social anxiety. Overall, participants were very similar in psychosocial function to the general population. However, adults with craniofacial conditions were less likely to be married and have children (females), were more likely to be receiving a disability pension, and reported more appearance-related concerns and less social support from friends. They also reported more limitations in both their social activities, due to physical or emotional problems, and usual role activities, because of emotional problems, as well as poorer mental health. These results give cause to be very positive about the long-term outcomes of children who are undergoing treatment for craniofacial conditions, while also identifying specific areas that interventions could target.

  6. Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolarová, Marie M; Poulton, Donald; Aubert, Maryse M; Oh, HeeSoo; Ellerhorst, Thomas; Mosby, Terezie; Tolar, Miroslav; Boyd, Robert L

    2006-10-01

    There is no doubt modern genetics have greatly influenced our professional and personal lives during the last decade. Uncovering genetic causes of many medical and dental pathologies is helping to narrow the diagnosis and select a treatment plan that would provide the best outcome. Importantly, having an understanding of multifactorial etiology helps direct our attention toward prevention. We now understand much better our own health problems. In some cases, we can modify our lifestyle and diet in order to prevent "environmental factors" from triggering the mutated genes inherited from our parents. Good examples are diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. If we realize we might have inherited genes for cardiovascular problems from several ancestors who had heart attacks, we already know that these genes will make us only "susceptible" for disease. Those who exercise, watch one's weight, diet, and carefully monitor one's lifestyle will very likely--though possessing "susceptibility genes"--stay healthier and, maybe, will never experience any cardiovascular problems. In principle, the same applies for craniofacial anomalies, especially for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. One needs to understand genetic and environmental causes of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in order to prevent them. With all this in mind, the Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program have been established at the Department of Orthodontics, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. A partnership with Rotaplast International, Inc., has made it possible for the faculty, orthodontic residents, and students to participate in 27 multidisciplinary cleft medical missions in underdeveloped and developing countries by donating professional and educational services, and, last but not least, by collecting valuable data and specimens to further research. A significant number of research studies, including 15 master of science theses, have been accomplished in

  7. Frontal sinus mucocele: a rare complication of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, C; Ustüner, E; Erden, I; Akyar, S

    2001-01-01

    We present plain radiographic, computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 25-year-old female patient with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia (FD). Although FD has a tendency to involve craniofacial bones in a unilateral fashion, the involvement was bilateral and extensive in this case. An additional feature was the presence of a frontal sinus mucocele, presumably due to the involvement of the sinus recess by the dysplastic process. This complication of the craniofacial FD has been reported very infrequently in the literature.

  8. Bone tissue bioprinting for craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ozbolat, Veli; Ayan, Bugra; Dhawan, Aman; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-11-01

    Craniofacial (CF) tissue is an architecturally complex tissue consisting of both bone and soft tissues with significant patient specific variations. Conditions of congenital abnormalities, tumor resection surgeries, and traumatic injuries of the CF skeleton can result in major deficits of bone tissue. Despite advances in surgical reconstruction techniques, management of CF osseous deficits remains a challenge. Due its inherent versatility, bioprinting offers a promising solution to address these issues. In this review, we present and analyze the current state of bioprinting of bone tissue and highlight how these techniques may be adapted to serve regenerative therapies for CF applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2424-2431. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The heterogeneity of craniofacial morphology in Prader-Willi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belengeanu, D; Bratu, Cristina; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A; Ormerod, Eli; Podariu, Angela Codruţa; Farcaş, Simona; Andreescu, Nicoleta

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disorder with narrow spectrum of facial phenotypic signs, which make the clinical diagnosis difficult in some cases. There are several reports describing the craniofacial appearance of Prader-Willi patients, but there are only a few cephalometric studies for these patients. In this study were included 18 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome and a control group of 18 subjects of both sexes selected based on specific criteria. The cephalometric radiographs of the patients were taken using the standardized technique with centric teeth in occlusion and lips in relaxed position. Angular, horizontal and linear measurements were analyzed for the study group and for the control group. We established that in Prader-Willi patients, there is a decrease of the majority of parameters but the degree of this reduction varies widely between patients and clinically typical facies not always have smaller measurements which can be found in an unusual facies. Facial dysmorphism in Prader-Willi patients varies a group ranging from miss proportions that do not alter the facial architecture as regard of facial typology, skeletal class and pattern of development to a severe disturbance of those. There is a degree of clinical heterogeneity between subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome on clinical evaluation and cephalometric study confirms the heterogeneity for this patients. Because the identification of smaller dimensions for majority of parameters in children and adults, the possibility of developmental delay or growth retardation delay can be excluded. These findings are important for the orthodontist for optimum timing of orthodontic management of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

  10. Comparison of current ATDs with Chinese adults in anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Libo; Zhang, Kai; Lv, Xin; Yan, Lingbo

    2016-05-18

    Crash test dummies are full-scale anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) that simulate the dimensions, weight proportions, and articulation of the human body and are used to measure human injury potential in vehicle crashes. The Hybrid III dummy family, which is widely used currently, takes selected percentiles of anthropometry dimensions of U.S. adults as design references. The objective of this study was to assess the difference in anthropometry between Chinese adults and the currently used dummy. Based on the Chinese National Physical Fitness Surveillance of the year 2000, 2005, 2010 and National Standard of China GB/T 10000-1988, a series of anthropometric parameters for Chinese adults were obtained, and data analysis was conducted between Chinese adults and ATDs that are currently used. The comparison revealed distinct anthropometric difference between ATDs and Chinese adults. Based on the latest data, median Chinese females were about 2.6% lower in stature and about 8.03% lower in body weight than the ATD design targets. Similarly, median Chinese males were about 3.48% shorter and weighed 11.89% less than the ATD design targets. Although the anthropometric differences between Chinese adults and the Hybrid III ATD specifications were modest and growing smaller, it is advisable to take the differences in anthropometry between ATDs and Chinese adults into consideration when developing new vehicles in China to provide effective protection specifically for Chinese occupants.

  11. The role of anthropometry in designing for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, Gopal; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of human factors and ergonomics facilitates the design of artefacts, tasks and environments that fulfil their users' physical and cognitive requirements. Research in these fields furthers the goal of efficiently accommodating the desired percentage of user populations through enhanced awareness and modelling of human variability. Design for sustainability (DfS) allows for these concepts to be leveraged in the broader context of designing to minimise negative impacts on the environment. This paper focuses on anthropometry and proposes three ways in which its consideration is relevant to DfS: reducing raw material consumption, increasing usage lifetimes and ethical human resource considerations. This is demonstrated through the application of anthropometry synthesis, virtual fitting, and sizing and adjustability allocation methods in the design of an industrial workstation seat for use in five distinct global populations. This work highlights the importance of and opportunities for using ergonomic design principles in DfS efforts. This research demonstrates the relevance of some anthropometry-based ergonomics concepts to the field of design for sustainability. A global design case study leverages human variability considerations in furthering three sustainable design goals: reducing raw material consumption, increasing usage lifetimes and incorporating ethical human resource considerations in design.

  12. School furniture match to students' anthropometry in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Salah R

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at comparing primary school students' anthropometry to the dimensions of school furniture and determining whether the furniture used matches the students' anthropometry. A sample of 600 male students, whose ages were between 6 and 11 years, from five primary schools in the Gaza Strip governorates participated in the study. Several students' body dimensions were measured. The dimensions measured included elbow-seat height, shoulder height, knee height, popliteal height and buttock-popliteal length. Measurements of the dimensions of the classroom furniture indicated that there was a considerable mismatch between the students' body dimensions and the classroom furniture. The mismatches in seat height, seat depth and desk height occurred for 99% of the students, while the mismatch for the back rest height was only 35%. Two design specifications were proposed in order to decrease the mismatch percentage based on the data obtained. The two proposed designs showed a considerable improvement in the match percentages as compared to the existing design. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Having identified mismatches between the dimensions of the school furniture used in primary schools in the Gaza Strip, two new design specifications are proposed and shown to improve match with the students' anthropometric dimensions. The findings of the study are also an important addition to local knowledge on school children's anthropometry.

  13. Craniofacial Vascular Malformations in Wyburn-Mason Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bao Luo

    2006-12-01

    Conclusion: WMS has a wide spectrum of multiple AVMs involving unilateral or bilateral craniofacial regions. The most common involved site is the orbit, followed by the brain. WMS should be considered in patients with ocular AVMs associated with brain AVMs.

  14. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  15. Cis-regulatory underpinnings of human GLI3 expression in embryonic craniofacial structures and internal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amir A; Minhas, Rashid; Schmidt, Ansgar; Koch, Sabine; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz

    2013-10-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor Gli3 is an important mediator of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. During early embryonic development Gli3 participates in patterning and growth of the central nervous system, face, skeleton, limb, tooth and gut. Precise regulation of the temporal and spatial expression of Gli3 is crucial for the proper specification of these structures in mammals and other vertebrates. Previously we reported a set of human intronic cis-regulators controlling almost the entire known repertoire of endogenous Gli3 expression in mouse neural tube and limbs. However, the genetic underpinning of GLI3 expression in other embryonic domains such as craniofacial structures and internal organs remain elusive. Here we demonstrate in a transgenic mice assay the potential of a subset of human/fish conserved non-coding sequences (CNEs) residing within GLI3 intronic intervals to induce reporter gene expression at known regions of endogenous Gli3 transcription in embryonic domains other than central nervous system (CNS) and limbs. Highly specific reporter expression was observed in craniofacial structures, eye, gut, and genitourinary system. Moreover, the comparison of expression patterns directed by these intronic cis-acting regulatory elements in mouse and zebrafish embryos suggests that in accordance with sequence conservation, the target site specificity of a subset of these elements remains preserved among these two lineages. Taken together with our recent investigations, it is proposed here that during vertebrate evolution the Gli3 expression control acquired multiple, independently acting, intronic enhancers for spatiotemporal patterning of CNS, limbs, craniofacial structures and internal organs. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  16. Reduction in diabetes-induced craniofacial defects by maternal immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubec, Terry C; Prater, M Renee; Toops, Kimberly A; Holladay, Steven D

    2006-02-01

    Maternal diabetes can induce a number of developmental abnormalities in laboratory animals and humans, including facial deformities and defects in neural tube closure. The incidence of birth defects in newborns of diabetic women is approximately 3-5 times higher than among non-diabetics. In mice, non-specific activation of the maternal immune system can reduce fetal abnormalities caused by diverse etiologies, including diabetes induced neural tube defects. This study was conducted to determine whether non-specific maternal immune stimulation could reduce diabetes-induced craniofacial defects as well. Maternal immune function was stimulated before streptozocin (STZ) treatment by maternal footpad injection with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), maternal intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), or maternal i.p. injection with interferon-gamma (IFNgamma). Streptozocin (200 mg/kg i.p.) was used to induce hyperglycemia (26-35 mmol blood glucose) in female ICR mice before breeding. Fetuses from 12-18 litters per treatment group, were collected at Day 17 of gestation. Craniofacial defects were observed in fetuses from all hyperglycemic groups. The incidence of defects was significantly decreased in fetuses from dams immune stimulated with IFNgamma or GM-CSF. The most common defects were reduced maxillary and mandibular lengths. Both were prevented by maternal stimulation with GM-CSF. Maternal immune stimulation reduced the incidence of diabetic craniofacial embryopathy. The mechanisms for these protective effects are unknown but may involve maternal or fetal production of cytokines or growth factors that protect the fetus from the dysregulatory effects of hyperglycemia.

  17. Applications of Computer Technology in Complex Craniofacial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher M. Day, MD

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion:. Modern 3D technology allows the surgeon to better analyze complex craniofacial deformities, precisely plan surgical correction with computer simulation of results, customize osteotomies, plan distractions, and print 3DPCI, as needed. The use of advanced 3D computer technology can be applied safely and potentially improve aesthetic and functional outcomes after complex craniofacial reconstruction. These techniques warrant further study and may be reproducible in various centers of care.

  18. Stem cells: Update and impact on craniofacial surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Benjamin; Glotzbach, Jason; Wong, Victor; Nelson, Emily; Hyun, Jeong; Wan, Derrick C.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding field of tissue engineering, surgeons have been eager to apply these principles to craniofacial surgery. Tissue engineering strategies combine the use of a cell type placed on a scaffold and subsequently implanted in vivo to address a tissue defect or tissue dysfunction. In this review we will discuss the current clinical need for skeletal and soft tissue engineering faced by craniofacial surgeons and subsequently we will explore cell types and scaffold designs bein...

  19. Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture Development using Microsoft Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    AND ANTHROPOMETRY EFFECTS FOR STATIC GESTURE DEVELOPMENT USING MICROSOFT KINECT BY MICHAEL A. HAMILTON PATRICK MEAD RACHAEL LUND JAKE...DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Sep 2013–30 Sep 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture...prediction accuracy of 97 percent. 15. SUBJECT TERMS gestures anthropometry ANOVA Tukey 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  20. Opinion leaders and evidence-based medicine in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Gaby D; Papay, Frank A; Moores, Neal; Meisler, Eileen; Zins, James E

    2014-01-01

    In health care, it is widely known that evidence-based medicine (EBM) has a significant impact on clinical practice, and opinion leaders can enhance the clinician's application of EBM in various disciplines. In this article, we examine the existence and impact of opinion leaders in craniofacial surgery as well as barriers to evidence-based practice. We compiled the answers of an Internet questionnaire, which was sent to 102 craniofacial surgeons. Our results demonstrate that opinion leaders most definitely can be identified in craniofacial surgery. They are tightly connected to their field's social network and promote EBM. In this survey, 44% of craniofacial surgeons reported that their greatest obstacle to clinical decision making in the management of nonsyndromic synostosis was lack of surgical consensus. In addition, craniofacial surgeons stated that EBM and opinion leaders are the most influential factors that caused them to change their management of craniosynostosis. We expect that the use of opinion leaders can further enhance the uptake of EBM in craniofacial surgery.

  1. The aponeurotic tension model of craniofacial growth in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standerwick, Richard G; Roberts, W Eugene

    2009-05-22

    Craniofacial growth is a scientific crossroad for the fundamental mechanisms of musculoskeletal physiology. Better understanding of growth and development will provide new insights into repair, regeneration and adaptation to applied loads. Traditional craniofacial growth concepts are insufficient to explain the dynamics of airway/vocal tract development, cranial rotation, basicranial flexion and the role of the cranial base in expression of facial proportions. A testable hypothesis is needed to explore the physiological pressure propelling midface growth and the role of neural factors in expression of musculoskeletal adaptation after the cessation of anterior cranial base growth. A novel model for craniofacial growth is proposed for: 1. brain growth and craniofacial adaptation up to the age of 20; 2. explaining growth force vectors; 3. defining the role of muscle plasticity as a conduit for craniofacial growth forces; and 4. describing the effect of cranial rotation in the expression of facial form.Growth of the viscerocranium is believed to be influenced by the superficial musculoaponeurotic systems (SMAS) of the head through residual tension in the occipitofrontalis muscle as a result of cephalad brain growth and cranial rotation. The coordinated effects of the regional SMAS develop a craniofacial musculoaponeurotic system (CFMAS), which is believed to affect maxillary and mandibular development.

  2. Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR), Final Report. Volume 1. Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    The Civilian Americana and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project was a survey of the civilian populations of three countries representing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries...

  3. Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR). Volume II: Descriptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackwell, Sherri

    2002-01-01

    The Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project was a survey of the civilian populations of three countries representing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries...

  4. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Semina, Elena V

    2012-01-01

    Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5) splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition) helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5) morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5) morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  5. pitx2 Deficiency results in abnormal ocular and craniofacial development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Human PITX2 mutations are associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder that involves ocular anterior segment defects, dental hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphism and umbilical abnormalities. Characterization of the PITX2 pathway and identification of the mechanisms underlying the anomalies associated with PITX2 deficiency is important for better understanding of normal development and disease; studies of pitx2 function in animal models can facilitate these analyses. A knockdown of pitx2 in zebrafish was generated using a morpholino that targeted all known alternative transcripts of the pitx2 gene; morphant embryos generated with the pitx2(ex4/5 splicing-blocking oligomer produced abnormal transcripts predicted to encode truncated pitx2 proteins lacking the third (recognition helix of the DNA-binding homeodomain. The morphological phenotype of pitx2(ex4/5 morphants included small head and eyes, jaw abnormalities and pericardial edema; lethality was observed at ∼6-8-dpf. Cartilage staining revealed a reduction in size and an abnormal shape/position of the elements of the mandibular and hyoid pharyngeal arches; the ceratobranchial arches were also decreased in size. Histological and marker analyses of the misshapen eyes of the pitx2(ex4/5 morphants identified anterior segment dysgenesis and disordered hyaloid vasculature. In summary, we demonstrate that pitx2 is essential for proper eye and craniofacial development in zebrafish and, therefore, that PITX2/pitx2 function is conserved in vertebrates.

  6. Identifying Psychosocial Risk Factors Among Families of Children With Craniofacial Conditions: Validation of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Craniofacial Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crerand, Canice E; Kapa, Hillary M; Litteral, Jennifer; Pearson, Gregory D; Eastman, Katherine; Kirschner, Richard E

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool-Craniofacial Version (PAT-CV), a screening instrument for psychosocial risk in families of children with craniofacial conditions, and to examine risk classification of patients in a craniofacial population. Prospective, cross-sectional, single-center study. Interdisciplinary cleft lip and palate/craniofacial center at a US children's hospital. Parents/caregivers (n = 242) of 217 children ages 1 month to 17 years being treated for a congenital syndromic or nonsyndromic craniofacial condition completed the PAT-CV and validating measures from July 2015 to July 2016. The PAT-CV was completed by 121 caregivers a second time to assess test-retest reliability. PAT-CV, Child Behavior Checklist, Adult Self-Report, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Craniofacial Experiences Questionnaire, and Family Environment Scale. Construct validity of the PAT-CV was supported by significant correlations ( P risk group, 32.3% within the targeted risk group, and 7.8% within the clinical range. Good criterion validity was indicated by significantly higher scores ( P risk groups. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86) and test-retest reliability for the PAT-CV total score ( r = 0.77, P psychosocial risk. Accurate identification of risk and implementation of appropriate interventions may contribute to improvements in medical and psychosocial outcomes.

  7. Tcof1/Treacle is required for neural crest cell formation and proliferation deficiencies that cause craniofacial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jill; Jones, Natalie C; Sandell, Lisa L; Jayasinghe, Sachintha M; Crane, Jennifer; Rey, Jean-Philippe; Dixon, Michael J; Trainor, Paul A

    2006-09-05

    Neural crest cells are a migratory cell population that give rise to the majority of the cartilage, bone, connective tissue, and sensory ganglia in the head. Abnormalities in the formation, proliferation, migration, and differentiation phases of the neural crest cell life cycle can lead to craniofacial malformations, which constitute one-third of all congenital birth defects. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, and middle and external ear defects. Although TCS results from autosomal dominant mutations of the gene TCOF1, the mechanistic origins of the abnormalities observed in this condition are unknown, and the function of Treacle, the protein encoded by TCOF1, remains poorly understood. To investigate the developmental basis of TCS we generated a mouse model through germ-line mutation of Tcof1. Haploinsufficiency of Tcof1 leads to a deficiency in migrating neural crest cells, which results in severe craniofacial malformations. We demonstrate that Tcof1/Treacle is required cell-autonomously for the formation and proliferation of neural crest cells. Tcof1/Treacle regulates proliferation by controlling the production of mature ribosomes. Therefore, Tcof1/Treacle is a unique spatiotemporal regulator of ribosome biogenesis, a deficiency that disrupts neural crest cell formation and proliferation, causing the hypoplasia characteristic of TCS craniofacial anomalies.

  8. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  9. Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia surgery: a functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béquignon, E; Cardinne, C; Lachiver, X; Wagner, I; Chabolle, F; Baujat, B

    2013-09-01

    Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia has not only esthetic but functional impact. Surgery is controversial, ranging from conservative to radical. It involves elevated hemorrhage risk, and should be progressive, based on an individual risk/benefit analysis with the aim of improving quality of life. Three patients (one male, two female; mean age, 35 years) with evolutive orbital-temporal maxillary dysplasia were treated between 2008 and 2009 in our department. All showed exophthalmia and nasal obstruction. In one patient, symptomatology was aggravated by a frontal sinus cyst within the dysplasia. Another had associated auditory canal obstruction inducing recurrent external otitis. Optic nerve decompression was achieved on a combined coronal and endonasal approach, assisted by neuronavigation. Complementary remodelling resection, dacryocystorhinostomy and internal optic nerve decompression were performed. Functional results showed 70 % improvement on a subjective scale for eye tension and nasal obstruction. Surgery was feasible in all patients, with no complications. Current surgical management allies esthetic and functional concerns. Remodeling resection is the reference technique. The coronal approach is a good primary option for optic nerve decompression. Endonasal surgery with neuronavigation improves nasal ventilation and lacrimal canal permeability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Venous Thromboembolism Incidence After Craniofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omesiete, Wilson I; Walker, James A; Yu, Jack C

    2018-05-01

    Current protocols for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after craniofacial surgery (CFS) vary widely with substantial disagreements in both indications and managements. An evidence-based approach to this issue requires the following: the incidence of postoperative VTE, comorbidities associated with coagulopathy, risk reduction after VTE prophylaxis, and complications attributable to prophylaxis. This study addresses the first two. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Discharge data from 64,170 patients undergoing CFS between 2008 and 2013 extracted from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. The outcome measures extracted were: deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, demographic data, common comorbidities, length of stay, total cost, and discharge outcome. Diagnoses of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, collectively classified as VTE, were observed in 355 (0.55%) of 64,170 patients discharged after CFS. Other surgeries exhibited a VTE rate of 1.17%. Men exhibited nearly double the incidence of VTE relative to women (0.69% compared with 0.37% respectively, P use did not exhibit any significant association (odds ratio, 0.94; P = 0.679). Afflicted patients experienced 4.60 times longer hospital stays averaging 23.8 days (95% confidence interval, 21.4-26.2; P use of VTE chemoprophylaxis is appropriate.

  11. Intraoperative guidance in maxillofacial and craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfeld, S; Muehling, J; Wirtz, C R; Knauth, M; Lutze, T; Schulz, H J

    1997-01-01

    The authors' experiences with intraoperative computer assisted guidance in interventions in oromaxillofacial and craniofacial surgery are reported. The guidance system SPOCS (Surgical Planning and Orientation Computer Systems, Aesculap, Germany) consists of an infrared light emitting system of diodes and camera, an imaging workstation and assorted freehand instruments. The software is an updated version of the well-known Viewing Wand software (ISG Technologies, Canada). In tests on phantoms, the system proved a mean accuracy of less than 1.5 mm. Within the last 15 clinical tests, the system has achieved an accuracy better than 3 mm which, at the moment, the authors estimate to be sufficient to proceed with its clinical evaluation. Using bone screws to register the patient's position, an accuracy in the range of less than 2 mm in relation to bony reference points has been achieved. By visualizing the tip of the instrument in real time, this technique allows surgical interventions, even in anatomically complicated situations, without endangering vital neighbouring structures. The 'offset' function of the software, by which the surgeon can elongate the tip of the instrument virtually, allows the surgeon to analyse structures before they are penetrated by the instrument as in a 'look ahead' operation. The authors expect computer assisted simulation and guidance systems to improve surgical quality and reduce the risks associated with surgical interventions.

  12. Current state of craniofacial prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Krom, Bastiaan P; van der Mei, Henry C; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The main clinical stages were the subject of analysis. A multidisciplinary approach is preferred when rehabilitating maxillofacial defects. Surgical reconstruction can be used for smaller defects, but larger defects require a prosthesis to achieve an esthetic rehabilitation. Implant retained prostheses are preferred over adhesive prostheses. Silicone elastomer is currently the best material available for maxillofacial prostheses; however, longevity and discoloration, which are greatly influenced by ultraviolet radiation, microorganisms, and environmental factors, remain significant problems. In the near future, the widespread availability and cost effectiveness of digital systems may improve the workflow and outcomes of facial prostheses. Patients report high satisfaction with their prostheses despite some areas that still need improvement. Maxillofacial prostheses are a reliable treatment option to restore maxillofacial defects and improve quality of life. Significant progress has been made in the application of implants for retention and digital technology for designing surgical guides, suprastructures, and craniofacial prostheses. Further improvements are necessary to enhance longevity of prostheses.

  13. Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Selection Criteria: A National Program Director Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; Blecher, Nathaniel A; Losee, Joseph E; Nguyen, Vu T; Goldstein, Jesse

    2017-07-01

    Candidate characteristics for craniofacial fellowship training still remain unknown, as no data are available in the literature. This study aims to provide information on the criteria that are used to select and rank applicants for the craniofacial surgery fellowship match. A 38-question survey was sent in April 2015 to all craniofacial surgery fellowship program directors (n = 29) involved in the US match using QuestionPro Survey Software. The survey investigated factors used for selection of applicants, including medical school, residency training, research experience, fellowship interview, and candidate characteristics. A 5-point Likert scale was used to grade 33 factors from "not at all important" (1) to "essential in making my decision" (5); or for 5 controversial factors from "very negative impact" (1) to "very positive impact in making my decision" (5). A total of 62% (18 out of 29) of responses were received from craniofacial surgery program directors. The most important factors were professionalism and ethics (4.7 ± 0.5), perceived commitment to craniofacial surgery (4.6 ± 0.8), interactions with faculty and staff (4.5 ± 0.5), interpersonal skills (4.5 ± 0.5), and overall interview performance (4.4 ± 0.6). Factors that have a negative impact on the selection process include graduation from a nonplastic surgery residency program (1.9 ± 0.7) or a non-US plastic surgery residency program (2.2 ± 0.6), and visa requirement (2.2 ± 0.5). This study provides data on craniofacial surgery program directors' perception on the criteria important for fellowship applicant selection. It is our hope that program directors, residency programs, and applicants find this data useful as they prepare for the craniofacial fellowship match.

  14. Craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Julsoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In addition to well-established physical characteristics, Turner syndrome patients have distinct craniofacial morphology. Since short stature is the most typical characteristic, Turner syndrome patients are commonly treated with growth hormone in order to increase final height. At the same time, growth hormone treatment was found to influence craniofacial growth and morphology in various groups of treated patients. Whereas craniofacial characteristics of Turner syndrome patients are well documented, comparatively little is known of craniofacial morphology of those who are treated with growth hormone. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone in comparison to healthy females. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on twenty lateral cephalograms of Turner syndrome patients (13.53 ± 4.04 years treated with growth hormone for at least one year (4.94 ± 1.92 years in average. As a control group, forty lateral cephalograms of healthy female controls, who matched Turner syndrome patients by chronological (11.80 ± 2.37 years and skeletal age, were used. Eleven angular, seven linear measurements and six dimensional ratios were measured to describe craniofacial morphology. Results: The results obtained for angular measurements, in cephalometric analyses for Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone, revealed bimaxillary retrognathism. The linear measurements indicated longer mandibular ramus, anterior cranial base and both anterior and posterior facial heights. However, posterior cranial base and maxilla were in proportion to the anterior cranial base, when comparing dimensional ratios. Anterior cranial base, maxilla and mandibular ramus were larger in proportion to mandibular body; as well as posterior facial height was when compared to anterior facial height. Turner syndrome patients treated with growth

  15. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of

  16. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed...

  17. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Three-dimensional spiral CT of craniofacial malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binaghi, S.; Gudinchet, F.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the value of three-dimensional CT (3D CT) in the diagnosis and management of suspected paediatric craniofacial malformations. Materials and methods. Twenty-eight children (12 girls, 16 boys) with a mean age of 4 years, suffering from craniofacial or cervical malformations, underwent craniofacial spiral CT. 3D reformatting was performed using an independent workstation. Results. 3D CT allowed the preoperative evaluation of 16 patients with craniosynostosis and the post-surgical management of 2 patients. 3D CT clearly depicted malformations of the skull base involving the petrous bone in seven patients (four cases of Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome, one case of Treacher-Collins syndrome and two cases of Crouzon's disease). Four patients with craniofacial clefts were also evaluated. Radiological findings were confirmed by the clinical and intraoperative findings in all patients that underwent surgical treatment. Movement artefacts and ''Lego effect'' related to abrupt change of cranial vault border were encountered and are discussed. Conclusions. 3D CT of the skull can safely and reliably identify paediatric craniofacial malformations involving bone, and it should be used as morphological mapping to help the surgeon in planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  19. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Secondary Data Analysis R03s: Special Emphasis Panel. Date... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel, Special Emphasis Panel: Secondary Data Analysis R03s. Date...

  20. Image analysis software versus direct anthropometry for breast measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieregatto, Paulo Rogério; Hochman, Bernardo; Furtado, Fabianne; Machado, Aline Fernanda Perez; Sabino Neto, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2014-10-01

    To compare breast measurements performed using the software packages ImageTool(r), AutoCAD(r) and Adobe Photoshop(r) with direct anthropometric measurements. Points were marked on the breasts and arms of 40 volunteer women aged between 18 and 60 years. When connecting the points, seven linear segments and one angular measurement on each half of the body, and one medial segment common to both body halves were defined. The volunteers were photographed in a standardized manner. Photogrammetric measurements were performed by three independent observers using the three software packages and compared to direct anthropometric measurements made with calipers and a protractor. Measurements obtained with AutoCAD(r) were the most reproducible and those made with ImageTool(r) were the most similar to direct anthropometry, while measurements with Adobe Photoshop(r) showed the largest differences. Except for angular measurements, significant differences were found between measurements of line segments made using the three software packages and those obtained by direct anthropometry. AutoCAD(r) provided the highest precision and intermediate accuracy; ImageTool(r) had the highest accuracy and lowest precision; and Adobe Photoshop(r) showed intermediate precision and the worst accuracy among the three software packages.

  1. Maternal Anthropometry and Mammographic Density in Adult Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B; Cohn, Barbara A; Goldberg, Mandy; Flom, Julie D; Dougan, Marcelle; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-11-01

    We examined the relation between maternal anthropometry and mammographic density in the adult daughter using prospectively collected data. Our study included a total of 700 mother-daughter dyads participating in an adult follow-up of women born in 2 US birth cohorts: the Child Health and Development Study and the Boston, Massachusetts, and Providence, Rhode Island sites of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. We observed an increased percent breast density at a mean age of 43.1 years in the daughters of mothers who gained 5 kg or less during pregnancy compared with mother-daughter pairs in which the mother gained 5 to 10 kg (β = 4.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 8.6). The daughters of mothers who were overweight at the time of conception (prepregnancy BMI ≥25) and who gained >5 kg during pregnancy had a lower percent density (β = -3.2, 95% confidence interval: -6.2 to -0.2) compared with mothers with a BMI 5 kg. We did not find any strong and consistent patterns between maternal anthropometry and the daughter's breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. A modest association between low gestational weight gain and increased breast density 40 years later in the daughter was observed, even after accounting for adult body size, and if confirmed, possible mechanisms need to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Validating Paediatric Morphometrics: body proportion measurement using photogrammetric anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bas; Brecheisen, Ralph; Gerver, Angèle; van Zonneveld, Geertjan; Gerver, Willem-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Taking multiple anthropometric measurements for the description of body proportions in an accurate way is a time-consuming procedure that requires specific tools and skills. This is why we developed an alternative method based on digital photography for taking these measurements which is faster and easier to use, to make anthropometry more user-friendly and approachable to paediatricians. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 54 children between 2 and 18 years of age. We compared manual measurements with photogrammetric measurements to validate our method. Inter-observer correlations of all measurements are ≥0.96 and mean differences are 0.3-0.9 cm, except for arm span. Comparison of manual to photogrammetric measurements shows mean differences of 0.6-1.3 cm, with correlations ≥0.92, except for sitting height and arm span. Correlations of ratios between methods are height/sitting height (r=0.77), biacromium/biiliacum (r=0.74) and subischial leg length/sitting height (r=0.75). Photogrammetric anthropometry is faster, easier to use and provides the paediatrician with more flexibility as taking the digital photographs and performing the analysis are separated.

  3. Analysis of Craniofacial Images using Computational Atlases and Deformation Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur

    2008-01-01

    purposes. The basis for most of the applications is non-rigid image registration. This approach brings one image into the coordinate system of another resulting in a deformation field describing the anatomical correspondence between the two images. A computational atlas representing the average anatomy...... of asymmetry. The analyses are applied to the study of three different craniofacial anomalies. The craniofacial applications include studies of Crouzon syndrome (in mice), unicoronal synostosis plagiocephaly and deformational plagiocephaly. Using the proposed methods, the thesis reveals novel findings about...... the craniofacial morphology and asymmetry of Crouzon mice. Moreover, a method to plan and evaluate treatment of children with deformational plagiocephaly, based on asymmetry assessment, is established. Finally, asymmetry in children with unicoronal synostosis is automatically assessed, confirming previous results...

  4. Residents' Perceptions of Plastic Surgeons as Craniofacial Surgery Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Muraro, Carlos Alberto Salomão; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    To assess residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists in Brazil. Brazilian residents were asked to choose 1 or 2 specialists that they perceived to be an expert for 14 craniofacial surgery-related scenarios. Both an overall analysis (all 14 scenarios) and subanalysis (each scenario separately) were performed. Response patterns were distributed as "plastic surgeons alone," "plastic surgeons combined with other specialists," or "without plastic surgeons." Overall, plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P plastic surgeons were chosen more (all P surgery-related scenarios and also demonstrated that "plastic surgeons alone" and "without plastic surgeons" were selected more (all P surgery residents and male residents chose more (all P plastic surgeons as experts than their peers. Residents' perceptions of plastic surgeons as craniofacial surgery specialists are limited in Brazil.

  5. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 78 FR 45934 - The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Strategic Plan Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... greatest benefit for advancing dental, oral, and craniofacial research. (2) New technical capabilities or... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Strategic Plan Request for Comments SUMMARY: NIDCR is developing... Dental and Craniofacial Research, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bldg. 31, Rm. 5B/55, MSC 2190, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  7. Complications in paediatric craniofacial surgery: an initial four year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B M; Jani, P; Bingham, R M; Mackersie, A M; Hayward, R

    1992-04-01

    107 children undergoing transcranial craniofacial surgery in a paediatric hospital have been reviewed to assess the incidence and type of complications which arose. This represents the first 4 years' experience of the craniofacial team. There were no deaths or permanent adverse sequelae of surgery. A total of 53 complications were seen in 42 patients. In 9.3% of patients they were potentially life-threatening, serious in 12.1% and of a minor nature in 28%. The more serious complications were related either to haemorrhage and/or vasovagal shock at operation or to infection post-operatively. Infants undergoing monoblock frontofacial advancements and those with tracheostomies were at particular risk.

  8. PUF60 variants cause a syndrome of ID, short stature, microcephaly, coloboma, craniofacial, cardiac, renal and spinal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Karen J; Ansari, Morad; Abou Jamra, Rami; Clarke, Angus; El Chehadeh, Salima; FitzPatrick, David R; Greenslade, Mark; Henderson, Alex; Hurst, Jane; Keller, Kory; Kuentz, Paul; Prescott, Trine; Roessler, Franziska; Selmer, Kaja K; Schneider, Michael C; Stewart, Fiona; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Thevenon, Julien; Vigeland, Magnus D; Vogt, Julie; Willems, Marjolaine; Zonana, Jonathan; Study, D D D; Smithson, Sarah F

    2017-05-01

    PUF60 encodes a nucleic acid-binding protein, a component of multimeric complexes regulating RNA splicing and transcription. In 2013, patients with microdeletions of chromosome 8q24.3 including PUF60 were found to have developmental delay, microcephaly, craniofacial, renal and cardiac defects. Very similar phenotypes have been described in six patients with variants in PUF60, suggesting that it underlies the syndrome. We report 12 additional patients with PUF60 variants who were ascertained using exome sequencing: six through the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study and six through similar projects. Detailed phenotypic analysis of all patients was undertaken. All 12 patients had de novo heterozygous PUF60 variants on exome analysis, each confirmed by Sanger sequencing: four frameshift variants resulting in premature stop codons, three missense variants that clustered within the RNA recognition motif of PUF60 and five essential splice-site (ESS) variant. Analysis of cDNA from a fibroblast cell line derived from one of the patients with an ESS variants revealed aberrant splicing. The consistent feature was developmental delay and most patients had short stature. The phenotypic variability was striking; however, we observed similarities including spinal segmentation anomalies, congenital heart disease, ocular colobomata, hand anomalies and (in two patients) unilateral renal agenesis/horseshoe kidney. Characteristic facial features included micrognathia, a thin upper lip and long philtrum, narrow almond-shaped palpebral fissures, synophrys, flared eyebrows and facial hypertrichosis. Heterozygote loss-of-function variants in PUF60 cause a phenotype comprising growth/developmental delay and craniofacial, cardiac, renal, ocular and spinal anomalies, adding to disorders of human development resulting from aberrant RNA processing/spliceosomal function.

  9. Surgical treatment of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Christian A; Taussky, Philipp; Couldwell, William T

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare disorder that may require neurosurgical expertise for definitive management; however, surgical management of FD in adult patients is uncommon. Although other therapies have been shown to slow progression, the only definitive cure for adult craniofacial FD is complete resection with subsequent reconstruction. The authors review the biological, epidemiologic, clinical, genetic, and radiographic characteristics of adult FD, with an emphasis on surgical management of FD. They present a small series of three adult patients with complex FD that highlights the surgical complexity required in some adult patients with FD. Because of the complex nature of these adult polyostotic craniofacial cases, the authors used neurosurgical techniques specific to the different surgical indications, including a transsphenoidal approach for resection of sphenoidal sinus FD, a transmaxillary approach to decompress the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve with widening of the foramen rotundum, and complete calvarial craniectomy with cranioplasty reconstruction. These cases exemplify the diverse range of skull base techniques required in the spectrum of surgical management of adult FD and demonstrate that novel variations on standard neurosurgical approaches to the skull base can provide successful outcomes with minimal complications in adults with complex craniofacial FD.

  10. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guido E.; Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D.; Small, Juan E.; Jyung, Robert W.; Troulis, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  11. Craniofacial and temporal bone CT findings in cleidocranial dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departamento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Caruso, Paul A.; Curtin, Hugh D. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Jyung, Robert W. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Otology, Boston, MA (United States); Troulis, Maria J. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a multistructural polyostotic genetic disorder that results from mutation of the CBFA1 gene. Hearing loss is a frequent finding in CCD. We describe the CT craniofacial findings in CCD and provide a comprehensive discussion of the CT temporal bone findings in these patients. (orig.)

  12. Craniofacial fibrosarcoma: a case report | Moshy | Tanzania Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking into account that our case was of a poorly differentiated grade, coupled with the fact that the tumour was located at inaccessible site, factors that pointed to a poor prognosis. These factors affected the survival of the patient with FS. Key words: Fibrosarcoma, Craniofacial, Biological behaviour, Management.

  13. The genesis of craniofacial biology as a health science discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, G H; Sperber, S M

    2014-06-01

    The craniofacial complex encapsulates the brain and contains the organs for key functions of the body, including sight, hearing and balance, smell, taste, respiration and mastication. All these systems are intimately integrated within the head. The combination of these diverse systems into a new field was dictated by the dental profession's desire for a research branch of basic science devoted and attuned to its specific needs. The traditional subjects of genetics, embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, dental materials, odontology, molecular biology and palaeoanthropology pertaining to dentistry have been drawn together by many newly emerging technologies. These new technologies include gene sequencing, CAT scanning, MRI imaging, laser scanning, image analysis, ultrasonography, spectroscopy and visualosonics. A vibrant unitary discipline of investigation, craniofacial biology, has emerged that builds on the original concept of 'oral biology' that began in the 1960s. This paper reviews some of the developments that have led to the genesis of craniofacial biology as a fully-fledged health science discipline of significance in the advancement of clinical dental practice. Some of the key figures and milestones in craniofacial biology are identified. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Craniofacial features in amelogenesis imperfecta: a report of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Craniofacial features in amelogenesis imperfecta: a report of two cases. MT Osundwa, ML Chindia, SW Guthua, P Devani, WA Odhiambo. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajohs.v1i1.29611 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. The affecting factors of breast anthropometry in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Breast anthropometric morphology affects various factors with diverse physiognomy, making accurate measurements very difficult. The aim of this study was to measure the female breast using anthropometry and to use this method on normal subjects to examine breast asymmetry and consider the influence of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, and breastfeeding in premenopausal Korean women. In total, 17 parameters of breast were measured with participants in a standing position. Breast volume was also assessed. The mean values of the right and left breast volumes were calculated as 386.0±342.5 mL and 393.3±347.2 mL, respectively. With aging, the height of women decreased, but the weight, BMI, upper chest, middle chest, lower chest, waist, and hip widths, nipple-nipple length, and ptosis increased with statistical significance. No asymmetric differences were observed between each breast, except for nipple-inframammary fold length in 20-30-year-old women and upper arm length in 41-50-year-old women. In our study, the breast volume increased with age as a result of weight gain, but the delivery mode and breastfeeding did not affect anthropometric breast measurements. In conclusion, age, weight, and BMI are important factors in determining breast anthropometry in our study. The results of the present study will help in the comparison of the anthropometric breast values of Korean women with those of women in other countries and may also be useful in the understanding of breast physiologic change-related obstetrical factors and epidemiologic factors.

  16. Correlations Between Anthropometry and Lipid Profile in Women With PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranmayee, Donthu; Kavya, Kothapalli; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Sriharibabu, Manne; Madhuri, Gadi Leela Jaya; Venu, Swargam

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive age women and is associated with both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Recent studies have demonstrated an early onset of abnormal cardiovascular risk profile in women with PCOS. Abnormal lipid profile patterns are common in women with PCOS, and these abnormalities are not uniform in all populations. Anthropometry is a simple and commonly used research tool for assessing metabolic risk in women with PCOS. Therefore, this study examined the correlations between anthropometric parameters and lipid profile in women with PCOS. The objectives of the study were (1) To study the anthropometric profile of women with PCOS, (2) To examine the lipid profile pattern of these women with PCOS and (3) To see whether there exists any correlation between these anthropometric parameters and lipid profile. This observational cross-sectional study examined anthropometry and lipid profile in 86 married women with PCOS in the age group of 18-35 years and correlated them by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. More than 80% of the women with PCOS demonstrated abnormal anthropometric parameters, and in more than 70% women, lipid abnormalities such as low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Significant positive correlations were seen between body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.001) and waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides ( P ≤ 0.029). Negative correlations were observed between BMI and HDL cholesterol ( P ≤ 0.013). This study revealed that BMI and WC are the most important anthropometric parameters correlated to dyslipidemia in the south Indian women with PCOS.

  17. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  18. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Zebrafish con/disp1 reveals multiple spatiotemporal requirements for Hedgehog-signaling in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwend Tyler

    2009-11-01

    inhibit Hh-signaling at different developmental stages, show that Hh-signaling is required during gastrulation for normal patterning of CNCC in the first PA, and then during the late pharyngula stage, to promote CNCC chondrogenesis within the posterior arches. Further, loss of disp1 disrupted normal expression of bapx1 and gdf5, markers of jaw joint patterning, thus resulting in jaw joint defects in con/disp1 mutant animals. Conclusion This study reveals novel requirements for Hh-signaling in the zebrafish PA skeleton and highlights the functional diversity and differential sensitivity of craniofacial tissues to Hh-signaling throughout the face, a finding that may help to explain the spectrum of human facial phenotypes characteristic of HPE.

  20. Improving the quality of child anthropometry: Manual anthropometry in the Body Imaging for Nutritional Assessment Study (BINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, Joel; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Suchdev, Parminder S; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2017-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected in clinics and surveys are often inaccurate and unreliable due to measurement error. The Body Imaging for Nutritional Assessment Study (BINA) evaluated the ability of 3D imaging to correctly measure stature, head circumference (HC) and arm circumference (MUAC) for children under five years of age. This paper describes the protocol for and the quality of manual anthropometric measurements in BINA, a study conducted in 2016-17 in Atlanta, USA. Quality was evaluated by examining digit preference, biological plausibility of z-scores, z-score standard deviations, and reliability. We calculated z-scores and analyzed plausibility based on the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (CGS). For reliability, we calculated intra- and inter-observer Technical Error of Measurement (TEM) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). We found low digit preference; 99.6% of z-scores were biologically plausible, with z-score standard deviations ranging from 0.92 to 1.07. Total TEM was 0.40 for stature, 0.28 for HC, and 0.25 for MUAC in centimeters. ICC ranged from 0.99 to 1.00. The quality of manual measurements in BINA was high and similar to that of the anthropometric data used to develop the WHO CGS. We attributed high quality to vigorous training, motivated and competent field staff, reduction of non-measurement error through the use of technology, and reduction of measurement error through adequate monitoring and supervision. Our anthropometry measurement protocol, which builds on and improves upon the protocol used for the WHO CGS, can be used to improve anthropometric data quality. The discussion illustrates the need to standardize anthropometric data quality assessment, and we conclude that BINA can provide a valuable evaluation of 3D imaging for child anthropometry because there is comparison to gold-standard, manual measurements.

  1. Modelling Developmental Changes in Repeated-Sprint Ability by Chronological and Skeletal Ages in Young Soccer Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M. J.; Martins, R. A.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Cyrino, E. S.; Sherar, L. B.; Vaeyens, R.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Malina, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of chronological (CA) and skeletal ages (SA), anthropometry, aerobic endurance and lower limb explosive strength on developmental changes in repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in soccer players aged 11-17 years. Participants were annually followed over 5 years,

  2. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  3. Use of serial ultrasound to identify periods of fetal growth restriction in relation to neonatal anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Anusha H; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    The developmental origins of the health and disease hypothesis suggests that fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a risk factor for several chronic diseases of adulthood. However, most supporting studies use birth weight as a proxy measure of FGR. To examine the relationship between birth weight and FGR, the present study used serial prenatal ultrasound to identify periods of FGR during gestation, and related these periods to birth size and shape. The data in this study included serial prenatal ultrasounds performed on 1,349 high-risk Scandinavian women enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Successive Small for Gestational Age Births. Fetal growth velocity between ultrasounds was used to identify periods of isolated FGR, and these were studied in relation to anthropometry at birth. FGR was identified in 184 subjects. A control group of 384 subjects without FGR was also identified. Infants with first-trimester FGR (n = 20) had the highest birth weight, ponderal index, and subscapular skinfold thickness. Infants with second-trimester FGR (n = 37) had the highest arm fat percentage. Infants with early third-trimester FGR (n = 55) had the lowest mean birth weight and ponderal index. When infant gender, gestational age, maternal body mass index, and smoking were controlled, birth weight was predicted only by third-trimester FGR (not first- or second-trimester FGR), and arm fat percent was predicted only by second-trimester FGR. These results suggest that birth weight is not a valid indicator of FGR occurring before the third trimester. Body composition may be a more sensitive marker of early FGR.

  4. Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility Presentation to Open EVA Research Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    NASA is required to accommodate individuals who fall within a 1st to 99th percentile range on a variety of critical dimensions. The hardware the crew interacts with must therefore be designed and verified to allow these selected individuals to complete critical mission tasks safely and at an optimal performance level. Until now, designers have been provided simpler univariate critical dimensional analyses. The multivariate characteristics of intra-individual and inter-individual size variation must be accounted for, since an individual who is 1st percentile in one body dimension will not be 1st percentile in all other dimensions. A more simplistic approach, assuming every measurement of an individual will fall within the same percentile range, can lead to a model that does not represent realistic members of the population. In other words, there is no '1st percentile female' or '99th percentile male', and designing for these unrealistic body types can lead to hardware issues down the road. Furthermore, due to budget considerations, designers are normally limited to providing only 1 size of a prototype suit, thus requiring other possible means to ensure that a given suit architecture would yield the necessary suit sizes to accommodate the entire user population. Fortunately, modeling tools can be used to more accurately model the types of human body sizes and shapes that will be encountered in a population. Anthropometry toolkits have been designed with a variety of capabilities, including grouping the population into clusters based on critical dimensions, providing percentile information given test subject measurements, and listing measurement ranges for critical dimensions in the 1st-99th percentile range. These toolkits can be combined with full body laser scans to allow designers to build human models that better represent the astronaut population. More recently, some rescaling and reposing capabilities have been developed, to allow reshaping of these static

  5. An unusual complication after craniofacial surgery for Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay A Lune

    2014-01-01

    A case of Apert syndrome who had undergone craniofacial surgery elsewhere 4 years back presented to us with purulent discharge near the lateral orbital margin of right orbit, watering and redness of the right eye. He had telltale signs of this syndrome in the form of skull deformities such as brachycephaly, frontal bony prominence, mid-face hypoplasia, proptosis and syndactyly of both hands and feet. There was a surgical scar of previous craniofacial surgery over the bi-coronal region. He had a discharging granuloma over the lateral orbital margin and the adjacent lower eyelid had developed cicatricial ectropion. X-ray and computed tomography scan orbit confirmed the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis of the underlying zygomatic bone at the site of miniplate and screw fixation of the earlier surgery. He was treated with excision of granuloma and extraction of loose screw and infected miniplate while ectropion was corrected by rotation advancement of temporal skin flap.

  6. RSK2 is a modulator of craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Laugel-Haushalter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RSK2 gene is responsible for Coffin-Lowry syndrome, an X-linked dominant genetic disorder causing mental retardation, skeletal growth delays, with craniofacial and digital abnormalities typically associated with this syndrome. Craniofacial and dental anomalies encountered in this rare disease have been poorly characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined, using X-Ray microtomographic analysis, the variable craniofacial dysmorphism and dental anomalies present in Rsk2 knockout mice, a model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome, as well as in triple Rsk1,2,3 knockout mutants. We report Rsk mutation produces surpernumerary teeth midline/mesial to the first molar. This highly penetrant phenotype recapitulates more ancestral tooth structures lost with evolution. Most likely this leads to a reduction of the maxillary diastema. Abnormalities of molar shape were generally restricted to the mesial part of both upper and lower first molars (M1. Expression analysis of the four Rsk genes (Rsk1, 2, 3 and 4 was performed at various stages of odontogenesis in wild-type (WT mice. Rsk2 is expressed in the mesenchymal, neural crest-derived compartment, correlating with proliferative areas of the developing teeth. This is consistent with RSK2 functioning in cell cycle control and growth regulation, functions potentially responsible for severe dental phenotypes. To uncover molecular pathways involved in the etiology of these defects, we performed a comparative transcriptomic (DNA microarray analysis of mandibular wild-type versus Rsk2-/Y molars. We further demonstrated a misregulation of several critical genes, using a Rsk2 shRNA knock-down strategy in molar tooth germs cultured in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals RSK2 regulates craniofacial development including tooth development and patterning via novel transcriptional targets.

  7. Ciliopathy Protein Tmem107 Plays Multiple Roles in Craniofacial Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celá, Petra; Hampl, Marek; Shylo, N.; Christopher, K. J.; Kavková, M.; Landová, Marie; Zikmund, T.; Weatherbee, S. D.; Kaiser, J.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2018), s. 108-117 ISSN 0022-0345 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-37368G; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : craniofacial anomalies * growth/development * mineralized tissue/development * orofacial clefts * cell signaling Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 4.755, year: 2016

  8. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development, and craniofacial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstone, Zachary J; Lawson, Grace; Trivedi, Chinmay M

    2017-12-01

    Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within neural crest cells remain unknown. The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development. Ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within murine neural crest progenitor cells cause severe hemorrhage, atrophic pharyngeal arches, defective head morphogenesis, and complete embryonic lethality. Embryos lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the neural crest exhibit decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in both the neural tube and the first pharyngeal arch. Mechanistically, loss of Hdac1 and Hdac2 upregulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Cdkn1c, Cdkn2b, Cdkn2c, and Tp53 within the first pharyngeal arch. Our results show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 function redundantly within the neural crest to regulate proliferation and the development of the pharyngeal arches by means of repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Developmental Dynamics 246:1015-1026, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anthropometry of external auditory canal by non-contactable measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better fitting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. System for routine surface anthropometry using reprojection registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, R. J.; Owens, R. A.; Hartmann, P. E.

    2003-11-01

    Range data measurement can be usefully applied to non-invasive monitoring of anthropometric changes due to disease, healing or during normal physiological processes. We have developed a computer vision system that allows routine capture of biological surface shapes and accurate measurement of anthropometric changes, using a structured light stripe triangulation system. In many applications involving relocation of soft tissue for image-guided surgery or anthropometry it is neither accurate nor practical to apply fiducial markers directly to the body. This system features a novel method of achieving subject re-registration that involves application of fiducials by a standard data projector. Calibration of this reprojector is achieved using a variation of structured lighting techniques. The method allows accurate and comparable repositioning of elastic surfaces. Tests of repositioning using the reprojector found a significant improvement in subject registration compared to an earlier method which used video overlay comparison only. It has a current application to the measurement of breast volume changes in lactating mothers, but may be extended to any application where repeatable positioning and measurement is required.

  11. Assessment of Child Anthropometry in a Large Epidemiologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louer, Amy L; Simon, Denise N; Switkowski, Karen M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-02-02

    A high proportion of children have overweight and obesity in the United States and other countries. Accurate assessment of anthropometry is essential to understand health effects of child growth and adiposity. Gold standard methods of measuring adiposity, such as dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), may not be feasible in large field studies. Research staff can, however, complete anthropometric measurements, such as body circumferences and skinfold measurements, using inexpensive portable equipment. In this protocol we detail how to obtain manual anthropometric measurements from children, including standing and sitting height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and subscapular skinfold thickness, and procedures to assess the quality of these measurements. To demonstrate accuracy of these measurements, among 1,110 school-aged children in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients comparing manual anthropometric measurements with a gold standard measure of body fat, DXA fat mass 1 . To address reliability, we evaluate intra-rater technical error of measurement at a quality control session conducted on adult female volunteers.

  12. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Jean M; Lindsay, Karen L; Walsh, Jennifer M; Horan, Mary; Molloy, Eleanor J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-11-10

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring. Data from the ROLO [Randomised COntrol Trial of LOw Glycaemic Index in Pregnancy] study were analysed in the ROLO Kids study. Neonatal anthropometric and skinfold measurements were compared with fetal leptin and C-peptide results from cord blood in 185 cases. Analyses were performed to examine the association between these metabolic factors and birthweight, anthropometry and markers of central and generalised adiposity. Fetal leptin was found to correlate with birthweight, general adiposity and multiple anthropometric measurements. On multiple regression analysis, fetal leptin remained significantly associated with adiposity, independent of gender, maternal BMI, gestational age or study group assignment, while fetal C-peptide was no longer significant. Fetal leptin may be an important predictor of regional neonatal adiposity. Interventional studies are required to assess the impact of neonatal adiposity on the subsequent risk of childhood obesity and to determine whether interventions which reduce circulating leptin levels have a role to play in improving neonatal adiposity measures.

  13. Third molar agenesis as a potential marker for craniofacial deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Clarissa Christina Avelar; Pereira, Christiane Vasconcellos Cruz Alves; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Faraco, Italo M; Marazita, Mary L; Arnaudo, Maria; de Carvalho, Flavia M; Poletta, Fernando E; Mereb, Juan C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M; de Castro Costa, Marcelo; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende

    2018-04-01

    The identification of clinical patterns of tooth agenesis in individuals born with craniofacial deformities may be a useful tool for risk determination of these defects. We hypothesize that specific craniofacial deformities are associated with third molar agenesis. The aim of this study was to identify if third molar agenesis could have a relation with other craniofacial structure alterations, such as cleft lip and palate, skeletal malocclusion, or specific growth patterns in humans. Data were obtained from 550 individuals ascertained as part of studies aiming to identify genetic contributions to oral clefts. 831 dental records of patients aged over eight years seeking orthodontic treatment were also included. SN-GoGn angle were used to classify the growth pattern (hypo-divergent, normal and hyper-divergent), and the ANB angle was used to verify the skeletal malocclusion pattern (Class I, II and III). Panoramic radiographs were used to determine third molar agenesis. A high frequency of third molar agenesis among individuals born with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (55%), as well as among their relatives (93.5%) was found. Third molar agenesis was not associated to skeletal malocclusion or growth pattern. It appears that third molar agenesis is associated with the disturbances that lead to cleft lip and palate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships Between Propulsion and Anthropometry in Paralympic Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingley, Andrew A; Pyne, David B; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-11-01

    To characterize relationships between propulsion, anthropometry, and performance in Paralympic swimming. A cross-sectional study of swimmers (13 male, 15 female) age 20.5 ± 4.4 y was conducted. Subject locomotor categorizations were no physical disability (n = 8, classes S13-S14) and low-severity (n = 11, classes S9-S10) or midseverity disability (n = 9, classes S6-S8). Full anthropometric profiles estimated muscle mass and body fat, a bilateral swim-bench ergometer quantified upper-body power production, and 100-m time trials quantified swimming performance. Correlations between ergometer mean power and swimming performance increased with degree of physical disability (low-severity male r = .65, ± 0.56, and female r = .68, ± 0.64; midseverity, r = .87, ± 0.41, and r = .79, ± 0.75). The female midseverity group showed nearperfect (positive) relationships for taller swimmers' (with a greater muscle mass and longer arm span) swimming faster, while for female no- and low-severity-disability groups, greater muscle mass was associated with slower velocity (r = .78, ± 0.43, and r = .65, ± 0.66). This was supported with lighter females (with less frontal surface area) in the low-severity group being faster (r = .94, ± 0.24). In a gender contrast, low-severity males with less muscle mass (r = -.64, ± 0.56), high skinfolds (r = .78, ± 0.43), a longer arm span (r = .58, ± 0.60) or smaller frontal surface area (r = -.93, ± 0.19) were detrimental to swimming-velocity production. Low-severity male and midseverity female Paralympic swimmers should be encouraged to develop muscle mass and upper-body power to enhance swimming performance. The generalized anthropometric measures appear to be a secondary consideration for coaches.

  15. ANTHROPOMETRY TO IDENTIFY HIGH VISCERAL FAT AREA IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Pitanga, Francisco José; Seara Pitanga, Cristiano Penas; Calçada Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Cristina Beck, Carmem; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    the evaluation of the body fat distribution by anthropometry can serve to identify excess visceral fat. This diagnosis will enable implementation of specific measures to both prevent and treat excess visceral fat in postmenopausal women. the aim of this study was to analyze different anthropometric indicators and identify the best cutoff points to discriminate subjects with high visceral fat area (HVFA) in postmenopausal women. cross-sectional study with a sample of 255 postmenopausal women. Different Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and the areas under them compared in terms of the conicity index (C-index), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) and HVFA. Sensitivity and specificity identified the best cutoff points between the different anthropometric indicators in order to discriminate subjects with HVFA. The confidence interval was set at 95%. statistically significant areas under the ROC curve were found for all anthropometric indicators analyzed. The following cutoff points, with their respective sensitivities and specificities to discriminate subjects with HVFA, were suggested: C-index (1.19; 75.00%- 74.77%); BMI (27.3 kg/m2; 81.08%-80.37%); WHR (0.98; 90.54%-83.18%); WC (85 cm; 85.14%-81.31%); and WHtR (0.55; 80.41%-80.37%). these results demonstrate that anthropometric indicators identify HVFA well in postmenopausal women and can be used instead of more sophisticated exams to detect high levels of visceral fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal stress and neonatal anthropometry: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Deborah A; Ortega-Villa, Ana M; Grobman, William A; Hediger, Mary L; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Pugh, Sarah J; Kim, Sungduk; Newman, Roger; Chien, Ed; Owen, John; D'Alton, Mary E; Wapner, Ronald; Sciscione, Anthony; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2017-07-01

    The effect of maternal mood disorders on neonatal measurements is not well-defined. The Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between perceived maternal stress and neonatal growth measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceived maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with anthropometric measurements in the neonate. This analysis was based on a prospective, multicenter longitudinal study of fetal growth. Women 18-40 years old with a body mass index of 19.0-29.9 kg/m 2 were screened at 8+0 to 13+6 weeks gestation for low-risk status associated with optimal fetal growth (eg, healthy, nonsmoking) and underwent serial sonographic examination at 6 study visits throughout gestation. At each study visit, women completed the Cohen's Perceived Stress Survey, which could have a score that ranges from 0-40. We used a latent class trajectory model to identify distinct groupings (ie, classes) of the Perceived Stress Survey trajectories over pregnancy. Trend analysis was used to determine whether neonatal measurements including birthweight, length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference differed by Perceived Stress Survey class and whether this relationship was modified by maternal race/ethnicity, after adjustment for gestational age at delivery, maternal height, age, and parity. Of the 2334 women enrolled in the study, 1948 women had complete neonatal anthropometry and were included in the analysis. Latent class analysis identified 3 Perceived Stress Survey trajectory classes, with mean Perceived Stress Survey scores of 2.82 (low), 7.95 (medium), and 14.80 (high). Neonatal anthropometric measures of birthweight, length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were similar (P=.78, =.10, =.18, and =.40 respectively), regardless of the participants' Perceived Stress Survey class. There was no effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity. Neonatal measurements did not differ by

  17. Developmental plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda J; Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Alberts, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Early life experiences can have profound and persistent effects on traits expressed throughout the life course, with consequences for later life behavior, disease risk, and mortality rates. The shaping of later life traits by early life environments, known as ‘developmental plasticity’, has been well-documented in humans and non-human animals, and has consequently captured the attention of both evolutionary biologists and researchers studying human health. Importantly, the parallel significance of developmental plasticity across multiple fields presents a timely opportunity to build a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon. We aim to facilitate this goal by highlighting key outstanding questions shared by both evolutionary and health researchers, and by identifying theory and empirical work from both research traditions that is designed to address these questions. Specifically, we focus on: (i) evolutionary explanations for developmental plasticity, (ii) the genetics of developmental plasticity and (iii) the molecular mechanisms that mediate developmental plasticity. In each section, we emphasize the conceptual gains in human health and evolutionary biology that would follow from filling current knowledge gaps using interdisciplinary approaches. We encourage researchers interested in developmental plasticity to evaluate their own work in light of research from diverse fields, with the ultimate goal of establishing a cross-disciplinary understanding of developmental plasticity. PMID:29424834

  18. Craniofacial growth variations in nasal-breathing, oral-breathing, and tracheotomized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakor, Silvia Fuerte; Enlow, Donald H; Pontes, Paulo; De Biase, Noemi Grigoletto

    2011-10-01

    Childhood oral breathing can alter muscular balance and lead to facial deformities. No articles in the literature have reported on the alteration of facial growth patterns in patients who have received tracheotomies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate craniofacial developmental consequences originating from variations in breathing mechanisms in children who are nasal breathers or oral breathers, and those who have been tracheotomized. The sample was divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The nasal group had a mean age of 13.9 years, the oral group had a mean age of 12.7 years, and the tracheotomy group had a mean age of 12.8 years. The masseter and suprahyoid muscles were evaluated with electromyography. The following measurements were made: facial, maxillary, and mandibular widths; nasion-sella-gnathion angle; and facial index. The tracheotomized group was similar to the nasal group for greater activity of the masseter muscles than of the suprahyoid muscles during mastication, as well as in the measurements of facial, maxillary, and mandibular widths. The oral group showed reductions in each category. The tracheotomized group was similar to the oral group during maximum dental occlusion for significantly higher activity of the suprahyoid muscles compared with the masseter muscles, with reductions in vertical values. A childhood tracheotomy might affect facial development in a way comparable with that of oral breathers, including abnormal facial growth variations. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Craniofacial modularity, character analysis, and the evolution of the premaxilla in early African hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villmoare, Brian A; Dunmore, Christopher; Kilpatrick, Shaun; Oertelt, Nadja; Depew, Michael J; Fish, Jennifer L

    2014-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses require evolutionarily independent characters, but there is no consensus, nor has there been a clear methodology presented on how to define character independence in a phylogenetic context, particularly within a complex morphological structure such as the skull. Following from studies of craniofacial development, we hypothesize that the premaxilla is an independent evolutionary module with two integrated characters that have traditionally been treated as independent. We test this hypothesis on a large sample of primate skulls and find evidence supporting the premaxilla as an independent module within the larger module of the palate. Additionally, our data indicate that the convexity of the nasoalveolar clivus and the contour of the alveolus are integrated within the premaxilla. We show that the palate itself is composed of two distinct modules: the FNP-derived premaxillae and the mxBA1-derived maxillae and palatines. Application of our data to early African hominin facial morphology suggests that at least three separate transitions contributed to robust facial morphology: 1) an increase in the size of the post-canine dentition housed within the maxillae and palatines, 2) modification of the premaxilla generating a concave clivus and reduced incisor alveolus, and 3) modification of the zygomatic, shifting the zygomatic root and lateral face anteriorly. These data lend support to the monophyly of Paranthropus boisei and Paranthropus robustus, and provide mounting evidence in favor of a Paranthropus clade. This study also highlights the utility of applying developmental evidence to studies of morphological evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ARCN1 Mutations Cause a Recognizable Craniofacial Syndrome Due to COPI-Mediated Transport Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kosuke; Brett, Maggie; Nishi, Eriko; Drunat, Séverine; Tan, Ee-Shien; Fujiki, Katsunori; Lebon, Sophie; Cham, Breana; Masuda, Koji; Arakawa, Michiko; Jacquinet, Adeline; Yamazumi, Yusuke; Chen, Shu-Ting; Verloes, Alain; Okada, Yuki; Katou, Yuki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Tetsu; Gressens, Pierre; Foo, Roger; Passemard, Sandrine; Tan, Ene-Choo; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Shirahige, Katsuhiko

    2016-08-04

    Cellular homeostasis is maintained by the highly organized cooperation of intracellular trafficking systems, including COPI, COPII, and clathrin complexes. COPI is a coatomer protein complex responsible for intracellular protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. The importance of such intracellular transport mechanisms is underscored by the various disorders, including skeletal disorders such as cranio-lenticulo-sutural dysplasia and osteogenesis imperfect, caused by mutations in the COPII coatomer complex. In this article, we report a clinically recognizable craniofacial disorder characterized by facial dysmorphisms, severe micrognathia, rhizomelic shortening, microcephalic dwarfism, and mild developmental delay due to loss-of-function heterozygous mutations in ARCN1, which encodes the coatomer subunit delta of COPI. ARCN1 mutant cell lines were revealed to have endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting the involvement of ER stress response in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Given that ARCN1 deficiency causes defective type I collagen transport, reduction of collagen secretion represents the likely mechanism underlying the skeletal phenotype that characterizes this condition. Our findings demonstrate the importance of COPI-mediated transport in human development, including skeletogenesis and brain growth. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of the Vertebrate Cranium: Viewed from Hagfish Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Ota, Kinya G

    2016-06-01

    Our knowledge of vertebrate cranium evolution has relied largely on the study of gnathostomes. Recent evolutionary and developmental studies of cyclostomes have shed new light on the history of the vertebrate skull. The recent ability to obtain embryos of the hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri, has enabled new studies which have suggested an embryonic morphological pattern (the "cyclostome pattern") of craniofacial development. This pattern is shared by cyclostomes, but not by modern jawed vertebrates. Because this pattern of embryonic head development is thought to be present in some stem gnathostomes (ostracoderms), it is possible that the cyclostome pattern represents the vertebrate ancestral pattern. The study of cyclostomes may thus lead to an understanding of the most ancestral basis of craniofacial development. In this review, we summarize the development of the hagfish chondrocranium in light of the cyclostome pattern, present an updated comparison of the cyclostome chondrocranium, and discuss several aspects of the evolution and development of the vertebrate skull.

  2. Reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Dennis M; Manlapat, Anna; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2003-07-29

    Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine). Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.

  3. Reduced-folate carrier (RFC is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Puttur

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine. Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. Results In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Conclusions Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.

  4. Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome: New insights on craniofacial and dental features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Wael; Kiukkonen, Anu; Nieminen, Pekka; Arte, Sirpa; Hurmerinta, Kirsti; Rice, David P

    2017-04-01

    Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), eyelid abnormalities, and oligodontia. Despite orofacial clefting and oligodontia being central features of the condition, detailed reports of dental and craniofacial characteristics are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the dental and craniofacial features in a group of patients with BCD syndrome (three of which were related). Cephalometric radiographic analyses were performed on BCD syndrome patients (all radiographs taken at age 8 years) and compared to 40 randomly selected age-matched controls (20 non-syndromic BCLP, 20 non-cleft). Also, we assessed clinical records, photographs, dental study casts, and dental radiographs to determine the extent and pattern of tooth agenesis, dental morphology and malocclusion. BCD syndrome patients showed a very severe skeletal III malocclusion (maxillary-mandibular sagittal discrepancy) and reduced anterior lower face measurement compared to non-syndromic BCLP and non-cleft controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.027). All patients exhibited oligodontia (mean number of missing permanent teeth 13.7, range 7-17). All patients exhibited missing upper central and lateral incisor, upper canine and premolar teeth. Variations in dental morphology included taurodontism, conical-shaped teeth, and notching of the incisal edges. All patients had a short and narrow maxilla which translated into anterior and posterior cross bites. We conclude that, in our BCD syndrome group, the craniofacial skeletal defects are more severe than patients with BCLP. The pattern of tooth agenesis is unusual as it included teeth that are normally highly resistant to agenesis, namely upper central incisor and canine teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Endoscopic marsupialization of frontoethmoid mucocele with underlying craniofacial fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Chan-Eun; Hong, Sung-Lyong; Mun, Sue-Jean; Cho, Kyu-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign progressive fibro-osseous lesion that is rarely associated with mucocele formation. This complication most probably results from the involvement and subsequent occlusion of the recesses of the sinuses by the dysplastic process. The frontoethmoid mucocele associated with FD represents a rare pathology, but it is important to consider this in the differential diagnosis of patients with proptosis, visual disturbance, and bony fronto-orbital swellings. Here, we describe the first case of frontoethmoid mucocele with underlying craniofacial FD, which was successfully treated by wide marsupialization via the transnasal endoscopic approach.

  6. Infant Oral Motor Function as a Stimulus for Craniofacial Growth

    OpenAIRE

    López Rodríguez, Yuli Natalia; Institución Universitaria Colegios de Colombia UNICOC, Bogotá, Colombia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The growth of the craniofacial complex is essential for infant health as it is one of the best predictors of overall growth. Moreover, the facial development depends on stimuli such as suction, breathing, chewing, and swallowing, which induce an adequate facial anatomy and shape face structure. The motor activity is also influenced by the type of feeding that is part of child development. Purpose: To analyze the effects of oral motor function in the proper development of craniofac...

  7. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Oral and Craniofacial Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoori, Pasha; Zhang, Quanzhou; Le, Anh D

    2017-02-01

    The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has been rapidly expanded through multidisciplinary integration of research and clinical practice in response to unmet clinical needs for reconstruction of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures. The significance of the various types of stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stem cells derived from the orofacial tissues, ranging from dental pulp stem cells to periodontal ligament stem cells to mucosa/gingiva has been thoroughly investigated and their applications in tissue regeneration are outlined in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Edentulation alters material properties of cortical bone in the human craniofacial skeleton: functional implications for craniofacial structure in primate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Peterson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal adaptations to reduced function are an important source of skeletal variation and may be indicative of environmental pressures that lead to evolutionary changes. Humans serve as a model animal to investigate the effects of loss of craniofacial function through edentulation. In the human maxilla, it is known that edentulation leads to significant changes in skeletal structure such as residual ridge resorption and loss of cortical thickness. However, little is known about changes in bone tissue structure and material properties, which are also important for understanding skeletal mechanics but are often ignored. The aims of this study were to determine cortical material properties in edentulous crania and to evaluate differences with dentate crania and thus examine the effects of loss of function on craniofacial structure. Cortical bone samples from fifteen edentulous human skulls were measured for thickness and density. Elastic properties and directions of maximum stiffness were determined by using ultrasonic techniques. These data were compared to those from dentate crania reported in a previous investigation. Cortical bone from all regions of the facial skeleton of edentulous individuals is thinner than in dentate skulls. Elastic and shear moduli, and density are similar or greater in the zygoma and cranial vault of edentulous individuals, while these properties are less in the maxilla. Most cortical bone, especially in edentulous maxillae, has reduced directional orientation. The loss of significant occlusal loads following edentulation may contribute to the change in material properties and the loss of orientation over time during the normal process of bone remodeling. These results suggest that area-specific cortical microstructural changes accompany bone resorption following edentulation. They also suggest that functional forces are important for maintaining bone mass throughout the craniofacial skeleton, even in areas such as the browridges, which

  9. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  10. Secondary Craniofacial Sarcomas Following Retinoblastoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Ryuya; Hayano, Azusa

    2017-05-01

    We conducted the largest systematic review of individual patient data to characterize secondary craniofacial sarcomas following retinoblastoma. We conducted a systemic search of the PubMed databases and compiled a comprehensive literature review. Student t tests were used to evaluate differences between variables. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival. Statistical significance was assessed using a log-rank test. We analyzed 220 cases of secondary craniofacial sarcomas, including 112 osteosarcomas. The average age (±SD) of onset for retinoblastoma was 1.20 ± 2.77 years. External-beam radiotherapy was delivered in 207 patients (94.0%) and chemotherapy was delivered in 53 patients (24.0%) patients. The latency period between retinoblastoma diagnosis and the onset of secondary sarcomas was 12 years. Cranial extension was found in 66 patients (30.0%). The median overall survival was worse with cranial extension (P = 0.0073). In cranial extended patients, the median survival in patients who received chemotherapy was 41 months, whereas patients who did not receive chemotherapy had a median survival of 12 months (P = 0.0020). The risk of incidence of secondary sarcomas in retinoblastoma patients warrants longer follow-up periods. Moreover, chemotherapy should be considered as a potential treatment option for secondary cranial sarcomas following retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of craniofacial superimposition for disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Caroline; Lofthouse, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Skull-to-face comparison is utilised for human identification where there is a suspected identity and the usual methods of identification, such as DNA or dental comparison, are not possible or practical. This research aimed to compare the reliability of manual and computerised craniofacial superimposition techniques and to establish the application of these techniques for disaster victim identification, where there may be a large database of passport-style images, such as the MPUB Interpol database. Twenty skulls (10 females; 10 males) were utilised from the William Bass Skeletal Collection at the University of Tennessee and compared to face pools of 20 face photographs of similar sex, age and ethnic group. A traditional manual photographic method and a new 3D computer-based method were used. The results suggested that profile and three-quarter views of the ante-mortem face were the most valuable for craniofacial superimposition. However, the poor identification rate achieved using images in frontal view suggests that the MPUB Interpol database would not be optimal for disaster victim identification, and passport-style images do not provide enough distinguishing facial detail. This suggests that multiple ante-mortem images with a variety of facial expression should be utilised for identification purposes. There was no significant difference in success between the manual and computer methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Craniofacial Surgery and Adverse Outcomes: An Inquiry Into Medical Negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J; Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Shkoukani, Mahdi A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate factors contributing to medical negligence relevant to craniofacial surgery. Retrospective analysis of verdict and settlement reports on the Westlaw legal database for outcome, awards, physician defendants, and other specific factors raised in malpractice litigation. Of 42 verdicts and settlement reports included, 52.4% were resolved with either an out-of-court settlement or plaintiff verdict, with aggregate payments totaling $50.1M (in 2013 dollars). Median settlements and jury-awarded damages were $988,000 and $555,000, respectively. Payments in pediatric cases ($1.2M) were significantly higher. Plastic surgeons, oral surgeons, and otolaryngologists were the most commonly named defendants. The most common alleged factors included intraoperative negligence (69.0%), permanent deficits (54.8%), requiring additional surgery (52.4%), missed/delayed diagnosis of a complication (42.9%), disfigurement/scarring (28.6%), postoperative negligence (28.6%), and inadequate informed consent (20.6% of surgical cases). Failure to diagnose a fracture (19.0%) and cleft-reparative procedures (14.3%) were the most frequently litigated entities. Medical negligence related to craniofacial surgery involves plaintiffs in a wide age range as well as physician defendants in numerous specialties, and proceedings resolved with settlement and plaintiff verdict involve substantial payments. Cases with death, allegedly permanent injuries, and pediatric plaintiffs had significantly higher payments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Gender Differences in NATO Anthropometry and the Implication for Protective Equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fullenkamp, Adam M.; Robinette, Kathleen; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the body proportions of men and women from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource (CAESAR) project, completed in 2002, and discusses proportions that have implications for protective apparel. CAESAR was an attempt to characterize the body size and shape

  14. Arm anthropometry indices in Turkish children and adolescents: changes over a three-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Betül; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mustafa Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2014-12-01

    Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period. The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method. In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls. The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years.

  15. Moderate Association of Anthropometry, but Not Training Volume, with Race Performance in Male Ultraendurance Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…

  16. Anthropometry as a predictor of vertical jump heights derived from an instrumented platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Daily, Jeremy S; Mason, Melissa L; Shepherd, Catherine M; McLagan, Jessica R; Marshall, Mallory R; Walker, Ron H; West, Jason O

    2012-01-01

    The current study purpose examined the vertical height-anthropometry relationship with jump data obtained from an instrumented platform. Our methods required college-aged (n = 177) subjects to make 3 visits to our laboratory to measure the following anthropometric variables: height, body mass, upper arm length (UAL), lower arm length, upper leg length, and lower leg length. Per jump, maximum height was measured in 3 ways: from the subjects' takeoff, hang times, and as they landed on the platform. Standard multivariate regression assessed how well anthropometry predicted the criterion variance per gender (men, women, pooled) and jump height method (takeoff, hang time, landing) combination. Z-scores indicated that small amounts of the total data were outliers. The results showed that the majority of outliers were from jump heights calculated as women landed on the platform. With the genders pooled, anthropometry predicted a significant (p anthropometry-vertical jump relationship was not significant from heights calculated as subjects landed on the platform, likely due to the female outliers. Yet anthropometric data of men did predict a significant amount of variance from heights calculated when they landed on the platform; univariate correlations of men's data revealed that UAL was the best predictor. It was concluded that the large sample of men's data led to greater data heterogeneity and a higher univariate correlation. Because of our sample size and data heterogeneity, practical applications suggest that coaches may find our results best predict performance for a variety of college-aged athletes and vertical jump enthusiasts.

  17. Effects of Detraining on Anthropometry, Aerobic Capacity and Functional Ability in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, P. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structured exercise has shown to improve parameters of functional fitness in adults with Down syndrome (DS). However, few, if any, continue to exercise after exercise intervention studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of detraining on anthropometry, aerobic capacity and functional ability of…

  18. Impact of hemodialysis on dual X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, and anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Hansen, T B; Høgsberg, I M

    1996-01-01

    ), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and simple anthropometry in 19 patients (9 women and 10 men, mean age 46 y) before and after hemodialysis, removing 0.9-4.3 L (x: 2.8L) of ultrafiltrate. The reduction in fat-free mass (FFM) measured by DXA was highly correlated with the ultrafiltrate, as determined...

  19. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Anthropometry in European Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientzek, A.; Diaz, M.J.T.; Castano, J.M.H.; Amiano, P.; Arriola, L.; Overvad, K.; Ostergaard, J.N.; Charles, M.A.; Fagherazzi, G.; Palli, D.; Bendinelli, B.; Skeie, G.; Borch, K.B.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Hollander, de E.L.; May, A.M.; Ouden, den M.E.M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Valanou, E.; Soderberg, S.; Franks, P.W.; Brage, S.; Vigl, M.; Boeing, H.; Ekelund, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the independent associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and anthropometry in European men and women. Methods: 2,056 volunteers from 12 centers across Europe were fitted with a heart rate and movement sensor at 2 visits

  20. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome - multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY (KS), is underdiagnosed partly due to few clinical signs complicating identification of affected individuals. Certain phenotypic traits are common in KS. However, not all aspects of the KS phenotype are well described. Objective: To describe anthropometry...

  1. Dietary intake of whole grains and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in relation to changes in anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2017-01-01

    adjusting for baseline anthropometry. For the different sources of whole grains, rye (women) and crispbread was significantly associated with gains in WC and body weight. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with reduced WC, but not body weight, for women (ΔWC per 50 nmol/l increment: -0...

  2. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity up to 5 years after pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Van Brussel, Marco; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Physical functioning is of major importance after burns in many areas of life, in both the short and the long term. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity in children and adolescents between 0.5-5 years after burns over 10% TBSA.

  3. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI...

  4. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity up to 5 years after pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M; Mouton, Leonora J; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical functioning is of major importance after burns in many areas of life, in both the short and the long term. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity in children and adolescents between 0.5-5 years after burns over 10% TBSA.

  5. Touch in anthropometry: Enacting race in Dutch New Guinea 1903–1909.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Starting from the idea that race is an assemblage, the author investigates two instances of touch in anthropometry. Firstly, the detailed instructions for mechanized measurements of “the living”. Second, the practices involved in actual measurements of Papuans in Dutch New Guinea

  6. Cephalic neural crest cells and the evolution of craniofacial structures in vertebrates: morphological and embryological significance of the premandibular-mandibular boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically has two types of mesenchyme: the neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme and the mesoderm derived mesenchyme. Conserved patterns of development in various animal taxa imply the presence of shared inductive events for cephalic mesenchyme. These developmental programs can serve as developmental constraints that emerge as morphological homology of embryonic patterns. To understand the evolutionary changes in the developmental programs that shape the skull, we need to separate ancestral and derived patterns of vertebrate craniogenesis. This review deals with the terminology for neural crest cell subpopulations at each developmental stage, based on the topographical relationships and possible mechanisms for specification. The aim is to identify the changes that could have occurred in the evolutionary history of vertebrates. From comparisons of a lamprey species, Lethenteron japonicum, with gnathostomes it is clear that the initial distribution of cephalic crest cells is identical in the two animal lineages. In all vertebrate embryos, the trigeminal crest (TC) cells of an early pharyngula are subdivided into three subpopulations. At this stage, only the posterior subpopulation of the TC cells is specified as the mandibular arch, as compared to the more rostral components, the 'premandibular crest cells'. Later in development, the local specification patterns of the lamprey and the gnathostomes differ, so that homology cannot be established in the craniofacial primordia, including the oral apparatus. Therefore, embryological terminology should reflect these hierarchical patterns in developmental stages and phylogeny.

  7. 30-year International Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Partnership: Evolution from the "Third World" Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jordan W; Skirpan, Jan; Stanek, Beata; Kowalczyk, Maciej; Bartlett, Scott P

    2016-04-01

    Craniofacial diseases constitute an important component of the surgical disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. The consideration to introduce craniofacial surgery into such settings poses different questions, risks, and challenges compared with cleft or other forms of plastic surgery. We report the evolution, innovations, and challenges of a 30-year international craniofacial surgery partnership. We retrospectively report a partnership between surgeons at the Uniwersytecki Szpital Dzieciecy in Krakow, Poland, and a North American craniofacial surgeon. We studied patient conditions, treatment patterns, and associated complications, as well as program advancements and limitations as perceived by surgeons, patient families, and hospital administrators. Since partnership inception in 1986, the complexity of cases performed increased gradually, with the first intracranial case performed in 1995. In the most recent 10-year period (2006-2015), 85 patients have been evaluated, with most common diagnoses of Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and single-suture craniosynostosis. In the same period, 55 major surgical procedures have been undertaken, with LeFort III midface distraction, posterior vault distraction, and frontoorbital advancement performed most frequently. Key innovations have been the employment of craniofacial distraction osteogenesis, the use of Internet communication and digital photography, and increased understanding of how craniofacial morphology may improve in the absence of surgical intervention. Ongoing challenges include prohibitive training pathways for pediatric plastic surgeons, difficulty in coordinating care with surgeons in other institutions, and limited medical and material resources. Safe craniofacial surgery can be introduced and sustained in a resource-limited setting through an international partnership.

  8. Study on the performance of different craniofacial superimposition approaches (II): Best practices proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, S; Wilkinson, C; Kahana, T; Veselovskaya, E; Abramov, A; Jankauskas, R; Jayaprakash, P T; Ruiz, E; Navarro, F; Huete, M I; Cunha, E; Cavalli, F; Clement, J; Lestón, P; Molinero, F; Briers, T; Viegas, F; Imaizumi, K; Humpire, D; Ibáñez, O

    2015-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition, although existing for one century, is still a controversial technique within the scientific community. Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to establish a more solid picture on the reliability. However, there is lack of protocols and standards in the application of the technique leading to contradictory information concerning reliability. Instead of following a uniform methodology, every expert tends to apply his own approach to the problem, based on the available technology and deep knowledge on human craniofacial anatomy, soft tissues, and their relationships. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of different craniofacial superimposition methodologies and the corresponding technical approaches to this type of identification. With all the data generated, some of the most representative experts in craniofacial identification joined in a discussion intended to identify and agree on the most important issues that have to be considered to properly employ the craniofacial superimposition technique. As a consequence, the consortium has produced the current manuscript, which can be considered the first standard in the field; including good and bad practices, sources of error and uncertainties, technological requirements and desirable features, and finally a common scale for the craniofacial matching evaluation. Such a document is intended to be part of a more complete framework for craniofacial superimposition, to be developed during the FP7-founded project MEPROCS, which will favour and standardize its proper application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The study of dietary patterns and their relationship to anthropometry in female nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Abashzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are prone to continuous stress due to their job situation that lead to many physical and psychological disorders. this job stress also affects their personal life and career. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between major dietary patterns and anthropometry in nurses. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from February to October 2014. In this cross-sectional study, 320 female nurses were selected randomly from eight hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This research project carried out with the code 24371 Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Research Ethics Committee approved. Anthropometry and blood pressure measurement was done. Data on physical activity were obtained using the short version of international physical activity questionnaire. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and labeled: healthy, unhealthy and traditional. The healthy dietary pattern score was significantly related to weight and body mass index (BMI of participants after adjusting for confounders (P=0.05, P=0.01, respectively. There was not significant association between the unhealthy dietary pattern and anthropometry measures. The unhealthy dietary pattern score was inversely related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjusting for confounders (P=0.001, P=0.03, respectively. There was not any significant association between the traditional dietary pattern and anthropometry and blood pressure measures (P>0.05. Conclusion: According to the result of this study, three dietary patterns including, healthy, unhealthy and traditional were identified in nurses. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with weight and BMI and the unhealthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with blood pressure. The traditional dietary pattern had no effect on anthropometry and blood pressure measures.

  10. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  11. Molecular and cellular features of murine craniofacial and trunk neural crest cells as stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kunie; Obayashi, Takeshi; Sakayori, Nobuyuki; Yamanishi, Emiko; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Osumi, Noriko; Nakazawa, Toru; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding differentiation capacities and easier access from adult tissues, cells derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists in developmental biology and regenerative medicine. Differentiation potentials of NCCs are known to depend on their originating regions. Here, we report differential molecular features between craniofacial (cNCCs) and trunk (tNCCs) NCCs by analyzing transcription profiles and sphere forming assays of NCCs from P0-Cre/floxed-EGFP mouse embryos. We identified up-regulation of genes linked to carcinogenesis in cNCCs that were not previously reported to be related to NCCs, which was considered to be, an interesting feature in regard with carcinogenic potentials of NCCs such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. Wnt signal related genes were statistically up-regulated in cNCCs, also suggesting potential involvement of cNCCs in carcinogenesis. We also noticed intense expression of mesenchymal and neuronal markers in cNCCs and tNCCs, respectively. Consistent results were obtained from in vitro sphere-forming and differentiation assays. These results were in accordance with previous notion about differential potentials of cNCCs and tNCCs. We thus propose that sorting NCCs from P0-Cre/floxed-EGFP mice might be useful for the basic and translational research of NCCs. Furthermore, these newly-identified genes up-regulated in cNCC would provide helpful information on NC-originating tumors, developmental disorders in NCC derivatives, and potential applications of NCCs in regenerative medicine.

  12. Genome-wide association study of primary tooth eruption identifies pleiotropic loci associated with height and craniofacial distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Hoggart, Clive J; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; Prokopenko, Inga; Horikoshi, Momoko; Wright, Victoria J; Tobias, Jon H; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I; Toma, Arshed M; Pouta, Anneli; Taanila, Anja; Sipila, Kirsi; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Pillas, Demetris; Geller, Frank; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads; Nohr, Ellen A; Ring, Susan M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Evans, David M

    2013-09-15

    Twin and family studies indicate that the timing of primary tooth eruption is highly heritable, with estimates typically exceeding 80%. To identify variants involved in primary tooth eruption, we performed a population-based genome-wide association study of 'age at first tooth' and 'number of teeth' using 5998 and 6609 individuals, respectively, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and 5403 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We tested 2 446 724 SNPs imputed in both studies. Analyses were controlled for the effect of gestational age, sex and age of measurement. Results from the two studies were combined using fixed effects inverse variance meta-analysis. We identified a total of 15 independent loci, with 10 loci reaching genome-wide significance (P tooth' and 11 loci for 'number of teeth'. Together, these associations explain 6.06% of the variation in 'age of first tooth' and 4.76% of the variation in 'number of teeth'. The identified loci included eight previously unidentified loci, some containing genes known to play a role in tooth and other developmental pathways, including an SNP in the protein-coding region of BMP4 (rs17563, P = 9.080 × 10(-17)). Three of these loci, containing the genes HMGA2, AJUBA and ADK, also showed evidence of association with craniofacial distances, particularly those indexing facial width. Our results suggest that the genome-wide association approach is a powerful strategy for detecting variants involved in tooth eruption, and potentially craniofacial growth and more generally organ development.

  13. Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using a combination of geometric morphometrics and a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method, we found that head morphology evolution was 43% faster in substrate guarding species than in mouthbrooding species. Furthermore, for species in which females were solely responsible for mouthbrooding the males had a higher rate of head morphology evolution than in those with bi-parental mouthbrooding. Our results support the hypothesis that adaptations resulting in functional coupling constrain phenotypic evolution. PMID:25948565

  14. Implant-retained craniofacial prostheses for facial defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, Philipp A.

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096

  15. Bioactive Nano-fibrous Scaffold for Vascularized Craniofacial Bone Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul Damodaran; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Harkness, Linda

    2018-01-01

    There has been a growing demand for bone grafts for correction of bone defects in complicated fractures or tumors in the craniofacial region. Soft flexible membrane like material that could be inserted into defect by less invasive approaches; promote osteoconductivity and act as a barrier to soft...... tissue in growth while promoting bone formation is an attractive option for this region. Electrospinning has recently emerged as one of the most promising techniques for fabrication of extracellular matrix (ECM) like nano-fibrous scaffolds that can serve as a template for bone formation. To overcome...... and biocompatibility properties of the new scaffold material. Our results indicate PVA-PCL-HAB scaffolds support attachment and growth of stromal stem cells; (human bone marrow skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSC)). In addition, the scaffold supported in vitro osteogenic...

  16. Novel FOXA2 mutation causes Hyperinsulinism, Hypopituitarism with Craniofacial and Endoderm-derived organ abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Dinesh; Vignola, Maria Lillina; Gualtieri, Angelica; Scagliotti, Valeria; McNamara, Paul; Peak, Matthew; Didi, Mohammed; Gaston-Massuet, Carles; Senniappan, Senthil

    2017-11-15

    Congenital hypopituitarism (CH) is characterized by the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones and can present alone or in association with complex disorders. Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a disorder of unregulated insulin secretion despite hypoglycaemia that can occur in isolation or as part of a wider syndrome. Molecular diagnosis is unknown in many cases of CH and CHI. The underlying genetic etiology causing the complex phenotype of CH and CHI is unknown. In this study, we identified a de novo heterozygous mutation in the developmental transcription factor, forkhead box A2, FOXA2 (c.505T>C, p.S169P) in a child with CHI and CH with craniofacial dysmorphic features, choroidal coloboma and endoderm-derived organ malformations in liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract by whole exome sequencing. The mutation is at a highly conserved residue within the DNA binding domain. We demonstrated strong expression of Foxa2 mRNA in the developing hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, lungs and oesophagus of mouse embryos using in situ hybridization. Expression profiling on human embryos by immunohistochemistry showed strong expression of hFOXA2 in the neural tube, third ventricle, diencephalon and pancreas. Transient transfection of HEK293T cells with Wt (Wild type) hFOXA2 or mutant hFOXA2 showed an impairment in transcriptional reporter activity by the mutant hFOXA2. Further analyses using western blot assays showed that the FOXA2 p.(S169P) variant is pathogenic resulting in lower expression levels when compared with Wt hFOXA2. Our results show, for the first time, the causative role of FOXA2 in a complex congenital syndrome with hypopituitarism, hyperinsulinism and endoderm-derived organ abnormalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 77 FR 2987 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions set forth in sections 552b(c)(4) and 552b(c... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Review LRP Applications. Date: March...

  18. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-01-21

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1(+/-) mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies.

  19. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensman, H.; Goransson, H.; Leuchowius, K.J.; Stromberg, S.; Ponten, F.; Isaksson, A.; Rutteman, G.R.; Heldin, N.; Pejler, G.; Hellmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas Journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 0167-6806 (Print) 1573-7217 (Online) Issue Volume 118, Number 2 / November, 2009 Category Preclinical Study DOI

  20. Removal of symptomatic craniofacial titanium hardware following craniotomy: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri K. Palejwala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium craniofacial hardware has become commonplace for reconstruction and bone flap fixation following craniotomy. Complications of titanium hardware include palpability, visibility, infection, exposure, pain, and hardware malfunction, which can necessitate hardware removal. We describe three patients who underwent craniofacial reconstruction following craniotomies for trauma with post-operative courses complicated by medically intractable facial pain. All three patients subsequently underwent removal of the symptomatic craniofacial titanium hardware and experienced rapid resolution of their painful parasthesias. Symptomatic plates were found in the region of the frontozygomatic suture or MacCarty keyhole, or in close proximity with the supraorbital nerve. Titanium plates, though relatively safe and low profile, can cause local nerve irritation or neuropathy. Surgeons should be cognizant of the potential complications of titanium craniofacial hardware and locations that are at higher risk for becoming symptomatic necessitating a second surgery for removal.

  1. Anthropometry in Klinefelter syndrome--multifactorial influences due to CAG length, testosterone treatment and possibly intrauterine hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Trolle, Christian; Bojesen, Anders; Hertz, Jens Michael; Cohen, Arieh; Hougaard, David Michael; Wallentin, Mikkel; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2015-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome, 47, XXY (KS), is underdiagnosed partly due to few clinical signs complicating identification of affected individuals. Certain phenotypic traits are common in KS. However, not all aspects of the KS phenotype are well described. To describe anthropometry and body composition in KS and relate findings to biochemistry and X-chromosome related genetic markers. Seventy three KS males referred to our clinic and 73 age-matched controls underwent comprehensive measurements of anthropometry and body composition in a cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Furthermore, genetic analysis for parental origin of the supernumerary X-chromosome, skewed X-chromosome inactivation and androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat length was done. Anthropometry and body composition in KS and the effect of genotype hereon. KS males were taller (absolute difference: 5.1 cm, P Anthropometry and body composition in KS is specific and dysmorphic and affected by AR CAG repeat length and decreased exposure to testosterone already during fetal life.

  2. Three-dimensional display of computer tomographic examinations of craniofacial anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, G.; Hoeltje, W.; Tiede, U.; Riemer, M.

    1986-04-01

    Craniofacial anomalies are conventionally investigated by cephalometry using ordinary radiographs and by computed tomography. Both methods have the major disadvantage of trying to demonstrate a complex three-dimensional structure, such as the skull, in two dimensions and they therefore cannot display a true spatial image. We present the principle underlying a three-dimensional display derived from computer tomographic studies and discuss the clinical application in the diagnosis of craniofacial anomalies.

  3. Comprehensive and Global Approach of Soft-Tissue Deformities in Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Buzzo, Celso Luiz; Takata, Joao Paulo Issamu; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    To present a single-institution experience in the comprehensive and global soft-tissue surgical approach of patients with craniofacial neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). A retrospective analysis of patients with craniofacial NF-1 (n = 20) who underwent craniofacial soft-tissue reconstruction between 1993 and 2014 was conducted. Surgical treatment was individualized according to age, functional and/or aesthetic impairment, neurofibroma types, anatomical location, size, and patient/family and surgical team preferences, regardless of previously published compartmental grading systems. The surgical results were classified based on 2 previously published outcome rating scales (craniofacial symmetry improvement and need for additional surgery). All patients underwent en bloc translesional surgical excisions, 12 facial suspension, 3 eyebrow suspension, 2 ear suspension, 9 lateral canthopexy, 5 horizontal shortening of the tarsus of lower eyelid, and 1 horizontal shortening of the tarsus of upper eyelid. The degree of craniofacial symmetry improvement was considered "mostly satisfactory" (75%), and the overall rate of surgical results ranked according to the need for additional surgery was 2.4 ± 0.50, with variations according to the spectrum of soft-tissue involvement. According to the experience and surgical outcomes presented in this study, the soft-tissue surgical approach of the craniofacial NF-1 should be global, comprehensive, and individualized.

  4. Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crerand, Canice E; Sarwer, David B; Kazak, Anne E; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola

    2017-01-01

      To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life.   Case-control design.   A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices.   Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions.   Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning).   Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance.   Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents' well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.

  5. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  6. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer. 2. An assessment by arm anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald; Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Webber, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Assessment of nutritional status in children with cancer is important but measures based on weight can be problematic at diagnosis, especially in those with advanced disease. Likewise, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be confounded by other radiological procedures and is not commonly available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. Arm anthropometry is not subject to these constraints. In a study sample of 99 Canadian patients with cancer at diagnosis, mid-upper arm circumference correlated well with lean body mass as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry but triceps skin fold thickness was a poor predictor of fat mass. Arm anthropometry can be a useful tool for the measurement of nutritional status in children with cancer. However, further studies, particularly in low-income countries and in children with solid tumors at diagnosis, are required to determine the full extent of its utility.

  7. Monitoring anthropometry and fitness using maturity groups within youth rugby league.

    OpenAIRE

    Till, K; Jones, B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthropometry and fitness, and change in these characteristics over time, of youth rugby league players by using maturity status to determine annual categories instead of traditional chronological annual-age grouping. One hundred and twenty one male rugby league players were assessed using anthropometric (i.e., height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds) and fitness (i.e., vertical jump, medicine ball chest throw, 10m and 2...

  8. The effects of anthropometry and leg muscle power on drive and transition phase of acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Jeffreys, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of anthropometry and leg muscle power on accelerative ability and its phases (drive and transition). METHODS: Thirty-six soccer players (age 12.4±1.2 years, body mass 49.9±8.9 kg and height 154.2±10.3 cm) were tested twice, in the beginn...

  9. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . As this boundary is gradually defined during development, cells enter into new functional relationships, while, at the same time, are relieved from their physical determinism. The resulting constraints can thus become the driving forces that upgrade embryonic scaffolding from the simple molecular signalling...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  10. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; Lacy, Kathleen E; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-04-23

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants' (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23-0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  11. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  12. Three-dimensional facial anthropometry of unilateral cleft lip infants with a structured light scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Wei, Jianhua; Wang, Xi; Wu, Guofeng; Ma, Dandan; Wang, Bo; Liu, Yanpu; Feng, Xinghua

    2013-08-01

    Cleft lip in the presence or absence of a cleft palate is a major public health problem. However, few studies have been published concerning the soft-tissue morphology of cleft lip infants. Currently, obtaining reliable three-dimensional (3D) surface models of infants remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate a new way of capturing 3D images of cleft lip infants using a structured light scanning system. In addition, the accuracy and precision of the acquired facial 3D data were validated and compared with direct measurements. Ten unilateral cleft lip patients were enrolled in the study. Briefly, 3D facial images of the patients were acquired using a 3D scanner device before and after the surgery. Fourteen items were measured by direct anthropometry and 3D image software. The accuracy and precision of the 3D system were assessed by comparative analysis. The anthropometric data obtained using the 3D method were in agreement with the direct anthropometry measurements. All data calculated by the software were 'highly reliable' or 'reliable', as defined in the literature. The localisation of four landmarks was not consistent in repeated experiments of inter-observer reliability in preoperative images (P0.05). The structured light scanning system is proven to be a non-invasive, accurate and precise method in cleft lip anthropometry. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypertension and anthropometry measurement on academic staff at public universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Ilya Zulaikha; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Baharuddin, Mohd Sapuan; Arul, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension or most commonly known as high blood pressure is a non-communicable disease affecting to health of people with non-detectible cause (primary) and some with determined causes (secondary). The prevalence of hypertension morbidity was very high globally, the consequences of the disease if not been treated is death. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hypertension and anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and body mass index among academic staff in public universities in Malaysia. The design for this study was cross-sectional and the method for data collection was mailed questionnaire. The initial sample size for this study was 189, therefore, 500 questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected academicians in public universities, colleges and polytechnics in Malaysia. However, only 101 questionnaires were returned and were analysed in this study. The target population were academicians which includes lecturers and senior lecturers in public universities in Malaysia. The methods of analysis employed was logistic regression and frequency analysis. It was found that weight, height and body mass index (BMI) have no significant relationship with hypertension but based on the Crude Odd Ratio, all these three anthropometry measures showed that there were protective risk of hypertension among lecturers and senior lecturers in public university, Malaysia. In a nutshell, there were no evidence to conclude that anthropometry measurements can affect hypertension status among academic staff at public university.

  14. Match between school furniture dimensions and children's anthropometry in Isfahan schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Asaad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   the main part of students' time is spent at school. Recent studies have  released that lack of match between students' anthropometry size and dimensions of existing  furniture is a risk factor in creating discomfort and muscle- skeletal disorders (such as backache and neck pain, reducing concentration, increasing fatigue, restless and eyestrain in youths and students.   Methods   In this study 982 students, 493 male (50.2% and 489 female (49.8% ranging 7 - 12 years old, were selected. In addition to age, sex, weight and height, six dimensions of anthropometric measures including: shoulder height, elbow rest height, knee height, popliteal height, buttock-popliteal length and hip breadth by anthropometry, caliper and adjustable seat height, goniometry, tape and scale, were taken into account.   Results   This study explains that there is a significant difference between the minimum and  maximum acceptable and available dimensions of furniture (p<0.001. The Height of desk in old  design is higher than acceptable height for many students (in the order of size in 100, 95.4, and 74.3 percent. The seat depth in this design is shorter for the majority of students (in the order of size in 92.1, 92 and 97.9 percent of studied students.   Conclusion   In designing suitable furniture for students, considering available anthropometry differences in age and sex is essential.  

  15. Bone markers in craniofacial bone deformations and dysplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Seifert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of bony deformations and dysplasias are often present in the facial skeleton. Bone defects can be either localized or general. Quite often they are not only present in the skull but also can be found in other parts of the skeleton. In many cases the presence and levels of specific bone markers should be measured in order to fully describe their activity and presence in the skeleton. Fibrous dysplasia (FD is the most common one in the facial skeleton; however, other bone deformations regarding bone growth and activity can also be present. Every clinician should be aware of all common, rare and uncommon bony diseases and conditions such as cherubism, Paget’s disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and others related to genetic conditions. We present standard (calcium, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and specialized bone markers (pyridinium, deoxypyridinium, hydroxyproline, RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway, growth hormone, insulin-like growth hormone-1 that can be used to evaluate, measure or describe the processes occurring in craniofacial bones.

  16. Obeservations on association between third molar agenesis and craniofacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Yan, Yinqiu; Cao, Jing; Xie, Bingjie; Xiao, Xueling; Luo, Mengqi; Bai, Ding; Han, Xianglong

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between third molar agenesis and skeletal morphology in the Chinese population. A total of 1043 patients' records were analyzed with panoramic radiographs and cephalograms. Congenitally missing third molars were assessed with respect to gender, jaw, and side, and assessed in various types of facial morphology. Linear, angular, and proportional cephalometric measurements were analyzed and compared among the samples. For the evaluation of results, the following statistics were used: the Pearson χ 2 test, one-way ANOVA, and the Student-Newman-Keuls method. The overall prevalence of third molar agenesis was 28.7%. Missing third molars were more common in the maxilla and on the right side, while the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) between genders. Every hypodontia group had a smaller SN-GoGn angle, Y-axis-FH angle, and a larger S-Go/N-Me ratio. The group with third molar agenesis in both jaws had smaller SNA and Wits values. The frequency of third molar agenesis in subjects with a Class II malocclusion was significantly lower than in other types of malocclusion (P agenesis in hypodivergent growth pattern was higher than in other patterns (P agenesis and both sagittal and vertical craniofacial morphology.

  17. An improved finite element model for craniofacial surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengzheng; Yang, Jie

    2009-11-01

    A novel approach is proposed for simulating the deformation of the facial soft tissues in the craniofacial surgery simulation. A nonlinear finite mixed-element model (NFM-EM) based on solid-shell elements and Lagrange principle of virtual work is proposed, which addresses the heterogeneity in geometry and material properties found in the soft tissues of the face. Moreover, after the investigation of the strain-potential models, the biomechanical characteristics of skin, muscles and fat are modeled with the most suitable material properties. In addition, an improved contact algorithm is used to compute the boundary conditions of the soft tissue model. The quantitative validation and the comparative results with other models proved the effectiveness of the approach on the simulation of complex soft tissues. The average absolute value of errors stays below 0.5 mm and the 95% percentiles of the distance map is less than 1.5 mm. NFM-EM promotes the accuracy and effectiveness of the soft tissue deformation, and the effective contact algorithm bridges the bone-related planning and the prediction of the target face.

  18. Craniofacial and maxillary anomalies: Anesthetic implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in the craniofacial surgery has imposed challenges on the attending anesthesiologist for the successful conduct reconstructive surgery. The anesthesiologist remains a key person in the multidisciplinary tasks involved in such surgery. Most of these patients belong to smaller age group and have difficult airway due to various syndromes associated with it. The other major problems faced by the anesthesiologist in such surgery are intra-operative hypothermia due to prolonged surgery and significant blood loss as well as fluid shifts associated with it. A well-equipped intensive care unit is a must for the post-operative care of such patients. Even the adult patients coming for maxillofacial trauma surgery require careful vigilance both intra-operatively as well as post-operatively due to frequent difficult airway associated with it. A careful pre-operative evaluation and discussion with the surgeons, proper planning for airway management, intra-operative care and post-operative intensive care backup is required for the successful outcome in these surgeries. The current review is an attempt to describe in short the important anesthesia aspects and challenges related to various cranio-maxillary lesions.

  19. Classification and craniofacial features of gummy smile in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Lin, Jie; Zhou, Li; Bai, Ding

    2010-09-01

    Classification of gummy smile was tried first according to gingival exposure site during posed smile, then several items were measured on cephalometric radiograph to analyze the morphologic features in both sexes and further divided into subgroups. Two hundred twenty-eight adolescents with gingival display of more than 2 mm during smile were clustered according to gingival exposure site. Measurements of 18 pertinent items with great clinical concern or controversy in previous study in each groups were compared with corresponding references. Four distinctive types of gummy smile could be distinguished, and they exposed a continuous band, posterior parts, and one side or anterior part of upper gingiva, respectively. The type exposing a continuous band of upper gingiva took up the majority (200 cases, 88%) of all subjects and were chosen for further cephalometric analysis. Among the characteristic features of gummy smile, adolescents have skeletal class II relationship, vertical growth pattern, retrusive mandible, excessive anterior maxillary height, labially inclined upper incisors and upper lip, great overjet and overbite, and relatively short lip compared with anterior maxillary height. Skeletal class III relationship and horizontal growth pattern were absolutely absent. As a result, treatment planning should be adjusted according to the exposure site and craniofacial feature of each individual patient to obtain the best result.

  20. Osterix-Cre transgene causes craniofacial bone development defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The Cre/loxP system has been widely used to generate tissue-specific gene knockout mice. Inducible (Tet-off) Osx-GFP::Cre (Osx-Cre) mouse line that targets osteoblasts is widely used in the bone research field. In this study, we investigated the effect of Osx-Cre on craniofacial bone development. We found that newborn Osx-Cre mice showed severe hypomineralization in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones as well as the coronal sutural area when compared to control mice. As the mice matured the intramembranous bone hypomineralization phenotype became less severe. The major hypomineralization defect in parietal, frontal, and nasal bones had mostly disappeared by postnatal day 21, but the defect in sutural areas persisted. Importantly, Doxycycline treatment eliminated cranial bone defects at birth which indicates that Cre expression may be responsible for the phenotype. In addition, we showed that the primary calvarial osteoblasts isolated from neonatal Osx-Cre mice had comparable differentiation ability compared to their littermate controls. This study reinforces the idea that Cre positive litter mates are indispensable controls in studies using conditional gene deletion. PMID:25550101

  1. Craniofacial and Dental Features in Six Children With Cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoor, Patricia; Suomalainen, Anni; Kemola, W; Arte, Sirpa

    2017-10-01

    Cherubism is an autosomal-dominant benign bone disorder, characterized by fibro-osseous lesions in the mandible and maxilla commonly caused by mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2-gene. The purpose of the authors' study was to analyze craniofacial and dental features of children diagnosed with cherubism, describe their treatment, and assess their dental age compared with norms for Finnish children. Six children were diagnosed, followed up and treated due to dental and skeletal disorders caused by cherubsim. The patients were followed up for an average of 91.5 months with emphasis on the skeletal changes and development of dentition. The treatment consisted of minor orthodontic treatment, dental extractions, and exposures. One patient underwent cosmetic mandibular surgery. All patients had lesions in the lower jaw and 5 of 6 patients had lesions in the maxilla as well. The patients were characterized by varying swelling of the jaws, premature loss of deciduous teeth in the affected area and widely spaced, displaced, un-erupted, or absent permanent teeth. The dental age was delayed at younger age but near to normal or even a little ahead at older age. Even though cherubism affects the jaws, jaw positions, and malocclusion, no common dentofacial proportions associated with the disease could be confirmed by cephalometric analysis. The surgical interventions did not provoke adverse reactions or local growth of the lesions.

  2. Craniofacial anomalies amongst births at two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, A; Rotich, E C; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Ndavi, M; Were, F

    2012-05-01

    The pattern of congenital oral and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) in the Kenyan population remains unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of occurrence of CFAs at two hospitals in Nairobi. A descriptive cross-sectional study at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital was carried out from November 2006 to March 2007. Mothers who delivered at the hospitals consented to an interview and physical examination of their babies within 48 h of delivery. The anomalies were classified for type and magnitude. Data were analysed to determine the association of these anomalies with ages of the mothers, gender, weight, birth order, mode of delivery and birth status of the babies. During the study period, 7989 babies were born. The CFAs manifested in 1.8% of the total births and were more common in female (1.4%) than in male (1.0%) live births. 12.8% of stillbirths had CFAs, with lesions manifesting more in males (16.7%) than in females (6.9%). The commonest CFA was preauricular sinus (4.3/1000) followed by hydrocephalus (1.9/1000) then preauricular tags and cleft lip and palate (1.5/1000 and 1.3/1000 total births, respectively). Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  4. Effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients: Double blind, randomized clinical trial: Chromium, glucose homeostasis and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Marília Mendonça; Carvalho, Ana Clara Martins Silva; Silva, Maria Sebastiana

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of chromium supplementation on the glucose homeostasis and anthropometry of type 2 diabetic patients. Fifty-six individuals with type 2 Diabetes were randomized on a double blind clinical trial into three groups: placebo (NC0), 50μg (NC50) and 200μg (NC200) of chromium nicotinate. Glucose homeostasis, anthropometry and physical activity intensity were evaluated at the beginning, at day 45 and at day 90. Energy intake was evaluated at the beginning, between the beginning and 45 days, and between days 45 and 90 of the study. There were no differences within or between groups for HOMA-IR, waist circumference, body fat percentage, lean body mass percentage and total energy intake during the trial. There was an increase of the HOMA-β in group NC0 (p=0.0349) and a decrease of 1.08kg in group NC50 (p=0.0048) at 90 days. The relation between body mass index, body fat percentage and insulin sensitivity did not change in the placebo and supplemented groups (p>0.05). In the effect of the intervention, for each 1cm increase in waist circumference there was an increase of 1.90±0.63 in HOMA-IR (p=0.0087) and 16.31±5.27% in HOMA-β (p=0.0073) in group NC200. No difference was seen in the intensity of physical activity within the groups and in the comparison between the supplemented groups (NC50 and NC200) and placebo (NC0) at 90 days. There was an increase in energy expenditure in physical activity at 90days (p=0.0371) of intervention in the group subjects NC50. As for total energy intake, there were no differences within or between the groups during the study. 50μg and 200μg supplementation with chromium nicotinate for 90days did not promote improvements in glucose homeostasis and anthropometry in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Customized Polymethyl Methacrylate Implants for the Reconstruction of Craniofacial Osseous Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Fernandes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects represent alterations in the anatomy and morphology of the cranial vault and the facial bones that potentially affect an individual’s psychological and social well-being. Although a variety of techniques and restorative procedures have been described for the reconstruction of the affected area, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, a biocompatible and nondegradable acrylic resin-based implant, is the most widely used alloplastic material for such craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe a technique for aesthetic and functional preoperative customized reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects from a small series of patients offered by the Brazilian public health system. Three adult male patients attended consultation with chief complaints directly related to their individual craniofacial bone defects. With the aid of multislice computed tomography scans and subsequent fabrication of the three-dimensional craniofacial prototype, custom-made PMMA implants were fabricated preoperatively. Under general anesthesia, with access to the craniofacial defects with a coronal approach, the PMMA implants were adapted and fixated to the facial skeleton with titanium plates and screws. Postoperative evaluation demonstrated uneventful recovery and an excellent aesthetic result. Customized prefabricated PMMA implants manufactured over the rapid prototyping models proved to be effective and feasible.

  6. A systematic review of the oral and craniofacial manifestations of cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera-Flores, José-Ramón; Casttellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Serrera-Figallo, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is an autosomal disorder. Because it affects few people in the population it is considered a rare disease, yet it is one of the most common autosomal chromosomal syndromes in humans. It entails pathognomonic alterations that affect the craniofacial and oral anatomy of patients. The aim of this study is to review these craniofacial and oral abnormalities in patients with Cri du chat syndrome. The PubMed Medline database was searched using two different strategies. First, we used "Dentistry" and "Cri du chat" as keywords; second, we used "Cri du chat" and "craniofacial." Seven articles in which the main orofacial and cranio-skeletal characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome were described were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cri du Chat syndrome entails pathognomonic characteristics in the craniofacial area (epicanthus, short philtrum, and wide nasal bridge), the oral area (mandibular retrognathism and anterior open bite) and the cranial region (alterations at the cranial base angle and a small upper airway). However, more studies on larger samples are needed to specify the orofacial and craniofacial characteristics of patients with Cri du chat syndrome more accurately. Clin. Anat. 29:555-560, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Divergent and conserved roles of Dll1 signaling in development of craniofacial and trunk muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Maciej T; Rassek, Claudia; Lenhard, Diana C; Bröhl, Dominique; Birchmeier, Carmen

    2014-11-15

    Craniofacial and trunk skeletal muscles are evolutionarily distinct and derive from cranial and somitic mesoderm, respectively. Different regulatory hierarchies act upstream of myogenic regulatory factors in cranial and somitic mesoderm, but the same core regulatory network - MyoD, Myf5 and Mrf4 - executes the myogenic differentiation program. Notch signaling controls self-renewal of myogenic progenitors as well as satellite cell homing during formation of trunk muscle, but its role in craniofacial muscles has been little investigated. We show here that the pool of myogenic progenitor cells in craniofacial muscle of Dll1(LacZ/Ki) mutant mice is depleted in early fetal development, which is accompanied by a major deficit in muscle growth. At the expense of progenitor cells, supernumerary differentiating myoblasts appear transiently and these express MyoD. The progenitor pool in craniofacial muscle of Dll1(LacZ/Ki) mutants is largely rescued by an additional mutation of MyoD. We conclude from this that Notch exerts its decisive role in craniofacial myogenesis by repression of MyoD. This function is similar to the one previously observed in trunk myogenesis, and is thus conserved in cranial and trunk muscle. However, in cranial mesoderm-derived progenitors, Notch signaling is not required for Pax7 expression and impinges little on the homing of satellite cells. Thus, Dll1 functions in satellite cell homing and Pax7 expression diverge in cranial- and somite-derived muscle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Autologous Free Fat Graft Retention in the Management of Craniofacial Contour Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Pinho, Andre Silveira; Lameiro, Thais Miguel; Buzzo, Celso Luiz; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Autologous free fat graft outcomes are not always predictable, and variables that can potentially influence fat graft retention are still not well understood or investigated. The purposes of this study were to assess fat graft retention in the management of craniofacial contour deformities and to identify possible predictive factors of this retention. A prospective analysis was conducted using consecutive patients with unilateral craniofacial contour deformities who underwent autologous free fat grafting between 2012 and 2015. Standardized ultrasonographic craniofacial soft-tissue thickness measurements were adopted to determine the fat graft retention. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of 12-month postoperative fat graft retention. One hundred forty-two patients were enrolled. There was significant (all p 0.05) from 3 to 12 months postoperatively, with a 12-month fat graft retention rate of 67.7 percent. Age, Parry-Romberg syndrome, previous craniofacial bone surgery, grafted volume, and forehead unit were independently negative (all p < 0.05) predictors of fat graft retention, whereas cheek unit was an independently positive (all p < 0.05) predictor of retention. Craniofacial fat graft retention is achievable but remains somewhat unpredictable, with age, Parry-Romberg syndrome, previous bone surgical intervention, grafted volume, and recipient sites affecting retention. Risk, III.

  9. Strategies for the Optimal Individualized Surgical Management of Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Marques, Frederico Figueiredo; Ghizoni, Enrico; Buzzo, Celso Luiz; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    The surgical management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia is controversial. The purpose of this study was to report the surgical outcomes of individualized management of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia of a single institution. Data from patients (n = 20) with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia, who were surgically treated between 2007 and 2014, were analyzed. Surgical approach (radical or conservative surgery) was individualized according to age, craniofacial anatomical site (zones I to IV of Chen and Noordhoff), functional issues, aesthetic impairment, patients/parents' preferences, and surgical team experience. The surgical outcomes (radical surgery group versus conservative surgery group) were compared based on the age at the time of the procedure, the length of hospital stay, reoperation, recurrence and complication rates, and the Whitaker grading system. Significant (all P 0.05) final Whitaker outcome scores (1.56 versus 1.71) and surgical complication rates (11% versus 14%) were recorded between the treatment groups. Based on clinical experience and surgical outcomes presented in this study, the surgical approach of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia should be tailored to individual patient's needs.

  10. Transverse craniofacial dimensions in Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion according to breathing mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Rísia David Pinto Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relation between the transverse craniofacial dimensions of subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and the breathing mode presented by them. Forty Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion subjects of both genders participated in the study, 23 of which were predominantly nose breathers and 17 were predominantly mouth breathers. The mean age ranged from 10 years and 9 months to 14 years - Age range 1; and from 13 years and 4 months to 16 years and 6 months - Age range 2. Measurements of six transverse craniofacial dimensions were performed in P-A teleradiographs: Total Sphenoid, Total Zygomatic, Total Nasal Cavity, Total Maxilla, Total Mastoid and Total Antegonion. The transversal craniofacial dimensions were measured and compared in both groups at age ranges 1 and 2. The longitudinal assessment of age ranges 1 and 2 showed that there was no statistically significant influence of the breathing mode on the craniofacial dimensions evaluated, or on the alteration of these dimensions. Breathing mode had no influence on craniofacial development in the sample studied.

  11. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to medicine via computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing. To investigate the current status of 3D printing technology and its clinical application, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. In addition, the benefits and possibilities of the clinical application of 3D printing in craniofacial surgery are reviewed, based on personal experiences with more than 500 craniofacial cases conducted using 3D printing tactile prototype models. PMID:26015880

  13. 3D modeling, custom implants and its future perspectives in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Custom implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better performance over their generic counterparts. This is due to the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, reduced surgical times and better cosmesis. Application of 3D modeling in craniofacial surgery is changing the way surgeons are planning surgeries and graphic designers are designing custom implants. Advances in manufacturing processes and ushering of additive manufacturing for direct production of implants has eliminated the constraints of shape, size and internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for the fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation. This article will review recent trends in 3D modeling and custom implants in craniofacial reconstruction.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  16. Craniofacial changes in patients with Class III malocclusion treated with the RAMPA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasushi; Banabilh, Saeed M; Singh, G Dave

    2010-01-01

    The underlying etiology of Class III malocclusion may be associated with cranial base morphology. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a Right-Angled Maxillary Protraction Appliance (RAMPA) System in Asian subjects with Class III malocclusions. 27 homologous landmarks were digitized from lateral cephalographs for 10 pre-pubertal Japanese children (mean age 95 months) with skeletal Class III malocclusion prior to and after RAMPA treatment. The mean, pre- and post-treatment craniofacial configurations were computed using Procrustes superimposition, and subjected to principal components analysis (PCA), and finite-element analysis (FEA). The mean treatment time was 22.5 months. All patients showed significant craniofacial change with correction of anterior and/or posterior crossbite. The mean, pre- and post-treatment craniofacial configurations were statistically different when tested using PCA (p Class III malocclusions.

  17. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y. Q. Low

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8 sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40. One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01. When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01. Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption.

  18. The Association between Sweet Taste Function, Anthropometry, and Dietary Intake in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y. Q.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; McBride, Robert; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in ability to detect, recognize, and perceive sweetness may influence food consumption, and eventually chronic nutrition-related conditions such as overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake in adults. Participants’ (n = 60; mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8) sweet taste function for a range of sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, and Rebaudioside A) was assessed by measuring detection and recognition thresholds and sweetness intensity. Height, weight, and waist circumference were also measured, and participants also completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire. There was large inter-individual variation in detection, recognition and sweetness intensity measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed no robust correlations between measures of sweet taste function, anthropometry, and dietary intake, with the exception of suprathreshold intensity, which was moderately correlated with total energy intake (r = 0.23–0.40). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the most and least sensitive participants in terms of BMI, waist circumference, and dietary intake for all measures of sweet taste function and sweeteners (all p > 0.01). When stratified into BMI categories, there were no significant differences in any measure of sweet taste function between the normal weight and overweight/obese participants (all p > 0.01). Results show that that sweet taste function is not associated with anthropometry and sweetness intensity measures are the most appropriate measure when assessing links between sweet taste and food consumption. PMID:27120614

  19. Anthropometry and barbell trajectory in the snatch lift for elite women weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Leslie J; Garhammer, John; Rozenek, Ralph; Crussemeyer, Jill A; Vargas, Emmy M

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine relationships between anthropometry and horizontal barbell displacement during the pulling phase of the snatch lift (SN) in elite women weightlifters. Secondary objectives included description of anthropometric and displacement characteristics, and examinations of SN performance and competitive experience. Thirty-six women weightlifters competing at the 2009 Pan American Championships participated. Participants were measured for standing height, upper limb, trunk, thigh, and shank lengths, and completed a questionnaire about competition and training experience. Horizontal displacement from lift-off to first pull maximum (Dx1) and from first pull to second pull maximum (Dx2) was determined from the heaviest successful SN using 2-dimensional video analysis. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) existed between thigh and lower-limb lengths and Dx2 in 53 kg participants; lower-limb length and Dx1 in 75 kg participants; and horizontal displacement and body segment ratios involving the upper and lower extremity in multiple weight classes. Correlations between anthropometry and Dx1 also reached significance with participants grouped by barbell trajectory type. Except for the trunk and thigh, body segment lengths were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between weight classes. Significantly different body proportions existed in 48 kg participants compared with all other classes. Multiple thigh and trunk variables were significantly correlated with performance. Horizontal displacement values were similar to previous reports in the literature. Few significant relationships existed between displacement and performance, and none were found for competitive experience. Understanding relationships between anthropometry and barbell trajectory may be useful for optimizing SN technique.

  20. Anthropometry and somatotypes of competitive DanceSport participants: a comparison of three different styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, H; Wyon, M; Jürimäe, T; Purge, P; Saar, M; Mäestu, J; Jürimäe, J

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry in dance and aesthetic sports has been shown to play an important role in selection and performance criteria. The aim of the present study was to examine variations in somatotype and anthropometry in three different competitive dance styles: DanceSport Standard, Latin American and Ten Dance. Anthropometry and somatotype data were collected from thirty couples competing in Standard (n=24 individuals), Latin American (n=14) and Ten Dance (n=22) styles. A single tester (ISAK Level 1) carried out all anthropometric measurements using the Heath-Carter protocol and somatotypes were calculated using the Heath-Carter's decimal equations. Results indicated that the mean somatotype for the male dancers was 2.4-3.9-3.2, whilst for females it was 2.7-2.7-3.5. Factorial analysis reported Standard dancers scored significantly higher for ectomorphy, sitting height and arm span than Latin dancers (p<0.05). Correlation analysis with the Standard dancer's International Ranking highlighted moderate positive correlation with mesomorphy (r=0.434, p<0.05) and negative correlation with ectomorphy (r=-0.546, p<0.001). The findings of this study show that somatotypes differ among DanceSport participants by dance style. Compared with other aesthetic sports, male and female dancers were less mesomorphic and more ectomorphic. Standard dancers tend to be more ectomorphic with greater height, longer arm span and greater sitting height compared with Latin American dancers. Although Standard dancers were ectomorphic, those dancers who had higher mesomorphic ranking had higher places in the dancers' international ranking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Morley, David; O'hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their career attainment level (i.e., amateur, academy and professional). Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds), maturational (age at peak height velocity; PHV) and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed, estimated[Formula: see text]) characteristics were assessed at the Under 13s, 14s and 15s annual-age categories. Relative age (Q2 = 8.5% vs. Q4 = 25.5%) and playing position (Pivots = 19.5% vs. Props = 5.8%) influenced the percentage of players attaining professional status. Anthropometry and fitness had a significant effect on career attainment at the Under 14 (P = 0.002, η(2) = 0.16) and 15 (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.12) annual-age categories. Findings at the Under 14s showed future professional players were significantly later maturing compared to academy and amateur players. Findings suggest that relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness can influence the career attainment of junior rugby league players. TID programmes within rugby league, and other related team sports, should be aware and acknowledge the factors influencing long-term career attainment, and not delimit development opportunities during early adolescence.

  2. Pediatric Penile and Glans Anthropometry Nomograms: An Aid in Hypospadias Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Archana; Sikdar, Satyajit; Prakash, Raghu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish pediatric penile and glans anthropometry nomograms. This may be used as a reference model for penile assessment while managing hypospadias. Patients and Methods: Between October 2012 and September 2013, 263 boys of varying ages (0–16 years) were included in the study. Those with genetic, endocrine disorders, having genital anomaly, undescended testis, neonates, and infants with a nonretractile prepuce, with multiple congenital anomalies and refusal to take part in the study were excluded. Evaluated outcome variables were stretched penile length, glans circumference (GC) at coronal sulcus, glans diameter at coronal sulcus (Gdcl), mid glans diameter, and ventral glans length. Glans ratios were generated by dividing Gdcl by GC. Data were expressed as mean, median, and standard deviation. Correlation between age and variables was evaluated using nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The patients were divided in six age groups, namely 0–1 (n = 61), 1–3 (n = 37), 3–5 (n = 36), 5–7 (n = 36), 7–12 (n = 45), and >12 years (n = 48). Gdcl was the maximum transverse glans diameter and based on it small glans size varied widely from 8.9 to 35.04 mm for various age groups. Although glans anthropometry showed age-related changes, glans ratio remained relatively constant between 0.49 and 0.53 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.051, r = 0.29). All the variables except glans ratio showed a significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.954–0.98, P anthropometry nomograms provide a reference model for hypospadias. This may aid in (a) objective preoperative assessment of glans size (b) patient selection for preoperative hormonal stimulation (c) provides a yardstick for postoperative cosmesis. PMID:28082769

  3. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Beltran-Alacreu, Hector; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; La Touche, Roy

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). Moreover, we investigated the test-retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP) and the sternomental distance (SMD). Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively). We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]). A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52). Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; Pposture, but these differences were very small (mean difference =1.44 cm for HP; 6.24 mm for SMD). The effect sizes reached by these values were estimated to be small for SMD (d=0.38) and medium for HP (d=0.76). The results showed no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and variables of pain-related disability, but a strong correlation between the two variables of disability was found. Our findings suggest that small differences between CCFP patients and asymptomatic subjects exist with respect to the two measurements used to assess craniocervical posture (HP and SMD), and these measures demonstrated high test-retest intrarater reliability for both CCFP patients and asymptomatic

  5. Cnbp ameliorates Treacher Collins Syndrome craniofacial anomalies through a pathway that involves redox-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Peralta, Mauro S Porcel; Mouguelar, Valeria S; Sdrigotti, María Antonella; Ishiy, Felipe A A; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Passos-Bueno, Maria R; Coux, Gabriela; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2016-10-06

    Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) is a rare congenital disease (1:50 000 live births) characterized by craniofacial defects, including hypoplasia of facial bones, cleft palate and palpebral fissures. Over 90% of the cases are due to mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which codifies the nucleolar protein Treacle. Here we report a novel TCS-like zebrafish model displaying features that fully recapitulate the spectrum of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients. As it was reported for a Tcof1 +/- mouse model, Treacle depletion in zebrafish caused reduced rRNA transcription, stabilization of Tp53 and increased cell death in the cephalic region. An increase of ROS along with the overexpression of redox-responsive genes was detected; furthermore, treatment with antioxidants ameliorated the phenotypic defects of craniofacial anomalies in TCS-like larvae. On the other hand, Treacle depletion led to a lowering in the abundance of Cnbp, a protein required for proper craniofacial development. Tcof1 knockdown in transgenic zebrafish overexpressing cnbp resulted in barely affected craniofacial cartilage development, reinforcing the notion that Cnbp has a role in the pathogenesis of TCS. The cnbp overexpression rescued the TCS phenotype in a dose-dependent manner by a ROS-cytoprotective action that prevented the redox-responsive genes' upregulation but did not normalize the synthesis of rRNAs. Finally, a positive correlation between the expression of CNBP and TCOF1 in mesenchymal cells from both control and TCS subjects was found. Based on this, we suggest CNBP as an additional target for new alternative therapeutic treatments to reduce craniofacial defects not only in TCS but also in other neurocristopathies.

  6. Use of Anthropometry for the Prediction of Regional Body Tissue Distribution in Adults: Benefits and Limitations in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafoglieri, Aldo; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Cattrysse, Erik; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Regional body composition changes with aging. Some of the changes in composition are considered major risk factors for developing obesity related chronic diseases which in turn may lead to increased mortality in adults. The role of anthropometry is well recognized in the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of adults for risk classification, regardless of age. Regional body composition is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therapeutic measures recommended to lower cardiovascular disease risk include lifestyle changes. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize studies that assessed the relationships between anthropometry and regional body composition. The potential benefits and limitations of anthropometry for use in clinical practice are presented and suggestions for future research given. PMID:25489489

  7. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  8. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity up to 5 years after pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M; Mouton, Leonora J; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Van Brussel, Marco; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2015-12-01

    Physical functioning is of major importance after burns in many areas of life, in both the short and the long term. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity in children and adolescents between 0.5-5 years after burns over 10% TBSA. Assessments took place in a mobile exercise lab. Demographics, burn characteristics and anthropometrics were recorded. Muscular strength in six muscle groups was measured using hand-held dynamometry and aerobic capacity was measured with a graded cardiopulmonary exercise test. Subjects' scores were compared with Dutch age- and gender-matched norm values and converted to Z-scores. The assessments were completed by 24 subjects with pediatric burns ranging from 10 to 41% TBSA and time after burn from 1 to 5 years (58.3% male; 6-18 years). On group level, no significant differences between the subjects' scores and norm values were found. No trends were seen indicating an effect of extent of burn or time after burn. Individually, eight subjects (33.3%), mostly aged 6 or 7, showed significantly low performance on at least one variable: seven for strength, one for aerobic capacity and one for both. Anthropometry, muscular strength and aerobic capacity are adequate in the majority of Dutch children and adolescents 1-5 years after 10-41% TBSA burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-10-07

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia. This was a cohort analysis of 554 infants from the ROLO study. Three day food diaries from each trimester were collected. Neonatal weight, length, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression was used to identify associations between micronutrient intakes and neonatal anthropometry. Birthweight was negatively associated with maternal trimester 3 vitamin D intake and positively associated with trimester 3 vitamin B12 intake R2adj 19.8% (F = 13.19, p anthropometry even in women not at risk of malnutrition. Further research is necessary to determine optimal micronutrient intake in overweight and obese pregnant women. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54392969.

  10. Evaluation of unilateral cleft lip and palate using anthropometry measurements post-alveolar bone grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorangkir, H. J.; Hak, M. S.; Tofani, I.

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) requires multiple steps and coordination of multidisciplinary sciences to produce optimal results. Alveolar bone-grafting (ABG) is an important procedure in the treatment of such patients because it influences the eruption of teeth and stabilizes the maxilla. To evaluate the effect and suitability of alveolar bone grafting procedure at Cleft Center Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital on nasal deformity from anthropometry with photogrammetry and aesthetic proportional in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate with UCLP. Patients with UCLP were evaluated post-ABG using anthropometry and photogrammetry to investigate the results anteriorly, laterally, and basally. Anthropometric measurements taken photogrammetrically used 14 points and 11 distance items. Evaluations were made of upper lip length, upper lip projection, and nostril sill elevation for both the cleft and non-cleft sides of patients’ faces. A t-test showed that the values for upper lip length and projection were significantly increased, and a correction test using a Fisher exam gave a value of 1. The ABG treatment protocol for patients with UCLP at the Cleft Lip and Palate Unit at Harapan Kita Maternal and Child Hospital is suitable to be performed; it aesthetically satisfies patients and their families.

  11. Anthropometry in Long-Term Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura; Beaumont, Lesley; Cranston, Amy; Savoie, Stefanie; Nayiager, Trishana; Barr, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an inadequate measure of nutritional status in children and adolescents with cancer as it does not distinguish muscle from adipose tissue. However, arm anthropometry offers simple assessments of fat mass and lean body mass; especially valuable in low- and middle-income countries where the great majority of young people with cancer live and access to sophisticated expensive measures of body composition is markedly limited. The nutritional status of 75 long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was assessed by arm anthropometry, in addition to BMI, in a cross-sectional cohort study. Normal ranges for triceps skin fold thickness (TSFT, a surrogate for fat mass) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC, a surrogate for lean body mass) were between the 15th and 85th percentiles for age and sex. Overweight/obesity was classified as a TSFT >85th percentile and sarcopenia as an MUAC obesity was identified in 1/3 of subjects by a BMI >25 and by TSFT; and 20% of the subjects had a TSFT >95th percentile. Only two subjects were sarcopenic. None met the combined criteria for sarcopenic obesity. TSFT and MUAC/height indices did not add sensitivity to identification of sarcopenia or obesity. TSFT is a useful measure of overweight/obesity in this population, but MUAC does not identify a notable proportion with sarcopenia. Further resolution may be provided by more sophisticated measures of body composition.

  12. Evaluation of Swallow Function in Patients with Craniofacial Microsomia: A Retrospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lande, L.S. (Lara S.); C.J.J.M. Caron (C. J J M); B.I. Pluijmers (Britt); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); Streppel, M. (Marloes); D.J. Dunaway (David); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); B.L. Padwa (Bonnie L.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCraniofacial microsomia (CFM) is characterized by underdevelopment of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches resulting in aesthetic, psychological, and functional problems including feeding and swallowing difficulties. The aim of this study is to gain more

  13. Undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children with syndromal craniofacial synostosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, M.; Poels, P.J.P.; Vaandrager, J.M.; Hoog, M. de; Berg, S.W. van den; Hoeve, H.J.; Joosten, K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Children with syndromal craniofacial synostosis have a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment can relieve symptoms and morbidity. Little is known about the development and natural history of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome through life. The aim of this study

  14. Customized "In-Office" Three-Dimensional Printing for Virtual Surgical Planning in Craniofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Bernardino M; Chiodo, Michael V; Patel, Parit A

    2015-07-01

    Virtual surgical planning using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has improved surgical efficiency and precision. A limitation to this technology is that production of 3D surgical models requires a third-party source, leading to increased costs (up to $4000) and prolonged assembly times (averaging 2-3 weeks). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, cost, and production time of customized skull models created by an "in-office" 3D printer for craniofacial reconstruction. Two patients underwent craniofacial reconstruction with the assistance of "in-office" 3D printing technology. Three-dimensional skull models were created from a bioplastic filament with a 3D printer using computed tomography (CT) image data. The cost and production time for each model were measured. For both patients, a customized 3D surgical model was used preoperatively to plan split calvarial bone grafting and intraoperatively to more efficiently and precisely perform the craniofacial reconstruction. The average cost for surgical model production with the "in-office" 3D printer was $25 (cost of bioplastic materials used to create surgical model) and the average production time was 14  hours. Virtual surgical planning using "in office" 3D printing is feasible and allows for a more cost-effective and less time consuming method for creating surgical models and guides. By bringing 3D printing to the office setting, we hope to improve intraoperative efficiency, surgical precision, and overall cost for various types of craniofacial and reconstructive surgery.

  15. Effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation method to predict postpeak circumpubertal growth of craniofacial structures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Bollen, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to predict circumpubertal craniofacial growth in the postpeak period. METHODS: The CVM stage was determined in 176 subjects (51 adolescent boys and 125 adolescent girls) on cephalograms taken at the

  16. Unilateral cleft lip and palate : treatment outcome and long-term craniofacial growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, Petrus Josephus Paulinus Maria

    2006-01-01

    Treatment results of children with a complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) from the Cleft Palate Craniofacial Unit of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre were evaluated and compared with prominent European cleft centers. Treatment outcome of the Nijmegen patients with UCLP and

  17. 75 FR 51275 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental... Dental and Craniofacial Research Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... listed below in advance of the meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the...

  18. 75 FR 82033 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental... Dental and Craniofacial Research Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... listed below in advance of the meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the...

  19. Associations between craniofacial morphology, head posture, and cervical vertebral body fusions in men with sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to analyze craniofacial profiles and head posture in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subgrouped according to cervical column morphology. METHODS: Seventy-four white men aged 27 to 65 years (mean, 49.0 years) diagnosed with OSA in sleep studies b...

  20. Tomographic and clinical aspects of the central nervous system anomalies associated to the craniofacial congenital changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, Angela Delete.

    1994-01-01

    This work proposes to study people presenting craniofacial congenital anomalies, with or without mental disorders, regardless their association to other anomalies in the body middle line, aiming to verify the central nervous system frequency of concurrence with structural anomalies associated, within the clinic and phenotype spectra of that syndromes. (author). 182 refs., 36 figs

  1. Dental and Craniofacial Anomalies Associated with Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome with PITX2 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Dressler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS (OMIM Nr.: 180500 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder (1  :  200000 with genetic and morphologic variability. Glaucoma is associated in 50% of the patients. Craniofacial and dental anomalies are frequently reported with ARS. The present study was designed as a multidisciplinary analysis of orthodontic, ophthalmologic, and genotypical features. A three-generation pedigree was ascertained through a family with ARS. Clinically, radiographic and genetic analyses were performed. Despite an identical genotype in all patients, the phenotype varies in expressivity of craniofacial and dental morphology. Screening for PITX2 and FOXC1 mutations by direct DNA-sequencing revealed a P64L missense mutation in PITX2 in all family members, supporting earlier reports that PITX2 is an essential factor in morphogenesis of teeth and craniofacial skeleton. Despite the fact that the family members had identical mutations, morphologic differences were evident. The concomitant occurrence of rare dental and craniofacial anomalies may be early diagnostic indications of ARS. Early detection of ARS and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP helps to prevent visual field loss.

  2. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis in 51 cases of holoprosencephaly: craniofacial anatomy, associated malformations, and genetics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.; Ettema, A.M.; Sina, F.; Geipel, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hansmann, H.; Borstlap, W.A.; Berge, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prenatal ultrasound findings of the craniofacial and extracephalic anatomy, the postnatal pathological findings, and the genetic anomalies in 51 cases of holoprosencephaly (HPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2005, a collective of 51 fetuses with tentative

  3. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The FaceBase Consortium: A comprehensive program to facilitate craniofacial research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheiser, Harry; Aronow, Bruce J.; Artinger, Kristin; Beaty, Terri H.; Brinkley, James F.; Chai, Yang; Clouthier, David; Cunningham, Michael L.; Dixon, Michael; Donahue, Leah Rae; Fraser, Scott E.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Iwata, Junichi; Klein, Ophir; Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Stephen; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Postlethwait, John; Potter, Steven; Shapiro, Linda; Spritz, Richard; Visel, Axel; Weinberg, Seth M.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The FaceBase Consortium consists of ten interlinked research and technology projects whose goal is to generate craniofacial research data and technology for use by the research community through a central data management and integrated bioinformatics hub. Funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and currently focused on studying the development of the middle region of the face, the Consortium will produce comprehensive datasets of global gene expression patterns, regulatory elements and sequencing; will generate anatomical and molecular atlases; will provide human normative facial data and other phenotypes; conduct follow up studies of a completed genome-wide association study; generate independent data on the genetics of craniofacial development, build repositories of animal models and of human samples and data for community access and analysis; and will develop software tools and animal models for analyzing and functionally testing and integrating these data. The FaceBase website (http://www.facebase.org) will serve as a web home for these efforts, providing interactive tools for exploring these datasets, together with discussion forums and other services to support and foster collaboration within the craniofacial research community. PMID:21458441

  5. Fate of implant-retained craniofacial prostheses : Life span and aftercare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anita; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; van Oort, Robert P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the need for surgical and prosthetic aftercare of craniofacial prostheses supported by endosseous implants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective clinical study assessing the surgical and prosthetic aftercare from implant placement to last visit of follow-up was performed in

  6. Speech characteristics in a Ugandan child with a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft: a case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke Luyten; A. Hodges; H. Vermeersch; D. Balumukad; S. de Ley; M. Tungotyo; W. Bauters; K. van Lierde; K. Bettens; G. Galiwango

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the speech characteristics in an English-speaking Ugandan boy of 4.5 years who has a rare paramedian craniofacial cleft (unilateral lip, alveolar, palatal, nasal and maxillary cleft, and associated hypertelorism). Closure of the lip together with the closure

  7. Utility of Tc-99m MDP bone SPECT in evaluation of osseous involvement in craniofacial malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Shabana; Haq, Saif Ul; Sohaib, Muhammad; Nawaz Khan, Ali

    2017-11-01

    To assess the role of technetium-99m methoxy diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging for the detection of osseous invasion in craniofacial malignancies. The study was performed in 45 subjects using Tc-99m MDP (740 MBq). Out of 45 subjects, 30 were patients had different craniofacial malignancies, and 15 subjects who did not have any malignancy served as controls. Planar imaging was performed. Anterior, lateral and oblique lateral views of the skull were obtained. SPECT imaging was done taking 64 views of the skull in a 360 ° circular path, each 40 s with 128 × 128 matrices. Scans were visually interpreted using a score of 0, 1, and 2, representing a lesion as definitely absent, doubtful, and definitely present, respectively. Planar scans were compared with the SPECT images. Bone SPECT detected more lesions as compared to planar bone scan and plain radiographs. SPECT was found to be superior to planar imaging and radiographs in the detection and efficient demonstration of the extent of osseous invasion of craniofacial cancer. Sensitivity was 100% for SPECT and 83.33% for planar bone scan. SPECT imaging of the skull is a very beneficial complementary form of investigation in patients with craniofacial malignancies for the assessment of osseous invasion, particularly in tumors likely to invade the skull base. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent meningitis and frontal encephalocele as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumussoy, Murat; Ugur, Omer; Cukurova, Ibrahim; Uluyol, Sinan

    2014-03-01

    Frontal sinus back table fractures are seen rarely; also, typical presentation of frontal sinus encephalocele as a delayed complication of frontal sinus fracture is seen more rarely. We present a case of frontal encephalocele and recurrent meningitis as delayed complications of craniofacial trauma. Diagnosis, management, and treatment approaches of these complications are discussed.

  9. Does the H Index Correlate With Academic Rank Among Full-Time Academic Craniofacial Surgeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Rada, Erin M; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Miller, Devin; Redett, Richard J; Kumar, Anand R

    To assess the relationship between the H index and the academic rank among full-time academic craniofacial surgeons. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic craniofacial surgeons. Data were compiled and analyzed at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital. The study sample included 127 full-time academic craniofacial surgeons. Overall, 89% were men, the mean number of years since completion of training was 16.2 ± 11.2 years. Most surgeons had a background in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Approximately 75% had completed formal fellowship training. The mean H index for the sample was 12.4 ± 9.9. The H index was strongly correlated with academic rank (r s = 0.62, p academic rank (coefficient = 0.33, p = 0.04). Among full-time academic craniofacial surgeons, the H index is strongly correlated with the academic rank. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. G-Protein α-Subunit Gsα Is Required for Craniofacial Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Lei

    Full Text Available The heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gsα couples receptors to activate adenylyl cyclase and is required for the intracellular cAMP response and protein kinase A (PKA activation. Gsα is ubiquitously expressed in many cell types; however, the role of Gsα in neural crest cells (NCCs remains unclear. Here we report that NCCs-specific Gsα knockout mice die within hours after birth and exhibit dramatic craniofacial malformations, including hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, cleft palate and craniofacial skeleton defects. Histological and anatomical analysis reveal that the cleft palate in Gsα knockout mice is a secondary defect resulting from craniofacial skeleton deficiencies. In Gsα knockout mice, the morphologies of NCCs-derived cranial nerves are normal, but the development of dorsal root and sympathetic ganglia are impaired. Furthermore, loss of Gsα in NCCs does not affect cranial NCCs migration or cell proliferation, but significantly accelerate osteochondrogenic differentiation. Taken together, our study suggests that Gsα is required for neural crest cells-derived craniofacial development.

  11. 78 FR 28234 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: St. Gregory Luxury Hotel & Suites, 2033 M Street NW...

  12. Using Zebrafish to Test the Genetic Basis of Human Craniofacial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, R Grecco; Eames, B Frank

    2017-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) opened an innovative and productive avenue to investigate the molecular basis of human craniofacial disease. However, GWASs identify candidate genes only; they do not prove that any particular one is the functional villain underlying disease or just an unlucky genomic bystander. Genetic manipulation of animal models is the best approach to reveal which genetic loci identified from human GWASs are functionally related to specific diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential of zebrafish to resolve which candidate genetic loci are mechanistic drivers of craniofacial diseases. Many anatomic, embryonic, and genetic features of craniofacial development are conserved among zebrafish and mammals, making zebrafish a good model of craniofacial diseases. Also, the ability to manipulate gene function in zebrafish was greatly expanded over the past 20 y, enabling systems such as Gateway Tol2 and CRISPR-Cas9 to test gain- and loss-of-function alleles identified from human GWASs in coding and noncoding regions of DNA. With the optimization of genetic editing methods, large numbers of candidate genes can be efficiently interrogated. Finding the functional villains that underlie diseases will permit new treatments and prevention strategies and will increase understanding of how gene pathways operate during normal development.

  13. Dental and orofacial mesenchymal stem cells in craniofacial regeneration: The prosthodontist's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Seagroves, Jackson T; Chen, Chider; Shah, Kumar; Aghaloo, Tara; Wu, Benjamin M; Bencharit, Sompop; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    Of the available regenerative treatment options, craniofacial tissue regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows promise. The ability of stem cells to produce multiple specialized cell types along with their extensive distribution in many adult tissues have made them an attractive target for applications in tissue engineering. MSCs reside in a wide spectrum of postnatal tissue types and have been successfully isolated from orofacial tissues. These dental- or orofacial-derived MSCs possess self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacities. The craniofacial system is composed of complex hard and soft tissues derived from sophisticated processes starting with embryonic development. Because of the complexity of the craniofacial tissues, the application of stem cells presents challenges in terms of the size, shape, and form of the engineered structures, the specialized final developed cells, and the modulation of timely blood supply while limiting inflammatory and immunological responses. The cell delivery vehicle has an important role in the in vivo performance of stem cells and could dictate the success of the regenerative therapy. Among the available hydrogel biomaterials for cell encapsulation, alginate-based hydrogels have shown promising results in biomedical applications. Alginate scaffolds encapsulating MSCs can provide a suitable microenvironment for cell viability and differentiation for tissue regeneration applications. This review aims to summarize current applications of dental-derived stem cell therapy and highlight the use of alginate-based hydrogels for applications in craniofacial tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Craniofacial Structures in Pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyllar, M.; Štembírek, Jan; Putnová, I.; Stehlík, L.; Odehnalová, S.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2014), s. 435-452 ISSN 0340-2096 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : craniofacial structures in pig Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.672, year: 2014

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea prevents the expected difference in craniofacial growth of boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Juliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It was to compare cephalometric measures of mouth-breather boys and girls and with the cephalometric pattern observed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients. METHODS: Craniofacial measurements of lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained from 144 children aged 7-14 years were compared between boys and girls, and both were compared to cephalometric pattern of OSAS patients. RESULTS: Mouth-breather boys and girls had no gender differences regarding to craniofacial morphology while nose-breather boys and girls showed those expected differences. Nose-breather boys presented a more retruded mandible and proinclined upper incisor when compared to nose-breather girls, but mouth-breather boys and girls had no differences. The measure NS.GoGn was the only variable with an interaction with gender and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: There were no cephalometric difference in mouth breather-boys and girls related to normal growth, suggesting that oral breathing make the same craniofacial morphology and both have craniofacial morphology close to that of OSAS patients.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; van Dijk, Monique; van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40 mg.kg(-1) paracetamol 2 h

  17. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Sandra A.; Van Dijk, Monique; Van Leeuwen, Pim; Searle, Susan; Anderson, Brian J.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    Background: The pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous and rectal paracetamol were compared in nonventilated infants after craniofacial surgery in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Methods: During surgery all infants (6 months-2 years) received a rectal loading dose of 40

  18. A radiographic study on craniofacial asymmetry by postero-anterior cephalometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jae Kyeung; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-11-15

    The purpose of this article was to determine the amount of cranio-facial asymmetry in normal subject before the analysis of the cranio-facial asymmetry as the result of internal derangement in T.M.J. dysfunction. The author has conducted analysis using Cephalometric P-A reviews of 54 males and 51 females. Following the Grayson's method of measurement, the standard value of cranio-facial asymmetry in normal subject was obtained. 1. Compared with right and left width, asymmetry could be identified in normal subject, although the degree of the difference appears to be small. 2. In male, asymmetric value of contact point of the upper central incisors is 0.76 {+-} 0.84 mm, that of the lower central incisors is 0.86 {+-} 0.86 mm, and that of center of genial tubercle is 0.87 {+-} 1.06 mm. In female, asymmetric value of contact point of the upper central incisors is 1.03 {+-} 1.29 mm, that of lower incisors is 1.11 {+-} 1.18 mm, and that of center of genial tubercle is 1.45 {+-} 2.15 mm. 3. Cranio-facial asymmetry in female is somewhat greater than that of male.

  19. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Otero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L Otero, L Quintero, D Champsaur, E SimancaPontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, ColombiaIntroduction: The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported.Patients and methods: The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives.Results: The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families.Conclusion: Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion.Keywords: inheritance, craniofacial, phenotype, class III malocclusion

  20. 3-D analysis of tooth formation and eruption in patients with craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Per; Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1996-01-01

    A number of craniofacial anomalies or syndromes involve severe disturbances of tooth formation and eruption (e.g. Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and cleft lip and palate). So far, studies of these dental problems have been limited to two...... method to the analysis of the complex dental problems found in some of the syndromes listed above....

  1. Orientation of craniofacial planes and temporomandibular disorder in young adults with normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancaglini, R; Colombo-Bolla, G; Gherlone, E F; Radaelli, G

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between orientation of craniofacial planes relative to the true horizontal and temporomandibular disorder (TMD), in normal occlusion. Fourteen university dental students, with full natural dentition and bilateral Angle Class I occlusion, who exhibited signs and symptoms of TMD, were compared with 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Frontal and lateral photographs were taken in natural head position with the subject standing up, clenching a Fox plane and having a facial arch positioned. Photographs were examined by a standardized image analysis. Inter-pupillary axis, Frankfurt, occlusal and Camper planes were evaluated. In frontal view, the Frankfurt plane was right rotated relative to the true horizontal both in TMD subjects (P occlusal plane. In lateral view, the Frankfurt plane was upward-orientated relative to the true horizontal in TMD group (mean angular deviation 2.8 degrees, 95% CI, 1.0-4.6 degrees ). The occlusal and Camper planes were downward-orientated in both groups (P occlusal plane tended to be smaller in TMD subjects (mean difference between groups, -3.8 degrees, 95% CI, -7.6-0.1 degrees ). Angles between any craniofacial planes did not significantly differ between groups. The findings show that in young adults with normal occlusion, a weak association exists between the orientation of craniofacial planes in natural head position and signs and symptoms of TMD. Furthermore, they suggest that, within this population, TMD might be mainly associated with head posture rather than with craniofacial morphology.

  2. Effects of manual therapy on craniofacial pain in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Sánchez, Roberto; González-Iglesias, Javier; Puente-González, Ana Silvia; Sánchez-Sánchez, Jose Luis; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is thought to develop through an inadequate drainage of nasal and sinus secretions and perpetuated by local mechanical and autonomic nervous system factors. Manual therapy may have an effect on these factors providing symptomatic relief of CRS symptoms. The purpose of this prospective case series was to report the results of manual therapy on a set of patients with craniofacial pain and a diagnosis of CRS. Fourteen consecutive patients presenting with a primary report of craniofacial pain and a diagnosis CRS completed self-report questionnaires including the Sinonasal Assessment Questionnaire, Rhinosinusitis Task Force, visual analog scale for craniofacial pain, and pressure pain threshold over 4 sinus points on the face. Patients were seen once a week for 7 consecutive weeks and completed all outcome measures at baseline and subsequent weekly sessions. They received manual therapy interventions only on the second, third, and fifth weekly sessions. No significant changes in outcome measures were observed from baseline to 1 week, where no intervention was applied. Significant improvements were observed on all outcome measures (Ps ≤ .015) for pre- and post-first treatment session, as well as from baseline to 7 weeks (Ps reported less severity of their symptoms. Patients with craniofacial pain and CRS who were treated with manual therapy demonstrated improvements in all outcome measures only after each treatment session. Our results suggest that manual therapy treatment could be considered as an appropriate alternative treatment of CRS. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 28031 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Review of R03 Applications for Mechanisms, Models... Research Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Review of Small Research Grants for Data Analysis and....121, Oral Diseases and Disorders Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: May 13, 2010...

  4. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  5. Craniofacial morphological characteristics of Chinese adults with normal occlusion and different skeletal divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Danna; Gao, Hui; Ren, Yijin

    The aim of the present study was to examine the craniofacial morphologic characteristics of different vertical dysplasias in a population of Chinese adults with normal occlusion. Sixty-nine subjects (39 males and 30 females) were selected from 800 healthy students between 18 and 24 years of age.

  6. Craniofacial dysostosis. Staging of reconstruction and management of the midface deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnick, J C

    1991-07-01

    Crouzon's and Apert's syndromes are the most common of the craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. A team approach is required to achieve effective patient management. The team evaluation begins shortly after birth and follows the patient through infancy, childhood, and adolescence into early adulthood. The role of each team member varies according to the patient's age and individual circumstances. For example, in infancy and early childhood, constant combined reassessment by the pediatrician, neurosurgeon, ophthalmologist, neuroradiologist, and craniofacial surgeon is essential. Later in adolescence, the role of the ophthalmologist, neuroradiologist, and neurosurgeon becomes less important, whereas that of the orthodontist, speech pathologist, maxillofacial surgeon, and psychosocial team becomes more dominant. Major craniofacial centers should be encouraged to develop protocols for patient management and to follow a consistent prospective process of collecting data. Meeting these objectives allows us to learn from the past. During the past decade since the introduction of the modern era of craniofacial surgery by Tessier in 1967, craniomaxillofacial surgery has advanced in many ways: through the use of autogenous cranial bone grafts for onlay or interpositional use; refinements in bone stabilization techniques that include miniplate and microplate and screw fixation rather than direct wires; the reintroduction of creative osteotomies for the management of midface deficiency (monobloc and monobloc bipartition); the development of CT scanning techniques applied to the craniofacial skeleton for both qualitative and quantitative measurement; and the presence of the dedicated craniofacial anesthetist whose meticulous monitoring, airway management, and fluid replacement allows for the safe execution of complex total midface osteotomies. The recognition of the need for a staged surgical approach to the correction of the deformities caused by Apert's and Crouzon's syndromes

  7. Craniofacial anomalies associated with hypospadias. Description of a hospital based population in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fernandez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penis, in which there is incomplete development of the distal urethra. There are numerous reports showing an increase of prevalence of hypospadias. Association of craniofacial malformations in patients diagnosed with hypospadias is rare. The aim of this study is to describe the association between hypospadias and craniofacial congenital anomalies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the Latin-American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC data was performed between January 1982 and December 2011. We included children diagnosed with associated hypospadias and among them we selected those that were associated with any craniofacial congenital anomaly. Results: Global prevalence was 11.3 per 10.000 newborns. In this population a total of 809 patients with 1117 associated anomalies were identified. On average there were 1.7 anomalies per patient. Facial anomalies were present in 13.2%. The most commonly major facial anomaly associated to hypospadias was cleft lip/palate with 52 cases. We identified that 18% have an association with other anomalies, and found an association between craniofacial anomalies and hypospadias in 0.59 cases/10.000 newborns. Discussion: Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly affecting the genitals. Its association with other anomalies is rare. It has been reported that other malformations occur in 29.3% of the cases with hypospadias. The more proximal the meatus, the higher the risk for having another associated anomaly. Conclusion: Associated hypospadias are rare, and it is important to identify the concurrent occurrence of craniofacial anomalies to better treat patients that might need a multidisciplinary approach.

  8. Craniofacial anomalies associated with hypospadias. Description of a hospital based population in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nicolas; Escobar, Rebeca; Zarante, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital abnormality of the penis, in which there is incomplete development of the distal urethra. There are numerous reports showing na increase of prevalence of hypospadias. Association of craniofacial malformations in patients diagnosed with hypospadias is rare. The aim of this study is to describe the association between hypospadias and craniofacial congenital anomalies. A retrospective review of the Latin-American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC) data was performed between January 1982 and December 2011. We included children diagnosed with associated hypospadias and among them we selected those that were associated with any craniofacial congenital anomaly. Global prevalence was 11.3 per 10.000 newborns. In this population a total of 809 patients with 1117 associated anomalies were identified. On average there were 1.7 anomalies per patient. Facial anomalies were present in 13.2%. The most commonly major facial anomaly associated to hypospadias was cleft lip/palate with 52 cases. We identified that 18% have an association with other anomalies, and found an association between craniofacial anomalies and hypospadias in 0.59 cases/10.000 newborns. Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly affecting the genitals. Its association with other anomalies is rare. It has been reported that other malformations occur in 29.3% of the cases with hypospadias. The more proximal the meatus, the higher the risk for having another associated anomaly. Associated hypospadias are rare, and it is important to identify the concurrent occurrence of craniofacial anomalies to better treat patients that might need a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  9. Ellis Van Creveld2 is Required for Postnatal Craniofacial Bone Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Mohammed K; Zhang, Honghao; Ohyama, Yoshio; Venkitapathi, Sundharamani; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Haruko; Ray, Manas; Scott, Greg; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji; Mochida, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a genetic disorder with mutations in either EVC or EVC2 gene. Previous case studies reported that EvC patients underwent orthodontic treatment, suggesting the presence of craniofacial bone phenotypes. To investigate whether a mutation in EVC2 gene causes a craniofacial bone phenotype, Evc2 knockout (KO) mice were generated and cephalometric analysis was performed. The heads of wild type (WT), heterozygous (Het) and homozygous Evc2 KO mice (1-, 3-, and 6-week-old) were prepared and cephalometric analysis based on the selected reference points on lateral X-ray radiographs was performed. The linear and angular bone measurements were then calculated, compared between WT, Het and KO and statistically analyzed at each time point. Our data showed that length of craniofacial bones in KO was significantly lowered by ∼20% to that of WT and Het, the growth of certain bones, including nasal bone, palatal length, and premaxilla was more affected in KO, and the reduction in these bone length was more significantly enhanced at later postnatal time points (3 and 6 weeks) than early time point (1 week). Furthermore, bone-to-bone relationship to cranial base and cranial vault in KO was remarkably changed, i.e. cranial vault and nasal bone were depressed and premaxilla and mandible were developed in a more ventral direction. Our study was the first to show the cause-effect relationship between Evc2 deficiency and craniofacial defects in EvC syndrome, demonstrating that Evc2 is required for craniofacial bone development and its deficiency leads to specific facial bone growth defect. Anat Rec, 299:1110-1120, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

    2014-12-01

    Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cranio-facial remodeling in domestic dogs is associated with changes in larynx position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotsky, Kyle; Rendall, Drew; Chase, Kevin; Riede, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The hyo-laryngeal complex is a multi-segmented structure integrating the oral and pharyngeal cavities and thus a variety of critical functions related to airway control, feeding, and vocal communication. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how the hyoid complex, and the functions it mediates, can also be affected by changes in surrounding cranio-facial dimensions. Here, we explore these relationships in a breed of domestic dog, the Portuguese Water Dog, which is characterized by strong cranio-facial variation. We used radiographic images of the upper body and head of 55 adult males and 51 adult females to obtain detailed measures of cranio-facial variation and hyoid anatomy. Principal components analysis revealed multiple orthogonal dimensions of cranio-facial variation, some of which were associated with significant differences in larynx position: the larynx occupied a more descended position in individuals with shorter, broader faces than in those with longer, narrower faces. We then tested the possibility that caudal displacement of the larynx in brachycephalic individuals might reflect a degree of tongue crowding resulting from facial shortening and reduction of oral and pharyngeal spaces. A cadaver sample was used to obtain detailed measurements of constituent bones of the hyoid skeleton and of the tongue body, and their relationships to cranio-facial size and shape and overall body size supported the tongue-crowding hypothesis. Considering the presence of descended larynges in numerous mammalian taxa, our findings establish an important precedent for the possibility that laryngeal descent can be initiated, and even sustained, in part in response to remodeling of the face and cranium for selective pressures unrelated to vocal production. These integrated changes could also have been involved in hominin evolution, where the different laryngeal positions in modern humans compared with nonhuman primates have been traditionally linked to the evolution

  12. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...

  13. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  14. Anthropometry at birth as a strong determinant factor of young women bone status: influence of high-level physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffré, Christelle; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the influence of anthropometry at birth on bone status and physical activity aptitudes of adult women. Our population was composed of 70 women (17-29 years): 40 athletes and 30 controls. Athletes participated in various long-lasting and high-level weight-bearing sports (10.2 ± 2.2h ours/week). Birth weight and height were collected. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA, at whole body, lumbar spine, non dominant femur (total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN)) and tibia. The Hip Structural Analysis software was applied to assess cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cortical thickness of three regions of the proximal femur: intertrochanter, narrow neck and femoral shaft. BMD and HSA measurements at all sites were significantly higher in athletes versus controls, as well as birth height (P = 0.009) and weight (P = 0.02). For the whole population, we found significant positive correlations between birth weight and BMDs (0.30 anthropometry, which can be used to predict fracture risk in later life. Predisposition to practice a weight-bearing sport could be related to the greater birth anthropometry described in athletes. The benefits of birth anthropometry on adult bone status appear to be maintained by sports. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Pre-Ramadan Education on Dietary Intake and Anthropometry-Comparison Between Two Groups of Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencharif Meriem

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Fasting of Ramadan leads to changes in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep and time of drug intake for diabetics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-Ramadan education on dietary intake and anthropometry of two groups of patients.

  16. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using.......001) and VAT% in boys (R2=16.4%, PAnthropometry and circulating leptin are valid markers of SAT%, but not of VAT%....

  17. Intraflagellar transport 88 (IFT88) is crucial for craniofacial development in mice and is a candidate gene for human cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Feng, Jifan; Li, Jingyuan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Yang; Brindopke, Frederick; Figueiredo, Jane C; Magee, William; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Chai, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Ciliopathies are pleiotropic human diseases resulting from defects of the primary cilium, and these patients often have cleft lip and palate. IFT88 is required for the assembly and function of the primary cilia, which mediate the activity of key developmental signaling pathways. Through whole exome sequencing of a family of three affected siblings with isolated cleft lip and palate, we discovered that they share a novel missense mutation in IFT88 (c.915G > C, p.E305D), suggesting this gene should be considered a candidate for isolated orofacial clefting. In order to evaluate the function of IFT88 in regulating craniofacial development, we generated Wnt1-Cre;Ift88fl/fl mice to eliminate Ift88 specifically in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. Wnt1-Cre;Ift88fl/flpups died at birth due to severe craniofacial defects including bilateral cleft lip and palate and tongue agenesis, following the loss of the primary cilia in the CNC-derived palatal mesenchyme. Loss of Ift88 also resulted in a decrease in neural crest cell proliferation during early stages of palatogenesis as well as a downregulation of the Shh signaling pathway in the palatal mesenchyme. Importantly, Osr2KI-Cre;Ift88fl/flmice, in which Ift88 is lost specifically in the palatal mesenchyme, exhibit isolated cleft palate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IFT88 has a highly conserved function within the primary cilia of the CNC-derived mesenchyme in the lip and palate region in mice and is a strong candidate as an orofacial clefting gene in humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Association between anthropometry-based nutritional status and malaria: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Efrem d'Avila; Alexandre, Márcia A; Salinas, Jorge L; de Siqueira, André M; Benzecry, Silvana G; de Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2015-09-17

    Multiple studies in various parts of the world have analysed the association of nutritional status on malaria using anthropometric measures, but results differ due to the heterogeneity of the study population, species of the parasite, and other factors involved in the host and parasite relationship. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on the inter-relationship of nutritional status based on anthropometry and malarial infection. Two independent reviewers accessed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases using the same search terms related to malaria and anthropometry. Prospective studies associating anthropometry and malaria (incidence or severity) were selected. References from the included studies and reviews were used to increase the review sensitivity. Data were extracted using a standardized form and the quality of the prospective studies was assessed. Selected articles were grouped based on exposures and outcomes. The search identified a total of 1688 studies: 1629 from MEDLINE and 59 from LILACS. A total of 23 met the inclusion criteria. Five additional studies were detected by reading the references of the 23 included studies and reviews, totaling 28 studies included. The mean sample size was 662.1 people, ranging from 57 to 5620. The mean follow-up was 365.8 days, ranging from 14 days to 1 year and 9 months, and nine studies did not report the follow-up period. Prospective studies assessing the relationship between malaria and malnutrition were mostly carried out in Africa. Of the 20 studies with malarial outcomes, fifteen had high and five had average quality, with an average score of 80.5 %. Most anthropometric parameters had no association with malaria incidence (47/52; 90.4 %) or parasite density (20/25; 80 %). However, the impact of malnutrition was noted in malaria mortality and severity (7/17; 41.2 %). Regarding the effects of malaria on malnutrition, malaria was associated with very few anthropometric parameters (8/39; 20.6

  19. Evaluation of the Indonesian National Standard for elementary school furniture based on children's anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto; Lu, Chih-Wei; Lu, Jun-Ming

    2017-07-01

    In Indonesia, National Standardization Agency of Indonesia issued the Indonesian National Standard SNI 12-1015-1989 and SNI 12-1016-1989 to define the type of furniture dimensions that should be used by children in the elementary school level. This study aims to examine whether the current national standards for elementary school furniture dimensions issued by National Standardization Agency of Indonesia match the up-to-date Indonesian children's anthropometry. Two types of school furniture, small type (Type I, for grade 1-3) and large type (Type II, for grade 4-6), were evaluated in terms of seat height, seat depth, seat width and backrest height of a chair as well as the height and underneath height of a desk. 1146 students aged between 6 and 12 years old participated in the study. Seven anthropometric measurements were taken including stature, sitting shoulder height, sitting elbow height, popliteal height, buttock-popliteal length, knee height and hip breadth. Based on the standard school furniture dimensions and students' body dimensions, numbers of matches and mismatches between them were computed. Results indicated a substantial degree of mismatch between children's anthropometry and the standard dimensions of school furniture. The standard seat height was not appropriate for students among different grades with the mismatch percentage ranging from 63.4% to 96.7% for Type I and 72.7% to 99.0% for Type II. For desk height, the standard dimensions were not appropriate for students among different grades with the mismatch percentage ranging from 32.3% to 88.9% for Type I and 67.7% to 99.0% for Type II. Apparently, the current standards are out of date and need to be updated. Four different sizes of school furniture were hence proposed to accommodate the variation in students' anthropometry from Grade 1 to Grade 6. The proposed standard dimensions (PrS) of school furniture cover a slightly broader range of age and present a higher cumulative fit than the current

  20. The effects of foot morphology and anthropometry on unipodal postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica C. Alonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The maintenance of posture is a constant challenge for the body, as it requires rapid and accurate responses to unforeseen disturbances, which are needed to prevent falls and maintain balance. The purpose of the present study was to compare different types of plantar arch in relation to postural balance, and analyze the relationships between variations the plantar arch and anthropometric characteristics of the feet with unipedal static balance. We evaluated 100 men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, to determine anthropometry and posturography with a force platform. There was a weak correlation between plantar arches and anthropometric measurements and postural balance, except for the length of the male foot, which showed a correlation between increased size and poorer static balance. We conclude that the type of plantar arch does not influence postural balance, and of the anthropometric factors, only foot length was related to postural balance.

  1. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-01-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5...... regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings...... that female elite TH players during competitive games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions...

  2. Technical match characteristics and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in male elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball...... players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light...... tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21...

  3. Virtual forensic anthropology: Novel applications of anthropometry and technology in a child death case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy-Jow, Stephanie Lynn; Lees, Duncan M B; Russell, Sean

    2013-01-10

    Full-body 3D virtual reconstructions were generated using 3D technology and anthropometry following the death of a young girl, allegedly from severe malnutrition as a result of abuse and neglect. Close range laser scanning, in conjunction with full colour digital texture photography, was used to document the child's condition shortly after death in order to demonstrate the number and pattern of injuries and to be able to demonstrate her condition forensically. Full-body digital reconstructions were undertaken to illustrate the extent of the malnutrition by comparing the processed post mortem scans with reconstructed images at normal weight for height and age. This is the first known instance of such an investigative tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    . The aim was to investigate if maternal anthropometry was associated with the content of the FAA glutamic acid or glutamine in breast milk and if there was a negative association between these FAA and current size or early infant growth in fully breastfed infants. Methods: From a subgroup of 78 mothers......, of which 50 were fully breast feeding, from the Odense Child Cohort breast milk samples were collected 4 months after birth and analyzed for FAA. Information regarding breastfeeding status and infant weight and length was also recorded. Results: There was a large variation in the concentration of the FAAs.......013) but the correlation was attenuated when controlling for birth length (p = 0.089). Conclusions: The hypothesis that a high content of glutamic acid and glutamine in breast milk could downregulate milk intake to a degree affecting early growth could not be confirmed. Maternal factors associated with the level...

  5. Distal deletion at 22q11.2 as differential diagnosis in Craniofacial Microsomia: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli-Silva, Samira; Bispo, Luciana M; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L; Vieira, Társis P

    2017-12-27

    Craniofacial Microsomia (CFM) also known as Oculo-auriculo-vertebral Spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar Syndrome, presents wide phenotypic and etiological heterogeneity. It affects mainly the structures originated from the first and second pharyngeal arches. In addition, other major anomalies may also be found, including congenital heart diseases. In this study, we report a patient with distal deletion in the 22q11.2 region and a phenotype which resembles CFM. The proband is a girl, who presented bilateral preauricular tags, left auditory canal stenosis, malar hypoplasia, cleft lip and palate, mild asymmetry of soft tissue in face, congenital heart disease, intestinal atresia, annular pancreas and hydronephrosis. The genomic imbalances investigation by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) revealed a distal deletion of 1,048 kb at 22q11.2 encompassing the region from Low Copy Repeats (LCRs) D to E. We did review of the literature and genotype-phenotype correlation. This is the sixth case of distal 22q11.2 deletion resembling CFM and the second encompassing the region between LCRs D to E. All cases share some phenotypic signs, such as preauricular tags, facial asymmetry, cleft lip and palate, and congenital heart diseases. Candidate genes in this region have been studied by having an important role in pharyngeal arches developmental and in congenital heart diseases, such as HIC2, YPEL1and MAPK1/ERK2. This case corroborates the phenotypic similarity between 22q11.2 distal deletion and CFM/OAVS. It also contributes to genotype-phenotype correlation and reinforces that candidate genes for CFM, in the 22q11.2 region, might be located between LCRs D and E. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative age effect on anthropometry, biological maturation and performance of young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Matta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p257   The study examined the presence of the relative age effect (RAE and association between birth quartile and anthropometry, biological maturation and physical and technical performance of young Brazilian soccer players. The sample included 119 male players, 74 of U-15 category and 45 of U-17 category, which were divided into quartiles according to the birth year. Biological maturation was assessed using the method of skeletal age of Fels. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, stature and subcutaneous adiposity. Physical fitness assessment included strength tests in the lower limbs, speed, aerobic endurance and anaerobic power. Technical skills included ball control, dribbling and kicking accuracy. Overall, 65.5% of soccer players were born on the first half of the year (c2= 8.069, p = 0.04; however, in the analysis by category, there was no significant difference in the distribution of birth dates for quartile when compared with the reference population (U-15: c2=6.322, p=0.10; U-17: c2=2.339, p=0.50. MANCOVA revealed no significant differences between anthropometry, biological maturation and physical and technical performance in both competitive categories. These results suggest that there is a higher proportion of young Brazilian soccer born on the first months of the year, but that RAE does not necessarily constitute an advantage under the anthropometric, physical and technical standpoint. The process of biological maturation of individuals should be considered by coaches in the selection of athletes.

  7. Young children's screen activities, sweet drink consumption and anthropometry: results from a prospective European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, S; Berg, C; Eiben, G; Lanfer, A; Reisch, L; Ahrens, W; Kourides, Y; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Siani, A; Veidebaum, T; Lissner, L

    2014-02-01

    This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children's screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. The study is a part of the prospective cohort study IDEFICS ("Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants"), investigating diet, lifestyle and social determinants of obesity in 2 to 9-year-olds in eight European countries (baseline n=16,225, two-year follow-up; n=11,038). Anthropometry was objectively measured, and behaviours were parent-reported. The main hypothesis was supported, but the second hypothesis was not confirmed. The odds ratio of being in the highest quintile of % change in WHtR was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17-1.36) and in BMI 1.22 (95% CI: 1.13-1.31), for each hour per day watching television. The odds ratio of having increased SSB consumption was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.29) for each hour per day watching TV. The associations for total screen time were slightly weaker. The results indicate substantial effects of TV viewing and other screen activities for young children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group.

  8. Comparisons of foot anthropometry and plantar arch indices between German and Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Isabel C N; Onodera, Andrea N; Bosch, Kerstin; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2015-02-12

    Nowadays, trades and research have become closely related between different countries and anthropometric data are important for the development in global markets. The appropriate use of anthropometry may improve wellbeing, health, comfort and safety especially for footwear design. For children a proper fit of footwear is very important, not constraining foot growth and allowing a normal development. The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics of German and Brazilian children's feet from 3 to 10 years of age. We compared five indirect measures of two databases of children's feet. Forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot widths were measured in static footprints and the Chippaux-Smirak and Staheli indices of the longitudinal arch were calculated. Brazilian children showed a significantly narrower forefoot from 5 to 10 years, wider rearfoot from 3 to 4 years, wider midfoot for 4 year-olds and narrower midfoot for 10 year-old children. Nevertheless, the Chippaux-Smirak and Staheli indices showed no group differences. The only exception was for 4 year-old Brazilian children who showed a higher Chippaux-Smirak index compared to German children (48.4 ± 17.7%; 42.1 ± 13.8%). Our study revealed anthropometric differences in absolute forefoot and rearfoot widths of German and Brazilian children, but a similar longitudinal arch development. At 4 years of age, Brazilian children present a foot anthropometry similar to the 3 year-olds and develop the plantar longitudinal arch from 4 to 5 years more rapidly when compared to German children.

  9. Quantification of ln-Flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Amick, R.; Rajulu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data to assess the impact of changes in body shape and size. For developing future planetary and reduced-gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry and body posture to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain data on these changes, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for preflight, in-flight, and post-flight conditions needs to be collected. Once these data have been collected, pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight anthropometric values will be compared, yielding microgravity factors. The neutral body posture (NBP) will also be measured, to determine body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress but has been completed for 6 out of 9 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes were collected during Skylab 4, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle mission STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab 4, ASTP, and the STS-57 studies found that, according to photographs, a distinct NBP exists. The still photographs showed a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulders abducted; in addition, the knees are flexed, with noticeable hip flexion, and the foot

  10. Tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology in pre-orthodontic children with and without morphological deviations in the upper cervical spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemi, Ashkan; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze differences in prevalence and pattern of tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology between non syndromic children with tooth agenesis with and without upper cervical spine morphological deviations and to analyze associations between craniofacial morphology and tooth agenesis...... in the two groups together. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six pre-orthodontic children with tooth agenesis were divided into two groups with (19 children, mean age 11.9) and without (107 children, mean age 11.4) upper spine morphological deviations. Visual assessment of upper spine morphology...... and measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on lateral cephalograms. Tooth agenesis was evaluated from orthopantomograms. RESULTS: No significant differences in tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology were found between children with and without upper spine morphological deviations (2.2 ± 1.6 vs...

  11. Long-term oral-appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea : A cephalometric study of craniofacial changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Hoekema, A.; Pruim, G. J.; Slater, J. J. R. Huddleston; Stegenga, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized controlled study was to cephalometrically assess possible changes in craniofacial morphology associated with long term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep

  12. Three-dimensional image display by CT data processing and clinical applications in orthopaedics and craniofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonneveld, F.W.; Akkerveeken, P.F. van; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of generating three-dimensional images from two-dimensional CT data are described. Four cases are reported explaining its use in the planning of orthopaedic and craniofacial surgery. (orig.) [de

  13. A PCA-Based method for determining craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism of facial shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Wuyang; Zhou, Mingquan; Maddock, Steve; He, Taiping; Wang, Xingce; Deng, Qingqiong

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have used principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the craniofacial relationship, as well as sex determination using facial factors. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which the choice of principal components (PCs) affects the analysis of craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism. In this paper, we propose a PCA-based method for visual and quantitative analysis, using 140 samples of 3D heads (70 male and 70 female), produced from computed tomography (CT) images. There are two parts to the method. First, skull and facial landmarks are manually marked to guide the model's registration so that dense corresponding vertices occupy the same relative position in every sample. Statistical shape spaces of the skull and face in dense corresponding vertices are constructed using PCA. Variations in these vertices, captured in every principal component (PC), are visualized to observe shape variability. The correlations of skull- and face-based PC scores are analysed, and linear regression is used to fit the craniofacial relationship. We compute the PC coefficients of a face based on this craniofacial relationship and the PC scores of a skull, and apply the coefficients to estimate a 3D face for the skull. To evaluate the accuracy of the computed craniofacial relationship, the mean and standard deviation of every vertex between the two models are computed, where these models are reconstructed using real PC scores and coefficients. Second, each PC in facial space is analysed for sex determination, for which support vector machines (SVMs) are used. We examined the correlation between PCs and sex, and explored the extent to which the choice of PCs affects the expression of sexual dimorphism. Our results suggest that skull- and face-based PCs can be used to describe the craniofacial relationship and that the accuracy of the method can be improved by using an increased number of face-based PCs. The results show that the accuracy of

  14. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  15. Developmental orofacial deficits associated with multimodal cancer therapy: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, R.J.; Neuman, P.; Spalding, P.; Novak, L.; Strandjord, S.; Coccia, P.F.

    1989-09-01

    Multimodal cancer therapy for pediatric head and neck tumors may be associated with significant developmental orofacial morbidity. This report details these effects in a child (C.I.) diagnosed at 2.5 years of age with a rhabdomyosarcoma, primary to the left buccinator. This case is of interest as C.I. has an unaffected identical twin (D.I.) for comparative study. Both were assessed by comparing panoramic radiographs and lateral and frontal tracings of cephalometric radiographs obtained at 8.25 years of age. C.I. had multiple dental anomalies which included agenesis, ectopia, crown malformation, and root malformation. Root malformation, ectopia, and agenesis were restricted to the left dentition, whereas crown malformation was noted bilaterally. C.I. had a generalized craniofacial skeletal hypoplasia relative to D.I. in all three planes, growth defects were greater on the side of the tumor, and the mandible was affected more than the nasomaxillary complex.

  16. Neural crest cells: from developmental biology to clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotent cells, which are specified in embryonic ectoderm in the border of neural plate and epiderm during early development by interconnection of extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors. Neural crest cells are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous cells, which supports their promise for cell therapy. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of wide aspects of neural crest cells from their developmental biology to applicability in medical research. We provide a simplified model of neural crest cell development and highlight the key external stimuli and intrinsic regulators that determine the neural crest cell fate. Defects of neural crest cell development leading to several human disorders are also mentioned, with the emphasis of using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model neurocristopathic syndromes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Developmental orofacial deficits associated with multimodal cancer therapy: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, R.J.; Neuman, P.; Spalding, P.; Novak, L.; Strandjord, S.; Coccia, P.F.

    1989-01-01

    Multimodal cancer therapy for pediatric head and neck tumors may be associated with significant developmental orofacial morbidity. This report details these effects in a child (C.I.) diagnosed at 2.5 years of age with a rhabdomyosarcoma, primary to the left buccinator. This case is of interest as C.I. has an unaffected identical twin (D.I.) for comparative study. Both were assessed by comparing panoramic radiographs and lateral and frontal tracings of cephalometric radiographs obtained at 8.25 years of age. C.I. had multiple dental anomalies which included agenesis, ectopia, crown malformation, and root malformation. Root malformation, ectopia, and agenesis were restricted to the left dentition, whereas crown malformation was noted bilaterally. C.I. had a generalized craniofacial skeletal hypoplasia relative to D.I. in all three planes, growth defects were greater on the side of the tumor, and the mandible was affected more than the nasomaxillary complex

  18. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival.

  19. Postoperative assessment of surgical results using three dimensional surface reconstruction CT (3D-CT) in a craniofacial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jiro; Sato, Kaoru; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Takashi; Fujioka, Mutsuhisa; Akagawa, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    In 1983, Michael W. Vannier and Jeffrey L. Marsh developed a computer method that reconstructs three dimensional (3D) born and soft tissue surfaces, given a high resolution CT scan-series of the facial skeleton. This method has been applied to craniofacial anomalies, basal encephaloceles, and musculoskeletal anomalies. In this study, a postoperative assessment of the craniofacial surgical results has been accomplished using this 3D-CT in 2 children with craniofacial dysmorphism. The authors discuss the advantages of this 3D-CT imaging method in the postoperative assessments of craniofacial anomalies. Results are detailed in the following listing : 1) a postoperative 3D-CT reveals the anatomical details corrected by the craniofacial surgery more precisely and stereographically than conventional radiological methods ; 2) secondary changes of the cranium after the surgery, such as bony formation in the area of the osteotomy and postoperative asymmetric deformities, are detected early by the 3D-CT imaging technique, and, 3) 3D-CT mid-sagittal and top axial views of the intracranial skull base are most useful in postoperative assessments of the surgical results. Basesd on our experience, we expect that three dimensional surface reconstructions from CT scans will become to be used widely in the postoperative assessments of the surgical results of craniofacial anomalies. (author)

  20. Dicer activity in neural crest cells is essential for craniofacial organogenesis and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuguang; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression during numerous biological/pathological processes. Dicer encodes an RNase III endonuclease that is essential for generating most, if not all, functional miRNAs. In this work, we applied a conditional gene inactivation approach to examine the function of Dicer during neural crest cell (NCC) development. Mice with NCC-specific inactivation of Dicer died perinatally. Cranial and cardiac NCC migration into target tissues was not affected by Dicer disruption, but their subsequent development was disturbed. NCC derivatives and their associated mesoderm-derived cells displayed massive apoptosis, leading to severe abnormalities during craniofacial morphogenesis and organogenesis. In addition, the 4th pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) remodeling was affected, resulting in interrupted aortic arch artery type B (IAA-B) in mutant animals. Taken together, our results show that Dicer activity in NCCs is essential for craniofacial development and pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis. PMID:21256960

  1. The slant of the forehead as a craniofacial feature of impulsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Guerrero-Apolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Impulsiveness has been the subject of much research, but little is known about the possible relationship between craniofacial anatomy and impulsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between one aspect of craniofacial structure (the angle of inclination of the forehead and impulsiveness. Method: Photographs in profile were obtained from 131 volunteers who had been fined for driving at high speed and were undergoing a court-mandated driving license point-recovery course. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P, and Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (V. The angle of the slant of the forehead was measured with a photographic support and a protractor. Results: High positive concordance was found between forehead inclination and 14 out of the 15 impulsiveness factors studied. Conclusions: The angle of inclination of the forehead was significantly associated with self-reported impulsiveness in this sample of traffic violators.

  2. Craniofacial development: current concepts in the molecular basis of Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Daniel Richard; Tucker, Abigail S; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2013-07-01

    The human face and skull are an elegant example of the anatomical sophistication that results from the interplay between the molecular cascades and the tissue interactions that are necessary for the proper development of the craniofacial complex. When it fails to develop normally the consequences can have life-long implications for the biological, psychological, and aesthetic wellbeing of an affected person. Among the many syndromes that affect the region, understanding of the biology that underlies Treacher Collins syndrome has advanced in the last decade, particularly concerning the causative TCOF1 gene that encodes TREACLE protein, a serine/alanine-rich nucleolar phosphoprotein with an essential function during ribosome biogenesis in cranial neural crest cells. Abnormal growth and differentiation of these cells affect much of the craniofacial skeleton. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cephalometric radiography and computed tomography in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery. A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, J.; Friede, H.; Svendsen, P.; Aggeryd, J.; Lauritzen, C.; Moeller, M.; Andersson, H.; Johansson, B. (University of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1984-01-01

    Craniofacial growth after surgery in children is not completely understood. We have therefore formed a programme for pre- and postoperative studies with both roentgencephalometric- and computed tomographic investigations. This regimen results in overlapping information. Thus, an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods was made and exemplified in four patients. In our experience both cephalometry and CT are essential for the diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up of surgically treated children with craniofacial anomalies. To minimize the radiation doses and the diagnostic procedures which in these cases often includes general anesthesia, patients with isolated, asymmetrical conditions such as plagiocephaly, might be followed with CT only, since roentgencephalometry can not add much information.

  4. Cephalometric radiography and computed tomography in infants undergoing craniofacial surgery. A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, J.; Friede, H.; Svendsen, P.; Aggeryd, J.; Lauritzen, C.; Moeller, M.; Andersson, H.; Johansson, B. (University of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1983-01-01

    Craniofacial growth after surgery in children is not completely understood. We have therefore formed a programme for pre- and postoperative studies with both roentgencephalometric- and computed tomographic investigations. This regiment results in overlapping information. Thus, an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods was made and exemplified in four patients. In our experience both cephalometry and CT are essential for the diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up of surgically treated children with craniofacial anomalies. To minimize the radiation doses and the diagnostic procedures which in these cases often includes general anesthesia, patients with isolated, asymmetrical conditions such as plagiocephaly, might be followed with CT only, since roentgencephalometry can not add much information.

  5. Craniofacial anomalies, humero-radial synostosis, rhizomelic limb shortness: previously unrecognized autosomal recessive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Teebi, Ahmad S

    2007-03-15

    Humero-radial synostosis (HRS) is a rare skeletal anomaly that might be seen in some craniosynostosis syndromes, notably Antley-Bixler syndrome, and in other disorders in association with skeletal anomalies. Here we report on two daughters of first cousin Saudi parents with syndromic HRS. Both patients had distinctive craniofacial features including cranium bifidum occultum, hypertelorism, epicanthus inversus, capillary hemangiomata, and malformed ears. Musculoskeletal examination revealed rhizomelic shortness with normal hands and feet. Skeletal survey showed bilateral HRS with no evidence of craniosynostosis. The craniofacial manifestations in these two patients do not match any of the syndromes known to be associated with HRS. We consider that the constellation is unique and apparently represents a previously unrecognized syndrome. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Early Craniofacial Morphology and Growth in Children With Nonsyndromic Robin Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Craniofacial morphology and growth comparisons in children with untreated nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS) and a control group with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL) in which the lip was surgically closed at 2 months of age. Material: The 52 children (7 RS and 45 UICL) included...... in the study were drawn from a group representing all Danish cleft children born 1976 through 1981. The ages of the children were 2 and 22 months at the time of examination 1 and 2, respectively. Method: The method of investigation was three-projection cephalometry. Craniofacial morphology was analyzed...... toward a more vertical growth direction was observed in the RS group. Conclusion: Facial morphology in children with RS differed significantly from that of children with UICL at both 2 and 22 months of age. The magnitude of facial growth was similar in the two groups, whereas a tendency toward a more...

  7. Evaluation of Craniofacial Morphology of Children with Dental Fluorosis in Early Permanent Dentition Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Methods Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and ...

  8. The Effect of Genetic and Environmental Factors on Craniofacial Complex: A Twin Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yelampalli Muralidhar Reddy; CAB Sreekanth; B Vishnuvardhan Reddy; B Lakshman Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Aim : The aim of the study was to determine the extent of genetic influence and environmental contribution to craniofacial growth and development. Materials and methods : A total of 15 pairs of twins were selected and divided into monozygotic (8) and dizygotic (7) with the help of DNA fingerprinting. Lateral cephalograms were taken. Linear measurements-anterior cranial base, posterior cranial base, anterior facial height, upper/lower anterior facial height, posterior facial height, mandibu...

  9. Study Of 50 Cases With Craniofacial Trauma Who Experienced Head Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mesgarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that cranial injuries associated with facial fractures may cause a great risk of mortality and neurological morbidity, which mainly occurs in young adults. Aims and objectives: Study of the features of facial injuries associated with head injuries, discussing the management options and detecting the outcomes following craniofacial trauma. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at Imam reza and Shohada Hospitals. Radiographs and hospital data of 50 patients with craniofacial trauma between January 2013 and December 2014, managed at the Oral and Maxillofacial surgery department were gathered and analyzed. Results: The greatest number of the patients had 20 to 50 years old (68% and most of them were male. (M/F ratio was 6.09:1. The most prevalent causes of the trauma in this study were the motor vehicle accidents (44% and falling from height (36%, respectively. The most common bone fracture among the patients was the zygomatic bone fx (38.2%. Among the symptoms which the patients presented, Loss of the consciousness (52% and headache (43% showed the highest prevalence. Compound depressed fractures, contusions and intracranial hematoma were the leading causes of the surgical intervention for intracranial lesions. A high number of patients who have died in this study had associated systemic injuries. Displaced facial bone fracture were the indications for operation in facial fractures. Conclusions: The majority of the patients with craniofacial trauma were the adult males and the leading cause of trauma were road traffic accidents. A high number of the patients had mild head injuries and required only a conservational therapy.     Keywords:  head injury; craniofacial trauma; facial fracture

  10. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendra, Prasad B; Mathew, Tony P; Agrawal, Amit; Sabharawal, Gagan

    2009-05-01

    Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79%) with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54%) followed by fall from height (30%). Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62%) followed by headache (33%). Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%). Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  11. Low-amplitude craniofacial EMG power spectral density and 3D muscle reconstruction from MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wiedemann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving EEG signal interpretation, specificity, and sensitivity is a primary focus of many current investigations, and the successful application of EEG signal processing methods requires a detailed knowledge of both the topography and frequency spectra of low-amplitude, high-frequency craniofacial EMG. This information remains limited in clinical research, and as such, there is no known reliable technique for the removal of these artifacts from EEG data. The results presented herein outline a preliminary investigation of craniofacial EMG high-frequency spectra and 3D MRI segmentation that offers insight into the development of an anatomically-realistic model for characterizing these effects. The data presented highlights the potential for confounding signal contribution from around 60 to 200 Hz, when observed in frequency space, from both low and high-amplitude EMG signals. This range directly overlaps that of both low γ (30-50 Hz and high γ (50-80 Hz waves, as defined traditionally in standatrd EEG measurements, and mainly with waves presented in dense-array EEG recordings. Likewise, average EMG amplitude comparisons from each condition highlights the similarities in signal contribution of low-activity muscular movements and resting, control conditions. In addition to the FFT analysis performed, 3D segmentation and reconstruction of the craniofacial muscles whose EMG signals were measured was successful. This recapitulation of the relevant EMG morphology is a crucial first step in developing an anatomical model for the isolation and removal of confounding low-amplitude craniofacial EMG signals from EEG data. Such a model may be eventually applied in a clinical setting to ultimately help to extend the use of EEG in various clinical roles.

  12. Severe craniofacial sclerosis with multiple anomalies in a boy and his mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Friedman, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A boy is described with severe hyperostosis of the cranium and facial bones, and many other abnormalities including macrocephaly, abnormal facies, cleft palate, conductive hearing loss, speech defect, dental and digital anomalies, delayed skeletal development, short fibulas, short stature of postnatal onset, cervical kyphosis, and progressive lumbar lordosis. His mother exhibited craniofacial sclerosis, similar dental defects, and mild osteopathia striata without other abnormalities. This family may represent a previously undescribed inherited syndrome with cranial sclerosis. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of associated craniofacial trauma in patients with head injuries: An experience with 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial fractures and concomitant cranial injuries carry the significant potential for mortality and neurological morbidity mainly in young adults. Aims and Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of head injuries and associated facial injuries, the management options and outcome following cranio-facial trauma. Methods: This retrospective review was performed at Justice K. S. Hegde Charitable Hospital, and associated A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. Following Ethical Committee approval, hospital charts and radiographs of 100 consecutive patients of cranio-facial trauma managed at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Neurosurgery between January 2004 and December 2004 were reviewed. Results: Majority of the patients were in the 2nd to 4th decade (79% with a male to female ratio of -8.09:1. Road traffic accidents were the common cause of craniofacial trauma in present study (54% followed by fall from height (30%. Loss of consciousness was the most common clinical symptom (62% followed by headache (33%. Zygoma was the most commonly fractured facial bone 48.2% (alone 21.2%, in combination 27.2%. Majority of patients had mild head injury and managed conservatively in present series. Causes of surgical intervention for intracranial lesions were compound depressed fracture, contusion and intracranial hematoma. Operative indications for facial fractures were displaced facial bone fractures. Major causes of mortality were associated systemic injuries. Conclusion: Adult males are the most common victims in craniofacial trauma, and road traffic accidents were responsible for the majority. Most of the patients sustained mild head injuries and were managed conservatively. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates was used for displaced facial bone fractures.

  14. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  15. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genomewide SNP analysis links PDGF receptor genes with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and –resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss- and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to

  16. Mitochondrial DNA and craniofacial covariability of Chad Basin females indicate past population events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Martin; Černý, Viktor; Brůžek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2008), s. 465-474 ISSN 1042-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : craniofacial morphology * mitochondrial DNA * sub - Saharan Africa * population history Sub ject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.976, year: 2008 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118903453/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

  17. Developing business opportunities from concept to end point for craniofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer A

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial surgeons repair a wide variety of soft and hard tissues that produce the clinical expertise to recognize the need for an improved device or novel regenerative stem cell or use of molecules that may dramatically change the way clinical care for improved patient outcomes. The business pathway to bring a concept to clinical care requires knowledge, mentoring, and a team of experts in business and patent law.

  18. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  19. 3D-Printing Technologies for Craniofacial Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Ethan L; Farris, Ashley L; Hung, Ben P; Dias, Miguel; Garcia, Juan R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Grayson, Warren L

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of craniofacial defects can present many challenges due to the variety of tissue-specific requirements and the complexity of anatomical structures in that region. 3D-printing technologies provide clinicians, engineers and scientists with the ability to create patient-specific solutions for craniofacial defects. Currently, there are three key strategies that utilize these technologies to restore both appearance and function to patients: rehabilitation, reconstruction and regeneration. In rehabilitation, 3D-printing can be used to create prostheses to replace or cover damaged tissues. Reconstruction, through plastic surgery, can also leverage 3D-printing technologies to create custom cutting guides, fixation devices, practice models and implanted medical devices to improve patient outcomes. Regeneration of tissue attempts to replace defects with biological materials. 3D-printing can be used to create either scaffolds or living, cellular constructs to signal tissue-forming cells to regenerate defect regions. By integrating these three approaches, 3D-printing technologies afford the opportunity to develop personalized treatment plans and design-driven manufacturing solutions to improve aesthetic and functional outcomes for patients with craniofacial defects.

  20. Decreasing the effective radiation dose in pediatric craniofacial CT by changing head position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Kuang, Anna A.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Selden, Nathan R.; Stevens, Donna M.; Bardo, Dianna M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Children are exposed to ionizing radiation during pre- and post-operative evaluation for craniofacial surgery. The primary purpose of the study was to decrease effective radiation dose while preserving the diagnostic quality of the study. In this prospective study 49 children were positioned during craniofacial CT (CFCT) imaging with their neck fully extended into an exaggerated sniff position, parallel to the CT gantry, to eliminate the majority of the cervical spine and the thyroid gland from radiation exposure. Image-quality and effective radiation dose comparisons were made retrospectively in age-matched controls (n = 49). When compared to CT scans reviewed retrospectively, the prospective examinations showed a statistically significant decrease in z-axis length by 16% (P < 0.0001) and delivered a reduced effective radiation dose by 18% (P < 0.0001). The subjective diagnostic quality of the exams performed in the prospective arm was maintained despite a slight decrease in the quality of the brain windows. There was statistically significant improvement in the quality of the bone windows and three-dimensional reconstructed images. Altering the position of the head by extending the neck during pediatric craniofacial CT imaging statistically reduces the effective radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic quality of the images. (orig.)

  1. Availability of cosmetic treatment using novel cosmetics-based material on patients with craniofacial concavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko

    2018-03-08

    Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Partnership of Medical Genetics and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery When Evaluating Craniofacial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    A medical geneticist who has an interest in craniofacial anomalies forms a natural partnership with an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, which facilitates patient care. Using complementary diagnostic and therapeutic skills, the search for a recognizable pattern can lead to a syndrome diagnosis. After the initial examination, there is usually genetic testing to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Once established, care coordination and genetic counseling can be provided for the parents and the patient. Enrolling the patient into a research study could be helpful to understand the diagnosis but, in some circumstances, might not have immediate clinical relevance. A multidisciplinary craniofacial team is generally necessary for long-term management. This article discusses illustrative patients evaluated from 2007 through 2011 with the senior oral and maxillofacial surgeon at the Massachusetts General Hospital (Leonard B. Kaban, DMD, MD). These include single patients with the Nablus mask-like facies syndrome and auriculo-condylar syndrome and a series of 20 patients with Gorlin syndrome followed by a multispecialty team. A successful collaboration between a medical geneticist and an oral and maxillofacial surgeon optimizes the treatment of patients with craniofacial anomalies. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral and craniofacial manifestations of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Elif Bahar; Koruyucu, Mine; Kürklü, Esma; Çifter, Muhsin; Gençay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Tüysüz, Beyhan

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this case series was to determine the oral, dental and craniofacial features of patients with EvC syndrome. Eight patients with EvC syndrome were enrolled. A complete family history, pedigree analysis, detailed medical history were collected. Findings of clinical examination, including craniofacial and orodental manifestations, and radiological investigations were thoroughly studied. All eight patients had characteristic face, hypertrophic frenulum, conical and peg-shaped teeth, hypodontia of deciduous and/or permanent teeth and also skeletal dysplasia, small chest, short stature and hypoplastic nails. Additionally dysmorphic filtrum, serrated appearance of gingiva, diastema, enamel hypoplasia, microdontia, taurodontism, single rooted permanent molar, delayed eruption and high caries rate were observed with varying degrees. Cephalometric evaluation revealed skeletal Class III growth pattern in four subjects and Class II growth pattern in one subject. Evaluation of craniofacial and orodental anomalies of EvC syndrome is required for accurate differential diagnosis from other congenital syndromes. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Craniofacial resection for tumors of paranasal sinuses involving the anterior skull base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burduk, Paweł K; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech; Dalke, Krzysztof; Beuth, Wojciech; Siedlecki, Zygmunt; Prywiński, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial resection is a treatment of choice for paranasal malignant and benign tumors invading the skull base. In this article the authors present the experience in craniofacial resection for malignant tumors invading the anterior skull base. The material consisted of four patients operated in the Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngology Oncology CM UMK between 2007 and 2010. The patients were treated for malignant neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses with anterior skull base involvement. THe age range of the group were between 60 and 75 years. Of these patients three were females and one male. We performed a lateral rhinotomy for laryngological acces for the tumor. The neurosurgeon performed anterior skull base osteotomy at and appropriate site above. The patients recovered uneventfully. The follow up period ranged between 13 and 42 months. The overall 3-year survival for all patients in our series was 66,6%. Combined craniofacial resection of tumors of the anterior skull base is an effective approach for the management of these pathologies. This type of approach in elderly patients over 70 years old could be associated with increased mortality and complications leading to poorer outcome.

  5. In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in Neural Crest-Derived Craniofacial Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Isaac, Juliane; Zah, Angela; Hwang, Joonsung; Berdal, Ariane; Lian, Jane B.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in DLX3 in humans lead to defects in craniofacial and appendicular bones, yet the in vivo activity related to Dlx3 function during normal skeletal development have not been fully elucidated. Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones development. At birth, mutant mice exhibit a normal overall positioning of the skull bones, but a change in the shape of the calvaria was observed. Molecular analysis of the genes affected in the frontal bones and mandibles from these mice identified several bone markers known to affect bone development, with a strong prediction for increased bone formation and mineralization in vivo. Interestingly, while a subset of these genes were similarly affected in frontal bones and mandibles (Sost, Mepe, Bglap, Alp, Ibsp, Agt), several genes, including Lect1 and Calca, were specifically affected in frontal bones. Consistent with these molecular alterations, cells isolated from the frontal bone of mutant mice exhibited increased differentiation and mineralization capacities ex vivo, supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells. However, adult mutant animals exhibited decreased bone mineral density in both mandibles and calvaria, as well as a significant increase in bone porosity. Together, these observations suggest that mature osteoblasts in the adult respond to signals that regulate adult bone mass and remodeling. This study provides new downstream targets for Dlx3 in craniofacial bone, and gives additional evidence of the complex regulation of bone formation and homeostasis in the adult skeleton. PMID:22886599

  6. A study of cephalometric appraisal of the inheritance of craniofacial pattern in Gorkhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta O

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic expression of biologic variability expressed in the craniofacial complex is influenced by constant interplay of heredity and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to observe the pattern of inheritance of cranio-facial complex in Gorkhas. Gorkhas are the original inhabitants of NEPAL in the slopes of HIMALAYAS and they generally marry strictly in their race. 76 individuals from 19 Gorkha families (son, daughter and both parents; were selected. Eight angular (saddle angle, articular angle, gonial angle, N-S-Gn, N-S-Go, SNA, SNB and ANB angles and four linear (anterior facial height, posterior facial height, overjet and overbite variables were measured from lateral head cephalograms and the values of the variables were evaluated and compared. It was found that the Inheritance of cranio facial pattern has shown significant coefficient of correlation from mother to offsprings for jarabak ratio, father to son for NS-Gn and NS-Go angle, father to daughter for articular and ANB angles. Different parts of craniofacial complex represents the resultant of morphology and size variation. Each one of these components are in turn influenced by many genetic and environmental factors.

  7. Ethnical evaluation of Bangladeshi young adults in terms of morphometrically-analyzed craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Md. Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric study for the craniofacial relations and variations in humans have long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological features of craniofacial skeleton in Bangladeshi young adults and to compare it with already reported standards for the Caucasian population as well as cephalometric values of other Indian races using Steiner′s reference norms. The study was conducted for 52 Bangladeshi young adults (27 male and 25 females, aged 21-27 years, having balanced and harmonious facial profiles, clinically acceptable occlusion with permanent dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms taken of these subjects were used for a series of morphometric analyses. Bangladeshi subjects were more protrusive skeletally and dentally than Caucasians. Furthermore, the mandibular plane angle was smaller in Bangladeshi subjects than in the Caucasians. Present results also suggest that the Astrics, Dravidians, and Armenoid who penetrated into Bengal in the early ages may have contributed substantially to the morphogenesis of craniofacial skeleton in the present Bengalis. The results of this study support the idea that a single standard of facial esthetics should not be applied to all racial and ethnic groups.

  8. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  9. Quantification of In-flight Physical Changes: Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Reid, C. R.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, NASA does not have sufficient in-flight anthropometric data gathered to assess the impact of physical body shape and size changes on suit sizing. For developing future planetary and reduced gravity suits, NASA needs to quantify the impacts of microgravity on anthropometry, body posture, and neutral body postures (NBP) to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort. To obtain these impacts, anthropometric data, circumference, length, height, breadth, and depth for body segments (i.e. chest, waist, bicep, thigh, calf) from astronauts for pre, in-, and postflight conditions needs to be collected. Once this data has been collected, a comparison between pre, in-, and postflight anthropometric values will be analyzed, yielding microgravity factors. The NBP will be used to determined body posture (joint angle) changes between subjects throughout the duration of a mission. Data collection, starting with Increments 37/38, is still in progress with the completion of 3 out of 12 subjects. NASA suit engineers and NASA's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Project Office have identified that suit fit in microgravity could become an issue. It has been noted that crewmembers often need to adjust their suit sizing once they are in orbit. This adjustment could be due to microgravity effects on anthropometry and postural changes, and is necessary to ensure optimal crew performance, fit, and comfort in space. To date, the only data collected to determine the effects of microgravity on physical human changes have been during Skylab, STS-57, and a recent HRP study on seated height changes due to spinal elongation (Spinal Elongation, Master Task List [MTL] #221). The Skylab and the STS-57 studies found that there is a distinct neutral body posture (NBP) based on photographs. The still photographs showed that there is a distinguishable posture with the arms raised and the shoulder abducted; and, in addition, the knees were flexed with noticeable hip flexion and the foot

  10. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P anthropometry, and body composition (P anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Methodology to Gather Seated Anthropometry in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program's Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is required to accommodate the full population range of crewmembers according to the anthropometry requirements stated in the Human-Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document (CxP70024). Seated height is one of many critical dimensions of importance to the CEV designers in determining the optimum seat configuration in the vehicle. Changes in seated height may have a large impact to the design, accommodation, and safety of the crewmembers. Seated height can change due to elongation of the spine when crewmembers are exposed to microgravity. Spinal elongation is the straightening of the natural curvature of the spine and the expansion of inter-vertebral disks. This straightening occurs due to fluid shifts in the body and the lack of compressive forces on the spinal vertebrae. Previous studies have shown that as the natural curvature of the spine straightens, an increase in overall height of 3% of stature occurs which has been the basis of the current HSIR requirements. However due to variations in the torso/leg ratio and impact of soft tissue, data is nonexistent as to how spinal elongation specifically affects the measurement of seated height. In order to obtain this data, an experiment was designed to collect spinal elongation data while in a seated posture in microgravity. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data that represents the amount of change that occurs in seated height due to spinal elongation in microgravity environments. Given the schedule and budget constraints of ISS and Shuttle missions and the uniqueness of the problem, a methodology had to be developed to ensure that the seated height measurements were accurately collected. Therefore, simulated microgravity evaluations were conducted to test the methodology and procedures of the experiment. This evaluation obtained seat pan pressure and seated height data to a) ensure that the lap restraint provided sufficient

  12. Age- and sex-related differences in the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of competitive taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis PT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1 Krzysztof Buśko,2 Filipe Manuel Clemente,3 Ioannis Tasiopoulos,1 Beat Knechtle4 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Nikaia, Greece; 2Department of Biomechanics, Institute of Sport-National Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland; 3School of Sport and Leisure, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Melgaço, Portugal; 4Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness have been shown to relate with taekwondo (TKD performance; however, little information is available on the variation of these fitness components by sex and age in athletes practicing this sport. The aim of the present study was to examine the anthropometry and neuromuscular fitness of TKD athletes by sex and age. A total of 393 athletes (7–48 years old, separated into six age groups (7–9, 10–11, 12–13, 14–17, 18–32, and 33+, were examined for anthropometry and performed a series of neuromuscular fitness tests (flexibility, agility, muscle power, and isometric strength. An age × sex interaction on body mass, body height, and body fat percentage (BF, p≤0.003, η2≥0.045, but not on body mass index (p=0.172, η2=0.020, was shown, where a larger increase in body mass and body height from 12–13 to 14–17 groups was observed in males than in females, and the sex difference in BF increased from 12–13 to 14–17 age group. An age × sex interaction on sit-and-reach (SAR test, mean power output in the Bosco test, and Abalakov jump (p≤0.038, η2≥0.031 was observed with larger differences between 12–13 and 18–32 groups in males than in females. In SAR, it was remarkable that the male athletes achieved similar scores as female athletes in the 18–32 group. An age × sex group interaction on measures of isometric muscle strength (right and left handgrip, trunk, and legs was also shown (p≤0.002, η2≥0.068, where larger differences in male than female athletes were

  13. Digital 2D-photogrammetry and direct anthropometry--a comparing study on test accomplishment and measurement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Gromberg, Christine; Schüler, Grit; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this methodological anthropometric study was to compare direct anthropometry and digital two-dimensional photogrammetry in 18 male and 27 female subjects, aged 24 to 65 years, from Potsdam, Germany. In view of the rising interest in reliable biometric kephalofacial data, we focussed on head and face measurements. Out of 34 classic facial anatomical landmarks, 27 landmarks were investigated both by direct anthropometry and 2D-photogrammetry; 7 landmarks could not be localized by 2D-photogrammetry. Twenty-six kephalofacial distances were analysed both by direct anthropometry and digital 2D-photogrammetry. Kephalofacial distances are on average 7.6% shorter when obtained by direct anthropometry. The difference between the two techniques is particularly evident in total head height (vertex-gnathion) due to the fact that vertex is usually covered by hair and escapes from photogrammetry. Also the distances photographic sellion-gnathion (1.3 cm, i. e. 11.6%) and nasal-gnathion (1.2 cm, i. e. 9.4%) differ by more than one centimetre. Differences below 0.5 cm between the two techniques were found when measuring mucosa-lip-height (2.2%), gonia (3.0%), glabella-stomion (3.9%), and nose height (glabella-subnasal) (4.0%). Only the estimates of forehead width were significantly narrower when obtained by 2D-photogrammetry (-1.4 cm, -13.1%). The methodological differences increased with increasing magnitude of the kephalometric distance. Apart from these limitations, both techniques are similarly valid and may replace each other.

  14. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a s...

  16. New values anthropometry for classification of nutritional status in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Rodrigues, R A; Martinez Espinosa, M; Duarte Melo, C; Rodrigues Perracini, M; Rezende Fett, W C; Fett, C A

    2014-07-01

    Anthropometry provides information on the physical status of the individual and can be associated with aspects of health including nutritional status. Currently, the stratification of the arm and calf circumferences is classified into only two situations: "malnourished" and "well-nourished". A total of 513 interviews were conducted, and 391 elderly people (≥ 65 years) completed the assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and anthropometry of selected samples of the population of Cuiabá-MT. The body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated for the elderly people, establishing five new reference values for circumferences, arm relaxed (RAC), abdomen (AC), and calf (CC) in centimeters (cm). The median age was 71 years (64% women and 36% men) and was correlated to the RAC (r=-0.180, p<0.001) and CC (r=-0.202, pp<0.001). The BMI obtained the median of 27 (15% malnourished, risk of malnutrition 13%, eutrophic 24%; overweight 33%, obese 16%), and it was correlated to the RAC (r=0.798, pp<0.001), AC (r=0.823 p p<0.001) and CC (r=0.605, pp<0.001). The MNA was 26 (malnourished 13.8%, risk of malnutrition 12.3%, well-nourished, 73.9%). The BMI stratification by morbidity vs no morbidity was 27.50 (n=287) and 24.4 (n=104) to total sample respectively (pp<0,05). The RAC x AC (r=0.798, pp<0.001), RAC x CC (r=0.648, pp<0.001), and CC x AC (r=0.496, pp<0.001) were correlated between themselves. The eutrophic classification by circumference for both genders: RAC=27.1-29.00 cm, AC=88.1-95.00 cm, CC=32.60-33.00 cm. There are more overweight and obese than malnourished, which is a risk factor for morbidity and MNA only identifies malnutrition. Circumferences showed good association with BMI and are easy to apply. Therefore, the proposal of the circumferences can simplify and expand the nutritional assessment.

  17. Technical activity profile and influence of body anthropometry on playing performance in female elite team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsik, Lars B; Aagaard, Per; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    To determine the physical demands placed on female elite team handball (TH) players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry, female elite TH primarily field players were monitored during match-play using video recording and subsequent computerized technical match analysis during 5 regular tournament match seasons. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, technical errors, defensive errors, and tackles) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., type of shot, hard or light tackles, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Furthermore, anthropometric measurements were performed. Each player had 28.3 ± 11.0 (group means ± SD) high-intense playing actions per match with a total effective playing time of 50.70 ± 5.83 minutes. On average, each player made 2.8 ± 2.6 fast breaks, gave 7.9 ± 14.4 screenings, received 14.6 ± 9.2 tackles in total, and performed 7.7 ± 3.7 shots while in offense, along with 3.5 ± 3.8 blockings, 1.9 ± 2.7 claspings, and 6.2 ± 3.8 hard tackles in defense. Mean body height, body mass, and age in the Danish Premier Female Team Handball League were 175.4 ± 6.1 cm, 69.5 ± 6.5 kg, and 25.4 ± 3.7 years, respectively. Wing players were lighter (63.5 ± 4.8 kg, p games intermittently perform a high number of short-term, high-intense technical playing actions making modern female elite TH a physically demanding team sport. No sign of technical fatigue were observed, since the amount of intense technical playing actions remained unchanged in the second half. Marked positional differences in the physical demands were demonstrated, with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations than BP and PV. Body anthropometry differed substantially between different playing positions. Consequently, this should lead to an increase in physical training in modern female elite TH directed at specific positions and individual physical

  18. Relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with cervico-craniofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ibai López-de-Uralde-Villanueva,1–4 Hector Beltran-Alacreu,1–3 Alba Paris-Alemany,1–4 Santiago Angulo-Díaz-Parreño,2,3,5 Roy La Touche1–4 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Science, 2Research Group on Movement and Behavioral Science and Study of Pain, The Center for Advanced Studies University La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Aravaca, Madrid, Spain; 3Institute of Neuroscience and Craniofacial Pain (INDCRAN, Madrid, Spain; 4Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; 5Faculty of Medicine, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid, Spain Objectives: This cross-sectional correlation study explored the relationships between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability in patients with chronic cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP. Moreover, we investigated the test–retest intrarater reliability of two craniocervical posture measurements: head posture (HP and the sternomental distance (SMD. Methods: Fifty-three asymptomatic subjects and 60 CCFP patients were recruited. One rater measured HP and the SMD using a cervical range of motion device and a digital caliper, respectively. The Spanish versions of the neck disability index and the craniofacial pain and disability inventory were used to assess pain-related disability (neck disability and craniofacial disability, respectively. Results: We found no statistically significant correlations between craniocervical posture and pain-related disability variables (HP and neck disability [r=0.105; P>0.05]; HP and craniofacial disability [r=0.132; P>0.05]; SMD and neck disability [r=0.126; P>0.05]; SMD and craniofacial disability [r=0.195; P>0.05]. A moderate positive correlation was observed between HP and SMD for both groups (asymptomatic subjects, r=0.447; CCFP patients, r=0.52. Neck disability was strongly positively correlated with craniofacial disability (r=0.79; P>0.001. The test–retest intrarater reliability of the HP measurement was high for

  19. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  20. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  1. The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomsoupha, Michael; Laffaye, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    Badminton is a racket sport for two or four people, with a temporal structure characterized by actions of short duration and high intensity. This sport has five events: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, each requiring specific preparation in terms of technique, control and physical fitness. Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world, with 200 million adherents. The decision to include badminton in the 1992 Olympics Game increased participation in the game. This review focuses on the game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual attributes and biomechanics of badminton. Players are generally tall and lean, with an ectomesomorphic body type suited to the high physiological demands of a match. Indeed, a typical match characteristic is a rally time of 7 s and a resting time of 15 s, with an effective playing time of 31%. This sport is highly demanding, with an average heart rate (HR) of over 90% of the player's maximal HR. The intermittent actions during a game are demanding on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems: 60-70% on the aerobic system and approximately 30% on the anaerobic system, with greater demand on the alactic metabolism with respect to the lactic anaerobic metabolism. The shuttlecock has an atypical trajectory, and the players perform specific movements such as lunging and jumping, and powerful strokes using a specific pattern of movement. Lastly, badminton players are visually fit, picking up accurate visual information in a short time. Knowledge of badminton can help to improve coaching and badminton skills.

  2. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L; Hansen, Tine W; Olsen, Michael H; Andersen, Ove; Linneberg, Allan; Madsbad, Sten; Haugaard, Steen B; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Jeppesen, Jørgen

    2013-08-10

    Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects of the inflammation associated with CVD. We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI) (Panthropometry. In both genders, independent of smoking, log-CRP was positively associated with BMI (β: 0.28 to 0.40, P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions Between Race/Ethnicity and Anthropometry in Risk of Incident Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Pereira, Mark A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how adiposity influences racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence by exploring whether relations between anthropometric measures and incident diabetes vary by race/ethnicity. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis initiated in 2000 (n = 5,446 US men and women aged 45–84 years) were analyzed by using proportional hazards and Poisson regression. The diabetes incidence rate was 2/100 person-years (n = 479 cases). Interactions were present between race and anthropometry (P-interaction(race × body mass index) = 0.002). The slope of incident diabetes per anthropometric unit was greatest for Chinese, less for whites and Hispanics, and still less for blacks. For small waist, risk of incident diabetes was <1/100 person-years for all racial/ethnic groups. At intermediate waist levels, Chinese had the highest and whites the lowest rates of incident diabetes. At the respective 95th percentiles of waist circumference, risk of incident diabetes per 100 person-years was 3.9 for Chinese (104 cm), 3.5 for whites (121 cm), 5.0 for blacks (125 cm), and 5.3 for Hispanics (121 cm). Adiposity influenced relative diabetes occurrence across racial/ethnic groups, in that Chinese had a steeper diabetes risk per unit of adiposity. However, the generally low level of adiposity in Chinese led to a relatively low diabetes occurrence. PMID:20570825

  4. Maternal vitamin D status and infant anthropometry in a US multi-centre cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Cara L.; Gernand, Alison D.; Roth, Daniel E.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is linked to foetal growth and may impact infant growth. Aim This study examined the association between maternal vitamin D status and infant anthropometry. Subjects and methods Data came from n = 2473 mother–child pairs from the 12-site US Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959–1965). Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at ≤26 weeks gestation. Multivariate-adjusted linear mixed models were used to relate maternal vitamin D status to infant z-scores for length (LAZ), head circumference (HCZ), weight (WAZ) and BMI (BMIZ), measured at birth and 4, 8 and 12 months. Results Infants with maternal 25(OH)D ≥30 nmol/L vs <30 nmol/L had LAZ and HCZ measures 0.13 (95% CI = 0.03–0.23) and 0.20 (95% CI = 0.11–0.28) units higher, respectively, across the first year of life. Similar differences in WAZ and BMIZ at birth were resolved by 12 months of age due to interactions indicating steeper age slopes in infants with maternal 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L. Conclusion Low maternal vitamin D status was associated with deficits at birth in infant weight and BMI that were recouped across the first year of life; associations with reduced measures of linear and skeletal growth were sustained from birth to 12 months. PMID:25268792

  5. Predicting hepatic steatosis and liver fat content in obese children based on biochemical parameters and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-X; Xu, X-Q; Fu, J-F; Lai, C; Chen, X-F

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of quantitative evaluation of hepatic steatosis and liver fat content (LFC) using clinical and laboratory variables available in the general practice in the obese children are poorly identified. To build predictive models of hepatic steatosis and LFC in obese children based on biochemical parameters and anthropometry. Hepatic steatosis and LFC were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 171 obese children aged 5.5-18.0 years. Routine clinical and laboratory parameters were also measured in all subjects. Group analysis, univariable correlation analysis, and multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis were used to develop a liver fat score to identify hepatic steatosis and a liver fat equation to predict LFC in each subject. The predictive model of hepatic steatosis in our participants based on waist circumference and alanine aminotransferase had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.959 (95% confidence interval: 0.927-0.990). The optimal cut-off value of 0.525 for determining hepatic steatosis had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 90%. A liver fat equation was also developed based on the same parameters of hepatic steatosis liver fat score, which would be used to calculate the LFC in each individual. The liver fat score and liver fat equation, consisting of routinely available variables, may help paediatricians to accurately determine hepatic steatosis and LFC in clinical practice, but external validation is needed before it can be employed for this purpose. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. Design of Lesehan Chair by Using Kansei Engineering Method And Anthropometry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi, A. T.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Sari, A. D.; Kurnia, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) is known as city for academic. Many people come to get some education in college. They live in boarding house with some supporting facilities. The most common facilities is low table which lead students have to sit on the floor while studying on table which could cause higher risk of back pain and musculoskeletal disorder. To identify the solution to reduce back pain and musculoskeletal risk, it is needed to design a lesehan chair which also appropriate to customer needs. Kansei engineering method was used with a total of 30 respondents participated, 15 kansei words collected, and 12 kansei words selected by doing validation and reliability test. The result of this study showed that quality, aesthetics, and comfort level influence the design of lesehan chair. A design of lesehan chair was created by considering the suitable concept and merging it with the physical design and its anthropometry measurement. In this case, marginal homogeneity test is needed to identify the differences between each kansei words attribute and the design or product recommendation. The marginal homogeneity test results show that the design and product recommendation has fulfilled customer's desires and needs. For further research, it is needed to analyse and evaluate the posture of lesehan chair users in order to develop and improve its performance.

  7. Predicting muscle mass from anthropometry using magnetic resonance imaging as reference: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Leslie, Wilma; Govan, Lindsay; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-02-01

    Identification and management of sarcopenia are limited by lack of reliable simple approaches to assess muscle mass. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate simple methods to quantify muscle mass/volume of adults. Using Cochrane Review methodology, Medline (1946-2012), Embase (1974-2012), Web of Science (1898-2012), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (to 08/2012) were searched for publications that included prediction equations (from anthropometric measurements) to estimate muscle mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults. Of 257 papers identified from primary search terms, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 10) assessed only regional/limb muscle mass/volume. Many studies (n = 9) assessed limb circumference adjusted for skinfold thickness, which limits their practical applications. Only two included validation in separate subject-samples, and two reported relationships between whole-body MRI-measured muscle mass and anthropometry beyond linear correlations. In conclusion, one simple prediction equation shows promise, but it has not been validated in a separate population with different investigators. Furthermore, it did not incorporate widely available trunk/limb girths, which have offered valuable prediction of body composition in other studies. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 1......, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  9. 3-D breast anthropometry of plus-sized women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandarum, Reena; Yu, Winnie; Hunter, Lawrance

    2011-09-01

    Exploratory retail studies in South Africa indicate that plus-sized women experience problems and dissatisfaction with poorly fitting bras. The lack of 3-D anthropometric studies for the plus-size women's bra market initiated this research. 3-D body torso measurements were collected from a convenience sample of 176 plus-sized women in South Africa. 3-D breast measurements extracted from the TC(2) NX12-3-D body scanner 'breast module' software were compared with traditional tape measurements. Regression equations show that the two methods of measurement were highly correlated although, on average, the bra cup size determining factor 'bust minus underbust' obtained from the 3-D method is approximately 11% smaller than that of the manual method. It was concluded that the total bust volume correlated with the quadrant volume (r = 0.81), cup length, bust length and bust prominence, should be selected as the overall measure of bust size and not the traditional bust girth and the underbust measurement. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes new data and adds to the knowledge base of anthropometry and consumer ergonomics on bra fit and support, published in this, the Ergonomics Journal, by Chen et al. (2010) on bra fit and White et al. (2009) on breast support during overground running.

  10. Anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary pattern of patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajifdar B

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthropometry, lipid profile and dietary characteristics of 114 patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD were evaluated. There were 91 (80% men and the mean age was 56 +/- 9 years. The body mass index was near normal (24.4 +/- 3.4, but the waist: hip ratio was high (0.94 +/- 0.06 suggesting central obesity. This was well in accordance of the step II recommendations of the NCEP guidelines as regards their caloric intake and its break-up in terms of carbohydrate, protein and fat (including saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids content. Their daily cholesterol intake (31 +/- 32 mg/day, range 4-180 was very low. The total cholesterol (212 +/- 37 mg% was marginally elevated, HDL cholesterol (33 +/- 7.5 mg% was low, LDL cholesterol (148 +/- 39 mg% was high and the total: HDL ratio (6.8 +/- 2.0 was significantly abnormal. The serum triglyceride level (154 +/- 68 mg% was on the higher side of normal. These observations give further credence to the recently evolving view that there are different and hitherto unrecognised risk factors of IHD in Indians, who seem to have the highest incidence of IHD amongst all ethnic groups of the world despite consuming a diet low in fat and cholesterol content.

  11. Radiologic anthropometry of the hand in patients with familial short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, C.D.; Lifshitz, F.; Levenbrown, J.

    1988-04-01

    Fifth metacarpal bone shortening (brachymetacarpia V) was recently described to be highly prevalent in children with familial short stature (FSS). To characterize the hand bones of FSS patients with and without brachymetacarpia V, the left hand bone age radiographs of 26 FSS children were reviewed. In 16/19 patients with clinical brachymetacarpia V radiographs revealed fifth metacarpal bone shortening with a gap of 2 mm or more between the distal end of the fifth metacarpal bone and a tangential line connecting the distal ends of the third and fourth metacarpal bones. Only one of 7 patients without clinical brachymetacarpia V had a gap of 2 mm. Radiologic anthropometry revealed that FSS patients with clinically shortened fifth metacarpal bone frequently had shortened first metacarpal bones, second and third proximal phalanges, and fifth distal phalanx as well. FSS patients without clinical fifth metacarpal bone shortening had shortened 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones, fifth proximal phalanx, and fifth distal phalanx. Fifth metacarpal bone shortening was only detected clinically if the fourth metacarpal bone was not short as well. Reduction in height correlated more with reduction in metacarpal bone length than with that of the other hand bones. These peculiar tubular bone alterations commonly seen in FSS suggest a disturbance in endochondral ossification, the process primarily involved in tubular bone elongation.

  12. Anthropometry and renal size of children suffering under sustained conflict in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehall, John

    2008-11-01

    To measure anthropometry, blood pressure and renal lengths of children in a war torn region of Sri Lanka and compare results with local and international standards. Measurements of 147 Tamil children in Kilinochchi, north-east Sri Lanka, were compared with the World Health Organization standards using Anthro 2005 software in a period of relative peace in December 2005. Renal lengths were measured by ultrasound and compared with Australian and Indian data. 1 2-5 years of age. The weight-to-height ratio for combined sexes revealed 13.9% were children was children was children are stunted and wasted in this older group. Girls are more affected than boys. 3 Renal lengths fell progressively below -2 SD for both age and height when compared with Australian and Indian children. Tamil children in Kilinochchi are more stunted and wasted than others in Sri Lanka, except those in the tea estates. Progressive renal stunting because of under-nutrition may be a mechanism for later disease. The loss of potential for human development can only be addressed by long-term improvement in access to nutrition.

  13. [Developmental sequel of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwich, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Severe developmental impairment in children born as extremly prematures include cerebral palsy, subnormal cognitive function, deafness and blindness. The rate of severe disabilities range from 5 to 30%. This article reviews what is known about early brain injury and its developmental sequel.

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  15. Cleft and Craniofacial Care During Military Pediatric Plastic Surgery Humanitarian Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Christopher; Lough, Denver; Lim, Alan; Harshbarger, Raymond J; Kumar, Anand R

    2015-06-01

    Military pediatric plastic surgery humanitarian missions in the Western Hemisphere have been initiated and developed since the early 1990 s using the Medical Readiness Education and Training Exercise (MEDRETE) concept. Despite its initial training mission status, the MEDRETE has developed into the most common and advanced low level medical mission platform currently in use. The objective of this study is to report cleft- and craniofacial-related patient outcomes after initiation and evolution of a standardized treatment protocol highlighting lessons learned which apply to civilian plastic surgery missions. A review of the MEDRETE database for pediatric plastic surgery/cleft and craniofacial missions to the Dominican Republic from 2005 to 2009 was performed. A multidisciplinary team including a craniofacial surgeon evaluated all patients with a cleft/craniofacial and/or pediatric plastic condition. A standardized mission time line included predeployment site survey and predeployment checklist, operational brief, and postdeployment after action report. Deployment data collection, remote patient follow-up, and coordination with larger land/amphibious military operations was used to increase patient follow-up data. Data collected included sex, age, diagnosis, date and type of procedure, surgical outcomes including speech scores, surgical morbidity, and mortality. Five hundred ninety-four patients with cleft/craniofacial abnormalities were screened by a multidisciplinary team including craniofacial surgeons over 4 years. Two hundred twenty-three patients underwent 330 surgical procedures (cleft lip, 53; cleft palate, 73; revision cleft lip/nose, 73; rhinoplasty, 15; speech surgery, 24; orthognathic/distraction, 21; general pediatric plastic surgery, 58; fistula repair, 12). Average follow-up was 30 months (range, 1-60). The complication rate was 6% (n = 13) (palate fistula, lip revision, dental/alveolar loss, revision speech surgery rate). The average pre

  16. Investigation of an outbreak of craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K N; Young, M J; Alley, M R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate an outbreak of severe craniofacial deformity in yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes, hōiho) chicks at a single breeding site on the Otago Peninsula in the South Island of New Zealand. Morbidity and mortality of yellow-eyed penguins breeding on the coastal regions of Otago was monitored from November 2008 to March 2009. Dead chicks and unhatched eggs were recovered and examined. Between October and December 2008 32 eggs were recorded at 17 nests in the Okia Reserve. Eleven chicks survived to about 90 days of age, of which eight were found to have moderate to severe craniofacial deformity. The six most severe chicks were subject to euthanasia and examined in detail at necropsy, and the remaining two affected chicks were released to the wild after a period of care in a rehabilitation centre. Post-mortem samples were analysed for inorganic and organic toxins. The six deformed chicks all had severe shortening of the mandible and maxilla by 20-50 mm. The rostral and caudal regions of the skull were approximately 40 and 80% of normal length, respectively. Other, more variable lesions included cross bill deformity, malformed bill keratin, microphthalmia with misshapen scleral ossicles and oral soft tissue excess thought to be secondary to bony malformations. During the same year, mild sporadic bill deformities were also reported in 10 unrelated chicks from >167 chicks at other breeding sites on the southern Otago coast. Concentrations of organic toxins and heavy metals in body tissues from affected chicks were apparently similar to those in unaffected chicks on other beaches. No cause of this outbreak of craniofacial deformity could be established although the high prevalence at a single site suggests that it was due to an unidentified local teratogen.

  17. Evaluation of craniofacial morphology of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Alev Aksoy; Bolpaca, Pinar

    2009-10-01

    High intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) for a prolonged period may lead to skeletal fluorosis as well as dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to compare the craniofacial characteristics of children with dental fluorosis in early permanent dentition period to those without fluorosis. Two hundred and sixteen children in early permanent dentition (girls:121, boys:95) were included in the study. Study group was composed of 124 children with dental fluorosis who was born and grew up in Isparta (girls:75, boys:49) whereas control group of children (n=92: 46 girls and 46 boys) had no dental fluorosis. Dental fluorosis was classified using Thylstrup Fejerskov Fluorosis Index. Radiological evaluation was performed by cephalometric tracing using Björk analysis. Statistical evaluation in between study and control groups was done by Independent Samples T test and comparison with Björk's standards was done by One Sample T test analysis. The association between two quantitative variables was evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (rho). The mean dental fluorosis level was 4.6+/-1.8 for children with fluorosis. Systemic fluorosis affect girls no different than boys in the early permanent dentition period because none of the angular measurements show significant difference between boys and girls in the fluoridated group. Comparison of craniofacial angular values of boys with fluorosis show greater diversity compared to boys without fluorosis against Björk's mean values for boys. Craniofacial morphology of children with fluorosis did not show great diversity than the ones without fluorosis in the early permanent dentition period. None of the angular measurements were significantly different between boys and girls in the fluoridated group which might imply that systemic fluorosis did not show gender difference in the early permanent dentition. (Eur J Dent 2009;3:304-313).

  18. Psychometric evaluation of a motor control test battery of the craniofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Semilongitudinal cephalometric study of craniofacial growth in untreated Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ann E Zionic; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-06-01

    Class III growth in white subjects is poorly characterized because of the low prevalence of the disharmony and the clinical tendency to treat this condition early. The purpose of this study was to investigate craniofacial growth changes by using longitudinal cephalometric records of white subjects with untreated Class III malocclusions to provide comparison data for studies of Class III treatment outcomes. Longitudinal records of 103 subjects were analyzed. Annual incremental growth changes in craniofacial variables from early childhood to late adolescence were examined for each sex. Inferential statistics were applied to changes in mandibular length, midfacial length, and lower anterior facial height of each sex (Wilcoxon tests) and between sexes (Mann-Whitney U tests). In the girls, the adolescent spurt in mandibular growth occurred between the ages of 10 and 12 years. In the boys, the adolescent mandibular growth spurt was between 12 and 15 years. Statistically significant growth changes in the average increments of growth of these linear measurements occurred in both sexes between 12 and 15 years. Adolescent peaks in midfacial growth were at prepubertal ages in both sexes. During childhood (5-7 years), much craniofacial growth occurred. Moreover, there was considerable mandibular growth relative to the maxilla in Class III subjects after the adolescent growth spurt. White Class III subjects showed definite worsening of the relative mandibular prognathism and sagittal skeletal discrepancy between the jaws with growth. The growth pattern of 3 fundamental cephalometric measurements (lower anterior face height, midfacial length, and mandibular length) exhibited differences between Class III male and female subjects in both the timing and the size of average growth increments in the adolescent growth spurt.

  20. Synchrotron Phase Tomography: An Emerging Imaging Method for Microvessel Detection in Engineered Bone of Craniofacial Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Giuliani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of large 3D constructs, such as certain craniofacial bone districts, is nowadays a critical challenge. Indeed, the amount of oxygen needed for cell survival is able to reach a maximum diffusion distance of ~150–200 μm from the original vascularization vector, often hampering the long-term survival of the regenerated tissues. Thus, the rapid growth of new blood vessels, delivering oxygen and nutrients also to the inner cells of the bone grafts, is mandatory for their long-term function in clinical practice. Unfortunately, significant progress in this direction is currently hindered by a lack of methods with which to visualize these processes in 3D and reliably quantify them. In this regard, a challenging method for simultaneous 3D imaging and analysis of microvascularization and bone microstructure has emerged in recent years: it is based on the use of synchrotron phase tomography. This technique is able to simultaneously identify multiple tissue features in a craniofacial bone site (e.g., the microvascular and the calcified tissue structure. Moreover, it overcomes the intrinsic limitations of both histology, achieving only a 2D characterization, and conventional tomographic approaches, poorly resolving the vascularization net in the case of an incomplete filling of the newly formed microvessels by contrast agents. Indeed, phase tomography, being based on phase differences among the scattered X-ray waves, is capable of discriminating tissues with similar absorption coefficients (like vessels and woven bone in defined experimental conditions. The approach reviewed here is based on the most recent experiences applied to bone regeneration in the craniofacial region.

  1. The Art of Coping with a Craniofacial Difference: Helping Others through “Positive Exposure”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Johanna; Sutton, Erica; Guidotti, Rick; Shapiro, Kristin; Ball, Karen; McLean, Diane; Biesecker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. ‘Helping others’ emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. ‘Helping others’ may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594

  2. Effects of a child with a craniofacial anomaly on stability of the parental relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Dane; Pai, Lori; Belfer, Myron L; Mulliken, John B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine rates of divorce in parents of children with various types of craniofacial anomalies and to analyze possible confounding factors. A 29-question survey was sent to parents of all children evaluated in the Craniofacial Centre between 1992 and 1997. Parents were questioned regarding pre- and postnatal marital stability, whether the child's facial anomaly contributed to divorce, and involvement in the child's welfare. Using deformational posterior plagiocephaly as a control group, rates of divorce vs. non-divorce were compared for craniofacial anomalies, categorized as asymmetric (hemifacial microsomia, unilateral coronal synostosis, cleft lip, cleft lip/palate) or symmetric (syndromic-craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome). Major anomalies (hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome) were also compared to minor anomalies (cleft lip, cleft lip/palate). Surveys were sent to both parents in 412 families; 403 surveys were returned; and the results were evaluated in 275 families (67%). Frequency analysis demonstrated an overall divorce rate of 6.8% and 4.9% separation. Anomalies associated with the highest rate of divorce were hemifacial microsomia (24.0%), syndromic craniosynostosis (12.2%), and cleft lip/palate (6.8%). 79% of non-divorced couples reported a strong prenatal relationship, whereas 59% of divorced couples reported a problematic relationship. Following birth of the affected child, 47% of non-divorced couples responded that the bonds became stronger and 41% of divorced couples thought the relationship worsened. Two-sided Fisher exact test comparing control vs. all other anomalies showed significance (p=.030) for rates of divorce. Separation of anomalies into asymmetric vs. symmetric and major vs. minor categories demonstrated no significant difference in divorce rate (p>.05). The mother was more likely to become a child's primary caregiver

  3. Exclusion of the PAX2 gene as a candidate gene for Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.A.; Gorry, M.C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Warman, M. [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis (CFD, MIM 123500) is an abnormality of craniofacial development characterized by premature craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and shallow orbits. We have mapped the CFD gene locus using a candidate gene approach to a 7 centiMorgan region on chromosome 10q in three CFD families. A maximal multipoint LOD score of 12.33 was achieved for a locus 2 cM distal to the microsatellite marker D10S209. A comparison of several physical, cytogenetic, and linkage maps revealed that the cytogenetic bands, 10q25-q26, most likely contain this CFD locus. The PAX2 gene, which has been mapped near another marker which in turn has been mapped to 10q25, was analyzed as a candidate gene. PAX2 was chosen for analysis because mutations in other members of the PAX gene family have been identified with human craniofacial abnormalities (e.g. Waardenburg syndrome). A YAC contig, consisting of 5 overlapping groups and composed of 11 YACs that spans the entire 7 cM region, was assembled for PAX2 analyses. None of these YACs supported PAX2-specific amplification using primer sets for both the second and third PAX2 exons. Control amplifications for YAC vector sequences produced robust amplifications in all cases. In addition, SSCP analyses of amplification products generated from the second and third PAX2 exons and the 3{prime} untranslated region of the PAX2 gene from both affected and unaffected family members in two of the kindreds failed to reveal any polymorphisms. Although it remains theoretically possible, due to artifacts in the YAC contigs, it is unlikely that PAX2 is the CFD gene.

  4. [Cephalometry study of craniofacial growth in mixed dentition with OSAHS children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizhi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the craniofacial growth characteristics in mixed dentition of OSAHS and simple snoring (SS) children. Craniofacial morphology was studied by computerized cephalometric analysis in 24 children with OSAHS, 12 children with simple snoring and 34 healthy children. In OSAHS children, SNB (75.83 +/- 2.92) was significantly smaller than healthy children (P < 0.05), while ANB (5.83 +/- 2.76), Y axis angle (72.05 +/- 2.99), FH-MP (34.68 +/- 5.05), UI-SN (107.49 +/- 5.04) and LI-MP (98.38 +/- 5.28) were larger in comparison with healthy children (with the P values P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). The GoGn in OSAHS children (57.20 +/- 5.64) was smaller than healthy children (P < 0. 05). In SS children, the indexes ANB (5.34 +/- 1.86), Y axis angle (67.42 +/- 4.53), FH-MP (31.62 +/- 4.60) and LI-MP (98.46 +/- 5.28) were also significantly larger than healthy children (with the P values P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The GoGn in SS children (58.92 +/- 5.27) was also smaller (P < 0.05) than healthy children. All these indexes showed no significant differences between OSAHS children and SS children. The effects of OSAHS and SS on craniofacial growth of children in mixed dentition include posterior displacement and shortening of mandible, heightening of anterior face and the labial inclination of maxillary central incisors and mandible central incisors. The change of breath mode was the main cause of these malformations.

  5. Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in patients with obstructive sleep apnea using lateral cephalometry and dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Rekha; Ravikumar, A; Krishnaswamy, N R

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potentially life-threatening disorder, characterized by repeated collapse of the upper airway during sleep with cessation of breathing. The altered mouth breathing produces morphological changes in craniofacial region. This study was designed to compare and validate the craniofacial morphological characteristics in patients with OSA using lateral cephalometry and to investigate the dentofacial characteristics of patients with OSA with respect to the obstructive sites determined by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to more accurately clarify the pathophysiological features. 10 patients with OSA were divided into two groups of five each according to their obstructive site determined by dynamic MRI. (1) Obstruction at the retropalatal and retroglossal region (Rp + Rg group) and (2) obstruction at the retropalatal region (Rp group). Lateral cephalogram both in upright and supine position was taken for all the subjects. In addition, dynamic MRI was performed to identify the sites of obstruction of the upper airway. Independent t-test was performed to evaluate the significant difference in the upright cephalometric variables between the study and control group and between the two groups. The changes in skeletal and soft tissue parameters with change in posture was assessed within the study and control group by paired t test. P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The study indicated that the first group of patients with both retropalatal and retroglossal obstruction showed signs of skeletal discrepancy that predisposed to obstruction at the retroglossal level and the soft tissue components like the soft palate and tongue that contributed to retropalatal obstruction. However, the second group of patients with only retropalatal obstruction had primarily soft tissue components associated with increased BMI that contributed to retropalatal obstruction. Evaluation of craniofacial morphology in OSA patients is

  6. Determination of craniofacial relation among the subethnic Indian population: A modified approach - (Sagittal relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sumathi Felicita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To measure the linear cephalometric dimensions of anterior and posterior segments of the craniofacial complex sagittally, to establish ratios between different linear dimensions of sagittal segments and check for dimensional balance among the various segments in subjects with normal occlusion, pleasing profile and facial harmony. Setting and Sample Population : Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha University. Lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects of both sexes in the age group of 17-28 years with normal occlusion belonging to Chennai, India Materials and Methods : Linear dimensions of anterior and posterior segments of the craniofacial complex were measured sagittally with the posterior maxillary plane as a key reference plane. Ratios were established between the various parameters in the anterior and posterior region. Results : A ratio of 1:1 was found to exist between the individual and aggregate sagittal segments of the craniofacial complex in both sexes. There was a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in the aggregate lengths(P=0.028,P=0.005.However, the ratio between the anterior cranial floor and effective maxillary length was 2:3 and 5:8 and that between anterior cranial floor to effective mandibular length was 5:8 and 3:5 in females and males respectively. The difference in the above values was not statistically significant. Conclusion : A dimensional balance was found to exist between the maxilla and mandible both at the dentoalveolar and skeletal level with a ratio of 1:1. There was also a dimensional balance between the posterior cranial floor and ramus width. However, there was no architectural balance between the anterior cranial floor and maxilla and mandible.

  7. Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Baba, Hisao; Sutikna, Thomas; Morwood, Michael J; Kubo, Daisuke; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Jatmiko; Awe, Rokhus Due; Djubiantono, Tony

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes in detail the external morphology of LB1/1, the nearly complete and only known cranium of Homo floresiensis. Comparisons were made with a large sample of early groups of the genus Homo to assess primitive, derived, and unique craniofacial traits of LB1 and discuss its evolution. Principal cranial shape differences between H. floresiensis and Homo sapiens are also explored metrically. The LB1 specimen exhibits a marked reductive trend in its facial skeleton, which is comparable to the H. sapiens condition and is probably associated with reduced masticatory stresses. However, LB1 is craniometrically different from H. sapiens showing an extremely small overall cranial size, and the combination of a primitive low and anteriorly narrow vault shape, a relatively prognathic face, a rounded oval foramen that is greatly separated anteriorly from the carotid canal/jugular foramen, and a unique, tall orbital shape. Whereas the neurocranium of LB1 is as small as that of some Homo habilis specimens, it exhibits laterally expanded parietals, a weak suprameatal crest, a moderately flexed occipital, a marked facial reduction, and many other derived features that characterize post-habilis Homo. Other craniofacial characteristics of LB1 include, for example, a relatively narrow frontal squama with flattened right and left sides, a marked frontal keel, posteriorly divergent temporal lines, a posteriorly flexed anteromedial corner of the mandibular fossa, a bulbous lateral end of the supraorbital torus, and a forward protruding maxillary body with a distinct infraorbital sulcus. LB1 is most similar to early Javanese Homo erectus from Sangiran and Trinil in these and other aspects. We conclude that the craniofacial morphology of LB1 is consistent with the hypothesis that H. floresiensis evolved from early Javanese H. erectus with dramatic island dwarfism. However, further field discoveries of early hominin skeletal remains from Flores and detailed analyses of the

  8. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Bahrampour, Ehsan; Soltanimehr, Elham; Zamani, Ali; Oshagh, Morteza; Moattari, Marzieh; Mehdizadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods

  9. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  10. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical Application of Three-Dimensional Printing Technology in Craniofacial Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been particularly widely adopted in medical fields. Application of the 3D printing technique has even been extended to bio-cell printing for 3D tissue/organ development, the creation of scaffolds for tissue engineering, and actual clinical application for various medical parts. Of various medical fields, craniofacial plastic surgery is one of areas that pioneered the use of the 3D printing concept. Rapid prototype technology was introduced in the 1990s to m...

  12. Social and Support Services Offered by Cleft and Craniofacial Teams: A National Survey and Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascha, Mona; McDaniel, Jarred; Link, Irene; Rowe, David; Soltanian, Hooman; Sattar, Abdus; Becker, Devra; Lakin, Gregory E

    2016-03-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to patients with craniofacial abnormalities is the standard of care by the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (ACPA). The standards of team care, however, do not require provision of social support services beyond access to a social worker. The purpose of this investigation is to study social support services provided by ACPA teams, funding sources for services, and family interest in services. A survey was submitted to ACPA cleft and craniofacial team leaders (N = 161), which evaluated the provision of potentially beneficial social support services, and their funding sources. A second survey administered to patient families at our institution gauged their level of interest in these services. Statistical analysis evaluated the level of interest among services. Seventy-five of 161 (47%) teams and 39 of 54 (72%) families responded to the surveys. Services provided included scholarships (4%), summer camp (25%), social media (32%), patient support groups (36%), parties (42%), parent support groups (46%), other opportunities (56%), and social workers (90%). The majority of funding for social workers was by the institution (61%) whereas funding for ancillary services varied (institution, team, fundraisers, grants, and other sources). Families indicated an average interest of 2.4 ± 1.41 for support groups, 2.5 ± 1.63 for summer camps, 2.92 ± 1.66 for parties, 3.16 ± 1.65 for social media, and 3.95 ± 1.60 for scholarships (P value team care do not require teams to provide social support services beyond access to a social worker. Among our survey respondents, the authors found that in addition to a social worker, teams offered social support services, which were not required. The social worker position is usually institutionally funded, whereas funding sources for additional services varied. Respondents at our center desired additional social support services. The authors recommend a hybrid model of

  13. Craniofacial Statistical Deformation Models of Wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial sutures and synchondroses leading to craniofacial growth disturbances. The gene causing the syndrome was discovered approximately a decade ago and recently the first mouse model of the syndrome was generated. In this study, a set...... using B-spline-based nonrigid registration and subsequently, the atlas was nonrigidly registered to the cases being modelled. The parameters of these registrations were then used as input to a PCA. Using different sets of registration parameters, different models were constructed to describe (i...

  14. 3-D analysis of tooth formation and eruption in patients with craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Per; Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1996-01-01

    A number of craniofacial anomalies or syndromes involve severe disturbances of tooth formation and eruption (e.g. Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and cleft lip and palate). So far, studies of these dental problems have been limited to two......-dimensional analysis from orthopantomograms, intra-oral X-rays or cephalometric radiographs. A method for visualization of the developing tooth crowns in three dimensions based on CT-scans of the jaws has been developed (Bro-Nielsen et al., 1996). The purpose of the present study was to apply this new visualization...

  15. Common dental features and craniofacial development of three siblings with Ter Haar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K; Pabla, R; Hay, N; Ayliffe, P

    2014-02-01

    Ter Haar syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with <30 cases reported worldwide. There is nothing within the published literature regarding the dental development and dental features of these patients. This case series examines three patients with Ter Haar syndrome and tracks their dental development and identifies common dental and skeletal features. All three patients received dental treatment and regular follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital Dental Department. These patients have many common dental and craniofacial features which poses the question as to whether these features are due to Ter Haar syndrome.

  16. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  17. The relationship of bruxism with craniofacial pain and symptoms from the masticatory system in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancaglini, R; Gherlone, E F; Radaelli, G

    2001-09-01

    The association of bruxism with craniofacial pain and symptoms of dysfunction of the masticatory system was assessed in a sample of 483 adult subjects, aged 18-75 years and selected from the general population living in the municipality of Segrate, a metropolitan area in northern Italy. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about oral conditions, occurrence of symptoms of masticatory disturbances, craniofacial and neck pain. The overall prevalence of bruxism was 31;4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27;3-35;5%). At univariate analysis bruxism was significantly associated with craniofacial pain, difficulty in closing the mouth, difficulty in opening the mouth wide or in locking the mouth, temporomandibular joint sounds, pain on movement, a feeling of stiffness or fatigue of the jaws, and neck pain. After adjustment for reciprocal influences and confounding variables, logistic regression analysis disclosed a strong independent association of bruxism with difficulty in closing the mouth (adjusted odds ratio, (OR): 2;84, 95% CI: 1;68-4;48), and a weaker relationship with craniofacial pain (adjusted OR: 1;84, 95% CI: 1;16-2;93) and temporomandibular joint sounds (adjusted OR: 1;64, 95% CI: 1;00-2;69). The findings show that in the general adult population there is a complex connection among bruxism, craniofacial pain and symptoms of masticatory disturbances. Furthermore, they suggest that the most direct relationship of bruxism may be with difficulties in mouth movements, but also an independent association may exist with craniofacial pain and other symptoms of temporomandibular disorder.

  18. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  19. Accuracy and reliability of 3D stereophotogrammetry: A comparison to direct anthropometry and 2D photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindaroğlu, Furkan; Kutlu, Pınar; Duran, Gökhan Serhat; Görgülü, Serkan; Aslan, Erhan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry by comparing it with the direct anthropometry and digital photogrammetry methods. The reliability of 3D stereophotogrammetry was also examined. Six profile and four frontal parameters were directly measured on the faces of 80 participants. The same measurements were repeated using two-dimensional (2D) photogrammetry and 3D stereophotogrammetry (3dMDflex System, 3dMD, Atlanta, Ga) to obtain images of the subjects. Another observer made the same measurements for images obtained with 3D stereophotogrammetry, and interobserver reproducibility was evaluated for 3D images. Both observers remeasured the 3D images 1 month later, and intraobserver reproducibility was evaluated. Statistical analysis was conducted using the paired samples t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. The highest mean difference was 0.30 mm between direct measurement and photogrammetry, 0.21 mm between direct measurement and 3D stereophotogrammetry, and 0.5 mm between photogrammetry and 3D stereophotogrammetry. The lowest agreement value was 0.965 in the Sn-Pro parameter between the photogrammetry and 3D stereophotogrammetry methods. Agreement between the two observers varied from 0.90 (Ch-Ch) to 0.99 (Sn-Me) in linear measurements. For intraobserver agreement, the highest difference between means was 0.33 for observer 1 and 1.42 mm for observer 2. Measurements obtained using 3D stereophotogrammetry indicate that it may be an accurate and reliable imaging method for use in orthodontics.

  20. Nasal Anthropometry on Facial Computed Tomography Scans for Rhinoplasty in Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Moon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCephalometric analysis is essential for planning treatment in maxillofacial and aesthetic facial surgery. Although photometric analysis of the Korean nose has been attempted in the past, anthropometry of the deeper nasal structures in the same population based on computerized tomography (CT has not been published. We therefore measured three anthropometric parameters of the nose on CT scans in our clinical series of patients.MethodsWe conducted the current retrospective study of a total of 100 patients (n=100 who underwent a CT-guided radiological measurement at our institution during a period ranging from January of 2008 to August of 2010. In these patients, we took three anthropometric measurements: the nasofrontal angle, the pyramidal angle, and the linear distance between the nasion and the tip of the nasal bone.ResultsThe mean nasofrontal angle was 131.14° in the male patients and 140.70° in the female patients. The mean linear distance between the nasion and the tip of the nasal bone was 21.28 mm and 18.02 mm, respectively. The mean nasal pyramidal angle was 112.89° and 103.25° at the level of the nasal root, 117.49° and 115.60° at the middle level of the nasal bone, and 127.99° and 125.04° at the level of the tip of the nasal bone, respectively.ConclusionsIn conclusion, our data will be helpful in the preparation of silicone implants for augmentation and/or corrective rhinoplasty in ethnic Korean people.

  1. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posterior lower leg and rectus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasound. Results For boys, height, body weight, and LBM in less mature groups were lower than that in more mature groups. The maturity-related differences were still significant after adjusting for chronological age. On the other hand, muscle thickness values in the lower extremity and abdomen differed among the groups at different stages of pubic hair development, whereas there was no maturity-related difference in the relative values corrected by LBM, except for those thickness values measured at the abdomen. For girls, only the muscle thickness at the anterior thigh and muscle thickness relative to LBM1/3 at the posterior lower leg was significantly affected by maturity status, but significant maturity-related difference was not found after adjusting for chronological age. Conclusions At least for Japanese boys and girls aged 13 years, maturity status affected body size in boys, but not in girls, and the influence of maturation on the muscularity of the lower extremity and trunk muscles is less in both sexes. PMID:23497570

  2. Anthropometry, CT, and DXA as predictors of GH deficiency in premenopausal women: ROC curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Utz, Andrea L.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy; Schoenfeld, David A.; Miller, Karen K.

    2009-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is a strong determinant of growth hormone (GH) secretion, and states of GH deficiency are associated with increased visceral adiposity and decreased lean body mass. The purpose of our study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different methods of assessing body composition [anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and computed tomography (CT)] to predict GH deficiency in premenopausal women and threshold values for each technique to predict GH deficiency, using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We studied a group of 45 healthy lean, overweight, and obese premenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, skin fold thickness), DXA, CT, and a GH-releasing hormone-arginine stimulation test. ROC curve analysis was used to determine cutoff values for each method to identify GH deficiency. Visceral adiposity measured by CT showed the highest sensitivity and specificity for identifying subjects with GH deficiency with a cutoff of >9,962 mm2 [area under the curve (AUC), 0.95; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 77.8%; P = 0.0001]. Largest waist circumference showed high sensitivity and specificity with a cutoff of >101.7 cm (AUC, 0.89; sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 75%; P = 0.0001). When the ROC curves of visceral fat measured by CT and largest waist circumference were compared, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). Our study showed that the largest waist circumference predicts the presence of GH deficiency in healthy premenopausal women with high sensitivity and specificity and nearly as well as CT measurement of visceral adiposity. It can be used to identify women in whom GH deficiency is likely and therefore in whom formal GH stimulation testing might be indicated. PMID:19095751

  3. Changes in anthropometry and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients in the HEMO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chi-Ting; Yabes, Jonathan; Pike, Francis; Weiner, Daniel E; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Burrowes, Jerrilynn D; Rocco, Michael V; Unruh, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Poor nutritional status has been associated with worse patient survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Anthropometric values are important nutritional measures, incorporating muscle and fat mass. However, the association of changes in anthropometry, including midarm circumference (MAC) and skinfold measurements, with mortality in hemodialysis patients remains unknown. Accordingly, we explored this association in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. Post hoc analysis of cohort data from a clinical trial. 1,846 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the HEMO Study. MAC and skinfold measurements. Longitudinal changes in MAC and skinfolds were jointly modeled using repeated measures and survival modeling. Time-to-event outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiac death and hospitalization, and infection-related death. Mean MAC was 30.1 cm, and mean baseline sum of subscapular, biceps, and triceps skinfolds was 42.4 mm. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, there were 845 deaths. During follow-up, MAC and the skinfold measurement declined 0.26 cm and 1.1 mm per year, respectively. Declines in MAC (per cm) and skinfold (per mm) measurements were associated with higher all-cause mortality (HRs of 1.58 [95% CI, 1.29-1.94; P 85 kg. Declines in skinfold thickness were not associated significantly with outcomes except for participants with BMI ≤25 kg/m2. Declines in MAC are associated significantly with all-cause mortality and cardiac outcomes in hemodialysis patients, most notably in those with BMI ≤25 kg/m2. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthropometry in the Prediction of Sleep Disordered Breathing in HIV-infected and -uninfected Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd T.; Patil, Susheel P.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Laffan, Alison M.; Godfrey, Rebecca J; Johnson, Jacquett R; Johnson-Hill, Lisette M; Reynolds, Sandra M; Schwartz, Alan R.; Smith, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC) are important screening tools for sleep disordered breathing (SDB). However, the utility of anthropometry for this purpose has not been evaluated among HIV-infected patients. Methods HIV-uninfected men (HIV−; n=60), HIV-infected men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HIV+/HAART; n=58), and HIV-infected men not receiving HAART (HIV+/No HAART; n=41) from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study underwent a nocturnal sleep study and anthropomorphic assessment. Moderate-severe SDB was defined as an apnea/hypopnea event rate ≥15 episodes/hour. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the ability of different anthropometric measurements to predict SDB within each group. Results Moderate-severe SDB was found in 48% (HIV−:57%; HIV+/HAART: 41%; HIV+/No HAART−: 44%). The performance of BMI, WC, and NC to predict SDB was excellent among the HIV− men (ROC areas-under-the curve (AUC): 0.83, 0.88, 0.88, respectively) and fair among the HIV+/HAART group (AUCs: 0.71, 0.77, 0.77, respectively). In contrast, these measurements had no predictive value in the HIV+/No HAART group (AUCs: 0.43, 0.41, 0.45, respectively). Moreover, in the HIV+/No HAART group, moderate-severe SDB was independently associated with serum C-reactive protein ≥3.0 mg/L (Odds Ratio (OR) 6.9; p=0.04) and HIV RNA > 10,000 copies/ml (OR 7.1; p=0.05). Conclusions BMI, waist circumference, and neck circumference had better predictive value for moderate-severe SDB in HIV-uninfected men compared to HIV-infected men, and had no value among HIV-infected men not receiving HAART. Among this latter group, systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of SDB. PMID:20587858

  5. Associations of anthropometry and lifestyle factors with HDL subspecies according to apolipoprotein C-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manja; Furtado, Jeremy D; Jiang, Gordon Z; Gray, Brianna E; Cai, Tianxi; Sacks, Frank; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K

    2017-06-01

    The presence of apoC-III on HDL impairs HDL's inverse association with coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about modifiable factors explaining variation in HDL subspecies defined according to apoC-III. The aim was to investigate cross-sectional associations of anthropometry and lifestyle with HDL subspecies in 3,631 participants from the Diet, Cancer, and Health study originally selected for a case-cohort study (36% women; age 50-65 years) who were all free of CHD. Greater adiposity and less activity were associated with higher HDL containing apoC-III and lower HDL lacking apoC-III. Per each 15 cm higher waist circumference, the level of HDL containing apoC-III was 2.8% higher (95% CI: 0.4, 5.3; P = 0.024) and the level of HDL not containing apoC-III was 4.7% lower (95% CI: -6.0, -3.4; P = <0.0001). Associations for physical activity were most robust to multivariable modeling. Each 20 metabolic equivalent task hours per week reported higher physical activity was associated with 0.9% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P = 0.031) lower HDL containing apoC-III and 0.5% higher (95% CI: 0.1, 1.0; P = 0.029) HDL lacking apoC-III. Lower alcohol consumption was associated with lower HDL lacking apoC-III (percent difference per 15 g/day: 1.58 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.32; P = <0.0001). Adiposity and sedentary lifestyle were associated with a less favorable HDL subspecies profile. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Estimation of stature from radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Chang, Yun-feng; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-11-01

    The recent study was to assess the relationship between the radiologic anthropometry of the lumbar vertebral dimensions and stature in Chinese and to develop regression formulae to estimate stature from these dimensions. A total of 412 normal, healthy volunteers, comprising 206 males and 206 females, were recruited. The linear regression analysis were performed to assess the correlation between the stature and lengths of various segments of the lumbar vertebral column. Among the regression equations created for single variable, the predictive value was greatest for the reconstruction of stature from the lumbar segment in both sexes and subgroup analysis. When individual vertebral body was used, the heights of posterior vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for male group, the heights of central vertebral body of L1 provided the most accurate results for female group and female group with age above 45 years, the heights of central vertebral body of L3 gave the most accurate results for the groups with age from 20-45 years for both sexes and the male group with age above 45 years. The heights of anterior vertebral body of L5 gave the less accurate results except for the heights of anterior vertebral body of L4 provided the less accurate result for the male group with age above 45 years. As expected, multiple regression equations were more successful than equations derived from a single variable. The research observations suggest lumbar vertebral dimensions to be useful in stature estimation among Chinese population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Gyeong A; Lim, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Geun Ho; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    For developing race-specific anthropometry-based total body water (TBW) equations, we measured TBW using bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBWBIA) in 2,943 healthy Korean adults. Among them, 2,223 were used as a reference group. Two equations (TBWK1 and TBWK2) were developed based on age, sex, height, and body weight. The adjusted R2 was 0.908 for TBWK1 and 0.910 for TBWK2. The remaining 720 subjects were used for the validation of our results. Watson (TBWW) and Hume-Weyers (TBWH) formulas were also used. In men, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWH, followed by TBWK1, TBWK2 and TBWW. TBWK1 and TBWK2 showed the lower root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean prediction errors (ME) than TBWW and TBWH. On the Bland-Altman plot, the correlations between the differences and means were smaller for TBWK2 than for TBWK1. On the contrary, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1, and TBWH in females. RMSE was smallest in TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1 and TBWH. ME was closest to zero for TBWK2, followed by TBWK1, TBWW and TBWH. The correlation coefficients between the means and differences were highest in TBWW, and lowest in TBWK2. In conclusion, TBWK2 provides better accuracy with a smaller bias than the TBWW or TBWH in males. TBWK2 shows a similar accuracy, but with a smaller bias than TBWW in females. PMID:15953867

  8. The effect of breast anthropometry on the Hybrid III 5th female chest response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Charlebois, Dominique; Bussières, Alain; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2006-11-01

    Two manufacturers, Denton ATD and FTSS, currently produce the Hybrid III 5th percentile female dummy. In response to concerns raised by industry that differences in the anthropometry of the molded breasts between the two manufacturers may influence chest responses, Transport Canada conducted a comparative testing program. Thorax biofidelity tests were conducted to compare force-deflection characteristics; full frontal rigid-barrier tests were conducted at 40, 48 and 56 km/h to compare chest responses, and out-of-position chest on module static airbag deployment tests were conducted to compare peak chest deflections of the Denton and FTSS dummy jackets and of a prototype jacket without breasts. Differences in force-deflection characteristics were observed during biofidelity pendulum impacts of the two dummies, with much of the differences attributed to the different chest jackets. Differences of up to 11 mm in the peak sternum deflection and of the order of 15 g for the 3-ms chest acceleration clips were noted in rigid-barrier vehicle tests. In the out-of-position airbag-deployment tests, differences in the magnitude of peak chest deflections were observed. The prototype chest jacket without breasts was found to improve repeatability in the belted crash tests and in out-of-position airbag testing. Though neither the Denton nor the FTSS chest jackets fully meet the original design intent of the Hybrid III 5th percentile dummy, the Denton dummy more closely met the drawing specifications and had less manufacturing variability. The results demonstrate the importance of detailed chest flesh assembly specifications, provide evidence that a fully molded jacket design would eliminate manufacturing variability and suggest that removal of the breasts may further improve test repeatability.

  9. Nutritional status among adolescent girls in children's homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole

    2017-03-25

    Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B 12 , C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Catherine Dahm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA, may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. METHODS: 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC, and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WC(BMI, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men and women, respectively. Fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA tended to be positively associated with changes in weight and WC for both sexes. Patterns with high levels of n-6 LC-PUFA tended to be negatively associated with changes in weight and WC in men, and positively associated in women. Associations with patterns with high levels of n-3 LC-PUFA were dependent on the context of the rest of the fatty acid pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with high levels of TFA may be linked to weight gain, but patterns with high n-3 LC-PUFA did not appear to be linked to weight loss. Associations depended on characteristics of the rest of the pattern.

  11. Craniofacial Morphology and Growth Comparisons in Children With Robin Sequence, Isolated Cleft Palate, and Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N. V.; Kreiborg, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of early craniofacial morphology and growth in children with nonsyndromic Robin Sequence (RS), isolated cleft palate (ICP), and unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP). Subjects: One hundred eight children with cleft: 7 with RS, 53 with ICP, and 48 with UCCLP were...... included in the study. The children were drawn from the group of all Danish children with cleft born 1976 through 1981. Method: Three-projection infant cephalometry. Results: The craniofacial morphology in the RS, ICP, and UCCLP groups had some common characteristics: a wide maxilla with decreased length...

  12. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic

  13. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  14. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to maternal infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection ; complications after birth; and head trauma. Some ... an increased risk for many developmental disabilities. Untreated newborn jaundice (high levels of bilirubin in the blood ...

  15. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols. It is also called dyslexia. Causes Developmental reading ... child's early reading skills are based on word recognition. That involves being able to separate out the ...

  16. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  17. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Luigi; Riatti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males) were included in the study (mean age, 12.3 ± 1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years). These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles) with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months). Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7). These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases. PMID:27995136

  18. Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Growth Pattern and Timing of Circumpubertal Skeletal Maturation: A Multiple Regression Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Perinetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the associations between the timing of skeletal maturation and craniofacial growth is of primary importance when planning a functional treatment for most of the skeletal malocclusions. This cross-sectional study was thus aimed at evaluating whether sagittal and vertical craniofacial growth has an association with the timing of circumpubertal skeletal maturation. A total of 320 subjects (160 females and 160 males were included in the study (mean age, 12.3±1.7 years; range, 7.6–16.7 years. These subjects were equally distributed in the circumpubertal cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages 2 to 5. Each CVM stage group also had equal number of females and males. Multiple regression models were run for each CVM stage group to assess the significance of the association of cephalometric parameters (ANB, SN/MP, and NSBa angles with age of attainment of the corresponding CVM stage (in months. Significant associations were seen only for stage 3, where the SN/MP angle was negatively associated with age (β coefficient, −0.7. These results show that hyperdivergent and hypodivergent subjects may have an anticipated and delayed attainment of the pubertal CVM stage 3, respectively. However, such association remains of little entity and it would become clinically relevant only in extreme cases.

  19. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  20. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  1. Feeding issues and interventions in infants and children with clefts and craniofacial syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claire K

    2011-05-01

    Problems with oral feeding occur in varying degrees in infants born with cleft lip/palate and/or craniofacial syndromes. The extent of clefting is associated with the severity of feeding problems, and if cleft lip/palate occurs in conjunction with a craniofacial syndrome, additional structural, airway, and neuromotor issues may be present. The infant's feeding and swallowing skills may be significantly impaired, characterized by inefficient oral feeding skills coupled with poor airway protection ability during swallowing. Inadequate airway protection during swallowing has serious implications for the infant's respiratory health as sequelae of chronic aspiration during feeding may include recurrent respiratory illness, pneumonia, and lung damage. Feeding difficulty in nonsyndromic and syndromic cleft lip/palate infants has been documented as source of considerable stress for parents and can have a potential negative effect on the parent-infant bonding process. Therefore, timely identification of feeding problems by the speech pathologist with subsequent intervention and modification in the feeding method is essential, along with provision of early feeding instruction to families. The objective of this article is to review expert opinion and available evidence regarding factors that influence feeding success and efficiency in infants with nonsyndromic and syndromic cleft lip/palate. The types of compensatory strategies or interventions that are effective in alleviation of feeding and swallowing difficulties will be described. Descriptive reports, expert opinion, and available evidence from clinical trials to support the use of feeding interventions in treatment are reviewed. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  3. A comparative study of craniofacial morphology of cleft lip children with or without palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Su Beom; Kim, Young Ju; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any difference existed in craniofacial morphology between cleft children and normal subjects. Thirty three measurements of the various regions of cranium and face were obtained from lateral cephalometric radiograms in 40 cleft children (27 males, 13 females) and 40 normal subjects (23 males, 17 females) in our dental hospital from Jan. 1988 to Dec. 1995. The measurements were compared with those in control subjects who had no history of craniofacial abnormalities.. The obtained results were as follows; l. In the cranium, the cleft children had significantly shorter posterior cranial base length (S-Ba) and total antero-posterior cranial base length (N-Ba) (P<0.05). 2. In the upper face, the cleft children had significantly shorter upper anterior facial height (N-ANS) and upper posterior facial height (Ptm'-SNL) (P<0.05). 3. In the lower face, the cleft children had significantly shorter antero-posterior mandibular length (Pog-Ar) and antero-posterior mandibular body length (Pog-Go) (P<0.05). 4. In the facial profile, the cleft children had significantly shorter total facial height (N-Me) and posterior facial height (S-Go) (P<0.05).

  4. A neural network approach to the analysis and classification of human craniofacial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, C J; Stellzig, A; Volz, D; Jäger, W; Richardson, A; Komposch, G

    1998-01-01

    Planning of treatment in the field of orthodontics and maxillo-facial surgery is largely dependent on the individual growth of a patient. In the present work, the growth of 43 orthodontically untreated children was analysed by means of lateral cephalograms taken at the ages of 7 and 15. For the description of craniofacial skeletal changes, the concept of tensor analysis and related methods have been applied. Thus the geometric and analytical shortcomings of conventional cephalometric methods have been avoided. Through the use of an artificial neural network, namely self-organizing neural maps, the resultant growth data were classified and the relationships of the various growth patterns were monitored. As a result of self-organization, the 43 children were topologically ordered on the emerging map according to their craniofacial size and shape changes during growth. As a new patient can be allocated on the map, this type of network provides a frame of reference for classifying and analysing previously unknown cases with respect to their growth pattern. If landmarks are used for the determination of growth, the morphometric methods applied as well as the subsequent visualization of the growth data by means of neural networks can be employed for the analysis and classification of growth-related skeletal changes in general.

  5. Craniofacial statistical deformation models of wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron A.; Ersbøll, Bjarne K.; Hermann, Nuno V.; Oubel, Estanislao; Larsen, Rasmus; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Larsen, Per; Perlyn, Chad A.; Morriss-Kay, Gillian M.; Kreiborg, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterised by premature fusion of cranial sutures and synchondroses leading to craniofacial growth disturbances. The gene causing the syndrome was discovered approximately a decade ago and recently the first mouse model of the syndrome was generated. In this study, a set of Micro CT scans of the heads of wild-type (normal) mice and Crouzon mice were investigated. Statistical deformation models were built to assess the anatomical differences between the groups, as well as the within-group anatomical variation. Following the approach by Rueckert et al. we built an atlas using B-spline-based nonrigid registration and subsequently, the atlas was nonrigidly registered to the cases being modelled. The parameters of these registrations were then used as input to a PCA. Using different sets of registration parameters, different models were constructed to describe (i) the difference between the two groups in anatomical variation and (ii) the within-group variation. These models confirmed many known traits in the wild-type and Crouzon mouse craniofacial anatomy. However, they also showed some new traits.

  6. Risk reduction in craniofacial surgery using computer-based modeling and intraoperative immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salb, Tobias; Burgert, Oliver; Gockel, Tilo; Brief, Jakob; Hassfeld, Stefan; Muehling, Joachim; Dillmann, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    We present a two-stage concept for risk reduction in craniofacial surgery, consisting of preoperative risk modeling and intraoperative risk reduction. Preoperatively it is important to find and to visualize risk sources in order to minimize them. Our risk model is composed by superimposition of an isotropic risk potential and an anisotropic tissue field constituent. It is being applied to preoperative planning and simulation of craniofacial surgeries, for example to determine an access path with least overall risk value. In the operation room risks arise mainly from the absence of preoperative planning and simulation data in the operation field. We use a see-through head-mounted display to optimize this situation in order to allow the surgeon to maintain accuracy in the whole process of computer aided surgery. Main steps of the intraoperative immersion are optical tracking of the surgeon wearing the head-mounted display and of the patient, registration of preoperatively calculated planning data with the patient and visualization of the data within the glasses.

  7. Long-term outcomes of craniofacial implants for the restoration of facial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, S S; Breik, O; Cadd, B; Peart, G; Wiesenfeld, D; Heggie, A; Gibbons, S D; Nastri, A

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term survival of craniofacial implants and prostheses and to identify factors associated with failure in a cohort of patients. A 25-year retrospective analysis was conducted at Royal Melbourne Hospital. Data included demographic characteristics, age, site and cause of the deformity, and number and survival of implants. Odds ratios were calculated and event-to-time Kaplan-Meier analyses performed. One hundred and ten patients were included (341 implants); their mean age was 46.2 years. The overall implant survival rate was 79.5% (mean follow-up 10.6 years). Temporal implants had the highest success rate (97.0%), followed by nasal implants (87.5%) and orbital implants (63.3%); differences were statistically significant (Pimplant and prosthesis survival found temporal implants had the highest prosthetic (Pimplant survival (Pimplant failure (P=0.02). Craniofacial implant-retained prostheses are a reliable and effective option for the restoration of facial defects, with good long-term success rates. Orbital implants and those placed post oncological surgery have a higher failure rate. Copyright © 2018 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CT interpretation of craniofacial anomalies: a comparative analysis by undergraduate dental students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaia, Bruno Felipe; Perella, Andreia; Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet de; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) image interpretation made in axial slices (2D-CT) and 3D reconstructed images (3D-CT) of patients with craniofacial anomalies. The analyses were made by undergraduate dental students, and compared with the diagnoses considered upon surgical intervention. Computed tomography of 43 patients were analyzed independently by three calibrated examiners (undergraduate students) with, respectively, one, two, and three semesters of experience in craniofacial CT training and interpretation. The analysis of 2D-CT and 3D-CT images were performed at distinct times using an independent workstation associated with a specific computer graphics software for volumetric images. The analysis of inter-examiner agreement and of the agreement between observers and the gold standard was performed using the Kappa test. The accuracy evaluation presented a progressively higher value for examiners with progressively broader experience in 2D-CT and 3D-CT image interpretation. 3D-CT analyses allowed a higher inter-examiner agreement (1 - 0.896) than 2D-CT analyses (1 - 0.614). 3D-CT was considered more precise and accurate than 2D-CT for all students' evaluations. The reproducibility and accuracy varied according to the experience in CT interpretation, and the most experienced student achieved results closer to the gold standard. (author)

  9. Stress and psychological constructs related to eating behavior are associated with anthropometry and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootman, Katie C; Guertin, Kristin A; Cassano, Patricia A

    2018-01-05

    The transition to college is associated with weight gain, but the relation between eating behavior indicators and anthropometric outcomes during this period remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate sex differences in stress, emotional eating, tendency to overeat, and restrained eating behavior, and determine whether the psycho-behavioral constructs assessed immediately prior to starting college are associated with anthropometry and adiposity at the start of college, and with first-semester weight gain. A prospective study administered the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), Satter Eating Competence Inventory, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to 264 participants one month before college. Body composition was assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the start of college, and anthropometry (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) was collected at the beginning and end of the first semester. Ordinary least squares regression tested the cross-sectional association of baseline psychological and behavioral scales with baseline DXA and anthropometry, and the longitudinal association with change in anthropometry. Among 264 participants, 91% (241) had baseline data, and 66% (173) completed follow-up. In sex-adjusted linear regression models, baseline TFEQ disinhibited and emotional (DE; EE) eating sub-scales were positively associated with baseline weight (P = 0.003; DE, P = 0.014; EE), body mass index (BMI, P = 0.002; DE, P = 0.001; EE), WC (P = 0.004; DE, P = 0.006; EE) and DXA fat mass index (P = 0.023; DE, P = 0.014; EE). Baseline PSS was positively associated with subsequent changes in weight and WC among males only (P interaction  = 0.0268 and 0.0017 for weight and WC, respectively). College freshmen with questionnaire scores indicating a greater tendency to overeat in response to external cues and emotions tended to have greater weight, BMI, and WC at the start of college. Males with higher perceived stress at college

  10. El polimetilmetacrilato en la reconstrucción craneofacial The polymethylmethacrylate in the craniofacial repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel Peñón Vivas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales constituye un reto para el cirujano maxilofacial. Si bien existe una amplia gama de materiales para la reconstrucción, cada cual tiene ventajas y desventajas además de indicaciones para su utilización. Por lo que nos hemos dado a la tarea de emplear el polimetilmetacrilato como una opción económica y efectiva en la reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales. Con este objetivo se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, no comparativo, en el Servicio de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Universitario "Miguel Enríquez" en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2008. Se incluyeron un total de 14 pacientes, los cuales recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico para la reconstrucción craneofacial mediante el empleo del polimetilmetacrilato. El mayor número de pacientes que recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico para la reconstrucción craneofacial con polimetilmetacrilato se encontró en el grupo de 16 a 25 años de edad, con un predominio del sexo masculino y mayor afectación de los pacientes de color de piel blanca. En todos los casos estudiados la etiología de la deformidad fue traumática; dentro de ellos el mayor por ciento le correspondió a los accidentes viales, seguido de los causados por violencia. El diagnóstico que predominó fue el de las fracturas orbitomalares de grado IV. El piso de órbita fue la localización o estructura más reconstruida. Se presentaron únicamente como complicaciones, la infección y la colección subcutánea. El polimetilmetacrilato es un material económico y efectivo que permite obtener excelentes resultados estéticos y funcionales en la reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales adquiridos.The repair of craniofacial defects is a challenge for the maxillofacial surgeon. There are a great range of materials for reconstruction, where each has advantages and disadvantages as well as indications for its use. Polymethylmethacrylate is an

  11. Identifying Low Muscle Mass in Patients with Hip Fracture: Validation of Biolectrical Impedance Analysis and Anthropometry Compared to Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, O M; Gjesdal, C G; Bogen, B; Ranhoff, A H

    2016-01-01

    Older hip fracture patients often have reduced muscle mass, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can determine muscle mass, but is not practical in the acute phase. We investigated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry compared against DXA for detecting low muscle mass in hip fracture patients. This was a cross-sectional validation study at two Norwegian hospitals on 162 hip fracture patients aged ≥ 65 years. Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was determined by DXA, BIA and anthropometry 3 months after hip fracture. ALM by BIA was calculated by the Kyle, Janssen, Tengvall and Sergi equations, and ALM by anthropometry by the Heymsfield and Villani equations. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare BIA and anthropometry for determining low ALM (≤5.67 kg/m2 for women and ≤7.25kg/m2 for men). Mean age was 79 years (SD 7.9), 74% were female. Mean ALM by DXA was 14.8 kg (SD 2.3) for women and 20.8 kg (SD 4.2) for men and 45% of women and 60% of men had low ALM. BIA (Kyle) in women (AUC 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.89) and BIA (Sergi) in men (AUC 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) were best able to discriminate between low and normal ALM. Anthropometry (Heymsfield) was less accurate than BIA in women (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.75), and equal to BIA in men (AUC 0.72, 95% CI 0.72 0.56-0.87). BIA (Sergi, Kyle and Tengvall) and anthropometry (Heymsfield) can identify low muscle mass in hip fracture patients.

  12. Body composition assessment in infancy and early childhood: comparison of anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in low-income group children from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, B; Mamidi, R S; Balakrishna, N; Radhakrishna, K V

    2014-06-01

    Anthropometry is a simple, inexpensive method of body composition assessment, but its validity has not been examined adequately in young children. The study therefore compared the body composition estimates using anthropometry with those using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in infants and young children. Body composition estimates using anthropometry and DXA were assessed and compared at 6, 12 and 18 months in a cohort of 137 infants enrolled at birth. Fat mass (FM) and body fat percent (%BF) estimates by anthropometry were lower than those using DXA. Mean differences (DXA-skinfold thickness) in FM, fat free mass (FFM) and %BF were highest at 6 months (350 g, -226 g and 4%, respectively); the differences reduced with increase in age and were lowest at 18 months (46 g, 56 g and 0%, respectively). Bland-Altman analyses showed good agreement between the FM, FFM and %BF estimates by the two methods only at 18 months. Accretion of FM and FFM during follow-up, estimated by the two methods, was significantly different, with agreement between the methods seen only for increment in FFM from 6 to 12 months. Substantial differences were found in the body composition estimates by anthropometry compared with DXA and also in the longitudinally assessed tissue accretion patterns by the two methods. As the body composition patterns may be influenced by the method used for body composition assessment, results of studies assessing body composition by anthropometry during infancy should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Nutrition, anthropometry, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor I and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in children during stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, B. U.; Pærregaard, Anders; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate anthropometry, nutrition and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and to characterize the relation between these parameters and the inflammatory activity evaluated by plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor I (sTNFRI) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) levels...... during stem cell transplantation (SCT) in children. Clinical assessments and blood sampling were performed on days -3, 0, +7, +15 and +31 in eight children undergoing SCT. Energy intake, anthropometry, gastrointestinal dysfunction (WHO toxicity score) and sTNFRI and IL-1Ra were evaluated. The energy...

  14. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  15. Influence of craniofacial and upper spine morphology on mandibular advancement device treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess cephalometric predictive markers in terms of craniofacial morphology including posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology for mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.......01), mandibular prognathism (S-N-Pg; P important factor for the MAD...

  16. Does postoperative 'M' technique (R) massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants' distress after major craniofacial surgery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marjan; Lucas, Cees; Bredero, Hansje; van Adrichem, Leon; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2012-01-01

    de jong m., lucas c., bredero h., van adrichem l., tibboel d. & van dijk m. (2011) Does postoperative M technique (R) massage with or without mandarin oil reduce infants distress after major craniofacial surgery? Journal of Advanced Nursing68(6), 17481757. Abstract Aim. This article is a report of a

  17. Craniofacial morphology of Dutch patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate and noncleft controls at the age of 15 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, G.M.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Prahl-Andersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of craniofacial morphology in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients to that of a noncleft control group at the age of 15 years. Design: A cross-sectional study of cephalometric data. Subjects and Methods: Cephalometric records of 41 consecutive patients (32 boys and 9 girls)

  18. Postnatal treatment factors affecting craniofacial morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M K; Iida, J; Sato, Y; Kajii, Takashi S

    2013-12-01

    We have evaluated the craniofacial morphology of Japanese patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and assessed the various postnatal factors that affect it. Lateral cephalograms of 140 subjects (mean (SD) aged 7 (2) years) with UCLP were taken before orthodontic treatment. Surgeons from Hokkaido University Hospital had done the primary operations. The craniofacial morphology was assessed by angular and linear cephalometric measurements. Cheiloplasty, palatoplasty, and preoperative orthopaedic treatment were chosen as postnatal factors. To compare the assessments of the postnatal factors, we made angular and linear cephalometric measurements for each subject and converted them into Z scores in relation to the mean (SD) of the two variables. Subjects treated by the modified Millard cheiloplasty had larger sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and nasion-point A-pogonion (NA-POG) measurements than subjects treated by the modified Millard with a vomer flap cheiloplasty. Two-stage palatoplasty showed consistently better craniofacial morphology than the other palatoplasty. Subjects who had preoperative orthopaedic treatment with a Hotz plate had significantly larger upper incisor/sella-nasion (U1-SN) measurements than who had no preoperative orthopaedic treatment or an active plate. We conclude that in subjects treated by a modified Millard type of cheiloplasty, a two-stage palatoplasty, and a Hotz plate there were fewer adverse effects on craniofacial morphology. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computational mouse atlases and their application to automatic assessment of craniofacial dysmorphology caused by the Crouzon mutation Fgfr2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    2007-01-01

    scannings of the skulls of wild-type mice and Crouzon mice were analysed with respect to the dysmorphology caused by Crouzon syndrome. A computational craniofacial atlas was built automatically from the set of wild-type mouse Micro CT volumes using (i) affine and (ii) nonrigid image registration...

  20. Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, H.G.; Kim, H.T.; Leach, N.T.; Lan, F.; Ullmann, R.; Silahtaroglu, A.; Kurth, I.; Nowka, A.; Seong, I.S.; Shen, Y.; Talkowski, M.E.; Ruderfer, D.; Lee, J.H.; Glotzbach, C.; Ha, K.; Kjaergaard, S.; Levin, A.V.; Romeike, B.F.; Kleefstra, T.; Bartsch, O.; Elsea, S.H.; Jabs, E.W.; MacDonald, M.E.; Harris, D.J.; Quade, B.J.; Ropers, H.H.; Shaffer, L.G.; Kutsche, K.; Layman, L.C.; Tommerup, N.; Kalscheuer, V.M.; Shi, Y.; Morton, C.C.; Kim, C.H.; Gusella, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS) is a contiguous gene disorder due to the interstitial deletion of band p11.2 of chromosome 11 and is characterized by multiple exostoses, parietal foramina, intellectual disability (ID), and craniofacial anomalies (CFAs). Despite the identification of individual genes

  1. Three-dimensional facial analysis in acromegaly: a novel tool to quantify craniofacial characteristics after long-term remission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, M.A.E.M.; Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Maal, T.J.J.; Pelleboer, R.H.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Berge, S.J.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Xi, T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The exact quantification of craniofacial characteristics in patients with acromegaly is important because it provides insight in the pathophysiology of the disease and offers a tool to evaluate the effects of treatment on tissue specific endpoints. However, until recently this was not

  2. Craniofacial morphology, head posture, and nasal respiratory resistance in obstructive sleep apnoea : An inter-ethnic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.L.; Sandham, John; Ang, PK; Wong, DC; Tan, WC; Huggare, J

    The aim of this study was to measure craniofacial morphology and nasal respiratory resistance (NRR) in Malay, Indian and Chinese subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The sample consisted of 34 male subjects, 27-52 years of age (Malay n = 11, which included five mild and six moderate-severe

  3. Application of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing-Fabricated Artificial Bone in the Reconstruction of Craniofacial Bone Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqiang; Yao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zixian; Chen, Yuhong; Ji, Chenyang; Zhang, Jinming

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of individual craniofacial bone fabrications using computer-assisted design (CAD)-computer-assisted manufacturing technology for the reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects. A total of 8 patients diagnosed with craniofacial bone defects were enrolled in this study between May 2007 and August 2010. After computed tomography scans were obtained, the patients were fitted with artificial bone that was created using CAD software, rapid prototyping technology, and epoxy-methyl acrylate resin and hydroxyapatite materials. The fabrication was fixed to the defect area with titanium screws, and soft tissue defects were repaired if necessary. The fabrications were precisely fixed to the defect areas, and all wounds healed well without any serious complications except for 1 case with intraoral incision dehiscence, which required further treatment. Postoperative curative effects were retrospectively observed after 6 to 48 months, acceptable anatomic and cosmetic outcomes were obtained, and no rejections or other complications occurred. The use of CAD-computer-assisted manufacturing technology-assisted epoxy-methyl acrylate resin and hydroxyapatite composite artificial bone to treat patients with craniofacial bone defects could enable the precise reconstruction of these defects and obtain good anatomic and cosmetic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of Gestational Age, Using Neonatal Anthropometry: A Cross-sectional Study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Rajat; Faridi, M.M.A.; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Prematurity is a significant contributor to neonatal mortality in India. Conventionally, assessment of gestational age of newborns is based on New Ballard Technique, for which a paediatric specialist is needed. Anthropometry of the newborn, especially birthweight, has been used in the past to predict the gestational age of the neonate in peripheral health facilities where a trained paediatrician is often not available. We aimed to determine if neonatal anthropometric parameters, viz. birthweight, crown heel-length, head-circumference, mid-upper arm-circumference, lower segment-length, foot-length, umbilical nipple distance, calf-circumference, intermammary distance, and hand-length, can reliably predict the gestational age. The study also aimed to derive an equation for the same. We also assessed if these neonatal anthropometric parameters had a better prediction of gestational age when used in combination compared to individual parameters. We evaluated 1,000 newborns in a cross-sectional study conducted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital in Delhi. Detailed anthropometric estimation of the neonates was done within 48 hours after birth, using standard techniques. Gestational age was estimated using New Ballard Scoring. Out of 1,250 consecutive neonates, 1,000 were included in the study. Of them, 800 randomly-selected newborns were used in devising the model, and the remaining 200 newborns were used in validating the final model. Quadratic regression analysis using stepwise selection was used in building the predictive model. Birthweight (R=0.72), head-circumference (R=0.60), and mid-upper arm-circumference (R=0.67) were found highly correlated with gestation. The final equation to assess gestational age was as follows: Gestational age (weeks)=5.437×W–0.781×W2+2.815×HC–0.041×HC2+0.285×MUAC–22.745 where W=Weight, HC=Head-circumference and MUAC=Mid-upper arm-circumference; Adjusted R=0.76. On validation, the predictability of this equation is 46% (±1 week), 75

  5. Anthropometry and head and neck cancer:a pooled analysis of cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kitahara, Cari M; Newton, Christina C; Bernstein, Leslie; Reynolds, Peggy; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kreimer, Aimée R; Yang, Gong; Adami, Hans-Olov; Alavanja, Michael C; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Boeing, Heiner; Buring, Julie; Chaturvedi, Anil; Chen, Yu; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Freedman, Michal; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Håkansson, Niclas; Huang, Wen-Yi; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S; MacInnis, Robert J; Park, Yikyung; Prizment, Anna; Purdue, Mark P; Riboli, Elio; Robien, Kim; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Ou Shu, Xiao; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zelenuich-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Patel, Alpa V; Hartge, Patricia; Berrington de González, Amy; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    Associations between anthropometry and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk are inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate these associations while minimizing biases found in previous studies. We pooled data from 1,941,300 participants, including 3760 cases, in 20 cohort studies and used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of anthropometric measures with HNC risk overall and stratified by smoking status. Greater waist circumference (per 5 cm: HR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05, P-value for trend = <0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (per 0.1 unit: HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, P-value for trend = <0.0001), adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were associated with higher risk and did not vary by smoking status (P-value for heterogeneity = 0.85 and 0.44, respectively). Associations with BMI (P-value for interaction = <0.0001) varied by smoking status. Larger BMI was associated with higher HNC risk in never smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24, P-value for trend = 0.0006), but not in former smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.06, P-value for trend = 0.79) or current smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.82, P-value for trend = <0.0001). Larger hip circumference was not associated with a higher HNC risk. Greater height (per 5 cm) was associated with higher risk of HNC in never and former smokers, but not in current smokers. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were associated positively with HNC risk regardless of smoking status, whereas a positive association with BMI was only found in never smokers. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Antropometría recumbente en personas ancianas Recumbent anthropometry in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Ojea Menéndez

    2008-06-01

    statistical significance, even for the indexes calculated starting from them. Recumbent anthropometry is an easy and reliable method that may be applied to evaluate the nutritional state in the elderly, or in any other group with limitations to undergo the anthropometric evaluation standing.

  7. [Quantification of visceral adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging compared with anthropometry, in type 2 diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano García, Cristóbal; Barrera, Francisco; Labbé, Pilar; Liberona, Jessica; Arrese, Marco; Irarrázabal, Pablo; Tejos, Cristián; Uribe, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with the development of metabolic diseases. Anthropometry is one of the methods used to quantify it. to evaluate the relationship between visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and anthropometric indexes, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in type 2 diabetic patients (DM2). Twenty four type 2 diabetic patients aged 55 to 78 years (15 females) and weighting 61.5 to 97 kg, were included. The patients underwent MRI examination on a Philips Intera® 1.5T MR scanner. The MRI protocol included a spectral excitation sequence centered at the fat peak. The field of view included from L4-L5 to the diaphragmatic border. VAT was measured using the software Image J®. Weight, height, BMI, WC and body fat percentage (BF%), derived from the measurement of four skinfolds with the equation of Durnin and Womersley, were also measured. The association between MRIVAT measurement and anthropometry was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Mean VAT was 2478 ± 758 ml, mean BMI29.5 ± 4.7 kg/m², and mean WC was 100 ± 9.7 cm. There was a poor correlation between VAT, BMI (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.56). BMI and WC are inaccurate predictors of VAT volume in type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. Body surface assessment with 3D laser-based anthropometry: reliability, validation, and improvement of empirical surface formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnapfel, Andreas; Ahnert, Peter; Loeffler, Markus; Scholz, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Body surface area is a physiological quantity relevant for many medical applications. In clinical practice, it is determined by empirical formulae. 3D laser-based anthropometry provides an easy and effective way to measure body surface area but is not ubiquitously available. We used data from laser-based anthropometry from a population-based study to assess validity of published and commonly used empirical formulae. We performed a large population-based study on adults collecting classical anthropometric measurements and 3D body surface assessments (N = 1435). We determined reliability of the 3D body surface assessment and validity of 18 different empirical formulae proposed in the literature. The performance of these formulae is studied in subsets of sex and BMI. Finally, improvements of parameter settings of formulae and adjustments for sex and BMI were considered. 3D body surface measurements show excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of 0.998 (overall concordance correlation coefficient, OCCC was used as measure of agreement). Empirical formulae of Fujimoto and Watanabe, Shuter and Aslani and Sendroy and Cecchini performed best with excellent concordance with OCCC > 0.949 even in subgroups of sex and BMI. Re-parametrization of formulae and adjustment for sex and BMI slightly improved results. In adults, 3D laser-based body surface assessment is a reliable alternative to estimation by empirical formulae. However, there are empirical formulae showing excellent results even in subgroups of sex and BMI with only little room for improvement.

  9. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  10. Assessment of Body Composition Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Comparison with Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Han; Lee, Jeong A; Kim, Jin A; Lee, Mun Woo; Chae, Hee Bok; Choi, Won Jun; Shin, Hyoung Shik; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Youn, Sei Jin; Koong, Sung Soo; Park, Seon Mee

    1999-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate changes of body composition in cirrhotic patients. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and anthropometry were used, and the values obtained were compared. Methods Mid-arm fat and muscle areas were calculated by anthropometry in 66 cirrhotic patients and 94 healthy controls. In 37 of the cirrhotic patients and 39 of the controls, fat mass, lean soft tissue mass and bone mineral contents were measured with DEXA. Results The number of cirrhotic patients with measured values below the fifth percentile of normal controls was 21 (31.8%) by mid-arm fat area, six (9.1%) by mid-arm muscle area, 15 (40.5%) by fat mass and 0 (0%) by lean soft tissue mass. The fat mass in cirrhotic patients was less than in controls, whereas lean soft tissue mass and bone mineral content were not different. Fat depletion was severe in Child-class C patients and with severe ascites. Mid-arm fat area and fat mass showed close correlation (r = 0.85, p<0.01), but mid-arm muscle area and lean soft tissue mass showed poor correlation (r = 0.32, p<0.05). Conclusion Cirrhotic patients showed lower fat component, with preserved lean soft tissue mass and bone mineral content. In clinical practice, the measurement of mid-arm fat area was useful for the assessment of fat mass. PMID:10461427

  11. Anthropometry-corrected exposure modeling as a method to improve trunk posture assessment with a single inclinometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driel, Robin; Trask, Catherine; Johnson, Peter W; Callaghan, Jack P; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Measuring trunk posture in the workplace commonly involves subjective observation or self-report methods or the use of costly and time-consuming motion analysis systems (current gold standard). This work compared trunk inclination measurements using a simple data-logging inclinometer with trunk flexion measurements using a motion analysis system, and evaluated adding measures of subject anthropometry to exposure prediction models to improve the agreement between the two methods. Simulated lifting tasks (n=36) were performed by eight participants, and trunk postures were simultaneously measured with each method. There were significant differences between the two methods, with the inclinometer initially explaining 47% of the variance in the motion analysis measurements. However, adding one key anthropometric parameter (lower arm length) to the inclinometer-based trunk flexion prediction model reduced the differences between the two systems and accounted for 79% of the motion analysis method's variance. Although caution must be applied when generalizing lower-arm length as a correction factor, the overall strategy of anthropometric modeling is a novel contribution. In this lifting-based study, by accounting for subject anthropometry, a single, simple data-logging inclinometer shows promise for trunk posture measurement and may have utility in larger-scale field studies where similar types of tasks are performed.

  12. Factors associated with mercury levels in human placenta and the relationship to neonatal anthropometry in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Phylicia; Fletcher, Horace; Voutchkov, Mitko

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mercury levels in human placenta and its relationship to neonatal anthropometry for a group of selected pregnant women in Kingston and Manchester in Jamaica and St. Joseph in Trinidad & Tobago. The participants were interviewed on their fish intake. Neonatal anthropometric data were also recorded. The placental mercury concentrations ranged from 0.64±0.5μg/kg to 1.4±0.6μg/kg. The most significant associated factor for prenatal mercury exposure was maternal fish intake. Those pregnant women who regularly ate shark recorded the highest placenta mercury concentrations. Their neonates also had slightly smaller mean head circumference and lower birth weight. The mean placental mercury concentrations in this study were found to be lower than the literature values. Therefore it was difficult to detect any significant changes in neonatal anthropometry. This type of study can contribute to the extent of mercury exposure in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  14. Effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation method to predict postpeak circumpubertal growth of craniofacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess effectiveness of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to predict circumpubertal craniofacial growth in the postpeak period. The CVM stage was determined in 176 subjects (51 adolescent boys and 125 adolescent girls) on cephalograms taken at the end of treatment (T2; mean ages, 15.75 years [boys] and 15.23 years [girls]) in subjects from the postretention database at the University of Washington in Seattle. Craniofacial growth was evaluated from the following measurements on cephalograms at T2 and end of follow-up (T3) (mean ages, 29.01 years [men] and 28.08 years [women]): condylion to gnathion, condylion to gonion, gonion to gnathion, sella to gnathion, nasion to menton, anterior nasal spine to menton, and sella to gonion. The change of each variable from T2 to T3 was assessed with paired t tests. Parametric (t tests or analysis of variance [ANOVA]) or nonparametric (Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to detect intergroup differences. One hundred eight subjects (35 boys, 73 girls) demonstrated CVM stage 3, 56 (16 boys, 40 girls) were in CVM stage 4, and 12 (all girls) were in CVM stage 5 at T2. Intrasex comparisons showed that boys in CVM stages 3 and 4 could be differentiated regarding changes of all variables. In the girls, only those in CVM stages 3 and 4 could be differentiated based on the amount of changes of 2 measurements: condylion to gonion and sella to gonion. Intersex comparisons showed that boys in CVM stage 3 had significantly more changes than girls (P <0.01). Boys in CVM stage 4 showed significant differences compared with girls in CVM stage 4 for only 2 variables (sella to gonion and condylion to gonion; P <0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). The CVM method was modestly effective in determining the amount of postpeak circumpubertal craniofacial growth. Copyright 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiographic cephalometry analysis of head posture and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Vladanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nasal breathing plays an important role in overall physical growth and mental development, as well as in the growth of the craniofacial complex. Oral breathing over a long period of time, can cause changes in position of the head relative to the cervical spine and jaw relationship. It can cause an open bite and the narrowness of the maxillary arch due to increased pressure of strained face. The aim of this study was to analyze the position of the head and craniofacial morphology in oral breathing children, and compare the values obtained compared with those of the same parameters in nasal brething children. Methods. We analyzed the profile cephalometric radiographs of 60 patients who had various orthodontic problems. In the first group there were 30 patients aged 8–14 years, in which oral breathing is confirmed by clinical examination. In the second group there were 30 patients of the same age who had orthodontic problems, but did not show clinical signs of oral breathing. The analyses covered the following: craniocervical angle (NS/OPT, the length of the anterior cranial base (NS, anterior facial height (N-Me, posterior facial height (S-Go, the angle of maxillary prognathism (SNA, angle of mandibular prognathism (SNB, difference between angles SNA and SNB (ANB angle, the angle of the basal planes of the jaws (SpP/MP, cranial base angle (NSB, and the angle of facial convexity (NA/Apg. Results. The average value of the craniocervical angle (NS/OPT was significantly higher in OB children (p = 0.004. There were significantly different values of SNA (p < 0.001, ANB (p < 0.001, NA/APg (p < 0.001 and length of the anterior cranial base (NS (p = 0.024 between groups. Conclusion. Oral breathing children have pronounced retroflexion of the head in relation to the cervical spine compared to nasal breathing children, and the most prominent characteristics of the craniofacial morphology of skeletal jaw relationship of class II and

  16. Facial Phenotyping by Quantitative Photography Reflects Craniofacial Morphology Measured on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Icelandic Sleep Apnea Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Schwab, Richard J.; Maislin, Greg; Lee, Richard W.W.; Benedikstdsottir, Bryndis; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) To determine whether facial phenotype, measured by quantitative photography, relates to underlying craniofacial obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk factors, measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) To assess whether these associations are independent of body size and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional cohort. Setting: Landspitali, The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants: One hundred forty patients (87.1% male) from the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who had both calibrated frontal and profile craniofacial photographs and upper airway MRI. Mean ± standard deviation age 56.1 ± 10.4 y, body mass index 33.5 ± 5.05 kg/m2, with on-average severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index 45.4 ± 19.7 h-1). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relationships between surface facial dimensions (photos) and facial bony dimensions and upper airway soft-tissue volumes (MRI) was assessed using canonical correlation analysis. Photo and MRI craniofacial datasets related in four significant canonical correlations, primarily driven by measurements of (1) maxillary-mandibular relationship (r = 0.8, P photography and MRI. This study confirms that facial photographic phenotype reflects underlying aspects of craniofacial skeletal abnormalities associated with OSA. Therefore, facial photographic phenotyping may be a useful tool to assess intermediate phenotypes for OSA, particularly in large-scale studies. Citation: Sutherland K, Schwab RJ, Maislin G, Lee RW, Benedikstdsottir B, Pack AI, Gislason T, Juliusson S, Cistulli PA. Facial phenotyping by quantitative photography reflects craniofacial morphology measured on magnetic resonance imaging in icelandic sleep apnea patients. SLEEP 2014;37(5):959-968. PMID:24790275

  17. CranFlow: An Application for Record-Taking and Management Through the Brazilian Database on Craniofacial Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe-Aquino, Roberta M; Monlleó, Isabella L; Lustosa-Mendes, Elaine; Mora, Amanda F; Fett-Conte, Agnes C; Félix, Têmis M; Xavier, Ana C; Tonocchi, Rita; Ribeiro, Erlane M; Pereira, Rui; Boy da Silva, Raquel T; de Rezende, Adriana A; Cavalcanti, Denise P; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera L

    2018-01-15

    The World Health Organization has recognized the relevance of databases on craniofacial anomalies since . To date, there is no universal standard instrument/database focused on risk factors, clinical and genetic data collection, and follow-up that enables comparison between different populations and genotype-phenotype correlation. Although studies have shown that specific genes would impact outcomes, knowledge is not sufficient to subsidize cost-effectiveness strategies for diagnosis, surgical decision, and a multi-professional approach toward personalized medicine. Based on a clinical genetic approach, a Web-based application named CranFlow-Craniofacial Anomalies: Registration, Flow, and Management has been developed. It prospectively collects clinical and genetic information for the Brazilian Database on Craniofacial Anomalies (syndromic and nonsyndromic orofacial cleft, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and other craniofacial related disorders). A comprehensive list of CranFlow's features is provided. We present preliminary results on 1546 cases already recorded and followed, which allows recognizing 10% of diagnosis changes. The identification of risk factors, consistent genetic approach associated with clinical data and follow-up result in valuable information to develop and improve personalized treatment and studies on genotype-phenotype correlation. Adoption of CranFlow in different clinical services may support comparison between populations. This application has the potential to contribute to improvements in healthcare, quality of services, clinical and surgical outcomes, and the standard of living of individuals with craniofacial anomalies. Birth Defects Research 110:72-80, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  19. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...

  20. Dental and craniofacial findings in 91 individuals with agenesis of permanent maxillary canines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, K P; Kjær, I

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is a rare form of agenesis (prevalence 0.07-0.13%). The aetiology is still unknown. The purpose was to focus on dentitions and craniofacial profiles in individuals with maxillary canine agenesis. METHOD: From 91 individuals (10-18 years of age) 91...... Orthopantomograms and 77 profile radiographs were divided accordingly: Group I: agenesis of 1 or 2 maxillary canines. Group II: several ageneses including the maxillary canines. Dentition analysis included crown/root shape, invaginations, eruption disturbances and resorption patterns. Cephalometric angular...... measurements and mutual comparisons between the groups were performed. Agenesis pattern in Group II was compared to agenesis pattern in a population of children and young adults not characterized by maxillary canine agenesis. Cephalometric values from both groups were compared to normal values from individuals...

  1. Craniofacial morphology, dentition, and skeletal maturity in four siblings with Seckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, I; Hansen, N; Becktor, K B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the craniofacial morphology, dentition, and hand maturity in four siblings with Seckel syndrome. PATIENTS: Two boys and two girls, with Seckel syndrome. The children studied showed extreme growth retardation, severe microcephaly, bird-headed profile with receding chin...... malformations were observed. Taurodontic root morphology was observed only in the girls. The approximate skeletal maturity showed retardation from 4 years 3 months to 4 years 11 months. Malformations of the hand-wrist skeleton occurred in the epiphyseal ossification centers of the middle phalangeal bone...... in the second, third, and fourth finger and in the distal phalangeal bone in the fifth finger. The epiphyseal ossification centers were lacking in the middle and distal phalangeal bones of the fifth finger. CONCLUSION: The underlying gene defect in the affected children seemingly affects bone development...

  2. Frontal sinus obliteration and craniofacial reconstruction with platelet rich plasma in a patient with fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Caridad, J J; Juiz-Lopez, P; Rubio-Rodriguez, J P

    2006-01-01

    Frontal sinus obliteration is accomplished with many materials such as fat, bone, muscle and alloplasts. Fat obliteration is very common but not devoid of morbidity. An alternative method of treatment with PRP platelet rich plasma and human bank bone or autogenous cortical shavings is presented for obliteration and craniofacial repair. A patient with severe symptomatic fronto-orbital fibrous dysplasia underwent reconstruction with PRP. After an uneventful recovery there was complete remission of the symptoms and early bone formation; 18 months after surgery the patient remains asymptomatic and free from sequels. PRP associated to an allograft or to cortical bone shavings seems to be a safe and simple treatment with the advantage of the absence of donor site surgery and morbidity.

  3. Effect of Injection Molding Melt Temperatures on PLGA Craniofacial Plate Properties during In Vitro Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Pimenta de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present mechanical and physicochemical properties during in vitro degradation of PLGA material as craniofacial plates based on different values of injection molded temperatures. Injection molded plates were submitted to in vitro degradation in a thermostat bath at 37 ± 1°C by 16 weeks. The material was removed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; then bending stiffness, crystallinity, molecular weights, and viscoelasticity were studied. A significant decrease of molecular weight and mechanical properties over time and a difference in FT-IR after 60 days showed faster degradation of the material in the geometry studied. DSC analysis confirmed that the crystallization occurred, especially in higher melt temperature condition. DMA analysis suggests a greater contribution of the viscous component of higher temperature than lower temperature in thermomechanical behavior. The results suggest that physical-mechanical properties of PLGA plates among degradation differ per injection molding temperatures.

  4. Matrices and scaffolds for drug delivery in dental, oral and craniofacial tissue engineering☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moioli, Eduardo K.; Clark, Paul A.; Xin, Xuejun; Lal, Shan; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatments for diseases and trauma of dental, oral and craniofacial (DOC) structures rely on durable materials such as amalgam and synthetic materials, or autologous tissue grafts. A paradigm shift has taken place to utilize tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches towards the regeneration of these structures. Several prototypes of DOC structures have been regenerated such as temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle, cranial sutures, tooth structures and periodontium components. However, many challenges remain when taking in consideration the high demand for esthetics of DOC structures, the complex environment and yet minimal scar formation in the oral cavity, and the need for accommodating multiple tissue phenotypes. This review highlights recent advances in the regeneration of DOC structures, including the tooth, periodontium, TMJ, cranial sutures and implant dentistry, with specific emphasis on controlled release of signaling cues for stem cells, biomaterial matrices and scaffolds, and integrated tissue engineering approaches. PMID:17499385

  5. Dedicated Stereophotogrammetric X-Ray System For Craniofacial Research And Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Moffitt, Francis; Curry, Sean; Isaacson, Robert J.

    1983-07-01

    We have constructed and brought into use what we believe to be the first dedicated coplanar craniofacial stereometric x-ray system for clinical use. Paired Machlett Dynamax 50/58 x-ray tubes with 0.3 mm focal spots are employed. Displacement between emitters is 16 inches. The focus film distance for both emitters is 66.5 inches. The mid-sagittal plane to focus distance is 60 inches. One film of each stereo pair conforms with the standards of the Second Roentgenocephalometric Workshop and can be used to make all standard two-dimensional orthodontic and cephalometric measurements. When supplemented by data from the conjugate film, a three-dimensional coordinate map can be generated as a machine operation. Specialized complementary software has been developed to increase the reliability of landmark location both in two and in three dimensions.

  6. Relationship between the vertical craniofacial disproportions and the cervicovertebral morphology in adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Orthodontic diagnosis includes the interpretation of the relations between the craniofacial and cervical system, given the potential impact of the irregularities from one system to another. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine morphological characteristics of the cervical spine, depending on the parameters of the vertical craniofacial growth and gender in adult subjects. Methods. The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects with different vertical facial growth, aged 17.5-35 years. Measured parameters were the following: anterior and posterior vertebral body height (ABHC2-C5, PBHC2-C5, anterior and posterior intervertebral space (AISC2-C5, PISC2-C5, distance between vertebrae and point sella (SC2, SC3, SC4, pterygomaxillare (PmC2, gonion (GoC2 and basion (BaC4; cervical spine angulation (OPT/CVT and inclination (OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR. Results. Results showed that subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater values for BaC4, OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR, OPT/CVT, anterior and posterior vertebral body heights and intervertebral spaces, and lower values for GoC2 and PmC2. Higher values in males were found for anterior and posterior vertebral body heights, distances SC2, SC3, SC4, and BaC4. In females, the greater values were found for GoC2 and ОРТ/СVT. Conclusion. Subjects with anterior facial growth rotation have greater cervical spine inclination and angulation, higher cervical vertebrae and intervertebral spaces, longer upper cervical spines and shorter distances GoC2 and PmC2. Males show smaller cervical column curvature, but higher cervical vertebrae and greater length of the upper cervical spine.

  7. Virtual learning environment: occupational therapy contributions to parents and families caring for children with craniofacial abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyana Carvalho e Sousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are among the most prevalent congenital malformations in mankind. The Craniofacial Anomalies Rehabilitation Hospital of the University of São Paulo in Bauru provides assistance for these patients from all over Latin America through a reference interdisciplinary team. The treatment requires several years of intervention and care; parents and caregivers end up facing financial and geographical hurdles to access this care. Thus, the use of virtual tools to improve the communication between health care providers and the adults responsible for children with cleft lip and palate is a potential resource to pass on knowledge. Objective: To create and evaluate a virtual learning environment for the development of children with craniofacial anomalies using occupational therapy techniques. Method: A virtual environment (website was created using an adapted version of the Health-Related Web Site Evaluation Form Emory and then evaluated by five occupational therapists and five speech therapists. The result was subjected to descriptive and quantitative-qualitative treatment, also using the Emory’s characteristics and way of analysis. Results: The quality of the website was considered “Adequate” by 81.1% of the respondents and its content according to age groups was considered “Excellent” by 94.3% of the respondents. Conclusion: The use of a virtual environment was relevant since it proved to be adequate and to have an excellent content for which it is intended. This result reinforces the idea that technology can benefit therapeutic processes and increase access to this specific treatment.

  8. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, Adrian [Grenoble University Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Grenoble (France); Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); Comte, Alexandre [University Hospital Besancon, Functional Imaging Research Department, Besancon (France); Piccand, Veronique [University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Pain Evaluation and Treatment Unit, Besancon (France); Tavernier, Laurent [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology Unit, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [Franche Comte University, I4S Laboratory, EA4268, IFR133, Besancon (France); University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Interventional Pain Management Unit, Besancon (France)

    2014-07-15

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  9. Alcohol percutaneous neurolysis of the sphenopalatine ganglion in the management of refractory cranio-facial pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, Adrian; Cadel, Gilles; Gory, Guillaume; Comte, Alexandre; Piccand, Veronique; Tavernier, Laurent; Kastler, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPN) has been proven to be involved in various types of facial pain syndromes. Management of these cranio-facial pain syndromes can be challenging, and existing specific treatments are sometimes inefficient and may fail. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate alcohol SPN in the management of cranio-facial pain. Forty-two patients suffering from refractory facial pain who underwent 58 consecutive SPN were included in this study between 2000 and 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: group ''cluster headache'' (CH), group ''persistent idiopathic facial pain'' (PFIP), and group ''Other''. Pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale scores (measured immediately before and after procedure and at regular intervals following the procedure). Alcohol SPN was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50 % and lasting for at least 1 month. All procedures were realized ambulatory under CT guidance and consisted of an injection of 1 ml of absolute alcohol. Overall efficacy rate of alcohol SPN was 67.2 %, with mean pain relief duration of 10.3 months. Procedure was graded either not painful or tolerable by patients in 64.2 %. Analysis showed a higher efficacy rate in the groups CH (76.5 %) and PFIP (85.7 %) compared to the group Other (40 %). No difference was found between groups regarding the recurrence rate. Alcohol SPN under CT guidance appears as a safe and effective treatment of refractory facial pain, especially in cases of cluster headache and persistent idiopathic facial pain. (orig.)

  10. Disturbances in dental development and craniofacial growth in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterbacka, M; Ringdén, O; Remberger, M; Huggare, J; Dahllöf, G

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between age, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). 39 long-term survivors of HSCT performed in childhood and transplanted before the age of 12, at a mean age of 6.8±3.3 years. Panoramic and cephalometric radiographs were taken at a mean age of 16.2 years. For each patient two age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The area of three mandibular teeth was measured and a cephalometric analysis was performed. The mean area of the mandibular central incisor, first and second molar was significantly smaller in the HSCT group, and the vertical growth of the face was significantly reduced, especially in the lower third, compared to healthy controls. A statistically significant correlation between age at HSCT, degree of disturbances in dental development, and vertical growth of the face was found. Children subjected to pre-HSCT chemotherapy protocols had significantly more growth reduction in vertical craniofacial variables compared to children without pre-HSCT chemotherapy. Conditioning regimens including busulfan or total body irradiation had similar deleterious effects on tooth area reduction and craniofacial parameters. The younger the child is at HSCT, the greater the impairment in dental and vertical facial development. This supports the suggestion that the reduction in lower facial height found in SCT children mainly is a result of impaired dental development and that young age is a risk factor for more severe disturbances. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Determination of craniofacial relation among the subethnic Indian population: A modified approach (vertical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sumathi Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To measure the vertical linear cephalometric dimensions of the anterior and posterior segments of the craniofacial complex and establish ratios between vertical linear dimensions in subjects with normal occlusion, pleasing profile, and facial harmony. Setting and Sample Population: Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha University. Lateral cephalograms of 120 subjects of both sexes in the age group of 17-28 years with normal occlusion belonging to Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The vertical segments measured are anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla, and ramus-cranial floor vertical. The facial heights were measured in the anterior and posterior region of the craniofacial complex. Establish ratios and proportions between the vertical segments and different facial heights. Results: In both the sexes, the ratio between anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla, and ramus-cranial floor vertical is 1:1:1, PTFH:ATFH is 1:1, AUFH:ATFH is 2:5, ALFH:ATFH is 3:5, PUFH:PTFH is 1:2, PLFH:PTFH is 1:2, AUDH:ALDH is 2:3, and facial depth is 2:1. PUDH:PLDH is 7:9 in females and 3:4 in males. There was a statistically significant difference in posterior total facial height:anterior total facial height ratio between the two sexes with a "P" value of 95%. Conclusion: Thus, the anterior maxilla, posterior maxilla, and cranial floor-ramus vertical composite are in dimensional balance in subjects with normal occlusion and facial harmony. This analysis helps to identify skeletal deviations in size and position in the vertical dimension and allows the clinician to outline an appropriate treatment.

  12. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  13. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness outcomes throughout the different training periods over the course of a soccer season in female elite young soccer players. However, changes in components of fitness were inconsistent (e.g., power, speed, strength). Thus, training volume and/or types should be carefully considered in order to develop power-, speed- or strength-related fitness measures more efficiently throughout the soccer season. PMID:29375392

  14. Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Compared with Anthropometry in Relation to Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Adult Population: Is the 'Gold Standard' Tarnished?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Denise L; Beilin, Lawrence J; Hands, Beth; Burrows, Sally; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Mountain, Jennifer A; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered more advantageous in comparison to anthropometry for predicting cardio-metabolic risk in the older population, by virtue of its ability to distinguish total and regional fat. Nonetheless, there is increasing uncertainty regarding the relative superiority of DXA and little comparative data exist in young adults. This study aimed to identify which measure of adiposity determined by either DXA or anthropometry is optimal within a range of cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults. 1138 adults aged 20 years were assessed by DXA and standard anthropometry from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed. Waist to height ratio was superior to any DXA measure with HDL-C. BMI was the superior model in relation to blood pressure than any DXA measure. Midriff fat mass (DXA) and waist circumference were comparable in relation to glucose. For all the other cardio-metabolic variables, anthropometric and DXA measures were comparable. DXA midriff fat mass compared with BMI or waist hip ratio was the superior measure for triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR. Although midriff fat mass (measured by DXA) was the superior measure with insulin sensitivity and triglycerides, the anthropometric measures were better or equal with various DXA measures for majority of the cardio-metabolic risk factors. Our findings suggest, clinical anthropometry is generally as useful as DXA in the evaluation of the individual cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  15. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  16. Learning Developmental Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James M.; Weintraub, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an educational intervention designed to promote the ability and willingness of MBA students to lead through coaching. MBA leadership students are trained to serve as coaches for undergraduate business students in a developmental assessment center. In this compelling context, their main source of influence is the ability to…

  17. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  18. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  19. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  20. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones On this page: How do speech ... and language developmental milestones? How do speech and language develop? The first 3 years of life, when ...