WorldWideScience

Sample records for developing countries redd

  1. REDD+ Readiness progress across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, P.A.; Noordwijk, van M.; Duguma, L.A.; Alemagi, D.; Do, T.H.; Bernard, F.; Agung, P.; Robiglio, V.; Catacutan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) have grown in importance in developing countries following negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

  2. National Satellite Land Monitoring Systems for REDD+ : the UN-REDD support to countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G. C.

    2015-12-01

    REDD+, which stands for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries' - is a climate mitigation effort and aims to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports nationally-led REDD+ processes and promotes the imeaningful involvement of all stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples and other forest-dependent communities, in national and international REDD+ implementation.The Programme supports national REDD+ readiness efforts in partner countries spanning Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America, in two ways: (i) direct support to the design and implementation of UN-REDD National Programmes; and (ii) complementary support to national REDD+ action through common approaches, analyses, methodologies, tools, data and best practices. The UN-REDD Programme currently supports 62 partner countries. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring

  3. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries (REDD): insights from the UNFCCC COP-13 in Bali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S

    2007-07-01

    At the 10. anniversary of the Kyoto Protocol, the goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause climate change remains of alarming importance. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, these emissions have grown by 70% since 1970; and in 2005 the concentration of the most important GHG, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), peaked at its highest level for 650,000 years (IPCC 2007). The proposal to compensate reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries (REDD), as an additional element in the international climate regime, was put forward to address the so far ignored up to 20% of global GHG emissions arising from forestry. Although excluded from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the idea was submitted by Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica, on behalf of the Coalition of Rain forest Nations, at the 11. Conference of Parties (COP-11) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Montreal in 2005. The proposal has initiated a two year examination process, facilitated by the UNFCCC, and has attracted extremely high participation levels of the concerned stakeholders. As the examination process on REDD took place between 2005 and 2007, several points of agreement and disagreement were being revealed among the different country proposals. Points of agreement included inter alia: that REDD would need to play a role in future climate regimes; that there was a need to take into account national circumstances to successfully integrate developing countries; and capacity-building and pilot or demonstration activities (prior to 2012) are crucial to enable developing countries to effectively participate and benefit from REDD. Points of contention consisted in inter alia: the potential financing systems (market- or fund/ODA-based), the scope of activity (deforestation only or with forest degradation or with forest conservation), and the scale of implementation (national or project level). Decisive advance on the

  4. REDD+, RFM, Development, and Carbon Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Chacón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining responsible forest management (RFM experiences with literature reviews and stakeholder discussions allows an assessment of the potential role of RFM in reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. RFM contributes to greater carbon storage and biodiversity in forest biomass in comparison to conventional logging and deforestation. Using an adjusted von Thünen model to explain land user behavior in relation to different variables, considering a general forest transition curve and looking at a potential relation between governance and deforestation rates, the authors conclude that reduction of deforestation and forest degradation can only be achieved by a combined approach of increasing forest rent relative to other land uses and reducing transaction costs for forest management and conservation. More than providing an additional income for a privileged few, REDD+ will need to address the barriers that have been identified in RFM over the past 30 years of investment in forest management and conservation. Most of these are of an institutional nature, but also culture and social organization as well as locally specific development trends play a significant role in increasing the potential for application of RFM and REDD+.

  5. Integrating the avoided deforestation in a new agreement on climate. Comments on the current debate related to the reduction of emissions induced by deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries; Integrer la deforestation evitee dans un nouvel accord sur le climat. Reflexions sur le debat actuel lie a la reduction des emissions issues de la deforestation et de la degradation (REDD) dans les pays en developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S.; Tubiana, L

    2007-07-01

    The authors propose some reflections about the current debate related to the reduction of emissions induced by deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The author comments the two possibilities about one of the issues in this debate: to decide whether this mechanism must be financed by means of mandatory markets or voluntary funds. She also comments the issue on the institutional framework: to integrate REDD implementation in the framework foreseen by Kyoto beyond 2012, or to integrate it in a distinct agreement or protocol. She discusses the variety of national specificities and expectations, and tries to identify perspectives.

  6. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  7. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  8. Analysis of National Forest Programs for REDD+ Implementation in six South and Southeast Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A.J.; Inoue, M.; Shivakoti, G.P.; Nath, T.K.; Jashimuddin, M.; Zoysa, M.D.; Kaskoyo, H.; Pulhin, J.M.; Peras, R.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To facilitate REDD+ implementation and identify relevant attributes for robust REDD+ policies, this study evaluated and synthesized information from national forest programs in South and Southeast Asian countries. Area of study: Data was collected from six countries: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Philippines, India and Thailand. Methods: The data sources for the evaluation was an in-depth desk review of relevant documents and focus group discussion among experts from each study country. Main Results: We found out that diverse factors may influence program feasibility and the ability to achieve ‘triple benefits’: the nature of the forest targeted by the policy, the characteristics of the population affected by the policy, attributes of the policy instrument and the different actors involved. Research highlights: We argue that national policies and programs targeted for REDD+ implementation should focus on the identified features to achieve REDD+ goals. (Author)

  9. Taking Stock of Carbon Rights in REDD+ Candidate Countries: Concept Meets Reality

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the discourses on who should benefit from national REDD+ implementation, rights-based approaches are prominent across various countries. Options on how to create viable property rights arrangements are currently being debated by scholars, policy makers and practitioners alike. Many REDD+ advocates argue that assigning carbon rights represents a solution to insecure individual and community property rights. But carbon rights, i.e., the bundle of legal rights to carbon sequestered in biomass...

  10. 'REDD' at the Convergence of the Environment and Development Debates - International Incentives for National Action on Avoided Deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Venning

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries would be more likely to participate in any new international climate change agreement if they could earn and trade carbon credits from avoided deforestation, also known as 'REDD'. This paper argues that REDD should be included in any new agreement but, unlike the Clean Development Mechanism, its credits should be accounted for at a national-level, rather than on a project-basis. Experience with the Kyoto Protocol and development assistance over many decades shows that to have effective and sustainable environmental and development benefits, a national-based approach to REDD would be needed to transmit international financial incentives into national development planning. Indonesia is used as an example to show how a national-based approach to REDD could be effectively implemented in the country with the highest deforestation rate in the world. After a brief discussion of REDD and its status in the international climate change regime post-Copenhagen in Part I, Part II examines the different approaches to the scale of REDD being mooted in the negotiations for a new international agreement. Part III shows that many arguments against including REDD could be addressed with a national-approach. For remaining issues, particularly challenges in transferring profits from the sale of REDD-generated credits to local level incentives to protect forests, development lessons internationally and from Indonesia show that such transfers could be structured in an effective way not only to achieve environmental benefits, but also to achieve broader development and poverty reduction aims. These lessons, discussed in Part IV, further bolster the case for any post-2012 agreement to incorporate a national-based approach to REDD, integrated into national development plans.

  11. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  12. Taking Stock of Carbon Rights in REDD+ Candidate Countries: Concept Meets Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Loft

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the discourses on who should benefit from national REDD+ implementation, rights-based approaches are prominent across various countries. Options on how to create viable property rights arrangements are currently being debated by scholars, policy makers and practitioners alike. Many REDD+ advocates argue that assigning carbon rights represents a solution to insecure individual and community property rights. But carbon rights, i.e., the bundle of legal rights to carbon sequestered in biomass, present their own set of theoretical and practical challenges. We assess the status and approaches chosen in emerging carbon-rights legislations in five REDD+ countries based on a literature review and country expert knowledge: Peru, Brazil, Cameroon, Vietnam and Indonesia. We find that most countries assessed have not yet made final decisions as to the type of benefit sharing mechanisms they intend to implement and that there is a lack of clarity about who owns rights to carbon as a property and who is entitled to receive benefits. However, there is a trend of linking carbon rights to land rights. As such, the technical and also political challenges that land tenure clarification has faced over the past decades will still need to be addressed in the context of carbon rights.

  13. Community monitoring of carbon stocks for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brofeldt, Søren; Theilade, Ida; Burgess, Neil David;

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropical...

  14. Historical development of institutional arrangements for forest monitoring and REDD+ MRV in Peru: Discursive-institutionalist perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochieng, R.M.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Brockhaus, M.; Kowler, L.F.; Herold, M.; Arts, Bas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the roles of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) under UNFCCC has triggered a new discussion on forest resource assessments in these count

  15. A new estimate of carbon for Bangladesh forest ecosystems with their spatial distribution and REDD+ implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Biswas, Shekhar R.; Rashid, A. Z. M. Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    In tropical developing countries, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is becoming an important mechanism for conserving forests and protecting biodiversity. A key prerequisite for any successful REDD+ project, however, is obtaining baseline estimates of carbon in ...

  16. Options for promoting high-biodiversity REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, Steve; Mcnally, Richard; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Roe, Dilys; Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2011-11-15

    International climate and biodiversity conventions agree that to be effective in the long term, strategies to reduce emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, and sustainable forest management (REDD+), must not undermine biodiversity. But how do countries achieve 'high-biodiversity REDD+' in practice? At a global level, options include immediate policy strengthening in international negotiations; promotion of co-benefit standards; and financial incentives and preferences for buying countries. At a national level, developing countries can also promote high-biodiversity REDD+ through more coherent policies; integrated planning; regulatory and economic instruments; and improved monitoring of biodiversity impacts.

  17. REDD+机制在中国扩大发展途径研究——基于菲律宾的案例分析%The Study on the Broadening and Development of REDD+ Mechanism in China:Based on the Analysis of Philippines Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄颖利; 黄萍; 李爱琴

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, REDD+ projects have been extensively planned and implemented in Brazil and other tropical areas. However, in the global context of the post-Kyoto era, only by broadening the way to implement the REDD+ mechanism can all the forests-covered countries reduce the emission, which will also offer an essential chance for China to take part in emission reduction. Active participation will be not only conducive to the development of the potential of carbon bond, but more importantly, help to enhance China's position of negotiation in international climate regime and master the right to speak in carbon bond market. This article uses Philippines as the typical example of the development of REDD+ in newly emerging countries, to carry on the study of the way widening REDD+ in China, to build the framework of China's diversity of REDD+, at the same time, to make feasible policy suggestions about the development of REDD+ in China.%自2005年以来,REDD+项目在巴西等热带地区得到了广泛地计划和实施.然而,在后京都时代全球背景下,只有拓宽REDD+机制的实施途径才能在所有森林覆盖的国家起到减排作用,这也为中国提供了参与减排的重要机会.积极参与REDD+机制,不仅有利于进一步开发我国碳汇潜力,更有利于提高我国在国际气候谈判中的地位、掌握碳交易市场的话语权.将菲律宾作为REDD+在新兴国家发展的典型案例,进行REDD+机制在中国扩大途径研究,构建中国REDD+机制多元化框架,同时为REDD+在中国的发展提出可行性的政策建议.

  18. REDD+: Ready to engage private investors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda

    2011-11-15

    The prospect of gaining carbon credits by acquiring land to implement REDD+ has caught the eye of the private sector. In many countries, including Papua New Guinea and Republic of Congo, there are reports of a carbon rush. In Mozambique, private investors have expressed an interest in acquiring more than 22 per cent of the country's land — an area that is larger than the 16 per cent of protected areas and that covers 42 per cent of forests — for REDD+. But Mozambique, like many developing countries, is still in the early stages of preparing a REDD+ strategy. Stakeholder consultations are ongoing and the country's REDD+ Working Group is still assessing social, technical and institutional capacities available to deliver REDD+ in a way that helps reduce emissions while also serving environment and social development needs. Encouraging private sector involvement before the country has the right policies and institutions in place to safeguard local environments and people risks undermining the potential of REDD+ for sustainable development.

  19. Pathways for implementing REDD+. Experiences from carbon markets and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Lopez, T. De; Romero, M.Z.

    2011-07-01

    This issue of Carbon Market Perspectives on 'Pathways for implementing REDD+: Experience from carbon markets and communities' discusses the role of carbon markets in scaling up investments for REDD+ in developing countries. Nine articles authored by experienced negotiators on REDD+, carbon market actors, project developers and other leading experts share experiences and make suggestions on the key elements of a future international REDD+ regime: Architecture and underlying principles, measuring, reporting and verification (MRV), private-sector involvement, the rights of indigenous people and local communities, biodiversity conservation and environmental integrity. The articles are grouped under three main topics: the lessons of existing REDD+ projects; the future REDD+ regime and the role of carbon markets; and experiences and ideas about the involvement of indigenous people and local communities. (LN)

  20. REDD+ and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kronenberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between payments made under the REDD+ umbrella (Reducing Emissions from Forest Degradation and Deforestation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks and the quality of institutions in countries that are expected to receive these payments. Using scatter plots and simple correlation analysis, we can see that countries receiving the most significant REDD+ payments (at least in relative terms have the poorest quality of institutions. Although the REDD+ concept has evolved significantly since a similar analysis was carried out by Ebeling and Yasué in 2008, the institutional problems have remained equally important. This is also in line with the recently formulated “ecosystem service curse” and “REDD paradox” hypotheses, whereby payments for ecosystem services (including those offered within REDD+ might lead to socio-economic problems in recipient countries.

  1. National Satellite Forest Monitoring systems for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop national satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the support to UN-REDD pilot countries in this capacity building effort is the training of technical forest people and IT persons from interested REDD+ countries, and to set- up the national satellite forest monitoring systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a basis for this initiative, allows

  2. The role of satellite remote sensing in REDD/MRV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Inge; Sandoval, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    REDD, which stands for 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries' - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD and to implement a future REDD mechanism in a post- 2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes.It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. The outcomes about the role of satellite remote sensing technologies as a tool for monitoring, assessment, reporting and verification of carbon credits and co-benefits under the REDD mechanism are here presented.

  3. South-South REDD: A Brazil-Mozambique initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-06-15

    The South-South REDD initiative - that aims to help facilitate the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ for Mozambique based on sound baselines and monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), clear analysis of the causes of deforestation and degradation, and appropriate benefit sharing mechanisms in support of activities to address them - is now in its second year. Extensive national consultations have led to the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ which is currently being used as the basis for developing the countries REDD-Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) for submission to the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). The National Action Plan for REDD+ seeks to create favourable conditions for the progressive reduction of the current rate of deforestation (0.58%) to 0.21% by 2025 and ultimately to zero, simultaneously reducing the rate of degradation and encouraging forest restoration to sequester 30 million tonnes of carbon by 2025.

  4. REDD+ readiness: early insights on monitoring, reporting and verification systems of project developers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, S.; Herold, M.; Sunderlin, W.D.; Verchot, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    A functional measuring, monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system is essential to assess the additionality and impact on forest carbon in REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation) projects. This study assesses the MRV capacity and readiness of project developers at 20 R

  5. Reducing Emissions from Deforestaton and Forest Degradation (REDD+ – What is Behind the Idea and What is the Role of UN-REDD and Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Danon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Although greenhouse gases related with the Land Use, Land Use Changes and the Forestry (LULUCF represent approximately 15-20% of all greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere, afforestation/reforestation projects of Kyoto protocol related Clean Development Mechanism (CDM represents only 0.75% of all CDM projects. All these facts prompted re-negotiation of climate change policy to include Reducing Emissions of Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ in compliance carbon trading in the Post-Kyoto protocol. To help implementing the REDD+ in developing countries, two main multilateral readiness programs were established, the UN one (UN-REDD+, and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF, which was created by the World Bank. This paper describes the main idea behind REDD+ mechanism, the roles of UN-REDD and FCPF in creating REDD+ national policies and what are the challenges and main obstacles in successful implementation of REDD+. Material and Methods: Review of the existing literature like reports and publications related to REDD+ in general, as well as related with UN-REDD and FCPF roles in REDD+ implementation in sub- national, national and supra-national policies. Results and Conclusion: For successful implementation of REDD+ it is necessary to deal with the problems of governance (weak institution, corruption, lack of transparency and participation that are common present in most of the tropical countries involved in REDD+. The implementation of an effective REDD+ mechanism will need an improved capacity building and law enforcement. The analysis of UN-REDD and FCPF program reveals large overlapping, especially in current phase of capacity building. At present, it seems that UN-REDD maintains a more social oriented approach, while FCPF focuses more on carbon sequestration projects.

  6. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia PG

    2015-01-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibia...

  7. REDD+ readiness: early insights on monitoring, reporting and verification systems of project developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shijo; Herold, Martin; Sunderlin, William D.; Verchot, Louis V.

    2013-09-01

    A functional measuring, monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system is essential to assess the additionality and impact on forest carbon in REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation) projects. This study assesses the MRV capacity and readiness of project developers at 20 REDD+ projects in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam, using a questionnaire survey and field visits. Nineteen performance criteria with 76 indicators were formulated in three categories, and capacity was measured with respect to each category. Of the 20 projects, 11 were found to have very high or high overall MRV capacity and readiness. At the regional level, capacity and readiness tended to be highest in the projects in Brazil and Peru and somewhat lower in Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. Although the MRV capacities of half the projects are high, there are capacity deficiencies in other projects that are a source of concern. These are not only due to limitations in technical expertise, but can also be attributed to the slowness of international REDD+ policy formulation and the unclear path of development of the forest carbon market. Based on the study results, priorities for MRV development and increased investment in readiness are proposed.

  8. A probabilistic scenario approach for developing improved Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ baselines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Virah-Sawmy

    2015-07-01

    By generating robust probabilistic baseline scenarios, exponential smoothing models can facilitate the effectiveness of REDD+ payments, support a more efficient allocation of scarce conservation resources, and improve our understanding of effective forest conservation investments, also beyond REDD+.

  9. Desirable qualities of REDD+ projects not considered in decisions of project locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasgaard, M.; Mertz, O.

    2016-11-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) has become a major conservation and development concept for international climate change mitigation over the past years with hundreds of so-called ‘demonstration’ or ‘pilot’ projects being planned and implemented across the Global South. Since the broad aim of such projects is to demonstrate climate benefits from reduced deforestation, as well as social co-benefits in receiving countries, the decision on REDD+ locations should ideally center on specific geographical and socioeconomic characteristics, such as high deforestation threat, low opportunity costs, large forest area size, and high local willingness to engage. Based on recent literature supplemented with opinions and perspectives from REDD+ specialists, we compare these desirable qualities for REDD+ locations with actual location of REDD+ projects. We illustrate how locating REDD+ projects is often in the hands of external organizations and tightly connected to their previous engagements in the location. We also show how specific characteristics of these externally driven REDD+ project locations vary according to the sub-objectives of the individual projects and do not always correspond with the overall goal of REDD+. These pre-conditioned decisions and diverging objectives at the meso-level may further complicate global REDD+ agreements.

  10. Building local institutions for national conservation programs: lessons for developing Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Collen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programs that aim to promote forest conservation and poverty alleviation, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+, the participation of indigenous communities is essential to meet program goals. Using Ostrom's theory of collective action for common pool resource management, we evaluated the institutions governing indigenous participation in the Programa Socio Bosque incentive-based conservation program in Ecuador. We conducted structured interviews with 94 members in 4 communities to assess community institutions for 6 of Ostrom's principles, using 12 measures we developed for the principles. We found substantial variation between communities in terms of their institutional performance. The best-performing community performed well (>50% of interviewees reported successfully meeting the measure on 8 of the 12 measures. The weakest performed well on only 2 out of 12 measures. Overall, our results indicate that there is stronger performance for constitutional-level institutions, which determine who gets to make the rules, and some collective-choice institutions, which determine how local rules are made. We identified specific challenges with the day-to-day operational institutions that arise from participation in nation state-community conservation programs, such as restricted resource appropriation, monitoring and compliance, and conflict resolution. We found that top-down policy making has an important role to play in supporting communities to establish constitutional-level and some collective-choice institutions. However, developing operational institutions may take more time and depend on local families' day-to-day use of resources, and thus may require a more nuanced policy approach. As some countries and donors find a jurisdictional REDD+ approach increasingly attractive, complementing top-down policy measures with bottom-up institutional development could provide a stronger platform to achieve the

  11. The Role of Satellite Data for the National Forest Monitoring Systems in the Context of REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Inge

    2012-04-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. “REDD+” goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. For the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), FAO supports the countries to develop national forest monitoring systems (NFMS) based on satellite data that allow for credible MRV of REDD+ activities through time. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost- effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. The Brazilian forest monitoring system, TerraAmazon, which is used as a multi-user basis, allows countries to adapt it to country needs. With the technical assistance of FAO, INPE and other stakeholders, the countries will set up an autonomous operational satellite forest monitoring systems. A beta version and the methodologies of the system for DRC and PNG are launched in Durban (SA) during COP 17, while Paraguay, Zambia and Viet Nam are in development in 2012.

  12. Spanning boundaries: science-policy interaction in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Gamborg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates science–policy interaction in forestry in developing countries. It uses the case of REDD+ in Zambia, and links theoretical considerations with practical strategies. Science–policy interaction in the case of REDD+ is analyzed through two theoretical frameworks: the Knowledge...... Transfer Model and the Transaction Model. Based on interviews and document analysis, the paper advances on how it is possible to improve evidence-based policy-making for the benefit of the environment in developing countries. It is found that re-thinking of science–policy interaction gives rise to new...... opportunities to strengthen the links between science and policy, and consideration is given to the question of what key strategies would best secure this linkage....

  13. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia P G

    2015-10-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibians, mammals, birds, reptiles) and plants (species distribution models for 8 families). We then investigated congruence between different measures of biodiversity richness and carbon stocks at the national and subnational scales. Finally, we mapped active REDD+ projects and investigated the carbon density and potential biodiversity richness and modeled deforestation pressures within these forests relative to protected areas and unprotected forests. There was little internal overlap among the different hotspots (richest 10% of cells) of species richness. There was also no consistent spatial congruence between carbon stocks and the biodiversity measures: a weak negative correlation at the national scale masked highly variable and nonlinear relationships island by island. Current REDD+ projects were preferentially located in areas with higher total species richness and threatened species richness but lower carbon densities than protected areas and unprotected forests. Although a quarter of the total area of these REDD+ projects is under relatively high deforestation pressure, the majority of the REDD+ area is not. In Indonesia at least, first-generation REDD+ projects are located where they are likely to deliver biodiversity benefits. However, if REDD+ is to deliver additional gains for climate and biodiversity, projects will need to focus on forests with the highest threat to deforestation, which will have cost implications for future REDD+ implementation.

  14. REDD herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    To enhance understanding of environmental science–policy interactions, this study analyses how environmental knowledge is produced, circulated, and applied in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD +) programme in Zambia. Data are drawn from interviews with key actors...... in the REDD + process and an extensive critical review of policy documents and deforestation estimates. We find that research over the past 50 years has not resulted in accurate estimates of forest cover and deforestation rates, nor have major deforestation drivers been convincingly documented. Estimates...... are difficult to compare due to inconsistent use of key terms, methodological pluralism and differences in social framing. We argue that an epistemic community is able to influence production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge. Furthermore, in a situation of weak and contradictory...

  15. Envisioning REDD+ in a post-Paris era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, Esther; Gupta, Aarti; Weatherley, Janice; Vijge, Marjanneke J.; Koning, De Jessica; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid; Herold, Martin; Lederer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    From its advent in 2005 within global climate change negotiations, reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and other forest-related activities (so-called REDD+) has been experimented with in developing country contexts for over a decade now, with a wide array of expectations coming to be associ

  16. Beyond forestry: why agriculture is key to success of REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2010-11-15

    When it comes to deforestation, the task of reconciling climate and development goals poses a daunting challenge. Forest clearing is both the source of significant greenhouse gas emissions that fuel climate change and, for some farmers, the most practical means for expanding agricultural production to meet rising food demands. 'REDD' or 'REDD+' mechanisms for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, by providing developing countries with incentives to conserve their forests, are rapidly gaining credence as effective tools for mitigating climate change. But if they are to work, they must pay more attention to the role of agriculture in deforestation and the implications for food security of reducing deforestation. Improving agricultural productivity will be key. But productivity gains must not undermine REDD+ efforts. This means nurturing low-emission alternatives to forest clearing. It means supporting poor farmers to adapt to climate change. Above all, it means climate, forest and agriculture policy communities must work together.

  17. Monitoring REDD+: From Social Safeguards to Social Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, A.; Andersson, K.

    2010-12-01

    Krister Andersson 1 and Ashwin Ravikumar 1 The UNFCCC requires countries that participate in the REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) program to monitor both forest carbon inventories as well as the governance of REDD+ activities and their social consequences. Exactly how this should be done, however, remains an open question. This paper addresses this question by drawing on existing research on social-ecological systems and new institutional economics. We make the case for a monitoring system that goes beyond a narrow focus of qualitative indicators of REDD+ governance that seek to provide social safeguards for international investors to create a more comprehensive monitoring system that is useful for social learning about how policies affect a variety of forest outcomes. We describe the defining characteristics of five existing approaches to monitoring REDD+ governance. Applying evaluative criteria of affordability, comprehensiveness, transparency, uncertainty specification, and explanatory potential, we analyze the extent to which each of the programs contribute to broader social learning processes in participating countries. Our analysis finds that it makes sense to move from the current narrow focus of monitoring for control to monitoring for social learning. Particularly valuable to participating REDD+ actors would be the creation of learning systems that can help policy makers to identify opportunities for policy improvements, with the ultimate goal of making REDD+ more effective, efficient, and equitable. Such learning is not possible, however, without timely and systematic collection of data on the relationships between forests and forest users. 1University of Colorado at Boulder, Environmental Studies Program, Boulder, CO 80309-0397

  18. Advocacy coalitions, REDD+, and forest governance in Papua New Guinea: how likely is transformational change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Babon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests in developing countries are increasingly being valued for their role in carbon sequestration. Such interest is reflected in the emergence of international initiatives for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+. REDD+ requires addressing both tropical forests as complex social-ecological systems and the multiple sectors involved in tropical forest resources, which may necessitate transformational change away from business-as-usual approaches to forest governance. We studied the potential for REDD+ to mobilize an influential coalition of actors promoting transformational change in forest governance in Papua New Guinea (PNG, a leading proponent of REDD+ internationally. Combining policy network approaches with the advocacy coalition framework, we identified four advocacy coalitions in the REDD+ policy domain in PNG and estimated the influence of each coalition. We found the most influential advocacy coalition is promoting the status quo rather than governance reforms capable of reducing deforestations and forest degradation, leading us to suggest that business as usual is the dominant perspective in the REDD+ policy domain in PNG. This may explain why, despite the large amount of REDD+ rhetoric, there has been only modest change in formal policy or practice in PNG to date. However, we did find influential coalitions calling for transformational change. Although these are currently minority coalitions, we identified several pathways through which they could increase their power to realize transformational change

  19. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  20. The Place of Community Forest Management in the REDD+ Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Pelletier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Community forest management (CFM is identified by many actors as a core strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+. Others however see REDD+ as a danger to CFM. In response to these contrasting views, we carried out a systematic review of CFM case studies to look at CFM’s potential role in achieving forest carbon benefits and social co-benefits for forest communities. We evaluated the potential impacts of REDD+ on CFM. Our review showed that there is strong evidence of CFM’s role in reducing degradation and stabilizing forested landscapes; however, the review also showed less evidence about the role of CFM in reducing deforestation. For social benefits, we found that CFM contributes to livelihoods, but its effect on poverty reduction may be limited. Also, CFM may not deal adequately with the distribution of benefits within communities or user groups. These insights are important for CFM-based REDD+ intervention; measures should be adopted to overcome these gaps. Innovative incentive structures to existing CFM are discussed. The recognition of rights for forest communities is one first step identified in promoting CFM. We call for sound empirical impact evaluations that analyze CFM and CFM-based REDD+ interventions by looking at both biophysical and social outcomes.

  1. Comparative Multi-Criteria Assessment of Climate Policies and Sustainable Development Strategies in Cameroon: Towards a GIS Decision-Support Tool for the Design of an Optimal REDD+ Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gwanyebit Kehbila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic planning documents to advance the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This paper assesses the extent to which major cross-sectoral policies support or impede the development and implementation of an optimal REDD+ strategy in Cameroon from a comparative multi-criteria perspective. Study results reveal that a majority of the policy instruments reviewed appeared to be less prescriptive in terms of any tangible REDD+ strategy, as they do not have provisions for tangible measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Given the lack of adequate flexibility, prompt review and responsiveness of these cross-sectoral policies to adapt themselves to new realities and respond to a changing environment, this paper introduces a GIS-REDD+ decision support system (GIS-REDD+DSS that is necessary to support the adaptive element of an adaptive REDD+ strategy in Cameroon. The GIS-REDD+DSS, an electronic REDD+agri intermediary hub, serves the following purpose: (1 host a database of locally-relevant climate information, improved input technologies, best practices as well as land use and forest cover geo-spatial maps; (2 host a virtual economic tool that performs economic valuations (costs and benefits and financial analysis of REDD+agri projects to aid investment decision-making; and (3 host an electronic marketplace to mediate any-to-any transactions among REDD+agri project developers, service providers, input suppliers, private and institutional investors and buyers (wholesalers and retailers, thereby creating value in two ways: aggregation and matching. This decision support tool, we argue, is a fundamental prerequisite for “policy and REDD+ safeguard

  2. FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD MRV Team

    2010-12-01

    Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for ’Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’ - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD+ and to implement a future REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD+ processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD+, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. FAO and INPE (Brazilian Space Agency) have joint forces through a MoU signed last year in Copenhagen. A major joint programme has been agreed upon to set

  3. Lessons From Early REDD+ Experiences in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodel D. Lasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest globally in REDD+ initiatives to help mitigate climate change; the Philippines is no exception. In this paper, we review early REDD+ project experiences in the country. The guiding document for REDD+ in the Philippines is the National REDD+ Strategy (PNRPS which was prepared by a multisectoral group of authors. There are five REDD+ projects that are underway. The critical factors emerging from these early REDD+ actions are the following: external support, local participation, free prior and informed consent, capacity building, sustainability, national laws and policies, biodiversity conservation, and use of safeguards. The pioneering projects reviewed here as well as the emerging lessons from them will hopefully provide a firmer basis for future REDD+ actions in the country.

  4. Earth observation and political negotiations: supporting developing countries in implementing post-Kyoto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herold, M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, official discussions initiated at the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established a process to analyze how reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in developing countries could contribute to the ultimate goal of the Convention. A ba

  5. Community Forest Management and the Emergence of Multi-Scale Governance Institutions: Lessons for REDD+ Development from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available At their most local, initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD will depend on rural people to manage forest resources. Although the design of frameworks, mechanisms and arrangements, to implement REDD programs have received significant attention, it is not yet clear how REDD+ will function on the ground or how the participation of local populations will be assured. Community forest management (CFM could be an option under REDD+ depending on how it is negotiated, largely because of the expectation that CFM could reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation. Examining institutional factors in the emergence of successful CFM systems and local forest enterprises could provide valuable lessons for REDD planners. We examine cases of CFM development in Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia, to assess the role of multi-scaled governance institutions in their development. Comparing and contrasting advanced CFM systems to regions where it is still emerging, we will show how the establishment of a local organizational base for communal resource management is crucial.

  6. Defining Solutions, Finding Problems: Deforestation, Gender, and REDD+ in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Westholm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.

  7. The Effect of REDD+Mechanism on the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Deforestation of Asian Countries%REDD+机制对亚洲国家毁林环境库兹涅兹曲线的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛济川; 苗壮

    2015-01-01

    在毁林环境库兹涅兹曲线(简称毁林EKC曲线)框架下,研究减少砍伐和森林退化造成的排放(REDD+)机制对森林覆盖率变化发展路径的影响.对1990-2010年东亚、东南亚、南亚、西亚和中亚45个国家的毁林EKC曲线和拐点进行实证分析,发现东亚和中亚具有倒U型的毁林EKC曲线,东南亚、南亚和西亚具有U型的毁林EKC曲线.在REDD+机制下,采用资金补偿和激励的方式可以改变毁林EKC曲线的形状,从而在低于拐点要求的收入水平下促使毁林率发生转变,缩短森林转变周期.毁林EKC曲线以及拐点的测算对亚洲各区域REDD+机制的政策制定具有参考意义.中国应积极参与REDD+机制的政策制定和实施,降低减排成本,获取最大收益.

  8. Responding to climate change and the global land crisis: REDD+, market transformation and low-emissions rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Boyd, William; Stickler, Claudia M; Bezerra, Tathiana; Azevedo, Andrea A

    2013-06-05

    Climate change and rapidly escalating global demand for food, fuel, fibre and feed present seemingly contradictory challenges to humanity. Can greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use, more than one-fourth of the global total, decline as growth in land-based production accelerates? This review examines the status of two major international initiatives that are designed to address different aspects of this challenge. REDD+ is an emerging policy framework for providing incentives to tropical nations and states that reduce their GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Market transformation, best represented by agricultural commodity roundtables, seeks to exclude unsustainable farmers from commodity markets through international social and environmental standards for farmers and processors. These global initiatives could potentially become synergistically integrated through (i) a shared approach for measuring and favouring high environmental and social performance of land use across entire jurisdictions and (ii) stronger links with the domestic policies, finance and laws in the jurisdictions where agricultural expansion is moving into forests. To achieve scale, the principles of REDD+ and sustainable farming systems must be embedded in domestic low-emission rural development models capable of garnering support across multiple constituencies. We illustrate this potential with the case of Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon.

  9. Options for sampling and stratification for national forest inventories to implement REDD+ under the UNFCCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniatis Danae

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries that are willing to participate in the recently adopted (16th Session of the Conference of Parties (COP in Cancun mitigation mechanism of Reducing emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation - and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+ - will have to establish a national forest monitoring system in order to assess anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks. Such a system should support the Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV requirement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC as the REDD+ mechanism is results-based. A national forest inventory (NFI is one potential key component of such an MRV system. Following the Decision adopted during the 15th Session of the COP in Copenhagen, the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Guidance and Guidelines should be used as a basis for estimating anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks and changes in forest carbon stocks and area. Results First, we present the key indispensable elements of the IPCC Guidance and Guidelines that have been developed to fulfil the UNFCCC reporting requirements. This is done in order to set the framework to develop the MRV requirement in which a NFI for REDD+ implementation could be developed. Second, within this framework, we develop and propose a novel scheme for the stratification of forest land for REDD+. Finally, we present some non-exhaustive optional elements within this framework that a country could consider to successfully operationalise and implement its REDD+ NFI. Conclusion Evidently, both the methodological guidance and political decisions on REDD+ under the UNFCCC will continue to evolve. Even so, and considering that there exists decades of experience in setting up traditional NFIs, developing a NFI

  10. Options for sampling and stratification for national forest inventories to implement REDD+ under the UNFCCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Mollicone, Danilo

    2010-12-27

    Developing countries that are willing to participate in the recently adopted (16th Session of the Conference of Parties (COP) in Cancun) mitigation mechanism of Reducing emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation - and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) - will have to establish a national forest monitoring system in order to assess anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks. Such a system should support the Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) requirement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as the REDD+ mechanism is results-based. A national forest inventory (NFI) is one potential key component of such an MRV system. Following the Decision adopted during the 15th Session of the COP in Copenhagen, the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidance and Guidelines should be used as a basis for estimating anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks and changes in forest carbon stocks and area. First, we present the key indispensable elements of the IPCC Guidance and Guidelines that have been developed to fulfil the UNFCCC reporting requirements. This is done in order to set the framework to develop the MRV requirement in which a NFI for REDD+ implementation could be developed. Second, within this framework, we develop and propose a novel scheme for the stratification of forest land for REDD+. Finally, we present some non-exhaustive optional elements within this framework that a country could consider to successfully operationalise and implement its REDD+ NFI. Evidently, both the methodological guidance and political decisions on REDD+ under the UNFCCC will continue to evolve. Even so, and considering that there exists decades of experience in setting up traditional NFIs, developing a NFI that a country may use to directly support REDD

  11. Developing biobanks in developing countrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We call for the development of human biobanks in developing countries and describe several examples from low income countries which are already building their own biobanks. Developing human biobanks in developing countries requires strengthening of the research capacity to use the new technologies, as well as a shift in research investment priorities in order to reduce the inequity in international research that currently exists. A responsible approach from low-income countries to ethical issues will be another pre-requisite to the success of the ‘hypothesis-free’ research that will target the needs of the world’s poor.

  12. Large scale land acquisitions and REDD+: a synthesis of conflicts and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Manceur, Ameur M.; Seppelt, Ralf; Hermans-Neumann, Kathleen; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Lou

    2017-03-01

    Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA), and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are both land based phenomena which when occurring in the same area, can compete with each other for land. A quantitative analysis of country characteristics revealed that land available for agriculture, accessibility, and political stability are key explanatory factors for a country being targeted for LSLA. Surprisingly LSLA occur in countries with lower accessibility. Countries with good land availability, poor accessibility and political stability may become future targets if they do not already have LSLA. Countries which high levels of agriculture-driven deforestation and LSLA, should develop interventions which reduce forest loss driven either directly or indirectly by LSLA as part of their REDD+ strategies. Both host country and investor-side policies have been identified which could be used more widely to reduce conflicts between LSLA and REDD+. Findings from this research highlight the need for and can inform the development of national and international policies on land acquisitions including green acquisitions such as REDD+. Land management must be considered with all its objectives—including food security, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation—in a coherent strategy which engages relevant stakeholders. This is not currently occurring and might be a key ingredient to achieve the targets under the Sustainable Development Goals 2 and 15 and 16 (related to food security and sustainable agriculture and the protection of forests) among others.

  13. An assessment of the impacts of the REDD+ pilot project on community forests user groups (CFUGs) and their community forests in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, T N; Neupane, P R; Lopez-Casero, F; Cadman, T

    2014-04-01

    REDD+ has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, meet climate stabilisation targets and protect biological diversity. Consequently, millions of dollars are being channelled into developing countries rich in forests, for pilot projects that will provide data for the design of REDD+ projects that are based on incentives and performance. This paper evaluates the impacts of REDD+ pilot projects on community forests and associated user groups (CFUGs) in Nepal. A field study targeted eight CFUGs that participated in a REDD+ pilot project funded by the Forest Carbon Trust Fund in Nepal. The pilot project increased the participation of Dalit, Indigenous people, women and the poor, and was able to provide some social safeguards. However, when all the additional costs and foregone benefits of the project are considered, REDD+ is not an attractive market-based option for Nepalese CFUGs. A better approach would be a bilateral or multilateral approach that is not market based, but provides incentives beyond environmental and social safeguards. The results of this study will be useful in designing REDD+ policies and programmes for community forest-based REDD+ stakeholders in developing countries.

  14. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of Sao Tome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Faustino de Lima

    Full Text Available REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim, using São Tomé Island (Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe as a case study. We quantified the abundance of bird and tree species, and calculated the aboveground carbon stocks across a gradient of land-use intensity. We found a strong spatial congruence between carbon and the presence and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed that REDD+ could promote the loss of forests in São Tomé and Príncipe through leakage. This happened even when additional payments for biodiversity were included in the simulations, and despite São Tomé and Príncipe having the fourth highest carbon stocks per land area and the second highest biodiversity values according to the OSIRIS database. These results show weaknesses of OSIRIS as a planning tool, and demonstrate that the benefits that REDD+ might bring for biodiversity are strongly dependent on its careful implementation. We recommend that payment for ecosystem services programmes such as REDD+ develop safeguards to ensure that biodiversity co-benefits are met and perverse outcomes are avoided across all tropical countries. In particular, we advise specific safeguards regarding the conservation of extinction-prone groups, such as island restricted-range species.

  15. Can REDD+ Reconcile Local Priorities and Needs with Global Mitigation Benefits? Lessons from Angai Forest, Tanzania

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    Irmeli Mustalahti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD mechanism has broadened REDD+ to accommodate different country interests such as natural forests, protected areas, as well as forests under community-based management. In Tanzania the REDD+ mechanism is still under development and pilot projects are at an early stage. In this paper, we seek to understand how local priorities and needs could be met in REDD+ implementation and how these expectations match with global mitigation benefits. We examine the local priorities and needs in the use of land and forest resources in the Angai Villages Land Forest Reserve (AVLFR in the Liwale District of Lindi Region in Tanzania. Primary data was collected in two villages, Mihumo and Lilombe, using semistructured key informant interviews and participatory rural appraisal methods. In addition, the key informant interviews were conducted with other village, district, and national level actors, as well as international donors. Findings show that in the two communities REDD+ is seen as something new and is generating new expectations among communities. However, the Angai villagers highlight three key priorities that have yet to be integrated into the design of REDD+: water scarcity, rural development, and food security. At the local level improved forest governance and sustainable management of forest resources have been identified as one way to achieve livelihood diversification. Although the national goals of REDD+ include poverty reduction, these goals are not necessarily conducive to the goals of these communities. There exist both structural and cultural limits to the ability of the Angai villages to implement these goals and to improve forestry governance. Given the vulnerability to current and future climate variability and change it will be important to consider how the AVLFR will be managed and for whose benefit?

  16. Hypertension in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  17. Community Participation and Benefits in REDD+: A Review of Initial Outcomes and Lessons

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    David J. Ganz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks (REDD+ in developing countries has raised much concern regarding impacts on local communities. To inform this debate, we analyze the initial outcomes of those REDD+ projects that systematically report on their socio-economic dimensions. To categorize and compare projects, we develop a participation and benefits framework that considers REDD+’s effects on local populations’ opportunities (jobs, income, security (of tenure and ecosystem services, and empowerment (participation in land use and development decisions. We find material benefits, in terms of jobs and income, to be, thus far, modest. On the other hand, we find that many projects are helping populations gain tenure rights. A majority of projects are obtaining local populations’ free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC. However, for those projects interacting with multiple populations, extent of participation and effects on forest access are often uneven. Our participation and benefits framework can be a useful tool for identifying the multi-faceted socio-economic impacts of REDD+, which are realized under different timescales. The framework and initial trends reported here can be used to build hypotheses for future REDD+ impact evaluations and contribute to evolving theories of incentive-based environmental policy.

  18. Forest biodiversity monitoring for REDD+: a case study of actors' views in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entenmann, Steffen K; Kaphegyi, Thomas A M; Schmitt, Christine B

    2014-02-01

    The climate change mitigation mechanism Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is currently being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Integrating biodiversity monitoring into REDD+ facilitates compliance with the safeguards stipulated by the UNFCCC to exclude environmental risks. Interviews with actors engaged in REDD+ implementation and biodiversity conservation at the national and sub-national level in Peru (n = 30) and a literature review (n = 58) were conducted to pinpoint constraints and opportunities for monitoring effects of REDD+ management interventions on biodiversity, and to identify relevant biodiversity data and indicators. It was found that particularly sub-national actors, who were frequently involved in REDD+ pilot projects, acknowledge the availability of biodiversity data. Actors at both the national and sub-national levels, however, criticized data gaps and data being scattered across biodiversity research organizations. Most of the literature reviewed (78 %) included indicators on the state of certain biodiversity aspects, especially mammals. Indicators for pressure on biodiversity, impacts on environmental functions, or policy responses to environmental threats were addressed less frequently (31, 21, and 10 %, respectively). Integrating biodiversity concerns in carbon monitoring schemes was considered to have potential, although few specific examples were identified. The involvement of biodiversity research organizations in sub-national REDD+ activities enhances monitoring capacities. It is discussed how improvements in collaboration among actors from the project to the national level could facilitate the evaluation of existing information at the national level. Monitoring changes in ecosystem services may increase the ecological and socioeconomic viability of REDD+.

  19. From Green to REDD-Ready to Trade: Discussion On REDD In Nepal's Community Forestry

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    Pabitra Aryal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission increases at an early stage of industrial expansion as a transition from overdependence on agriculture. Such industrial transformation is heavily dependent on energy-intensive technologies. Moreover, the degree of environmental awareness is very low in developing countries. According to the Environmental Performance Index 2012, Nepal is among the strongest performer. A new international carbon trade mechanism, called ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation’ (REDD, has been proposed to curb global Greenhouse Gases (GHGs emissions. Carbon trade entails the idea that industrialized countries pay developing countries to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Nepal’s community forestry can reap benefits by participating in REDD, but it requires addressing a range of issues and challenges to mitigate underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately this type of program would encourage local people for conservation and sustainable use of forest resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12181International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 101-111  

  20. REDD+ and Tenure Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Etongo, Daniel; Vongvisouk, Thoumthone;

    REDD+ is to be introduced into areas with complex, conflictual tenancy claims concerning potential agricultural land and forests, but it is also an arena for introducing new interests, stakeholders and power relations. REDD+ might foster local processes that can help clarify and strengthen proper...

  1. Community Monitoring of Carbon Stocks for REDD+: Does Accuracy and Cost Change over Time?

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    Søren Brofeldt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+ is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropical countries are working towards implementing. Thus far, limited practical consideration has been paid to local rights to forests and forest resources in REDD+ readiness programs, beyond noting the importance of these issues. Previous studies have shown that community members can reliably and cost-effectively monitor forest biomass. At the same time, this can improve local ownership and forge important links between monitoring activities and local decision-making. Existing studies have, however, been static assessments of biomass at one point in time. REDD+ programs will require repeated surveys of biomass over extended time frames. Here, we examine trends in accuracy and costs of local forest monitoring over time. We analyse repeated measurements by community members and professional foresters of 289 plots over two years in four countries in Southeast Asia. This shows, for the first time, that with repeated measurements community members’ biomass measurements become increasingly accurate and costs decline. These findings provide additional support to available evidence that community members can play a strong role in monitoring forest biomass in the local implementation of REDD+.

  2. Leakage Implications for European Timber Markets from Reducing Deforestation in Developing Countries

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    Mattias Boman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest management strategies and policies such as REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation may have unintentional implications for forest sectors in countries not targeted by such policies. The success of a policy effort like REDD would result in a significant reduction in deforestation and forest degradation and an ensuing reduction in the supply of natural forest timber production within participating countries. This could in turn result in price increases, inducing a supply response outside project boundaries with possible implications for forest management as well as global carbon emissions. This paper reviews the literature to discern potential timber market implications for countries sourcing wood products from developing countries affected by REDD related conservation efforts. The literature reviewed shows varying degrees of market effects leakage—policy actions in one place creating incentives for third parties to increase timber harvesting elsewhere through the price mechanism—ranging from negligible to substantial. However, wood products in the studies reviewed are dealt with on quite an aggregated scale and are assumed to be more or less perfect substitutes for wood products outside conservation effort boundaries. The review suggests that a thorough mapping of the end-uses of tropical timber is needed to comprehensively analyze impacts on wood-product markets in regions such as Europe from conservation efforts in tropical developing countries. The types of tropical timber expected to be affected, in which applications they are used, which are the most likely substitutes and where they would be sourced, are issues that, along with empirical analysis of supply and demand price elasticities and degree of substitutability, should be investigated when assessing the overall effectiveness of REDD.

  3. A construção da estratégia brasileira de REDD: a simplificação do debate na priorização da Amazônia Development of the Brazilian REDD strategy: the simplification of the debate which prioritizes the amazon biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Almeida Souza

    2013-03-01

    mitigation initiatives. Based on different focus for a REDD strategy, the article criticizes the current building process of the Brazilian REDD strategy, privileging the Amazon. The article highlights that such strategy does not acknowledge the current potential of each Brazilian biome to build a national strategy that would conciliate emissions reductions and the sustainable development of Brazil. It is recommended that decision-makers revise the current potential of each Brazilian biome in collaborating to the goals of the Brazilian REDD strategy before defining its design.

  4. Assessment of the potential REDD+ as a new international support measure for GHG reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Paris Agreement, the mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has high potential to simultaneously contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation through forest conservation and poverty alleviation. Some of 162 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted by 189 countries representing approximately 98.8% of global GHG emissions include not only unconditional mitigation goals but also conditional goals based on the condition of the provision of international support such as finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Considering REDD+ as one of the main mechanisms to support such work, this study selected ten countries from among Korea's 24 ODA priority partners, taking into consideration their conditional INDC targets alongside sectoral quantified targets such as land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The ten selected countries are Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Senegal, Colombia, Peru and Paraguay. Of these countries, most REDD+ projects have been conducted in Indonesia mainly due to the fact that 85% of the country's total GHG emissions are caused by forest conversion and peatland degradation. Therefore, GHG reduction rates and associated projected costs of the Indonesia's REDD+ projects were analyzed in order to offer guidance on the potential of REDD+ to contribute to other INDCs' conditional goals. The result showed that about 0.9 t CO2 ha-1 could be reduced at a cost of USD 23 per year. Applying this estimation to the Cambodian case, which has submitted a conditional INDC target of increasing its forest coverage by 60% (currently 57%) by 2030, suggests that financial support of USD 12.8 million would reduce CO2 emissions by about 5.1 million tones by increasing forest coverage. As there is currently no consideration of LULUCF in Cambodia's INDC, this result represents the opportunity for an additional contribution to

  5. Rights to Land, Forests and Carbon in REDD+: Insights from Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica

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    Pablo Pacheco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure and carbon rights constitute critical issues to take into account in achieving emission reductions, ensuring transparent benefit sharing and determining non-permanence (or non-compliance liabilities in the context of REDD+ strategies and projects. This is so because tenure systems influence who becomes involved in efforts to avoid deforestation and improve forest management, and that land tenure, carbon rights and liabilities may be linked or divorced with implications for rural development. This paper explores these issues by looking at tenure regimes and carbon rights issues in Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica. It is effectively shown that complex bundles of rights over forest resources have distinct implications for REDD+ design and implementation, and that REDD+ strategies in selected countries have to date failed in procedurally addressing land-use conflicts and carbon rights entitlements and liabilities.

  6. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

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    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  7. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  8. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+: Transaction Costs of Six Peruvian Projects

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    Olivia R. Rendón Thompson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ has received strong support as a major component of future global climate change policy. The financial mechanism of REDD+ is payment for the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration in tropical forests that is expected to create incentives for conservation of forest cover and condition. However, the costs of achieving emissions reduction by these means remain largely unknown. We assess the set-up, implementation, and monitoring costs, i.e., collectively the transaction costs, of six of the first seven REDD+ project designs from the Peruvian Amazon and compare them with established projects in Brazil and Bolivia. The estimated costs vary greatly among the assessed projects from US$0.16 to 1.44 ha-1 yr-1, with an average of US$0.73 ha-1 yr-1, though they are comparable to earlier published estimates. The results indicate that the costs of implementing REDD+ are highly uncertain for participating developing countries because of issues such as inadequate project design and how additionality is determined. Furthermore, some insight is obtained into how different activities to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, the type of implementer, and project location affect implementation costs of REDD+ projects. Even with these first estimates, the cost of preserving existing intact forests in the Peruvian Amazon may have been underestimated.

  9. MRV System Development for REDD+ in Indonesia: Pol-SAR Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimadoya, Mahmud; Gunawan, Adrianto

    2013-08-01

    An important and critical requirement for the implementation of REDD+ will be the establishment of an independent MRV (Monitoring, Reporting, and V erification) procedure. This paper presents the progress in the establishment of MRV model for forest plantation (HTI) in Indonesia. The objectives of the study were: (1) to observe the impact of HTI on the degraded peat land; (2) to initiate MRV procedure standardized to 2006 IPCC Guidelines (AFOLU Sector); and (3) to explore SAR application for MRV. The HTI test site is located in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) District of South Sumatera Province (total area of 585,305 Ha), where the first planting operation was started on 2004-2005. The study involved multi- temporal and multi-mission image archives of 15 years period (1995-2009). Preliminary detailed study was implemented on the four selected imageries: Landsat- ETM (1995 & 2000), SPOT-4 (2004) and ALOS/PALSAR (2009). The result was presented in terms of carbon stock and carbon stock change (Tier-1). Using 1995 as the baseline, HTI intervention (2009) showed a positive impact with carbon stock increase of 24%. While the other two showed carbon stock decreases of -18% (2000) due to 1998 forest fire, and - 8% (2004) as the natural forest recovery was took place.

  10. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

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    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  11. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  12. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

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    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  13. Predicting Future Conflict under REDD+ Implementation

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    Chandra Silori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the current complexity of issues facing forest and land management, the implementation of the REDD+ initiative comes with significant risks, including conflict. While the exact nature and shape of conflict in REDD+ implementation is difficult to pinpoint, this study aims to build a preliminary predictive framework to identify possible sources of impairment that may result in conflict over management of forests and natural resources. The framework was developed from an extensive literature review and was tested in three REDD+ pilot project sites in Nepal. The results indicate that most of the sources of impairment are present in all study sites, particularly issues relating to benefit sharing, which have been main drivers of conflict prior to REDD+. While we found that the application of the framework has been useful in the Nepalese context, there are some limitations in its scope and precision. Nonetheless, this study points to important implications with regards to REDD+ implementation and conflict management that can be useful for policy makers and practitioners involved in REDD+ strategy designs, as well as other areas of forest management involving outsiders and communities.

  14. Marketing in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  15. Special Issue: The Potential Role for Community Monitoring in MRV and in Benefit Sharing in REDD+

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    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early design of activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+ under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the need to engage local communities and indigenous groups in monitoring and reporting has been recognized. REDD+ has advanced under the UNFCCC negotiations, but most countries still need to define formally what the role of communities in their national monitoring systems will be. Previous research and experiences have shown that local communities can effectively contribute in the monitoring of natural resources. This editorial introduces a Special Issue of Forests which discusses the implications of and potential for including community based monitoring (CBM in monitoring and benefit-sharing systems in REDD+. It outlines the main points of the nine contributions to the Special Issue which cover a wide geographical area and report on projects and research which engages more than 150 communities from eight different countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The editorial summarizes how the articles and reports build further understanding of the potential of CBM to contribute to the implementation, monitoring and distribution of benefits in REDD+. It also discusses the results of an on-going opinion survey on issues related to CBM and its relation to benefit sharing, which indicates that there is still disagreement on a number of key elements.

  16. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia PG

    2015-01-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibians, mammals, birds, reptiles) and plants (species distribution models for 8 families). We then investigated congruence between different measures of biodiversity richness and carbon stocks at the national and subnational scales. Finally, we mapped active REDD+ projects and investigated the carbon density and potential biodiversity richness and modeled deforestation pressures within these forests relative to protected areas and unprotected forests. There was little internal overlap among the different hotspots (richest 10% of cells) of species richness. There was also no consistent spatial congruence between carbon stocks and the biodiversity measures: a weak negative correlation at the national scale masked highly variable and nonlinear relationships island by island. Current REDD+ projects were preferentially located in areas with higher total species richness and threatened species richness but lower carbon densities than protected areas and unprotected forests. Although a quarter of the total area of these REDD+ projects is under relatively high deforestation pressure, the majority of the REDD+ area is not. In Indonesia at least, first-generation REDD+ projects are located where they are likely to deliver biodiversity benefits. However, if REDD+ is to deliver additional gains for climate and biodiversity, projects will need to focus on forests with the highest threat to deforestation, which will have cost implications for future REDD+ implementation. Los Patrones Espaciales

  17. Community monitoring of carbon stocks for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brofeldt, Søren; Theilade, Ida; Burgess, Neil David

    2014-01-01

    countries are working towards implementing. Thus far, limited practical consideration has been paid to local rights to forests and forest resources in REDD+ readiness programs, beyond noting the importance of these issues. Previous studies have shown that community members can reliably and cost...

  18. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, D.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E. D.; Braatz, S.; Grassi, G.; Federici, S.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need—and can be—overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

  19. REDD+ policy making in Nepal: toward state-centric, polycentric, or market-oriented governance?

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    Bryan R. Bushley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, Nepal has become renowned for its community-based forestry policies, initiatives, and institutions, characterized by local autonomy in decisions about forest management and use and a gradual shift toward more inclusive national policy processes. In recent years, the government, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, donors, and some civil society organizations have instigated policy and piloting initiatives for an international climate change mitigation scheme known as "reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries" (REDD+. Although many people see REDD+ as a means of bolstering forest conservation efforts and enhancing rural livelihoods, its broader implications for decentralized forest governance in Nepal and elsewhere remain uncertain and contested. Using policy network analysis and theories of polycentric and network governance, I examined influence, inclusiveness, and deliberation among actors involved in REDD+ policy making in Nepal. Data were collected between June and December 2011 through a survey of 34 organizations from government, civil society, educational and research institutions, international NGOs and donors, and the private sector. I investigated whether policy processes and the configurations of actors involved reflect state-centric, market-oriented, or polycentric governance, and I discuss the implications for decentralized forest governance in general and for the implementation of REDD+ in particular. Results indicate that REDD+ policy making is dominated by a "development triangle", a tripartite coalition of key government actors, external organizations (international NGOs and donors, and select civil society organizations. As a result, the views and interests of other important stakeholders have been marginalized, threatening recentralized forest governance and hampering the effective implementation of REDD

  20. Forest Carbon Monitoring and Reporting for REDD+: What Future for Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizachew, Belachew; Duguma, Lalisa A.

    2016-11-01

    A climate change mitigation mechanism for emissions reduction from reduced deforestation and forest degradation, plus forest conservation, sustainable management of forest, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+), has received an international political support in the climate change negotiations. The mechanism will require, among others, an unprecedented technical capacity for monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon emissions from the forest sector. A functional monitoring, reporting and verification requires inventories of forest area, carbon stock and changes, both for the construction of forest reference emissions level and compiling the report on the actual emissions, which are essentially lacking in developing countries, particularly in Africa. The purpose of this essay is to contribute to a better understanding of the state and prospects of forest monitoring and reporting in the context of REDD+ in Africa. We argue that monitoring and reporting capacities in Africa fall short of the stringent requirements of the methodological guidance for monitoring, reporting and verification for REDD+, and this may weaken the prospects for successfully implementing REDD+ in the continent. We presented the challenges and prospects in the national forest inventory, remote sensing and reporting infrastructures. A North-South, South-South collaboration as well as governments own investments in monitoring, reporting and verification system could help Africa leapfrog in monitoring and reporting. These could be delivered through negotiations for the transfer of technology, technical capacities, and experiences that exist among developed countries that traditionally compile forest carbon reports in the context of the Kyoto protocol.

  1. Framing REDD+ at National Level: Actors and Discourse around Nepal’s Policy Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Bastakoti

    2017-02-01

    s forest governance and management levels to ensure actual benefits for healthy forests, strong communities, and effective climate change mitigation. Nepal's findings also suggest highly relevant lessons to other developing countries with significant community forest governance, and a strong planned focus on REDD+.

  2. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  3. Splitting the difference: a proposal for benefit sharing in reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Skutsch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The objective of REDD+ is to create incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and for the increase of carbon stocks through the enhancement, conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries. As part of the international negotiations

  4. Beyond rhetoric: South-South collaboration for REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-11-15

    Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. In one example of South-South collaboration to do just this, IIED has helped facilitate a Mozambique-Brazil partnership to share expertise and create a unique REDD+ working group. The initiative provides key lessons for other countries contemplating South-South collaboration on REDD+, including the need for charismatic champions, continuity in government representation, and integration across sectors.

  5. Salmon redd identification using environmental DNA (eDNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Laramie, Matthew B.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionThe purpose of this project was to develop a technique to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to distinguish between redds made by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and redds made by Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to distinguish utilized redds from test/abandoned redds or scours that have the appearance of redds. The project had two phases:Phase 1. Develop, test, and optimize a molecular assay for detecting and identifying Coho salmon DNA and differentiating it from Chinook salmon DNA.Phase 2. Demonstrate the efficacy of the technique.Collect and preserve water samples from the interstitial spaces of 10 known redds (as identified by expert observers) of each species and 10 gravel patches that do not include a redd of either species.Collect control samples from the water column adjacent to each redd to establish background eDNA levels.Analyze the samples using the developed molecular assays for Coho salmon (phase I) and Chinook salmon (Laramie and others, 2015).Evaluate whether samples collected from Chinook and Coho redds have significantly higher levels of eDNA of the respective species than background levels (that is, from gravel, water column).Evaluate whether samples collected from the interstitial spaces of gravel patches that are not redds are similar to background eDNA levels.The Sandy River is a large tributary of the Columbia River. The Sandy River meets the Columbia River approximately 23 km upstream of Portland, Oregon. The Sandy River Basin provides overlapping spawning habitat for both Chinook and Coho salmon.Samples provided by Portland Water Bureau for analysis were collected from the Bull Run River, Sixes Creek, Still Creek, Arrah Wanna Side Channel, and Side Channel 18.

  6. REDD+ for the poor or the poor for REDD+? About the limitations of environmental policies in the Amazon and the potential of achieving environmental goals through pro-poor policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Pokorny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Once again, the international community focuses on the preservation of Amazonian forests, in particular through a bundle of initiatives grouped under the term of REDD+. Initially focusing on reducing carbon emissions, the REDD+ process became increasingly linked with developmental goals that represent the primary interest of all Amazon countries. In consequence, REDD+ can be seen as another attempt to achieve the twin goals of environmental protection and rural development, and consequently, relies on the strategies and tools of past efforts. Against this background, we explore past experiences with key strategies for environmental protection and poverty alleviation in the Amazon to critically reflect about the potential of REDD+ to contribute to sustainable local development in the region. The analysis demonstrates that initiatives that pursued environmental goals mostly led to more restrictions and bureaucratic barriers to local forest users, while the prevailing approaches to promote rural dwellers showed ambivalent environmental outcomes. Reasons for these unsatisfactory results include the sectoral alignment of the measures and the poor coordination and lack of coherence with decisive policy areas. Most critically, the environmental and social initiatives themselves rely on the classic development approach widely disregarding smallholders' capacities to contribute to local development. The manifold pilot activities emerging under the new REDD+ framework tend to repeat these shortcomings, thereby further accelerating the replacement of local socio-productive schemes with unsustainable land uses. In view of the growing consensus about the ecological incompatibility, social limitations and economic risks of classic development, an alternative vision of development is needed, which more consciously takes into account the immense social and environmental potential of the region. Considering that REDD+ is still at the start, there might be

  7. Seeing the forest for the trees: drivers and barriers for REDD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, Inken

    2011-07-01

    Greater coordination amongst donor countries is required in order to secure environmental and social standards and to monitor the readiness of host countries to move from the preparatory phase of REDD to generating actual reductions in emissions. Clear and binding environmental and social safeguards must be implemented to ensure equal credible standards for all REDD actors. Alternatives to public financing of REDD are necessary to secure long-term effectiveness of the mechanism. Demand for REDD is dependent on internationally agreed compliance obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; demands from individual national emissions trading systems may impair the environmental quality of emission reduction units.(Author)

  8. Ten Years of REDD+: A Critical Review of the Impact of REDD+ on Forest-Dependent Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program, or REDD+, has been the international community’s first real attempt to create a global forest governance system which would impact countries on national, regional and even local scales. This paper provides an in-depth analysis on the impact of REDD+ on forest-dependent communities. The dimensions which are included in this review are institutions and governance, livelihoods, socio-cultural aspects, and the environment. Many studies confirm that forest-dependent communities are not sufficiently involved in current REDD+ projects. Furthermore, current and potential impacts of REDD+ on communities often disrupt local peoples’ livelihoods and strategies, institutions and socio-cultural systems in various ways, such as unequal benefit sharing, food insecurity, introduction of new powerful stakeholders, illegal land acquisition, unfair free prior and informed consent, and the introduction of monoculture plantations. REDD+ is also perceived as a neoliberal mechanism which renegotiates peoples’ relationship with the natural environment by monetizing nature. The paper concludes with a framework which addresses the potential drivers and threats of REDD+ concerning forest-dependent communities based on the literature review. This framework suggests a holistic approach to REDD+ implementation, which incorporates forest-dependent communities’ often complex relationship with the natural environment, such as incorporation of traditional forest management systems and provision of viable alternatives to loss of agricultural land.

  9. Allocating Group-Level Payments for Ecosystem Services: Experiences from a REDD+ Pilot in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Payments for ecosystem services (PES typically reward landowners for managing their land to provide ecosystem services that would not otherwise be provided. REDD+—Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation—is a form of PES aimed at decreasing carbon emissions from forest conversion and extraction in lower-income countries. A key challenge for REDD+ occurs when it is implemented at a group, rather than an individual landowner, level. Whilst achieving a group-level reduction relies on individuals changing their interaction with the forest, incentives are not aligned explicitly at the individual level. Rather, payments are made to a defined group as a single entity in exchange for verified reduced forest loss, as per a PES scheme. In this paper, we explore how REDD+ has been implemented in one multiple-village pilot in Tanzania with the village defining the group. Our findings suggest that considerable attention has been paid towards monitoring, reporting, verification (MRV, and equity. No explicit mechanism ensures individual compliance with the village-level PES, and few villages allocate funds for explicit enforcement efforts to protect the forest from illegal activities undertaken by individual group members or by outsiders. However, the development of village-level institutions, “social fencing,” and a shared future through equal REDD+ payments, factor into decisions that influence the level of compliance at the village level that the program will eventually achieve.

  10. REDD1 deletion prevents dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Florian A; Begue, Gwenaelle; Rossano, Bernadette; Docquier, Aurélie; Vernus, Barbara; Sar, Chamroeun; Ferry, Arnaud; Bonnieu, Anne; Ollendorff, Vincent; Favier, François B

    2014-12-01

    REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) has been proposed to inhibit the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) during in vitro hypoxia. REDD1 expression is low under basal conditions but is highly increased in response to several catabolic stresses, like hypoxia and glucocorticoids. However, REDD1 function seems to be tissue and stress dependent, and its role in skeletal muscle in vivo has been poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the effect of REDD1 deletion on skeletal muscle mass, protein synthesis, proteolysis, and mTORC1 signaling pathway under basal conditions and after glucocorticoid administration. Whereas skeletal muscle mass and typology were unchanged between wild-type (WT) and REDD1-null mice, oral gavage with dexamethasone (DEX) for 7 days reduced tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle weights as well as tibialis anterior fiber size only in WT. Similarly, REDD1 deletion prevented the inhibition of protein synthesis and mTORC1 activity (assessed by S6, 4E-BP1, and ULK1 phosphorylation) observed in gastrocnemius muscle of WT mice following single DEX administration for 5 h. However, our results suggest that REDD1-mediated inhibition of mTORC1 in skeletal muscle is not related to the modulation of the binding between TSC2 and 14-3-3. In contrast, our data highlight a new mechanism involved in mTORC1 inhibition linking REDD1, Akt, and PRAS40. Altogether, these results demonstrated in vivo that REDD1 is required for glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of protein synthesis via mTORC1 downregulation. Inhibition of REDD1 may thus be a strategy to limit muscle loss in glucocorticoid-mediated atrophy. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  12. REDD for Malaysia?

    OpenAIRE

    Roda Jean-Marc; Ahmad Fauzi Puasa; Rohana Abd Rahman; Lim Hin Fui; Ismariah Ahmad; Noor Aini Zakaria

    2010-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is a mechanism which aims to mitigate the negative effects of climate change, by reducing or avoiding carbon emissions. It is a market tool sourcing money from the international community in order to prevent deforestation or degradation.

  13. REDD comes into fashion in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson, B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Copenhagen negotiations on the form of post Kyoto mechanisms to tackle climate change approach, firmly on the agenda are proposals to include Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD. REDD could potentially generate tens of millions of dollars annually for Madagascar, bringing a huge potential to deliver forest conservation and improved livelihoods for the rural Malagasy. Efforts are underway in Madagascar to access REDD finance through a national working group and implementation of five REDD pilot projects. Many areas where the lowering of rates of deforestation is hoped to take place are part of the new generation of protected areas following the 2003 Durban Declaration. These new protected areas are frequently based on federations or grouping ofcommunity managed forests, which the literature and experience has shown to be highly problematic and which are rarely fully operational. If REDD is to prove to be an effective conservation tool, as well as an equitable mechanism to promote rural development several issues need to be addressed: More resources allocated to provide direct incentives to communities and to build local management capacity within their forest management associations. More serious efforts are needed to increase forest plantations and to improve management of existing plantations and natural forests, so as to meet the forest product needs of the whole Malagasy population. Basic human rights to have secure tenure of ancestral forest lands, and to derive a decent living from these needs to be recognised and empowered. The risk of ‘elite capture’ of the revenues generated by REDD should be avoided by the establishment of a transparent and independent scrutiny facility. Finally, it is proposed that improved dialogue between the social critics of conservation in Madagascar and the conservation movement itself should be encouraged.

  14. REDD+ Policy Approaches in the Congo Basin: A Comparative Analysis of Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalame Fobissie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Congo Basin forests are a prime location for implementing REDD+. National REDD+ policy processes are ongoing and many REDD+ pilot initiatives are being demonstrated. However, the level of national engagement, progress and distribution of REDD+ activities varies considerably in the different Congo Basin countries. This study therefore uses a set of criteria to assess national and international policy initiatives and approaches for advancing REDD+ implementation in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic Congo (DRC, two countries where more than two thirds of the Congo Basin forests are concentrated. Our findings show that (i both countries have shown the highest political presence at the international climate negotiations but DRC has invested more in the size of its delegation and side events; (ii REDD+ donors, initiatives, and funding are disproportionately skewed towards DRC making it technically more advanced; (iii the high political interest and institutional reforms in DRC favors private sector investments in REDD+ programs; and (iv the REDD+ policy process is internally-driven in Cameroon with a strong national ownership, while it is externally-driven in DRC with weak national ownership. To advance REDD+, the government of DRC should embark on capacity building programs that ensure the transfer of REDD+ technical know-how from international to national actors while Cameroon needs to speed-up governance reforms and be more flexible in order to attract influential international REDD+ actors. This paper further provides specific recommendations.

  15. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  16. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...... as a stepping-stone in the process of designing appropriate stabilization policy and macroeconomic management in developing countries....

  17. Financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness and monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Gaugris, Jérôme; Mollicone, Danilo; Scriven, Joel; Corblin, Alexis; Ndikumagenge, Cleto; Aquino, André; Crete, Philippe; Sanz-Sanchez, Maria-José

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first critical analysis of the financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness in the Congo Basin, with a particular focus on the REDD+ component of national forest monitoring and measurement, reporting and verification (M&MRV). We focus on three areas of analysis: (i) general financing for REDD+ readiness especially M&MRV; (ii) capacity and information for REDD+ implementation and M&MRV; (iii) prospects and challenges for REDD+ and M&MRV readiness in terms of financing and capacity. For the first area of analysis, a REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing database was created based on the information from the REDD+ voluntary database and Internet searches. For the second area of analysis, a qualitative approach to data collection was adopted (semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, surveys and observations). All 10 countries were visited between 2010 and 2012. We find that: (i) a significant amount of REDD+ financing flows into the Congo Basin (±US$550 million or almost half of the REDD+ financing for the African continent); (ii) across countries, there is an important disequilibrium in terms of REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing, political engagement, comprehension and capacity, which also appears to be a key barrier to countries receiving equal resources; (iii) most financing appears to go to smaller scale (subnational) REDD+ projects; (iv) four distinct country groups in terms of REDD+ readiness and M&MRV status are identified; and (v) the Congo Basin has a distinct opportunity to have a specific REDD+ financing window for large-scale and more targeted national REDD+ programmes through a specific fund for the region. PMID:23878337

  18. Financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness and monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification in the Congo Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, Danae; Gaugris, Jérôme; Mollicone, Danilo; Scriven, Joel; Corblin, Alexis; Ndikumagenge, Cleto; Aquino, André; Crete, Philippe; Sanz-Sanchez, Maria-José

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first critical analysis of the financing and current capacity for REDD+ readiness in the Congo Basin, with a particular focus on the REDD+ component of national forest monitoring and measurement, reporting and verification (M&MRV). We focus on three areas of analysis: (i) general financing for REDD+ readiness especially M&MRV; (ii) capacity and information for REDD+ implementation and M&MRV; (iii) prospects and challenges for REDD+ and M&MRV readiness in terms of financing and capacity. For the first area of analysis, a REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing database was created based on the information from the REDD+ voluntary database and Internet searches. For the second area of analysis, a qualitative approach to data collection was adopted (semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, surveys and observations). All 10 countries were visited between 2010 and 2012. We find that: (i) a significant amount of REDD+ financing flows into the Congo Basin (±US$550 million or almost half of the REDD+ financing for the African continent); (ii) across countries, there is an important disequilibrium in terms of REDD+ and M&MRV readiness financing, political engagement, comprehension and capacity, which also appears to be a key barrier to countries receiving equal resources; (iii) most financing appears to go to smaller scale (subnational) REDD+ projects; (iv) four distinct country groups in terms of REDD+ readiness and M&MRV status are identified; and (v) the Congo Basin has a distinct opportunity to have a specific REDD+ financing window for large-scale and more targeted national REDD+ programmes through a specific fund for the region.

  19. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  20. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollicone, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knoell-Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Freibauer, A [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knoell-Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Schulze, E D [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knoell-Strasse 10, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Braatz, S [Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome (Italy); Grassi, G [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy); Federici, S [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i servizi Tecnici, Rome (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need-and can be-overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

  1. Shades of green and REDD: Local and global contestations over the value of forest versus plantation development on the Indonesian forest frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    the emerging initiatives of ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation’ known as REDD+ in the province of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The paper argues that the general rush to implement REDD+ without intimate knowledge of the socio-political landscape of resource access and control...... is in danger of generating new enclosures of land and resources easily appropriated by local elites, excluding less fortunate sections of local society. The paper shows how divergent interpretations of REDD+ are triggering local land disputes, and how powerful actors readily appropriate REDD+ discourses...

  2. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  3. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations.

  4. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  5. Satellite Monitoring for REDD: Radar vs. Optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, E. T.; Saatchi, S. S.; Ryan, C.; Woollen, E.; Goodman, L. E.; Williams, M.; Gerard, F.; Starkey, M.; Meir, P.

    2010-12-01

    The proposed REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) protocol will only succeed in reducing emissions if deforestation and degradation can be accurately monitored. Ground surveys are prohibitively expensive over large areas, so satellite monitoring will be essential for independently monitoring deforestation and degradation rates, and thus calculating payments. In addition, remote sensing will be needed for developing historical baselines. It is clear that different methodologies will be needed for different project areas, scales and threat types. In addition different methodologies are needed depending on the capabilities of the countries in question: in the context of Africa for example, in-country monitoring tends to be at a basic level, yet for REDD it is important that countries are able to do their own monitoring, so simple methods must be developed and tested. In this paper we present change detection results for different remote sensing methodologies for potential REDD projects in Cameroon and Mozambique. We have shown previously that a good relationship exists between aboveground biomass (AGB) and L-band radar backscatter (Mitchard et al. 2009). The errors in estimation of absolute biomass were still relatively high, in the region of ±25 %. However, it is suspected that some of these errors are intransient, being due to the structure of the landscape and vegetation within a site, and so it has been predicted that errors in change detection are smaller than those for absolute estimation. We present evidence from these sites that this is indeed correct, using ALOS PALSAR L-band radar data from 2007, 2008 and 2009. Optical satellite data is widely used for monitoring deforestation, for example the excellent system run by INPE in Brazil. However, while optical data is good at detecting deforestation occurring progressively in large clear-fell blocks, as in the Amazon, it is less good at detecting small-scale deforestation or degradation

  6. Breast health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  7. Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD: a climate change mitigation strategy on a critical track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plugge Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following recent discussions, there is hope that a mechanism for reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD will be agreed by the Parties of the UNFCCC at their 15th meeting in Copenhagen in 2009 as an eligible action to prevent climate changes and global warming in post-2012 commitment periods. Countries introducing a REDD-regime in order to generate benefits need to implement sound monitoring and reporting systems and specify the associated uncertainties. The principle of conservativeness addresses the problem of estimation errors and requests the reporting of reliable minimum estimates (RME. Here the potential to generate benefits from applying a REDD-regime is proposed with reference to sampling and non-sampling errors that influence the reliability of estimated activity data and emission factors. Results A framework for calculating carbon benefits by including assessment errors is developed. Theoretical, sample based considerations as well as a simulation study for five selected countries with low to high deforestation and degradation rates show that even small assessment errors (5% and less may outweigh successful efforts to reduce deforestation and degradation. Conclusion The generation of benefits from REDD is possible only in situations where assessment errors are carefully controlled.

  8. Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD + programmes: two proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, Martin [Center for Geoinformation, Department of Environmental Science, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen (Netherlands); Skutsch, Margaret, E-mail: martin.herold@wur.nl [Centro de Investigaciones en GeografIa Ambiental, UNAM Campus Morelia (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Different options have been suggested by Parties to the UNFCCC (United Framework Convention on Climate Change) for inclusion in national approaches to REDD and REDD + (reduced deforestation, reduced degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, and conservation of forest carbon stocks). This paper proposes that from the practical and technical points of view of designing action for REDD and REDD + at local and sub-national level, as well as from the point of view of the necessary MRV (monitoring, reporting and verification), these should be grouped into three categories: conservation, which is rewarded on the basis of no changes in forest stock, reduced deforestation, in which lowered rates of forest area loss are rewarded, and positive impacts on carbon stock changes in forests remaining forest, which includes reduced degradation, sustainable management of forest of various kinds, and forest enhancement. Thus we have moved degradation, which conventionally is grouped with deforestation, into the forest management group reported as areas remaining forest land, with which it has, in reality, and particularly as regards MRV, much more in common. Secondly, in the context of the fact that REDD/REDD + is to take the form of a national or near-national approach, we argue that while systematic national monitoring is important, it may not be necessary for REDD/REDD + activities, or for national MRV, to be started at equal levels of intensity all over the country. Rather, areas where interventions seem easiest to start may be targeted, and here data measurements may be more rigorous (Tier 3), for example based on stakeholder self-monitoring with independent verification, while in other, untreated areas, a lower level of monitoring may be pursued, at least in the first instance. Treated areas may be targeted for any of the three groups of activities (conservation, reduced deforestation, and positive impact on carbon stock increases in

  9. Physics Teaching in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M A

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the first South-East Asian conference on university physics education held in Penang, Malaysia, May 16-21, 1977, to identify, analyze, and compare physics curricula and to improve physics education in developing countries. (SL)

  10. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  11. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  12. Opportunities and challenges to capturing the multiple potential benefits of REDD+ in a traditional transnational savanna-woodland region in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, E Gunilla A; Ouattara, Syna

    2013-04-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations intends to offer developing countries financial incentives to reduce the rates of deforestation and forest degradation for reducing global CO2 emissions. This is combined with building carbon stocks in existing wooded ecosystems and fostering other soil, biodiversity and water conservation objectives. Successful application of REDD+ to the Xylophone Triangle of West Africa faces substantial challenges and risks to both meeting REDD+ objectives and to the local people's rights and livelihoods. The transnationality of the culturally coherent area requires collaboration of three national governments. The opportunities, however, are great to capitalize on the region's biodiversity, the well-developed traditional ecological knowledge and the use of local medicinal plants as an integral part of the agro-ecosystem. Possibilities open to, not only sequester carbon, but also to increase the resilience of the ecosystem and of independent rural livelihoods in the face of climate change and globalization.

  13. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  14. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the

  15. Challenges and opportunities for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Sun, Zhanli; Müller, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is a promising mechanism of payments for ecosystem services with the aim to effectively reduce emissions in an efficient and equitable manner. REDD+ is part of the Paris-agreement reached at the UNFCCC COP21 in December 2015...

  16. REDD+ in West Africa: Politics of Design and Implementation in Ghana and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi P. Asiyanbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the design and implementation of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests (REDD+ in the West African region, an important global biodiversity area. Drawing on in-depth interviews, analysis of policy documents and observation of everyday activities, we sought to understand how REDD+ has been designed and implemented in Nigeria and Ghana. We draw on political ecology to examine how, and why REDD+ takes the form it does in these countries. We structure our discussion around three key dimensions that emerged as strong areas of common emphasis in our case studies—capacity building, carbon visibility, and property rights. First, we show that while REDD+ design generally foregrounds an ostensible inclusionary politics, its implementation is driven through various forms of exclusion. This contradictory inclusion–exclusion politics, which is partly emblematic of the neoliberal provenance of the REDD+ policy, is also a contingent reality and a strategy for navigating complexities and pursuing certain interests. Second, we show that though the emergent foci of REDD+ implementation in our case studies align with global REDD+ expectations, they still manifest as historically and geographically contingent processes that reflect negotiated and contested relations among actors that constitute the specific national circumstance of each country. We conclude by reflecting on the importance of our findings for understanding REDD+ projects in other tropical countries.

  17. Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment and REDD+: Learning from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kusaga Mukama; Irmeli Mustalahti; Eliakimu Zahabu

    2012-01-01

    Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV) systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM). Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon s...

  18. Seeing REDD in the Amazon: a win for people, trees and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.

    2009-03-15

    Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet revolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. Between 1990 and 2005, over a million square kilometres of forest were lost in the tropics. Half that was in the Amazon. Deforestation accounts for over 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so a curb on felling is key to successfully mitigating climate change. But the Amazon is prey to unsustainable development, and the costs of inaction and laissez-faire are higher than those of stopping deforestation. REDD is the most promising solution yet for this volatile mix of issues.

  19. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  20. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  1. REDD: The Copenhagen Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feja Lesniewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An agreement on reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and degradation at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties 15 (COP 15 in Copenhagen December 2010 was not forthcoming. For a number of reasons this is a welcome outcome as several important outstanding legal and technical issues remain unresolved. This article examines the results from COP 15 including the Copenhagen Accord. It focuses on the key issues of principles, finance models, and environmental and social safeguards. It concludes with an assessment of the potential effect that the COP 15 will have on REDD negotiations this coming year prior to the UNFCCC COP 16 in Mexico December 2010.

  2. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the ind

  3. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely to be un...

  4. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  5. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  6. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program.

  7. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that

  8. Knowledge Translation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Nancy; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the application of knowledge in developing countries is failing. One reason is the woeful shortage of health workers, but as this is redressed, it is also crucial that we have an evidence base of what works to minimize the "know-do gap." The World Health Organization and other international organizations are…

  9. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  10. Technical assistance to developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.

    1985-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the industrialized countries of the world have a duty to assist the developing countries in their aspirations towards an acceptable standard of living for their inhabitants. Successive increases in the price of crude oil have ruined the economies of many countries, thus, during the past decade the emphasis of aid projects has swung towards the energy field. The purpose of this article is to describe the involvement of three chartered engineering bodies in aid work, to suggest how they should act in the author's opinion, and to illustrate this by discussing a recent relevant conference. It appears that as far as power production is concerned, the future lies with conventional internal combustion engines, though they may be fed with unconventional fuels. In terms of an approach to giving aid, the secret appears to lie in encouraging and helping people to solve their own problems.

  11. Can REDD+ help the conservation of restricted-range island species? Insights from the endemism hotspot of São Tomé

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Ricardo Faustino; Olmos, Fábio; Dallimer, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    REDD+ aims to offset greenhouse gas emissions through "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". Some authors suggest that REDD+ can bring additional benefits for biodiversity, namely for the conservation of extinction-prone restricted-range species. Here, we assess this claim...... and abundance of endemic species, supporting the potential of REDD+ to protect these taxa. We then assessed if REDD+ could help protect the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe. To do so, we used OSIRIS simulations to predict country-level deforestation under two different REDD+ designs. These simulations showed...

  12. Intergovernmental grants in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A country's grant system is the product of its political environment. Such systems tend to develop over time in response to prevailing political needs and then become institutionalized. Since they have developed in a haphazard fashion over time, grant"systems"commonly are not systems at all. Hard pressed government ministries seldom undertake any thorough analysis of these arrangements; hence their overall impact is unknown in spite of the importance of this use of resources.

  13. Impact of remittance in developing countries South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Bishow

    2015-01-01

    There are various examinations of the impact of remittance on poverty, education, governance, human development index, economic growth among several factors in developing countries with scattered result using the panel data of developing countries. This study aims to examine the direct impact of remittance on economic growth and the other development indicator and the long term impact of the remittance in the five south Asian developing countries. The result finds the positi...

  14. Drug discovery and developments in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development, the pharmaceutical industry has a strong incentive to ... per head on all health programmes whereas it is less than $6 in ... is loans and grants from donor countries and almost ... production capacity through technology transfer so.

  15. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  16. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2011-07-01

    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  17. The risks of using REDD+ to manage rich socio-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vincent Martin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ is an important development in environmental and social justice policy instruments. However, its success depends on a network of complex contingencies, and the achievement of difficult governance transformations in countries that are under severe economic pressure. It ought be obvious that there are significant risks associated with this endeavour, but overt risk management, using standard approaches, is not evident. This paper highlights some of the many risks that the governance of REDD+ (in common with most environmental policy innovations needs to pay attention to in order to avoid policy failure. There are eight distinct elements that have to work for the REDD+ program to achieve its public policy goals, and each of these carries its own risk. These are: securitisation of carbon sequestration; protection for complex non-carbon values, ensuring the integrity of the supply of credit; multi-level administration and aggregation of tradeable carbon interests; managing the social and economic imbalance of interests; deploying new methods for measurement and securitisation of interests; ensuring a platform of rules, administrative and enforcement systems, teams and intelligence networks; and achieving price and ‘brand’ competitiveness in a crowded carbon offsets marketplace. Although the issues listed in this paper are not comprehensive, they highlight major concerns and support the argument that a comprehensive and systematic approach to policy risk is likely to add value to the REDD+ implementation. The paper suggests that good management practice would separate risk management from policy or instrument development, and embed this aspect of good governance with a sufficient level of authority to ensure that the negative potentials are managed with a degree of vigour consistent with the importance of the issues.

  18. Social equity and livelihood implications of REDD+ in rural communities – a case study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Poudel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing international consensus that the use of the policy instrument REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries could be an effective way to reduce carbon emissions from the forestry sector and support bio-diversity with livelihood benefits, there are a range of unresolved issues, including potential implications for rural livelihoods. This paper presents results from recent research that examines social equity and livelihood implications of the piloting of REDD+ through Nepal’s community forestry system, within selected villages in the Gorkha district of Nepal. The research reveals the varying experiences of households, closely correlated to the socio-economic attributes of the households. Despite the ‘no harm and equitable’ policy, this research indicates that not everyone is experiencing the anticipated benefits of REDD+. Although poorer, women-headed and marginalized households are targeted in some ways (e.g. seed grants, the support is limited, and inadequately compensates the loss they have experienced in other ways (e.g. limited access to forests. Households bundling by caste may not necessarily address equity, but is likely to increase intra-caste marginalization.

  19. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Watson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biome-averaged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.

  20. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  1. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales

  2. Comparing methods for assessing the effectiveness of subnational REDD+ initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Astrid B.; Duchelle, Amy E.; Angelsen, Arild; Avitabile, Valerio; De Sy, Veronique; Herold, Martin; Joseph, Shijo; de Sassi, Claudio; Sills, Erin O.; Sunderlin, William D.; Wunder, Sven

    2017-07-01

    The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds of subnational REDD+ initiatives have emerged, presenting an opportunity to pilot and compare different approaches to quantifying impacts on carbon emissions. This study (1) develops a Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) method to assess the effectiveness of these REDD+ initiatives; (2) compares the results at the meso (initiative) and micro (village) scales; and (3) compares BACI with the simpler Before-After (BA) results. Our study covers 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. As a proxy for deforestation, we use annual tree cover loss. We aggregate data into two periods (before and after the start of each initiative). Analysis using control areas (‘control-intervention’) suggests better REDD+ performance, although the effect is more pronounced at the micro than at the meso level. Yet, BACI requires more data than BA, and is subject to possible bias in the before period. Selection of proper control areas is vital, but at either scale is not straightforward. Low absolute deforestation numbers and peak years influence both our BA and BACI results. In principle, BACI is superior, with its potential to effectively control for confounding factors. We conclude that the more local the scale of performance assessment, the more relevant is the use of the BACI approach. For various reasons, we find overall minimal impact of REDD+ in reducing deforestation on the ground thus far. Incorporating results from micro and meso level monitoring into national reporting systems is important, since overall REDD+ impact depends on land use decisions on the ground.

  3. Helping the developing countries effectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, H.

    1983-03-01

    A brief survey is given of a few projects - some completed, others still active - operated by the IAEA in coordination with developing countries, in the field of applications of isotopes and radiations for food and agricultural development. Information is given on the coordinated research programmes between the IAEA and India, aiming at breeding a disease-resistant pearl millet mutant, between the IAEA and Nigeria and between the IAEA and Mexico in the field of pest eradication using the sterile insect technique, on the regional cooperative agreement for Asia and the Pacific, etc.

  4. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  5. Talking REDD+: Beyond forestry - joining up and moving forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda; Rolington, Leianne

    2011-12-15

    On Sunday 27 November 2011, the eve of the 17th conference of the parties to the UNFCCC (COP17), the International Institute for Environment and Development, together with its partners, hosted a South-South learning event, 'REDD+, poverty reduction and sustainable development: are there cost-effective and pro-poor options?' This was a platform to share information about the practices that already work, to discuss how REDD+ can build on and scale up cost-effective options that deal with the fundamental problem of climate change. Deforestation and degradation of forests requires concerted interventions across national and regional borders. Learning from each other's experience in dealing with the underlying problems and understanding how to adapt them to a different local context is critical – and will help to both ensure its success and to lower transaction costs. This briefing gives an overview of the key REDD+ issues, in particular: integrating mitigation and adaptation actions; addressing tenure; learning from participatory forest management and payment for ecosystems services; taking the right approach to gender; developing safeguards to minimize negative impacts of REDD+; and strengthening South-South collaboration to reduce the transaction costs of REDD+.

  6. Fundamental Research and Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this report, I discuss the sociological role of fundamental research in Developing Countries (DC) and how to realize this program. In the second part, I give a brief and elementary introduction to the field of high-energy physics (HEP), accessible to a large audience not necessary physicists. The aim of this report is to make politicians and financial backers aware on the long-term usefulness of fundamental research in DC and on the possible globalisation of HEP and, in general, of science.

  7. Who Should Benefit from REDD+? Rationales and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Luttrell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Benefit-sharing mechanisms are a central design aspect of REDD+ because they help to create the necessary incentives to reduce carbon emissions. However, if stakeholders do not perceive the benefit sharing as fair, the legitimacy of REDD+, and support for the mechanism, will be weakened. In this paper, drawing on data from CIFOR's Global Comparative Study on REDD+, we analyze national policy processes in 6 countries and incipient benefit-sharing arrangements in 21 REDD+ project sites. Through our analysis of current practices and debates, we identify six rationales that have been put forward to justify how benefits should be distributed and to whom. These rationales encompass a range of perspectives. Some hold that benefit sharing should be related to actual carbon emission reductions or to costs incurred in achieving the reduction of emissions; others emphasize the importance of a legal right to benefit, the need to consider aspects such as poverty reduction or the appropriateness of rewarding those with a history of protecting the forest. Each rationale has implications for the design of benefit-sharing mechanisms and the equity of their outcomes. We point out that, given the wide range of rationales and interests at play, the objectives of REDD+ and benefit sharing must be clearly established and the term "benefit" defined before effective benefit-sharing mechanisms can be designed. For stakeholders to support REDD+, the legitimacy of decision-making institutions, consideration of context, and attention to process are critical. Building legitimacy requires attention not only to fair distributional outcomes but also to consensus on relevant institutions' authority to make decisions and to procedural equity.

  8. REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of REDD+ projects requires understanding the local ecological, economic and social context. This paper analyzes how REDD+ influences the context of ecosystem management, from both a conceptual and an ecosystem-scale perspective. We analyze how REDD+ changes the economic

  9. REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.; Meer, van der P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The design and implementation of REDD+ projects requires understanding the local ecological, economic and social context. This paper analyzes how REDD+ influences the context of ecosystem management, from both a conceptual and an ecosystem-scale perspective. We analyze how REDD+ changes the economic

  10. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  11. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  12. The progress on governing REDD+ in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Achmad Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the ten most forest-rich countries in the world. Almost 70 per cent of Indonesia’s mainland is covered with forest. However, Indonesia faces one of the highest rates of forest loss in the world. Deforestation and forest degradation accounts for more than 60 per cent of carbon emissions in Indonesia. Being aware of that fact and the danger of climate change, in October 2009, Indonesia voluntarily committed to reduce emissions by 26 per cent from business as usual by 2020 through national efforts, and by 41 per cent with international support. Indonesia’s commitment has gained international support; chiefly from Norway, which signed a Letter of Intent on 26 May 2010. To formalise the commitment, Presidential Decree No 19/2010 on Task Force for the preparation of REDD+ Agency and Presidential Instruction No 10/2011 on moratorium on new licenses and improvement of natural primary forest and peat land governance have been issued. The Presidential Decree ended on 30 June 2011 and was continued by Presidential Decree No 25/2011, which was later amended by Presidential Decree No 05/2013. The third Presidential Decree will conclude in the middle of 2013. The expected outputs are: establishment of a New REDD+ agency; measurement, reporting and verification instrument; funding instrument; improvement on forest governance, including legislative reform, law enforcement and administrative procedures; and gazetting forest areas and consolidating licenses through legal audit and legal compliance or legal due diligence in the pilot province. The new REDD+ Agency is expected to be established in 2013. The Agency will be an independent central agency, directly responsible to the President of the Republic of Indonesia, and will be responsible for leading and coordinating the national effort to reduce the country’s carbon emission.

  13. The progress on governing REDD+ in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Achmad Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the ten most forest-rich countries in the world. Almost 70 per cent of Indonesia’s mainland is covered with forest. However, Indonesia faces one of the highest rates of forest loss in the world. Deforestation and forest degradation accounts for more than 60 per cent of carbon emissions in Indonesia. Being aware of that fact and the danger of climate change, in October 2009, Indonesia voluntarily committed to reduce emissions by 26 per cent from business as usual by 2020 through national efforts, and by 41 per cent with international support. Indonesia’s commitment has gained international support; chiefly from Norway, which signed a Letter of Intent on 26 May 2010. To formalise the commitment, Presidential Decree No 19/2010 on Task Force for the preparation of REDD+ Agency and Presidential Instruction No 10/2011 on moratorium on new licenses and improvement of natural primary forest and peat land governance have been issued. The Presidential Decree ended on 30 June 2011 and was continued by Presidential Decree No 25/2011, which was later amended by Presidential Decree No 05/2013. The third Presidential Decree will conclude in the middle of 2013. The expected outputs are: establishment of a New REDD+ agency; measurement, reporting and verification instrument; funding instrument; improvement on forest governance, including legislative reform, law enforcement and administrative procedures; and gazetting forest areas and consolidating licenses through legal audit and legal compliance or legal due diligence in the pilot province. The new REDD+ Agency is expected to be established in 2013. The Agency will be an independent central agency, directly responsible to the President of the Republic of Indonesia, and will be responsible for leading and coordinating the national effort to reduce the country’s carbon emission.

  14. A Step Prior to REDD+ Implementation: A Socioeconomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase 2 of the United Nations’ REDD+ climate change mitigation initiative is underway in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Meanwhile, activities are being implemented to assess the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. REDD+ projects need to include a social dimension; thus, the aim of this research was to understand how land-use relationships vary across communities in an area where a REDD+ project is planned. Specifically, we aimed to identify the primary income-generating activities, the variation in access to land, the potential for the development of community projects, and the implementation of alternative income-generating activities. In the summer of 2013, we assessed a REDD+ pilot project in and around the Luki Biosphere Reserve, Bas-Congo Province. We used participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods in four communities located both inside and outside the reserve. We found that current subsistence income activities led to the destruction of forest habitat due to population pressure and a lack of alternative income-generating activities. Customary land tenures overlay statutory rights, which can often mean that community rights are threatened. To achieve their targets, REDD+ projects should consider the actual land-use patterns of local communities in order to generate sustainable income from the land.

  15. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  16. COMMUNICATING REDD+ ISSUES AT LOCAL LEVEL: CREATING LATENT AND MANIFEST CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Rumboko Wibowo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ”Carbon offsetting”in forestry-related projects is widely regarded as the ideal solution to the three challenges of   the  21st Century:  climate change, biodiversity conservation  andsocio-economic development. At the same time, there is scepticism about the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and  Forest  Degradation (REDD  proposal  particularly because of   the  weak  governance and institutional capacities in many developing countries, which could jeopardize the delivery of benefits at the local level. One major problem is that most people have little knowledge on the causes and consequences of the climate change. This is partly because the information  is largely scattered among scientific journals, and obscured by jargon and sophisticated  mathematical  models. Consequently, REDD+ is beyond thereach of  manyof the people affected by REDD+. This  paper examines the efforts and the capacity of  the local governments and other development  agents in explaining the REDD + issues and its impacts on the local people, especially customary communities. The research shows that lack of  policy communication and promotion, as well as consultations with the affected groups arethe main contributing factors to latent and manifest conflicts. In turn, this conflicth as proven that NGOs,  district governments and scientists have not been successful intermediaries. Thus, in the future policy communication on REDD+ should beaimed at improved network formation (i.e. between farmer groups with business partners and NGOs  and other related actors, learning, negotiation and relationship building (i.e. between members of farmer groups,  not only withtheir leaders within the farmer groups but also with governmental and business sectors. Policy communication should also create a  new  configuration of   support  and  services in  form  of   advocacy, empowerment and management skills and technical skills for conserving their

  17. INCUBATORS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladin Stefanovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators aim to maximize the chances of success of start - up companies by creating a supportive environment. Typically, this involves offering management assistance, mentoring, access to financing, flexible and low - cost leases, office services, etc. There is large number of business incubators in the world. In this paper issues concerned status, development and overview of existing practice in the world will be presented as well as general issues and perspectives for developing countries.

  18. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Koh, Lian Pin

    2012-02-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) provides financial compensation to land owners who avoid converting standing forests to other land uses. In this paper, we review the main opportunities and challenges for REDD+ implementation, including expectations for REDD+ to deliver on multiple environmental and societal cobenefits. We also highlight a recent case study, the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ agreement and discuss how it might be a harbinger of outcomes in other forest-rich nations seeking REDD+ funds. Looking forward, we critically examine the fundamental assumptions of REDD+ as a solution for the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We conclude that REDD+ is currently the most promising mechanism driving the conservation of tropical forests. Yet, to emerge as a true game changer, REDD+ must still demonstrate that it can access low transaction cost and high-volume carbon markets or funds, while also providing or complimenting a suite of nonmonetary incentives to encourage a developing nation's transition from forest losing to forest gaining, and align with, not undermine, a globally cohesive attempt to mitigate anthropogenic climate change.

  19. Comment on Gebhardt et al. MAD-MEX: Automatic Wall-to-Wall Land Cover Monitoring for the Mexican REDD-MRV Program Using All Landsat Data. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 3923–3943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Mas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gebhardt et al. (2014 presented the Monitoring Activity Data for the Mexican REDD+ program (MAD-MEX, an automatic nation-wide land cover monitoring system for the Mexican REDD+ MRV. Though MAD-MEX represents a valuable first effort toward establishing a national reference emissions level for the implementation of REDD+ in Mexico, in this paper, we argue that this land cover system has important limitations that may prevent it from becoming operational for REDD+ MRV. Specifically, we show that (1 the accuracy assessment of MAD-MEX land cover maps is optimistically biased; (2 the ability of MAD-MEX to monitor land cover change, including deforestation and forest degradation; is poor and (3 the use of an entirely automatic classification approach, such as that followed by MAD-MEX, is highly problematic in the case of a large and heterogeneous country like Mexico. We discuss these limitations and call into question the ability of a land cover monitoring system, such as MAD-MEX, both to elaborate a national reference emissions level and to monitor future forest cover change, as part of a REDD+ MRV system. We provide some insights with the aim of improving the development of nation-wide land cover monitoring systems in Mexico and elsewhere.

  20. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...... of self-treatment with medicinal plants, is however scarce. Thus, this thesis contributes to understanding the extent of traditional medicine use as well as why people use it in rural areas in developing countries. This is important for the formulation of inclusive health care policies which can address...... care and medicinal plants as well as in livelihoods and ethnicities of the populations. The three papers in this thesis address traditional medicine within the pluralistic medical fields of Nepal from different levels of analysis. The first paper consider the various treatment opportunities available...

  1. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  2. Moving the REDD Debate from Theory to Practice: Lessons Learned from the Ulu Masen Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Andrew Clarke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As the dust settles after Copenhagen and the barriers to reaching global consensus on combating climate change are put into stark relief, REDD still has potential to become a UNFCCC success story. In relation to REDD, there is agreement on many core issues and significant momentum remains towards a REDD mechanism firmly engrained in the post-2012 climate change framework. Yet most debate occurs in the abstract with policy and methodological decisions made with minimal conception of how these issues will play out in REDD participant countries. This article aims to break this trend and takes a prominent REDD pilot activity as its reference point. The Ulu Masen Project in Aceh , Indonesia , while only in its infancy, provides valuable lessons on legal frameworks, benefit-sharing and financing. Through analysis of UNFCCC negotiations on REDD and an examination of how relevant issues have been addressed in the Ulu Masen Project, the article aims to contribute to a more grounded, practical debate on a future UNFCCC REDD mechanism.

  3. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; Ruud A. de Mooij; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  4. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; De Mooij, Ruud A.; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  5. Food science in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  6. REDD+: Quick Assessment of Deforestation Risk Based on Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Di Lallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the future dynamics of deforestation is essential to creating the basis for the effective implementation of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation initiatives. Such evaluation is often a challenging task, especially for countries that have to cope with a critical lack of data and capacities, higher uncertainties, and competing interests. We present a new modeling approach that makes use of available and easily accessible data sources to predict the spatial location of future deforestation. This approach is based on the Random Forest algorithm, which is a machine learning technique that enables evidence-based, data-driven decisions and is therefore often used in decision-making processes. Our objective is to provide a straightforward modeling approach that, without requiring cost-intensive assessments, can be applied in the early stages of REDD+, for a stepwise implementation approach of REDD+ projects in regions with limited availability of data, capital, technical infrastructure, or human capacities. The presented model focuses on building business-as-usual scenarios to identify and rank potentially suitable areas for REDD+ interventions. For validation purposes we applied the model to data from Nicaragua.

  7. Modelling energy systems for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries' energy use is rapidly increasing, which affects global climate change and global and regional energy settings. Energy models are helpful for exploring the future of developing and industrialised countries. However, energy systems of developing countries differ from those of ind

  8. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects.

  9. Identifying areas of deforestation risk for REDD+ using a species modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa; Riveros, Juan Carlos; Forrest, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    To implement the REDD+ mechanism (Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and Forest Degradation, countries need to prioritize areas to combat future deforestation CO2 emissions, identify the drivers of deforestation around which to develop mitigation actions, and quantify and value carbon for financial mechanisms. Each comes with its own methodological challenges, and existing approaches and tools to do so can be costly to implement or require considerable technical knowledge and skill. Here, we present an approach utilizing a machine learning technique known as Maximum Entropy Modeling (Maxent) to identify areas at high deforestation risk in the study area in Madre de Dios, Peru under a business-as-usual scenario in which historic deforestation rates continue. We link deforestation risk area to carbon density values to estimate future carbon emissions. We quantified area deforested and carbon emissions between 2000 and 2009 as the basis of the scenario. We observed over 80,000 ha of forest cover lost from 2000-2009 (0.21% annual loss), representing over 39 million Mg CO2. The rate increased rapidly following the enhancement of the Inter Oceanic Highway in 2005. Accessibility and distance to previous deforestation were strong predictors of deforestation risk, while land use designation was less important. The model performed consistently well (AUC > 0.9), significantly better than random when we compared predicted deforestation risk to observed. If past deforestation rates continue, we estimate that 132,865 ha of forest could be lost by the year 2020, representing over 55 million Mg CO2. Maxent provided a reliable method for identifying areas at high risk of deforestation and the major explanatory variables that could draw attention for mitigation action planning under REDD+. The tool is accessible, replicable and easy to use; all necessary for producing good risk estimates and adapt models after potential landscape change. We propose this approach for developing

  10. Engaging the Private Sector in the Potential Generation of Carbon Credits from REDD+. An Analysis of Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, R.; Streck, C.; Pearson, T.; Brown, S.; Gilbert, A. [Climate Focus, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is a prominent agenda item within the international climate change negotiations. It is also significant in many domestic discussions around climate change and mitigation. One of the issues discussed internationally and domestically is how to pay for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation and whether or not the private sector should be involved. If the private sector is involved, this creates a set of additional issues including the extent of their involvement, how policy choices can either encourage or discourage the private sector, and safeguarding environmental integrity. Climate Focus, Winrock International, and Ecofys have conducted a project for the UK Department for International Development of the UK Government (DFID) on engaging the private sector in the potential generation of carbon from Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+). The project was implemented from November 2009 till March 2010. This report represents the findings of this project. The objective of this study is to analyse the role the private sector could play in investing in activities that could generate carbon market credits from REDD+ and the implications this has for designing such market mechanisms. The research focuses on ways in which the private sector could be incentivised to invest in REDD+ activities when the crediting baseline is set at a national level.

  11. Equity and REDD+ in the Media: a Comparative Analysis of Policy Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Di Gregorio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is primarily a market-based mechanism for achieving the effective reduction of carbon emissions from forests. Increasingly, however, concerns are being raised about the implications of REDD+ for equity, including the importance of equity for achieving effective carbon emission reductions from forests. Equity is a multifaceted concept that is understood differently by different actors and at different scales, and public discourse helps determine which equity concerns reach the national policy agenda. Results from a comparative media analysis of REDD+ public discourse in four countries show that policy makers focus more on international than national equity concerns, and that they neglect both the need for increased participation in decision making and recognition of local and indigenous rights. To move from addressing the symptoms to addressing the causes of inequality in REDD+, policy actors need to address issues related to contextual equity, that is, the social and political root causes of inequality.

  12. A bottom-up approach to estimating cost elements of REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several previous global REDD+ cost studies have been conducted, demonstrating that payments for maintaining forest carbon stocks have significant potential to be a cost-effective mechanism for climate change mitigation. These studies have mostly followed highly aggregated top-down approaches without estimating the full range of REDD+ costs elements, thus underestimating the actual costs of REDD+. Based on three REDD+ pilot projects in Tanzania, representing an area of 327,825 ha, this study explicitly adopts a bottom-up approach to data assessment. By estimating opportunity, implementation, transaction and institutional costs of REDD+ we develop a practical and replicable methodological framework to consistently assess REDD+ cost elements. Results Based on historical land use change patterns, current region-specific economic conditions and carbon stocks, project-specific opportunity costs ranged between US$ -7.8 and 28.8 tCOxxxx for deforestation and forest degradation drivers such as agriculture, fuel wood production, unsustainable timber extraction and pasture expansion. The mean opportunity costs for the three projects ranged between US$ 10.1 – 12.5 tCO2. Implementation costs comprised between 89% and 95% of total project costs (excluding opportunity costs ranging between US$ 4.5 - 12.2 tCO2 for a period of 30 years. Transaction costs for measurement, reporting, verification (MRV, and other carbon market related compliance costs comprised a minor share, between US$ 0.21 - 1.46 tCO2. Similarly, the institutional costs comprised around 1% of total REDD+ costs in a range of US$ 0.06 – 0.11 tCO2. Conclusions The use of bottom-up approaches to estimate REDD+ economics by considering regional variations in economic conditions and carbon stocks has been shown to be an appropriate approach to provide policy and decision-makers robust economic information on REDD+. The assessment of opportunity costs is a crucial first step to

  13. Economics of forests and REDD+ projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaballa Romero, Mauricio Ernesto; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Wieben, Emilie

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource ne...... needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments....

  14. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a p

  15. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  16. Financing REDD: meshing markets with government funds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M. [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation, Manaus (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    Deforestation accounts for roughly 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. So it is no surprise that in the runup to the December 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen, REDD – reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation – is emerging as a strategy with big potential for mitigating climate impacts. With REDD, local communities can be rewarded for conserving their forests, so the approach works for poverty alleviation as well as emissions reduction. Evidence is showing that REDD is simple and workable. Funding is an altogether more complex issue, however. Looking at the roles of market and government, is a combined approach to financing REDD feasible?.

  17. REDD+ in the Philippines: Legal status and conservation of mangrove forests in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Estenzo Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves perform a crucial role in maintaining the ecological integrity of the coastal ecosystem. They  act as filters in the coastal zone, preventing the damaging effects of upland sediments on seagrass beds and coral reefs, minimise the effects of storm surges and act as carbon sinks that mitigate climate change. These essential services, however, are degraded through indiscriminate cutting, conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds, reclamation projects and other coastal developments and pollution. Experts reveal that the Indo-Malay Philippine Archipelago has one of the highest rates of mangroves loss. From an estimated 500,000 hectares of mangrove cover in 1918, only 120,000 hectares of mangroves remain in the Philippines today. The country has had the legal and policy framework to protect and conserve mangroves. But weak implementation of laws, overlapping functions among agencies and, in general, poor management by the people and local governments have hindered the sustainable management of mangrove forests. Positive developments, however, are taking place with the promulgation of laws on climate change and executive orders which specifically include mangrove and protected areas under the National Greening Program (NGP and addresses equity, food security and poverty issues by giving preference to NGP beneficiary communities as a priority in the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT Program.  Moreover, participatory Planning and Multi-stakeholder Approaches are among the strategies contemplated by the Philippine National REDD + Strategy. The article examines the implementation and effects of the Philippine National REDD+ Strategy, the National Climate Change Action Plan which specifically integrates REDD+ and ecosystem valuation into decision-making, and the executive orders which support the mainstreaming of the National Greening Program.

  18. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  19. Surgical safety checklists in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Ravindran, Rahul Prashanth; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSC) has demonstrated efficacy in developed and developing countries alike. Recent increases in awareness of surgical morbidity in developing countries has placed greater emphasis on strategies to improve surgical safety in resource-limited settings. The implementation of surgical safety checklists in low-income countries has specific barriers related to resources and culture. Adapting and amending existing surgical safety checklists, as well as considering factors unique to developing countries, may allow the potential of this simple intervention to be fully harnessed in a wider setting. This review will address the benefits and challenges of implementation of surgical safety checklists in developing countries. Moreover, inspiration for the original checklist is revisited to identify areas that will be of particular benefit in a resource-poor setting. Potential future strategies to encourage the implementation of checklists in these countries are also discussed.

  20. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  1. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12].

  2. Konservasi Hutan Partisipatif Melalui REDD+ (Studi Kasus Kalimantan Tengah Sebagai Provinsi Percontohan REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Agung Wicaksono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of mitigating climate change is through REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ mechanism chosen as an alternative that offers a new concept of forest conservation with economic incentives on the amount of carbon that can be kept in line with a forest or peatland sustainability. Central Kalimantan province to initiate the implementation of REDD+ schemes designated as the pilot province for REDD+ implementation in Indonesia. With the implementation of REDD+ is expected to be the frontline in maintaining forest conservation. That way, the benefits instead of the forests, but also the empowerment of forest communities.

  3. Lost in translation? How project actors shape REDD+ policy and outcomes in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Forest protection policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are currently being implemented by international donors, governments and conservation agencies across the developing world aiming for reduction of greenhouse gases while ensuring fair distribution of ...

  4. Are REDD+ community forest projects following the principles for collective action, as proposed by Ostrom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Saeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forested countries in the global south that have agreed to engage in REDD+, a policy mechanism for addressing climate change, are receiving support to improve laws, policies, systems and structures. As a mechanism initiated at the global level and seeking to use forests to address a global commons crisis (atmospheric carbon concentration, understanding how REDD+ translates into implementation at the local level is essential. Therefore, using a systematic review approach, we examined 15 studies of REDD+ in the context of public and/or community managed forests, drawn from a comprehensive application of inclusion criteria to identify relevant published peer-reviewed empirical research. The common property resources literature was used to highlight the role of local institutions in REDD+ and to distil how REDD+ community forest projects conform to Ostrom’s collective action principles. The review revealed limited sharing of information and decision-making authority with communities; a general absence of FPIC; and a lack of defined benefit sharing and conflict resolution arrangements in many of the REDD+ projects.

  5. Identifying Where REDD+ Financially Out-Competes Oil Palm in Floodplain Landscapes Using a Fine-Scale Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Abram

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ aims to avoid forest conversion to alternative land-uses through financial incentives. Oil-palm has high opportunity costs, which according to current literature questions the financial competitiveness of REDD+ in tropical lowlands. To understand this more, we undertook regional fine-scale and coarse-scale analyses (through carbon mapping and economic modelling to assess the financial viability of REDD+ in safeguarding unprotected forest (30,173 ha in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Malaysian Borneo. Results estimate 4.7 million metric tons of carbon (MgC in unprotected forest, with 64% allocated for oil-palm cultivations. Through fine-scale mapping and carbon accounting, we demonstrated that REDD+ can outcompete oil-palm in regions with low suitability, with low carbon prices and low carbon stock. In areas with medium oil-palm suitability, REDD+ could outcompete oil palm in areas with: very high carbon and lower carbon price; medium carbon price and average carbon stock; or, low carbon stock and high carbon price. Areas with high oil palm suitability, REDD+ could only outcompete with higher carbon price and higher carbon stock. In the coarse-scale model, oil-palm outcompeted REDD+ in all cases. For the fine-scale models at the landscape level, low carbon offset prices (US $3 MgCO2e would enable REDD+ to outcompete oil-palm in 55% of the unprotected forests requiring US $27 million to secure these areas for 25 years. Higher carbon offset price (US $30 MgCO2e would increase the competitiveness of REDD+ within the landscape but would still only capture between 69%-74% of the unprotected forest, requiring US $380-416 million in carbon financing. REDD+ has been identified as a strategy to mitigate climate change by many countries (including Malaysia. Although REDD+ in certain scenarios cannot outcompete oil palm, this research contributes to the global REDD+ debate by

  6. Identifying Where REDD+ Financially Out-Competes Oil Palm in Floodplain Landscapes Using a Fine-Scale Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Nicola K; MacMillan, Douglas C; Xofis, Panteleimon; Ancrenaz, Marc; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Ong, Robert; Goossens, Benoit; Koh, Lian Pin; Del Valle, Christian; Peter, Lucy; Morel, Alexandra C; Lackman, Isabelle; Chung, Robin; Kler, Harjinder; Ambu, Laurentius; Baya, William; Knight, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to avoid forest conversion to alternative land-uses through financial incentives. Oil-palm has high opportunity costs, which according to current literature questions the financial competitiveness of REDD+ in tropical lowlands. To understand this more, we undertook regional fine-scale and coarse-scale analyses (through carbon mapping and economic modelling) to assess the financial viability of REDD+ in safeguarding unprotected forest (30,173 ha) in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Malaysian Borneo. Results estimate 4.7 million metric tons of carbon (MgC) in unprotected forest, with 64% allocated for oil-palm cultivations. Through fine-scale mapping and carbon accounting, we demonstrated that REDD+ can outcompete oil-palm in regions with low suitability, with low carbon prices and low carbon stock. In areas with medium oil-palm suitability, REDD+ could outcompete oil palm in areas with: very high carbon and lower carbon price; medium carbon price and average carbon stock; or, low carbon stock and high carbon price. Areas with high oil palm suitability, REDD+ could only outcompete with higher carbon price and higher carbon stock. In the coarse-scale model, oil-palm outcompeted REDD+ in all cases. For the fine-scale models at the landscape level, low carbon offset prices (US $3 MgCO2e) would enable REDD+ to outcompete oil-palm in 55% of the unprotected forests requiring US $27 million to secure these areas for 25 years. Higher carbon offset price (US $30 MgCO2e) would increase the competitiveness of REDD+ within the landscape but would still only capture between 69%-74% of the unprotected forest, requiring US $380-416 million in carbon financing. REDD+ has been identified as a strategy to mitigate climate change by many countries (including Malaysia). Although REDD+ in certain scenarios cannot outcompete oil palm, this research contributes to the global REDD+ debate by: highlighting REDD

  7. Identifying Where REDD+ Financially Out-Competes Oil Palm in Floodplain Landscapes Using a Fine-Scale Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Douglas C.; Xofis, Panteleimon; Ancrenaz, Marc; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Ong, Robert; Goossens, Benoit; Koh, Lian Pin; Del Valle, Christian; Peter, Lucy; Morel, Alexandra C.; Lackman, Isabelle; Chung, Robin; Kler, Harjinder; Ambu, Laurentius; Baya, William; Knight, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to avoid forest conversion to alternative land-uses through financial incentives. Oil-palm has high opportunity costs, which according to current literature questions the financial competitiveness of REDD+ in tropical lowlands. To understand this more, we undertook regional fine-scale and coarse-scale analyses (through carbon mapping and economic modelling) to assess the financial viability of REDD+ in safeguarding unprotected forest (30,173 ha) in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Malaysian Borneo. Results estimate 4.7 million metric tons of carbon (MgC) in unprotected forest, with 64% allocated for oil-palm cultivations. Through fine-scale mapping and carbon accounting, we demonstrated that REDD+ can outcompete oil-palm in regions with low suitability, with low carbon prices and low carbon stock. In areas with medium oil-palm suitability, REDD+ could outcompete oil palm in areas with: very high carbon and lower carbon price; medium carbon price and average carbon stock; or, low carbon stock and high carbon price. Areas with high oil palm suitability, REDD+ could only outcompete with higher carbon price and higher carbon stock. In the coarse-scale model, oil-palm outcompeted REDD+ in all cases. For the fine-scale models at the landscape level, low carbon offset prices (US $3 MgCO2e) would enable REDD+ to outcompete oil-palm in 55% of the unprotected forests requiring US $27 million to secure these areas for 25 years. Higher carbon offset price (US $30 MgCO2e) would increase the competitiveness of REDD+ within the landscape but would still only capture between 69%-74% of the unprotected forest, requiring US $380–416 million in carbon financing. REDD+ has been identified as a strategy to mitigate climate change by many countries (including Malaysia). Although REDD+ in certain scenarios cannot outcompete oil palm, this research contributes to the global REDD+ debate by: highlighting REDD

  8. REDD+ policy networks: exploring actors and power structures in an emerging policy domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making is often neither rational nor solution-oriented, but driven by negotiations of interests of multiple actors that increasingly tend to take place in policy networks. Such policy networks integrate societal actors beyond the state, which all aim, to different degrees, at influencing ongoing policy processes and outcomes. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ can be considered as such an emerging policy domain, in which actors cooperate and conflict in network structures, build coalitions and try to control information and finance flows relevant for REDD+ decision making. This special feature is the result of an extensive comparative research effort to investigate national level REDD+ policy processes and emerging policy networks. This unique collection of seven country cases and a comparative study provides evidence on how power, coalitions, and different interactions among actors in policy networks enable the transformational change required for an effective, efficient, and equitable national REDD+ design. However, as we will see in most of the cases, where the dominant coalitions fail to tackle the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, they also hinder such major policy reforms required for REDD+. The aim of this editorial serves four purposes: first, we provide an argument about "why" policy network analysis is highly relevant to the study of REDD+ policy processes; second, we explain "how" policy network analysis is used in this special feature to investigate policy processes in this domain; and third, we explore the "so what?" or how a policy network lens helps us understand the political opportunities and challenges for REDD+. Finally, we provide an outlook for the relevance and future research design of policy network analysis when applied to REDD+ and to policy network structures more broadly.

  9. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the...

  10. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  11. Managing Innovation and Technology in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Murad; Khan, Pervez

    2009-01-01

    Innovation and technology management is an inevitable issue in the high end technological and innovative organizations. Today, most of the innovations are limited with developed countries like USA, Japan and Europe while developing countries are still behind in the field of innovation and management of technology. But it is also becoming a subject for rapid progress and development in developing countries. Innovation and technology environment in developing countries are by nature, problematic, characterized by poor business models, political instability and governance conditions, low education level and lack of world-class research universities, an underdeveloped and mediocre physical infrastructure, and lack of solid technology based on trained human resources. This paper provides a theoretical and conceptual framework analysis for managing innovation and technology in developing countries like India and China. We present the issues and challenges in innovation and technology management and come up with pro...

  12. Overview: epilepsy surgery in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, H G; Silfvenius, H

    2000-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery (ES) is addressed in relation to economic classifications of national resources and welfare in developing countries. A decade ago, ten developing countries conducted ES; now 26 such countries have reported results of ES. A number of international authorities define indicators of national economic welfare. Adopting the economic classification of the International Monetary Fund. we find that ES is nonexistent in 98% of African countries, 76% of Asian countries, 58% of European countries, 82% of Middle East countries, and in 86% of countries of the Western Hemisphere. The 1980-1990 global ES survey conducted by the International League Against Epilepsy identified ten developing countries reporting ES (DCRES): Brazil, China, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Taiwan, the U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, and Viet Nam. The present survey based on the proceedings of the 19th-23rd International Epilepsy Congresses and Medline reports from 1991 to November 1999 revealed at least 26 (18.3%) DCRES of 142 developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, India, Iran, Israel, Korea, Lithuania, Mexico, P.R.China, the U.S.S.R., Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and former Yugoslavia. National vital statistics expose the hardships of developing countries. The population ratio of developed countries to developing countries is approximately 1:5. The reverse per capita Gross Domestic Product ratio is 20:1. Great disparities exist in vital statistics, all to the disadvantage of the DCRES. The World Health Organization defines health-related sectors geographically, then divides developing countries into several subgroups. Disability caused by length of disease and years lived with disability can be quantified monetarily for epilepsy, and the total health expenditures of developed and developing countries can be compared. The DCRES are short of technology, and their ES

  13. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  14. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  15. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  16. Stakeholder Participation in REDD+ Readiness Activities for Three Collaborative Projects in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saykham Boutthavong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge for reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD in developing countries is to balance the power of various stakeholders in decision making. This study explores the forms of stakeholder participation in the implementation of three pilot projects in Laos, with a focus on who actually makes decisions on project activities. We found that stakeholder roles in making decisions were imbalanced. The central government and development partner organizations were the ones who actually fulfill the roles of decision-makers in most project activities. Although local communities were not the key stakeholders in decision making in most activities, their roles seem to have increased in the activities where participatory approaches were applied. Participation of the private sector, non-governmental organizations, academic and research institutes and mass organizations was limited. Opportunities to reach decision-makers regarding project activities came through service contract agreements. Our findings suggest that an understanding of who fulfills the key roles will support a decentralization of decision making by balancing power and redistributing the roles from dominant to weaker stakeholders. In addition, the private sector’s participation may enhance opportunities to harmonize their investments for supporting REDD+ development and reduce the negative impacts on the forests and the environment.

  17. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  18. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  19. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have very few or no neurologist. There is a greater need of taking neurological care at primary care level where majority of the patients struggle with epilepsy, stroke and neuroinfections.

  20. Unveiling information on opportunity costs in REDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delacote, Philip; Palmer, Charles; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim;

    2014-01-01

    Improving information about individual opportunity costs of deforestation agents has the potential to increase the efficiency of REDD when it takes the form of a payment for environmental services scheme. However, objectives pursued in REDD projects may vary across policy makers. Within a theoret...

  1. Best practices in Remote Sensing for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Grogan, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The I-REDD+ team has opted for a challenging framework – targeting REDD-related problems in mountainous regions of Southeast Asia and putting a focus on forest degradation processes. The combination of • a region with heavy cloud cover during much of the year, • pronounced illumination difference...

  2. Modeling Internet Diffusion in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McCoy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of the Internet, there is little work that addresses the degree to which the models and theories of Internet diffusion in developed countries can be applied to Internet diffusion in developing countries. This paper presents the first attempt to address this issue through theory driven modeling of Internet diffusion. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that economic development and technology infrastructure are musts for Internet diffusion. Interestingly, users’ cognition and government policies can accelerate Internet diffusion only after a certain level of human rights has been reached in a developing country.

  3. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kate L Mandeville; Justus Krabshuis; Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep; Chris JJ Mulder; Eamonn MM Quigley; Shahid A Khan

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of "cascades" are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.

  4. REDD+ readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Eskil; Persson, U Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P

    2012-06-15

    Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17MtCO(2)yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial.

  5. Indigenous People and Customary Land Ownership Under Domestic REDD+ Frameworks: A Case Study of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Wright

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is an immense, complex and multifaceted problem, responsible for approximately fifteen percent of global emissions of carbon dioxide. The primary international response to deforestation and land degradation has been the development of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Land Degradation (REDD+ mechanism whereby developed nations pay developing nations to keep their forests standing and well-managed, and generating carbon credits that can be sold on international carbon markets or used to offset other emissions. The international legal arrangements for REDD+ are not yet finalised, yet projects are already being implemented, adding new voices and complexities to forest governance. A particular concern is the well-being of the people that live in forests – customary land owners and Indigenous People – and the need to ensure the recognition and protection of their rights. This paper aims to explore the interaction between domestic legal frameworks implementing the REDD+ mechanism and customary land ownership by using the regulatory regime of Indonesia as a case study. The paper will analyse the domestic legal framework for land ownership, customary law and customary tenure, forestry and REDD+ in Indonesia, and assess how REDD+ projects interact with the rights of Indigenous People under this framework. This analysis explores how threats to Indigenous People and customary land ownership are entrenched at the domestic level. The paper concludes that very little security of tenure is provided to Indigenous People by Indonesia’s domestic REDD+ legal framework and that this shortcoming is likely to result in poor protection of customary land rights under the REDD+ mechanism, regardless of the protection afforded by an eventual international agreement. The paper also notes that Indigenous People are unlikely to be protected unless land tenure reforms are undertaken as a matter of priority to ensure secure customary land

  6. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly known medical entity with high prevalence, about 1 0 to 24 percent in general population and up to 74% in obese population[1]. The prevalence of the disease is expected to increase worldwide, as we are encountering the global obesity epidemic and the trend in developing countries toward the Western lifestyles. However, it looks that there are some differences between the demographic and epidemiologic features of NAFLD in developing and developed countries.

  7. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    established entrants and exiting firms that are closing down operations. In this study, we develop an empirical model that examines switching behavior using data from Vietnamese manufacturing firms during the 2001–2008 period. The diagnostic shows that switching firms exhibit different characteristics......Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly...... and behavior than do entry and exit firms. Switchers tend to be labor intensive and to seek competitive opportunities in labor-intensive sectors in response to changes in market environments. Moreover, resource reallocation resulting from switching forms an important component of productivity growth. The topic...

  8. Potential for Integrating Community-Based Monitoring into REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries at the United Nations Framework on the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC have decided to engage local communities and indigenous groups into the activities for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV of the program to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and increase carbon removals (REDD+. Previous research and projects have shown that communities can produce reliable data on forest area and carbon estimates through field measurements. The objective of this article is to describe the framework that is being created for REDD+ under the UNFCCC to identify the potential inclusion of local information produced through community-based monitoring (CBM into monitoring systems for REDD+. National systems could use different sources of information from CBM: first, local information can be produced as part of public programs by increasing sample size of national or regional inventories; second, government can collect information to produce carbon estimates from on-going management practices implemented at local level driven by access to local direct benefits (e.g., forest management plans, watershed conservation; third, national data systems could include information from projects participating in carbon markets and other certification schemes; and finally information will be produced as part of the activities associated to the implementation of social and environmental safeguards. Locally generated data on carbon and areas under different forms of management can be dovetailed into national systems and be used to describe management practices, complement existing information or replace Tier 1/2 values with more detailed local data produced by CBM.

  9. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... 9000-AM62 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries... Representative (USTR) to the list of least developed countries that are designated countries under the Trade... President to designate least developed countries as eligible countries under the Trade Agreements Act...

  10. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  11. Readiness for banking technologies in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banking, internet banking and automated teller machine (ATM) banking to ... businesses in developing countries are building unique ways to market products ... characteristics such as technology readiness, it is therefore important for banks in.

  12. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution in subsidiary performance and the factors influencing this performance based on a unique database of approximately 800 multi-national company (MNC) subsidiaries in developing countries. Developed-country multi-national companies (MNCs......) are increasingly establishing subsidiaries in developing countries. The potential gains are high; however, so are the risks. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any international business (IB) enquiry into MNC activity in developing countries, surprisingly little research has...... examined this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comprehensive literature review of the IB performance literature, it is hypothesized that subsidiary performance essentially is shaped by five clusters of factors: location, industry, MNC capabilities, subsidiary role and entry strategy...

  13. Improving access to transport in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Savill, T

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving access and mobility of people with disabilities is an essential component of the alleviation of poverty in developing countries. Disabled people are among the most socially excluded members of society and poorly designed and inaccessible...

  14. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  15. Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D C; Velis, C.A.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of ‘integrated sustainable waste management’ to examine how cities in developing countries have been tackling their solid waste problems. The history of related concepts and terms is reviewed, and ISWM is clearly differentiated from integrated waste management, used mostly in the context of technological integration in developed countries. Instead, integrated sustainable waste management examines both the physical components (collection, disposal and recycling) and th...

  16. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...... on various aspects of the relationship of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries....

  17. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Zander, Pär-Ola

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...

  18. Economics of forests and REDD+ projects: Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaballa Romero, M.; Traerup, S.; Wieben, E.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Koch, A.

    2012-11-15

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. (Author)

  19. Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Michael; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Klasen, Stephan; Lay, Jann; Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Renner, Sebastian; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-11-01

    Energy use is not only crucial for economic development, but is also the main driver of greenhouse-gas emissions. Developing countries can reduce emissions and thrive only if economic growth is disentangled from energy-related emissions. Although possible in theory, the required energy-system transformation would impose considerable costs on developing nations. Developed countries could bear those costs fully, but policy design should avoid a possible 'climate rent curse', that is, a negative impact of financial inflows on recipients' economies. Mitigation measures could meet further resistance because of adverse distributional impacts as well as political economy reasons. Hence, drastically re-orienting development paths towards low-carbon growth in developing countries is not very realistic. Efforts should rather focus on 'feasible mitigation actions' such as fossil-fuel subsidy reform, decentralized modern energy and fuel switching in the power sector.

  20. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  1. Developing countries and the global science Web

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeira, Hilda; Fonda, Carlo; Cottrell, R L A

    2003-01-01

    Enabling scientists from developing countries to bridge the gap between rich and poor depends on closing another gap - the "digital divide". Now the technology exists to monitor this divide, and it reveals some alarming results. Most developing countries experience great difficulties because of adverse economic conditions and political instability, which means they lag behind in scientific and technological development. With the advent of the World Wide Web and the rapid exchange of information via the Internet, one might naively have thought that much of the gap between developed and developing nations would disappear, even if problems still persisted for those areas of science that need expensive facilities. However, access to information, peer reviewed or not, depends on having the appropriate hardware, i.e. a computer, and Internet connectivity, and there is a serious problem with access to the Internet in developing countries. Gaining access to a computer is more of a question of economics, and one that ...

  2. Is REDD+ effective, efficient, and equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, Iben; Pasgaard, Maya

    2017-01-01

    and equity will suffer if REDD+ projects rely solely on the private market. Our case thus indicates a tension between the objectives of creating financial value from carbon stored in trees through the private market, and environmental and social equity concerns. However, we call for more comparative studies...... this assumption, and some call for further analysis to understand how REDD+ can contribute to economic, environmental, and social goals, and what are the synergies and trade-offs between them. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate about whether REDD+ projects can be brought to accommodate...

  3. Structural Change and Employment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to structural changes in developing countries and concludes that unemployment and underemployment are best countered by generating new productive activities, developing economic linkages, and stimulating an increase in the number of workplaces. Advocates cooperation among developing nations. (JOW)

  4. Mental health literacy: focus on developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental health is an issue of major concern in both the ... serious cases of mental illness in developed countries and ... care, existing resources in both developed and developing ... beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and .... employment status, ethnic group, or educational level.16 Low.

  5. Splitting the Difference: A Proposal for Benefit Sharing in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of REDD+ is to create incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and for the increase of carbon stocks through the enhancement, conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries. As part of the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, compensation would be estimated in relation to national performance but how these incentives will be channeled within countries has not been specified and there are concerns about how the benefits will be shared among different stakeholders. One central issue is that under the national approach good performance in one region can be offset by underperformance in other regions of the country thus preventing the generation of predictable local incentives. Other issues relate to the need to provide incentives to a wide range of stakeholders and to avoid perverse reactions. To address these and other issues we propose separating the accounting of reduced deforestation, reduced degradation and enhancement of forests. The local attribution of credits would be easier for carbon enhancement, and possibly reduced degradation, than for reduced deforestation, since carbon gains can, in principle, be measured locally in the first two cases, while estimating achievements in reduced deforestation requires a regional approach. This separation in attribution of rewards can help to create adequate incentives for the different stakeholders and overcome some of the problems associated with the design and implementation of national REDD+ programs.

  6. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  7. Regulation of protein and mRNA expression of the mTORC1 repressor REDD1 in response to leucine and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Adam J; Gordon, Bradley S; Dennis, Michael D; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R

    2016-12-01

    Expression of the mTORC1 repressor, Regulated in DNA Damage and Development 1 (REDD1), is elevated in skeletal muscle during various catabolic conditions including fasting, hindlimb immobilization, and sepsis. Conversely, REDD1 expression is suppressed by anabolic stimuli such as resistance exercise or nutrient consumption following a fast. Though it is known that nutrient consumption reduces REDD1 expression, it is largely unknown how nutrients and hormones individually contribute to the reduction in REDD1 expression. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine how nutrients and hormones individually regulate REDD1 expression. HeLa cells were deprived of leucine or serum for 10 hours, after which either leucine or serum was reintroduced to cell culture medium for 60 minutes. Re-supplementation of either leucine or serum resulted in a reduction in REDD1 protein levels by 34.8 ± 5.8% and 54.1 ± 3.4%, respectively, compared to the deprived conditions. Re-supplementation of leucine or serum to deprived cells also led to a reduction in REDD1 mRNA content by 49.1% ± 2.7% and 65.0 ± 1.4%, respectively, compared to the deprived conditions. Interestingly, rates of REDD1 protein degradation were unaffected by either leucine or serum re-supplementation, as assessed in cells treated with cycloheximide to block protein synthesis. Likewise, addition of leucine or serum to cells treated with Actinomycin D to inhibit gene transcription failed to alter the rate of REDD1 mRNA degradation. The data indicate that the leucine or serum-induced suppression of REDD1 expression occurs independent of changes in the rate of degradation of either the REDD1 protein or mRNA. Thus, the leucine- or serum-induced suppression likely occurs through alternative mechanism(s) such as reduced REDD1 gene transcription and/or mRNA translation.

  8. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  9. Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer T. Plumb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA. Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.

  10. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...

  11. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  12. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  13. Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment and REDD+: Learning from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusaga Mukama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM. Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon stock changes through conventional forest inventories, something which is rarely done in PFM forests due to its high cost and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to discuss experiences of Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment (PFCA in Tanzania. The study revealed that villagers who participated in PFCA were able to perform most steps for carbon assessment in the field. A key challenge in future is how to finance PFCA and ensure the technical capacity at local level.

  14. Attracting private investment into REDD+ projects: An overview of regulatory challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie May Chapman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, forest carbon projects around the world have faced common challenges within what are nonetheless unique, country-specific legal and political systems. These issues include the role of land tenure in forest carbon projects, the importance of legal frameworks in clarifying the legal foundations for forest carbon projects (such as with respect to the right to carbon or the process under which forest carbon projects can be approved and the need to properly address leakage, additionality, permanence, and community and biodiversity benefits within forest carbon project design. By addressing these issues, both international and national regulation has a role to play in creating the enabling conditions for private sector investment. This paper will provide an overview of the regulatory issues that need to be addressed to enable private sector investment into REDD+ projects by 1 outlining current international policy, noting the role of the private sector in REDD+ implementation and describing the voluntary market’s role as a testing ground for early forest carbon projects; 2 discussing REDD+ implementation from a project-level perspective, including both the general and legal issues that need to be addressed in REDD+ project design; and 3 considering how these lessons (drawn largely from land-based forest carbon projects apply to mangroves, peatlands and other wetlands as sites for implementing REDD+ activities.

  15. Status consumption and poverty in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, L.A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigates the scope, nature and welfare effects of status consumption by the poor in developing countries, a phenomenon that is virtually unexplored in the development economics literature. It addresses questions such as: why do the poor buy status-intensive goods, while they suffer

  16. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  17. Thailand - Country Development Partnership : Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The Thailand Country Development Partnership for Social Protection (CDP-SP) is a collaborative program of policy development and technical assistance between the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and the Bank and was launched in July 2001. CDP-SP operates in three key policy areas: labor markets; social insurance; and social assistance and safety nets. This report reviews the objecti...

  18. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  19. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  20. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed......Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... with human capital. Rather, governments of these poorly-endowed countries focus on consumptive public spending. As a result, while their better-endowed counterparts build up human capital thereby promoting technology adoption and growth, the growth process in poorly-endowed countries stagnates....

  1. Getting ready for REDD+ in Tanzania: a case study of progress and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Neil David; Bahane, Bruno; Clairs, Tim;

    2010-01-01

    the Norwegian, Finnish and German governments and is a participant in the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility. In combination, these interventions aim to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, provide an income to rural communities and conserve biodiversity. The establishment of the UN-REDD Programme...... cover, enhanced capacity for measuring, reporting and verification, and pilot projects to test REDD+ implementation linked to the existing Participatory Forest Management Programme. Our conclusion is that even in a country with considerable donor support, progressive forest policies, laws...

  2. The Impact of FDI on Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NanfeiPei; KarinvanderEsch

    2004-01-01

    Today most developing countries take FD1 as an important resource for development. There are many factors that might attract FD1 to a certain region. However, the real economic effects of FD1 on the economic growth are almost impossible to measure precisely. In this article, our analysis starts with the micro-level including the banking sector and corporate sector, then it moves to the macro-level in which trade, employment and balance of payments are discussed. Both theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that FD1 has a beneficial impact on the economic growth in host countries. Therefore FD1 will continue to remain an important engine of growth in a majority of the developing countries.

  3. Dealing with locally-driven degradation: A quick start option under REDD+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.; Torres, A.B.; Mwampamba, T.H.; Ghilardi, A.; Herold, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of challenges associated with reducing degradation and its related emissions through national approaches to REDD+ under UNFCCC policy. It proposes that in many countries, it may in the short run be easier to deal with the kinds of degradation that result from locally drive

  4. Linking community-based and national REDD+ monitoring: a review of the potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.; Herold, M.; Sy, de V.; Murdiyarso, D.; Skutsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Countries participating in REDD+ schemes are required to establish a national monitoring system that keeps track of forest carbon changes over time. Community-based monitoring (CBM) can be useful for tracking locally driven forest change activities and their impacts. In this paper, we review some of

  5. Linking community-based and national REDD+ monitoring: a review of the potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.; Herold, M.; Sy, de V.; Murdiyarso, D.; Skutsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Countries participating in REDD+ schemes are required to establish a national monitoring system that keeps track of forest carbon changes over time. Community-based monitoring (CBM) can be useful for tracking locally driven forest change activities and their impacts. In this paper, we review some of

  6. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  7. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles;

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows...... developing countries in effective global mitigation policies, even in the relatively near term, with the likelihood of much larger benefits post 2050....... for rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global...

  8. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    MNCs are increasingly investing in developing countries to be part of rapid market growth, to enhance the efficiency of their value chains, and to access abundant resources and talent. The potential gains are high, however so are the risks. Some developing country subsidiaries become top performers...... in terms of growth and revenue and assume key roles in the MNCs’ global value chains, but other subsidiaries fail to meet expectations, struggling to produce positive returns and frequently experiencing stop of operations. While the issue of subsidiary performance should be at the heart of any...

  9. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...... of treated wastewater, energy conservation, and proper financial and organizational set up.   Sustainable Wastewater Management in Developing Countries will urge practitioners, decision makers, and researchers to approach these systems in new ways that are practical, innovative, and-best of all-sustainable....

  10. Microneedle patches for vaccination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Jaya; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2016-10-28

    Millions of people die of infectious diseases each year, mostly in developing countries, which could largely be prevented by the use of vaccines. While immunization rates have risen since the introduction of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), there remain major challenges to more effective vaccination in developing countries. As a possible solution, microneedle patches containing an array of micron-sized needles on an adhesive backing have been developed to be used for vaccine delivery to the skin. These microneedle patches can be easily and painlessly applied by pressing against the skin and, in some designs, do not leave behind sharps waste. The patches are single-dose, do not require reconstitution, are easy to administer, have reduced size to simplify storage, transportation and waste disposal, and offer the possibility of improved vaccine immunogenicity, dose sparing and thermostability. This review summarizes vaccination challenges in developing countries and discusses advantages that microneedle patches offer for vaccination to address these challenges. We conclude that microneedle patches offer a powerful new technology that can enable more effective vaccination in developing countries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  12. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  13. Local Participation in REDD+: Lessons from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cromberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns that local people will not be genuinely involved in initiatives to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+. We analyzed local participation in the design of one REDD+ project in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, and assessed local hopes, worries and recommendations for the project through four community focus groups and interviews with 137 households at the site. Our results showed that only one-third of households interviewed (31% had enough information about the project to describe it accurately. Of those, the majority (60% hoped that the project would improve their incomes, followed by improving their agricultural production (33% and helping protect forests (26%. While increasing household incomes was the dominant hope, people’s recommendations revealed that they favored non-monetary forms of compensation over the direct cash payments included in the proponents’ package of incentives. Their main recommendation was that the project should help improve their production systems through access to technical assistance, machinery and training, while valuing local production systems (46%. Our study highlights the need for participation that goes beyond passive consultation with local people to develop REDD+ interventions that best reflect local knowledge, land use practices and aspirations.

  14. Potential Bioenergy Options in Developed and Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant –based energy production (energy crops, forest growth) and residue and waste ... Modern bioenergy options offer significant, cost-effective and ... contribute to sustainable development both in developed and less developed countries, ...

  15. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...

  16. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide groundwater is a common-pool resource that is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. In developing countries the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual groundwater extraction. For...

  17. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  18. Empowering women in work in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this volume present the outcomes of a major project aimed at empowering girls and young women in 14 developing countries. They discuss the young women’s choices in life, set against the backdrop of family building, health, education, employment opportunities and the use of the

  19. Integrated sustainable waste management in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, D.C.; Velis, C.A.; Rodic-Wiersma, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of ‘integrated sustainable waste management’ to examine how cities in developing countries have been tackling their solid waste problems. The history of related concepts and terms is reviewed, and ISWM is clearly differentiated from integrated waste management, used mostly

  20. Cyber safety education in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyber safety has become critical in today's world. Young children specifically need to be educated to operate in a safe manner in cyberspace and to protect themselves in the process. Unfortunately, African and developing countries do not necessarily...

  1. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  2. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  3. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...

  4. Redesigning Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Kimaro, Honest; Aanestad, Margunn

    2008-01-01

    Despite widespread aims to strengthen the Health Information System (HIS) as a tool for decentralised health care, there is a strong tendency in most developing countries that the HIS continues to reflect the central level's needs and requirements. The traditional design approach with little...

  5. Empowering women in work in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this volume present the outcomes of a major project aimed at empowering girls and young women in 14 developing countries. They discuss the young women’s choices in life, set against the backdrop of family building, health, education, employment opportunities and the use of the Interne

  6. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  7. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  8. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    In many developing countries, groundwater is a common pool resource which is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. However, in these countries, the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual...... groundwater extraction. For this reason, classical public intervention instruments, such as consumption fees or tradable quotas, are infeasible. Here we present a theoretical foundation for a new public regulatory instrument that can potentially generate the same efficiency inducing incentives as fees...

  9. Regulating groundwater use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Amundsen, Eirik S

    In many developing countries, groundwater is a common pool resource which is potentially subject to the tragedy of the commons if water extraction is not adequately regulated. However, in these countries, the regulatory infrastructure is often too weak to allow detailed monitoring of individual...... groundwater extraction. For this reason, classical public intervention instruments, such as consumption fees or tradable quotas, are infeasible. Here we present a theoretical foundation for a new public regulatory instrument that can potentially generate the same efficiency inducing incentives as fees...

  10. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  11. Governance Values in the Climate Change Regime: Stakeholder Perceptions of REDD+ Legitimacy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Cadman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two national-level studies of REDD+ governance values in Nepal and Papua New Guinea (PNG, using a hierarchical framework of principles, criteria, and indicators (PC&I, with evaluation at the indicator level. The research was conducted by means of an online survey to determine general perspectives on the governance quality of REDD+, as well as stakeholder workshops, in which participants were asked to rank indicators on the basis of perceived national significance. In the online survey, respondents in both countries identified inclusiveness and resources as the highest and lowest scoring governance values, while inclusiveness, resources, accountability, and transparency, were given priority, although their relative importance differed between countries given national circumstances. The reasons for the commonalities and differences of perceptions between these countries are discussed. The findings suggest that while a generic set of governance values may be usefully applied for determining the institutional legitimacy of REDD+, their relative importance is different. This leads to the conclusion that it may not be appropriate to use a simplified approach to REDD+ governance, focusing for example on safeguards, given different national priorities and contexts.

  12. Foreign minorities from developing countries in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V; Aguilera, M J; Gonzalez-yanci, M P

    1993-07-01

    "Spain, which has always been a land of emigrants, is currently a centre of attraction for immigrants, as are other countries in Mediterranean Europe. The proportion is not as high as in other countries with a longer tradition of immigration. In this survey we selected the six nationalities which provide the highest numbers of immigrants from the developing world, and which have the greatest racial or cultural contrast to the native population. We analyse their structural features, whether or not immigrants from the same country...collect in the Madrid Metropolitan Area, the recent mobility of the immigrant population, and the evolution of immigration since the Administration carried out a regularization process, as well as Spaniards' opinion of foreign immigrants."

  13. Health care system reform in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms.

  14. REDD1 protects osteoblast cells from gamma radiation-induced premature senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hong Li

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is commonly used for cancer treatment. However, it often results in side effects due to radiation damage in normal tissue, such as bone marrow (BM failure. Adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC reside in BM next to the endosteal bone surface, which is lined primarily by hematopoietic niche osteoblastic cells. Osteoblasts are relatively more radiation-resistant than HSPCs, but the mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the stress response gene REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 was highly expressed in human osteoblast cell line (hFOB cells after γ irradiation. Knockdown of REDD1 with siRNA resulted in a decrease in hFOB cell numbers, whereas transfection of PCMV6-AC-GFP-REDD1 plasmid DNA into hFOB cells inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and p21 expression and protected these cells from radiation-induced premature senescence (PS. The PS in irradiated hFOB cells were characterized by significant inhibition of clonogenicity, activation of senescence biomarker SA-β-gal, and the senescence-associated cytokine secretory phenotype (SASP after 4 or 8 Gy irradiation. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that the stress response proteins p53 and nuclear factor κ B (NFkB interacted with REDD1 in hFOB cells. Knockdown of NFkB or p53 gene dramatically suppressed REDD1 protein expression in these cells, indicating that REDD1 was regulated by both factors. Our data demonstrated that REDD1 is a protective factor in radiation-induced osteoblast cell premature senescence.

  15. Combined biomass inventory in the scope of REDD (Reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined biomass inventory in the scope of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) ... This paper presents an approach for combined biomass inventories in the scope of future REDD regimes ... Article Metrics.

  16. Dealing with locally-driven degradation: A quick start option under REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skutsch Margaret M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper reviews a number of challenges associated with reducing degradation and its related emissions through national approaches to REDD+ under UNFCCC policy. It proposes that in many countries, it may in the short run be easier to deal with the kinds of degradation that result from locally driven community over-exploitation of forest for livelihoods, than from selective logging or fire control. Such degradation is low-level, but chronic, and is experienced over very large forest areas. Community forest management programmes tend to result not only in reduced degradation, but also in forest enhancement; moreover they are often popular, and do not require major political shifts. In principle these approaches therefore offer a quick start option for REDD+. Developing reference emissions levels for low-level locally driven degradation is difficult however given that stock losses and gains are too small to be identified and measured using remote sensing, and that in most countries there is little or no forest inventory data available. We therefore propose that forest management initiatives at the local level, such as those promoted by community forest management programmes, should monitor, and be credited for, only the net increase in carbon stock over the implementation period, as assessed by ground level surveys at the start and end of the period. This would also resolve the problem of nesting (ensuring that all credits are accounted for against the national reference emission level, since communities and others at the local level would be rewarded only for increased sequestration, while the national reference emission level would deal only with reductions in emissions from deforestation and degradation.

  17. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  18. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.

  19. Dental services and needs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, A R

    1998-06-01

    People in developing countries are burdened excessively by oral diseases, particularly periodontal disease. These are aggravated by poverty, poor living conditions, ignorance concerning health education, and lack of government funding and policy to provide sufficient oral health care workers. WHO and FDI have identified the problems and developed strategies. However, acceptable goals and standards of oral health have to be agreed. Furthermore, barriers to oral health promotion need to be overcome through co-operation at all levels and appreciation of cultural sensitivity. There is the need for research to determine which types of oral health care systems are most effective in reducing the extent of inequality in oral health. In developing countries where there are huge problems, intervention programmes focusing on primary care and prevention should be designed and implemented urgently and their effectiveness monitored and analysed scientifically. The WHO, FDI and national and international professional organisations should play a leading role in encouraging a determined, co-ordinated effort towards improving the oral health status of disadvantaged people in developing countries.

  20. Proposed REDD+ project for the Sundarbans: Legal and institutional issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Karim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sundarbans, a Ramsar and World Heritage site, is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world covering parts of Bangladesh and India. Natural mangroves were very common along the entire coast of Bangladesh. However, all other natural mangrove forests, including the Chakaria Sundarbans with 21,000 hectares of mangrove, have been cleared for shrimp cultivation. Against this backdrop, the Forest Department of Bangladesh has developed project design documents for a project called ‘Collaborative REDD+ Improved Forest Management (IFM Sundarbans Project’ (CRISP to save the only remaining natural mangrove forest of the country. This project, involving conservation of 412,000 ha of natural mangrove forests, is expected to generate, over a 30-year period, a total emissions reduction of about 6.4 million tons of CO2. However, the successful implementation of this project involves a number of critical legal and institutional issues. It may involve complex legal issues such as forest ownership, forest use rights, rights of local people and carbon rights. It may also involve institutional reforms. Ensuring good governance of the proposed project is very vital considering the failure of the Asian Development Bank (ADB funded and Bangladesh Forest Department managed ‘Sundarbans Biodiversity Conservation Project’. Considering this previous experience, this paper suggests that a comprehensive legal and institutional review and reform is needed for the successful implementation of the proposed CRISP project. This paper argues that without ensuring local people’s rights and their participation, no project can be successful in the Sundarbans. Moreover, corruption of local and international officials may be a serious hurdle in the successful implementation of the project.

  1. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  2. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  3. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and......, tensions within SME networks, and negative perceptions of CSR by the cluster-based SMEs themselves. The findings and implications of this analysis can inform both research and policy making in this area......This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small...

  4. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    enough, too expensive, or simply inefficient.  This book investigates the complex political, economic, and cultural reasons that so many developing nations lack the ability to provide proper and effective wastewater treatment for their citizens.      The authors draw upon their experiences in Malaysia......Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...

  5. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  6. Digital processing system for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  7. Community tenure rights and REDD+: a review of the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Donal Yeang

    2012-01-01

    "Tenure rights over land, forest, and carbon have become a contentious issue within REDD+ implementation across the tropics because local communities could be excluded from REDD+ benefits if land tenure or use and access rights are not clear. This study aims to understand and assess tenure arrangements under the first REDD+ demonstration project in Cambodia, the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project. In particular, the study explores the following questions: (1) How are tenure right...

  8. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Ali Samadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. This paper describes a series of investigations that was undertaken in Iran, and these findings, together with reviews of research in other low-income countries, are used to identify key lessons in three areas of service provision of particular relevance to developing countries with scarce professional resources: first, the issues to be considered in establishing the prevalence of the condition nationally; second, identification of parental understanding of ASD and the impact it has on them as carers; third, the education and training that could be provided to families when professional supports are sparse. It is concluded that culturally sensitive, parental support strategies must be central to the planning and development of services. Moreover, future research should further elucidate the needs of families and evaluate the impact of culturally tailored interventions designed to promote the children’s development and overall family quality of life.

  9. Industrial Clusters and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small- and......, tensions within SME networks, and negative perceptions of CSR by the cluster-based SMEs themselves. The findings and implications of this analysis can inform both research and policy making in this area......This article contributes to literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) exhibited by industrial clusters in developing countries. The authors conceptualize and empirically investigate the role of donor-funded CSR initiatives aimed at promoting collective action by cluster-based small......- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A case study of the Sialkot football-manufacturing cluster in Pakistan indicates that donor-funded support of CSR initiatives in industrial clusters in developing countries may be short-lived, due to the political economy of aid, the national context of CSR implementation...

  10. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  11. Cleaner technology development--some practical steps for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A K A; Bhanujan, K V

    2004-10-01

    Cleaner technologies often originate from developed countries. Little developmental work is continued on the products sourced from developing countries. These products are by and large low value products generating large quantities of hazardous waste per unit of production. Methodology is proposed for phasing out such dirty technologies! products. The development of cleaner technologies is proposed for utilizing large quantity of hazardous waste generated from identified manufacturing process.

  12. Combined biomass inventory in the scope of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Rajoelison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for combined biomass inventories in the scope of future REDD regimes. The focus is set on a sound and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the current state of carbon stocks and their changes over time. A reliable framework for measuring, reporting and verification is urgently needed to ensure the integrity and credibility of REDD efforts in general and REDD in the post - 2012 agreement which is assumed to be approved at COP 16 in Mexico in December 2010. The proposed approach was developed and successfully implemented in Madagascar within a multi - institutional REDD project, i.e., REDD - FORECA. It combines a multi - temporal remote sensing approach incorporating satellite sensors from medium tovery high resolution with a terrestrial cluster sampling design, which proved to be operational for the whole spectrum from highly fragmented to pristine forest areas. This combination was implemented by a multi - phase sampling approach. The inventory is designed for the prerequisites of a continuous forest inventory to facilitate the uantification of possible CO2 reductions over time. The first field - assessments were accomplished in 2007 and 2008, and resulted in estimates of aboveground biomass on single tree level. Statistical upscaling procedures were utilised to aggregate these estimates on several levels. The results of the introduced methodology are presented and discussed.

  13. Diversity of Perceptions on REDD+ Implementation at the Agriculture Frontier in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonist farmers have been largely ignored to date in national consultations on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+. Yet, good practices suggest that understanding all relevant stakeholders’ perspectives, goals, and issues is a precondition for the development of successful environmental policies. The present research documents perceptions of the civil society and the government on the possibility of successfully implementing REDD+ activities with colonist farmers. The focus is on Eastern Panama. The perceptions on REDD+ vary greatly depending on the stakeholders’ origins. The government perceives REDD+ as a possibility for improving laws, increasing control over the national territory, and investing more resources for conservation and public institutions, whereas respondents from colonist backgrounds mostly insist on the potential economic benefits and/or the negative implications that could encompass REDD+. Noncolonist participants from regional, national, and international organizations instead try to balance concerns of communities and conservation objectives. Because one of our results highlighted the difficulty of colonist farmers in speaking as a united voice, we carried out a case study of a successful colonists association in order to identify the characteristics and practices found to facilitate communal organization.

  14. Case Study Report: Community-Based Monitoring Systems for REDD+ in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Bellfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental component of initiatives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+; will be the development of robust and cost-effective measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV instruments for national forest monitoring and safeguard information systems. It is increasingly recognized that community-based monitoring (CBM offers a positive model for greater participation and engagement of indigenous and forest-dependent communities within a REDD+ framework. Yet plans for CBM within REDD+ MRV systems remain limited, and there are currently relatively few concrete examples of CBM informing national forest monitoring systems. This paper outlines findings from a community MRV project with Amerindian communities in the North Rupununi, Guyana; and demonstrates that a CBM approach can enable key REDD+ requirements: in understanding local deforestation drivers and measuring carbon stocks; and for providing information on safeguards through social and environmental assessments. In addition, the authors discuss community capacity-building on smartphone technology for monitoring as a challenging yet viable pathway for scaling the use and adoption of indigenous knowledge and local skills for REDD+ programs.

  15. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents.

  16. Salmonid redd dewatering: What do we know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C D; Neitzel, D A

    1983-11-01

    Dewatering of salmonid spawning areas causes abrupt changes in the intergravel environment that may lead to extensive losses of development phases while intergravel in redds. Information on tolerance to dewatering and the extent of physicochemical changes in the gravel during dewatering can be used to assess potential impacts and to design and implement effective mitigation methods. Studies with fall chinook salmon are summarized, and the comparisons are made with results from available literature. Potentially useful methods of mitigation are mentioned. We found that prehatch phases (cleavage eggs and embryos) can be dewatered for several successive days and survive, but posthatch phases (eleutheroembryos and alevins) usually die within 24 hours. Survival of prehatch phases during extended dewatering requires maintenance of favorable intergravel temperature and moisture levels. Elevated temperatures (up to 22/sup 0/C) can be tolerated for up to 8 hours without direct adverse effects, but freezing temperatures (/sup -/1.0/sup 0/C or below) are lethal. Dewatered gravels must remain sufficient moisture to provide near 100% humidity for egg and embryo survival. In field situations, physicochemical conditions that limit survival in dewatered gravels include residual flow, temperature, gravel size and composition, and dissolved oxygen. Biological variables such as alevin behavior and certain species characteristics also influence survival. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Unveiling information on opportunity costs in REDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delacote, Philip; Palmer, Charles; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    2014-01-01

    a theoretical framework, this paper explores the impacts of different policy objectives under two opportunity cost settings: asymmetric and full information. For a policy maker aiming to maximize net income from REDD, having full information may not increase the amount of forest conserved but could lead...... to a redistribution of rents away from agents. By contrast, for an environmental policy maker focused on maximizing the amount of forest conserved under REDD having full information increases the amount of forest conserved while reducing the rents received by agents. For a policy maker pursuing poverty alleviation...

  18. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  19. Developing countries: health round-trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Cea, Lourdes; Fernández Espinilla, Virginia; Ruiz López del Prado, Gema; Hernán García, Cristina; Cepeda Casado, Javier; Polo Polo, Ma José; Delgado Márquez, Antonio; Andrés García, Irene

    2015-01-15

    International travel can pose various risks to health, depending both on the health needs of the traveller and on the type of travel to be undertaken. Travellers intending to visit a destination in a developing country should consult a travel medicine clinic or medical practitioner before the journey. General precautions can greatly reduce the risk of exposure to infectious agents. Vaccination is a highly effective method of preventing certain infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to know the risks involved and the best way to prevent them.

  20. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mara, Duncan

    2004-09-15

    Details methods of domestic wastewater treatment that are especially suitable in developing countries. The emphasis is on low-cost, low-energy, low-maintenance, high-performance systems that contribute to environmental sustainability by producing effluents that can be safely and profitably used in agriculture for crop irrigation and/or in aquaculture for fish and aquatic vegetable pond fertilization. Modern design methodologies, with worked design examples, are described for waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, constructed wetlands, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, biofilters, aerated lagoons and oxidation ditches. (Author)

  2. Redesigning Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Kimaro, Honest; Aanestad, Margunn

    2008-01-01

    Despite widespread aims to strengthen the Health Information System (HIS) as a tool for decentralised health care, there is a strong tendency in most developing countries that the HIS continues to reflect the central level's needs and requirements. The traditional design approach with little...... or no end user involvement results in a centralised HIS with an extensive, somewhat inappropriate, but also inflexible set of standards. Consequently, the HIS is not very useful for the wished-for decentralisation of health services, and there is an urgent need to redesign the existing HIS in order to make...

  3. Malnutrition and health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Olaf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Malnutrition, with its 2 constituents of protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, continues to be a major health burden in developing countries. It is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, with hundreds of millions of pregnant women and young children particularly affected. Apart from marasmus and kwashiorkor (the 2 forms of protein- energy malnutrition), deficiencies in iron, iodine, vitamin A and zinc are the main manifestations of malnutrition in developing countries. In these communities, a high prevalence of poor diet and infectious disease regularly unites into a vicious circle. Although treatment protocols for severe malnutrition have in recent years become more efficient, most patients (especially in rural areas) have little or no access to formal health services and are never seen in such settings. Interventions to prevent protein- energy malnutrition range from promoting breast-feeding to food supplementation schemes, whereas micronutrient deficiencies would best be addressed through food-based strategies such as dietary diversification through home gardens and small livestock. The fortification of salt with iodine has been a global success story, but other micronutrient supplementation schemes have yet to reach vulnerable populations sufficiently. To be effective, all such interventions require accompanying nutrition-education campaigns and health interventions. To achieve the hunger- and malnutrition-related Millennium Development Goals, we need to address poverty, which is clearly associated with the insecure supply of food and nutrition.

  4. Transferring World Class Production to Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter; Mefford, Robert Neil

    1998-01-01

    Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice of the produ......Strategic reasons for firms to transfer world-class production methods and technology to developing countries are discussed and the importance of the management aspects of technology transfer are emphasized. A five stage model of the technology transfer process which bases the choice...... of the production process on the strategic objectives for the plant is developed. This is followed by the selection of the type of production system and the operational methods which will support it. The final stage of the model concerns the human resource policies neede to implement the operational decisions....... The barriers and challenges of implementation are considered, and a socio-technical systems approach is proposed as a way to addapt to local conditions....

  5. Health and development in BRICS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marchiori Buss

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the century, the acronym BRIC first appeared in a study produced by an economist at Goldman Sachs. Economic and financial interest in BRICS resulted from the fact of them being seen as drivers of development. The purpose of this review is to analyze the extent to which what is being proposed at the Declarations of Heads of State and in the Declaration and Communiqué of Ministers of Health of BRICS can provide guidance to the potential of achieving a healthier world. With that in mind, the methodology of analysis of Statements and Communiqué rose from the discussions at the Summit of Heads of State and Ministers of Health was adopted. In the first instance, the study focused on the potential for economic, social and environmental development, and in the second, on the future of health within the group addressed. The conclusion reached was that despite the prospect of continued economic growth of BRICS countries, coupled with plausible proposals for the health sector, strong investment by the countries in S&T and technology transfer within the group, research on the social and economic determinants that drive the occurrence of NCDs – there is the need and the opportunity for joint action of the BRICS in terms of the “diplomacy of health” reinforcing the whole process of sustainable development.

  6. SAR For REDD+ in the Mai Ndombe District (DRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarpaintner, Jorg

    2016-08-01

    The overall goal of the project "SAR for REDD" is to provide cloud-penetrating satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pre-processing and analysing capabilities and tools to support operational tropical forest monitoring in REDD countries and primarily in Africa. The project's end-user is the Observatoir Satellitale des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC).This paper presents an overall summary of the project and shows first results of the satellite products, that will be delivered to the user in addition to software tools to enhance the user's own technical capacity.The products shown here are SAR mosaics and derived forest-land cover maps based on C-band Sentinel-1A data for 2015, ALOS-PALSAR data for the period 2007-2010 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 for 2015. In addition, a forest cover change map from 2007 to 2010 based on ALOS PALSAR has been produced and is compared to results from the Global Forest Cover project [1].

  7. [Control of iron deficiency in developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jacques; Dillon, Jean-Claude

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide, especially in developing countries. It occurs when iron absorption cannot compensate iron requirements and losses. Requirements are especially high in pregnant women, infants, young children and adolescents who run a higher risk of being iron-deficient. In developing countries, the main cause of iron deficiency is the low iron bioavailability of the diet. The consequences of iron deficiency are many and serious, affecting not only individuals' health but also the development of societies and countries. The prevention and the control of iron deficiency and anemia in all groups of a population with different iron requirements imply to coordinate different interventions. Iron fortification of staple foods or condiments directed to the whole population is a sustainable and low cost-effective approach. However, at some periods of life, especially during pregnancy and in children from the age of 6 months, iron requirements are high. For pregnant women, the current approach favours the daily iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy but the results in terms of public health are disappointing. The preventive weekly iron-folate supplementation of women during their reproductive life, whose efficacy is recognized, offers a promising alternative; its impact in terms of public health is under current evaluation. For infants and young children, iron fortification of complementary food is effective but this food is generally imported and economically inaccessible to populations with limited resources. The production, by small private units from local products, of complementary foods of low viscosity, good nutritional quality, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and of low cost is at hand in several countries. When complementary foods are not available, the preventive iron supplementation from 6 to 18 months of age has to be advised. This approach should be strengthened by the advantages of the weekly

  8. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  9. Strategies for greater impact in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C

    1993-01-01

    Effective AIDS education programs are needed to prevent AIDS. They must integrate HIV/AIDS messages into basic health care services and adapted them to cultural norms and values. They should eliminate the mystery surrounding human sexuality. Effective AIDS education programs must examine control of communicable diseases and the relationship between gender issues and effective health care treatment. The infrastructure and resources to direct vertical HIV/AIDS programs generally do not exist in developing countries. All too often senior professionals accept positions in these vertical programs, which limits their ability to lobby for integrated HIV/AIDS programs. Donor organizations should make sure that all projects which they support have an AIDS component and work with other organizations to ensure that prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)/HIV/AIDS is completely integrated into health care delivery services. All health workers should undergo AIDS prevention and control training. Supervisors should make sure that subordinates practice AIDS control. Benefit packages should not be offered to attract health workers. Just because nationals may make up an information, education, and communication (IEC) program does not mean that they will adapt the program to cultural values. Donors must provide appropriate educational strategies and programs to developing countries. Social change evolves from the culture. Health care workers must help find culturally appropriate education strategies. IEC has not reached its objectives in prevention and control of STDs. Communication mechanisms that allow human sexuality to be a subject of every day discussion without causing embarrassment, uneasiness, and outrage are needed.

  10. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SangWanLee

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  11. The roles of livestock in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Grace, D; Njuki, J; Johnson, N; Enahoro, D; Silvestri, S; Rufino, M C

    2013-03-01

    Livestock play a significant role in rural livelihoods and the economies of developing countries. They are providers of income and employment for producers and others working in, sometimes complex, value chains. They are a crucial asset and safety net for the poor, especially for women and pastoralist groups, and they provide an important source of nourishment for billions of rural and urban households. These socio-economic roles and others are increasing in importance as the sector grows because of increasing human populations, incomes and urbanisation rates. To provide these benefits, the sector uses a significant amount of land, water, biomass and other resources and emits a considerable quantity of greenhouse gases. There is concern on how to manage the sector's growth, so that these benefits can be attained at a lower environmental cost. Livestock and environment interactions in developing countries can be both positive and negative. On the one hand, manures from ruminant systems can be a valuable source of nutrients for smallholder crops, whereas in more industrial systems, or where there are large concentrations of animals, they can pollute water sources. On the other hand, ruminant systems in developing countries can be considered relatively resource-use inefficient. Because of the high yield gaps in most of these production systems, increasing the efficiency of the livestock sector through sustainable intensification practices presents a real opportunity where research and development can contribute to provide more sustainable solutions. In order to achieve this, it is necessary that production systems become market-orientated, better regulated in cases, and socially acceptable so that the right mix of incentives exists for the systems to intensify. Managing the required intensification and the shifts to new value chains is also essential to avoid a potential increase in zoonotic, food-borne and other diseases. New diversification options and improved

  12. Scaling Health Information Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Neilsen, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issues of scaling health information system in the context of developing countries by taking a case study from Ethiopia. Concepts of information infrastructure have been used as an analytical lens to better understand scaling of Health Information systems. More...... specifically, we question the fruitfulness of focusing on not being installed base hostile and suggest focusing on how to be installed base “friendly” by underscoring how the installed base can also be draw upon and shaped by human agents. The paper conceptualizes health information infrastructure (HII...... to the installed base. The relative strength between the proponents of a HIS and the installed base will vary and thus require different approaches. While the II may develop and evolve as it is out of control from time to time, this study shows that there is also room for II building activities at certain points...

  13. Teamwork and program organization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen N; Castillo, Sergio Hernandez; Claro, Carlos Duarte; Novick, William M

    2011-04-01

    Establishment of congenital heart surgery programs in developing countries is often impeded by competition among providers for scarce resources and opportunities. To avoid this problem, the authors have sought to focus program development on a domestic medical team that includes a visiting North American surgeon. A leadership group was formed consisting of a domestic cardiologist and surgeon, the visiting surgeon, and leading local benefactors. Surgery was initiated beginning with closed cases, and the volume and complexity were gradually increased. The team was mentored by the visiting surgeon, and full medical brigades visited periodically. All members of the leadership group interacted with local health care providers, missionary groups, and visiting medical teams from international organizations, aiming to develop a single congenital heart surgery center. Over a period of 3 years, 185 children have been operated on and the team has progressed to do more complex open and closed cases. Overall mortality is 6.5%. Actively working with the program are 3 of the 5 local pediatric cardiologists, 2 of 4 pediatric intensivists, the only pediatric perfusionist, and the only active pediatric heart surgeon. Three additional international organizations currently participate in program development. Fundraising by the domestic nonprofit organization has increased approximately 20-fold in 5 years, and the program has been evaluated and approved by the government-based health insurance program. Focusing program development around a domestic leadership team allows coordination of patient referrals and resources, which contributes to excellent patient care and program sustainability.

  14. Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the popul...

  15. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  16. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  17. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows...... for rigorous comparison of climate, biophysical, and economic outcomes across global mitigation regimes. We find that effective global mitigation policies generate two sources of benefit. First, less distorted climate outcomes result in typically more favourable economic outcomes. Second, successful global...... mitigation policies reduce global fossil fuel producer prices, relative to unconstrained emissions, providing a substantial terms of trade boost to structural fuel importers. Combined, these gains are on the order of or greater than estimates of mitigation costs. These results highlight the interests of most...

  18. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge. PMID:25964453

  19. Modernity, postmodernity and disability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, C

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the implications of two theoretical perspectives, modernity and postmodernity, for provision of community-based disability services in developing countries. The author argues that modernity's embrace of the 'wonders' of science and technology have significantly affected our understanding of what community is. Modernity, in fact, leads us to view communities in one of two major ways: as inferior, or as ideal. Both views are deeply flawed. Postmodernity's profound scepticism of truth claims and authority provides a useful critique of community conceived in modern terms. The critique is helpful to the extent that it reveals the power of language in constructing our ideas of community. It also highlights a new way of thinking about participation, individualism and choice in community disability initiatives.

  20. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties.

  1. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....

  2. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  3. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  4. Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

    2011-12-01

    This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations.

  5. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  6. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  7. Characteristics of the Remote Sensing Data Used in the Proposed Unfccc REDD+ Forest Reference Emission Levels (frels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. A.; Scheyvens, H.; Samejima, H.; Onoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    Developing countries must submit forest reference emission levels (FRELs) to the UNFCCC to receive incentives for REDD+ activities (e.g. reducing emissions from deforestation/forest degradation, sustainable management of forests, forest carbon stock conservation/enhancement). These FRELs are generated based on historical CO2 emissions in the land use, land use change, and forestry sector, and are derived using remote sensing (RS) data and in-situ forest carbon measurements. Since the quality of the historical emissions estimates is affected by the quality and quantity of the RS data used, in this study we calculated five metrics (i-v below) to assess the quality and quantity of the data that has been used thus far. Countries could focus on improving on one or more of these metrics for the submission of future FRELs. Some of our main findings were: (i) the median percentage of each country mapped was 100%, (ii) the median historical timeframe for which RS data was used was 11.5 years, (iii) the median interval of forest map updates was 4.5 years, (iv) the median spatial resolution of the RS data was 30m, and (v) the median number of REDD+ activities that RS data was used for operational monitoring of was 1 (typically deforestation). Many new sources of RS data have become available in recent years, so complementary or alternative RS data sets for generating future FRELs can potentially be identified based on our findings; e.g. alternative RS data sets could be considered if they have similar or higher quality/quantity than the currently-used data sets.

  8. Building capacity for national level carbon Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) systems for a ``Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'' (REDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Goetz, S. J.; Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Ndunda, P.; Mekui, P.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Knight, D.

    2010-12-01

    An international policy mechanism is under negotiation for compensating tropical nations that succeed in lowering their greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation, responsible for approximately one-fifth of worldwide carbon emissions. One of the barriers to its success is the adoption of a unique MRV system and the participation of developing countries in carbon monitoring. A successful REDD policy must rely on a robust, scalable, cost effective method that will allow the Measurement Reporting and Verification from local to national scales, while also developing well-trained technical personnel to implement national REDD carbon monitoring systems. Participation of governments and forest stakeholders in forest and carbon monitoring methods at WHRC is achieved through ongoing technical workshops which include training of participants to collect field data to calibrate biomass models, and an annual Scholar’s Program where forest officers from the tropical regions of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia work with Woods Hole Research Center scientsts to improve skills in forest measurement and remote sensing monitoring techniques . Capacity building activities focus on technical aspects and approaches to forest-cover and carbon mapping and the use of satellite imagery together with ground-based measurement techniques in the development of forest cover and carbon-stock maps. After two years, the three-year project has involved more than 200 forest specialists from governments and NGOs in Bolivia, Cambodia, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Kenya, Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia, among others with participation of ten scholars actively participating in the developement of National REDD plans for forest mapping and monitoring. Field Training Mbandaka- DR Congo 2010

  9. Synchrotron Light Sources in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Herman; Pianetta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    The more than 50 light sources now in operation around the world include facilities in Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan which started their programs in the 1980's when they were developing countries. They came on line in the 1990's and have since trained hundreds of graduate students locally, without sending them abroad and losing many of them. They have also attracted dozens of mid-career diaspora scientists to return. Their growing user communities have demanded more advanced facilities, leading to the funding of higher performance new light sources that are now coming into operation. Light sources in the developing world now include the following: SESAME in the Middle East which is scheduled to start research in 2017 (www.sesame.org); The African Light Source, in the planning stage (www.africanlightsource.org); and The Mexican Light Source, in the planning stage (http://www.aps.org/units/fip/newsletters/201509/mexico.cfm). See: http://wpj.sagepub.com/content/32/4/92.full.pdf +html; http://www.lightsources.org/press-release/2015/11/20/grenoble-resolutions-mark-historical-step-towards-african-light-source. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  10. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  11. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect

  12. Economic development and growth in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinova, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, commonly referred to as "transition countries", have undergone transformations unparalleled in recent economic history. This book concentrates on three aspects of the transition process: the factors driving growth, the effect o

  13. Adapting Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC to Local Contexts in REDD+: Lessons from Three Experiments in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Thu Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC is a means of ensuring that people’s rights are respected when reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks (REDD+ projects are established in developing countries. This paper examines how FPIC has been applied in three projects in Vietnam and highlights two key lessons learnt. First, as human rights and democracy are seen as politically sensitive issues in Vietnam, FPIC is likely to be more accepted by the government if it is built upon the national legal framework on citizen rights. Applying FPIC in this context can ensure that both government and citizen’s interests are achieved within the permitted political space. Second, FPIC activities should be seen as a learning process and designed based on local needs and preferences, with accountability of facilitators, two-way and multiple communication strategies, flexibility, and collective action in mind.

  14. 48 CFR 25.404 - Least developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Least developed countries... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.404 Least developed countries. For acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA, least developed country end products, construction material, and services must...

  15. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  16. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Quang Dao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  17. Regulations and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an institutional approach to examine the effect of regulations on entrepreneurial activity, comparing developed and developing countries. Through an unbalanced panel data set of 49 countries over the period 2001-2010 and using a combination of international databases we find a positive influence of government spending and entrepreneurship legislation on entrepreneurial activity. It was also found that regulations may have different impacts on entrepreneurship according to the country’s economic development. Thus, in developed economies unemployment legislation is positively related to entrepreneurship, while this relationship is negative in other cases. This paper offers new insights both from a conceptual perspective (advancing theory concerning the factors that influence entrepreneurial activity and a practical viewpoint (for the design of government policies to foster entrepreneurship.

  18. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J

    2012-01-01

    programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many countries, the human, financial and material resources are still insufficient to meet the need for oral health care services......Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease...... and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient...

  19. ROLE OF DIASPORA BONDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bunyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  20. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  1. Personal Health Book Application for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddiq Alabbasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Personal Health Book application that is used as a portable repository for Personal Health Records (PHR in order to alleviate healthcare organizational problems in developing countries. The Personal Health Book application allows low literate people to access and carry their own medical history from a rural healthcare provider to an urban healthcare provider. This will improve the efficiency of medical care and lower costs for health clinics in underserved areas. This paper introduces a software application that can be ported onto a USB Smart Card or/and managed by smartphone or personal computer connected to cloud computing environment. The Portable Health Book application aims to ease the problem of interoperability between health clinics by accepting any file format and contents and applies a decomposed database to categorize, group and reorganize the data. Querying the application’s database, the consumer can create a unified report presentation that is understandable by the consumer, family, and healthcare provider. We tested the Personal Health Book framework by importing PHRs in an extensible markup language (XML format with a basic structure, without checking the PHR content from the Grameen Portable Health Clinic database in Bangladesh and from different departments from a hospital in Japan. The Personal Health Book was able to generate a human readable output as its database reorganize and store any type of PHR including sensor device data.

  2. Biodiversity Conservation in the REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Slik JW

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The tropics also harbour more than half the world's threatened species, raising the possibility that reducing GHG emissions by curtailing tropical deforestation could provide substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation. Here we explore the potential for such co-benefits in Indonesia, a leading source of GHG emissions from land cover and land use change, and among the most species-rich countries in the world. We show that focal ecosystems for interventions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia do not coincide with areas supporting the most species-rich communities or highest concentration of threatened species. We argue that inherent trade-offs among ecosystems in emission reduction potential, opportunity cost of foregone development and biodiversity values will require a regulatory framework to balance emission reduction interventions with biodiversity co-benefit targets. We discuss how such a regulatory framework might function, and caution that pursuing emission reduction strategies without such a framework may undermine, not enhance, long-term prospects for biodiversity conservation in the tropics.

  3. Transfer of regulatory toxicology from developed to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J A

    1988-12-01

    Over the past two decades, industrialized nations have addressed and attempted to solve the problems of chemical risk through the development of laws, government and private organizations, and specialized manpower. Developing nations are now recognizing that the presence of toxicants in the environment, foods, consumer products, and the workplace can seriously affect human health, the ecology, international relations, and economic activities such as trade and tourism. The design and implementation of regulatory programs in developing countries is hampered by lack of government and public concern, pressure of more urgent needs, vested interests of industry, and lack of adequately trained professionals. These factors have allowed developed nations to sell abroad drugs, pesticides, and other chemicals considered too hazardous for use in their own countries. Conversely, products from developing nations must comply with rigorous standards for acceptance by developed nations. Some of these problems would be lessened by agreement on international chemical control guidelines. Multilateral availability of complete information about chemicals is essential. The coordination of this effort should be in the hands of international organizations and reinforced by bilateral agreements between countries. Appropriate public education and economic incentives at the national level would help in enforcing regulatory toxicology.

  4. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  5. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  6. Promoting Balanced Competitiveness Strategies of Firms in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter (1942), it has been assumed that innovations typically play a key role in firms’ competitiveness.  This assumption has been applied to firms in both developed and developing countries. However, the innovative capacities and business environments of firms in developing countries are fundamentally different from those in developed countries. It stands to reason that innovation and competitiveness models based on developed countries may not apply to developing countries.   In this volume, Vivienne Wang and Elias G. Carayannis apply both theoretical approaches and empirical analysis to explore the dynamics of innovation in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on R&D in manufacturing firms.  In so doing, they present an alternative to Michael Porter’s Competitive Advantage Model—a Competitive Position Model that focuses on incremental and adaptive innovations that are more appropriate than radical innovations for developing countries.  Their ...

  7. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in a Developing Country: Is It Different from Developed Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1–37 years. Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%; 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.

  8. Teaching of Psychology in Countries with Advanced versus Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2014-01-01

    We compare structures and contents of psychology programmes from countries with developing and advanced economies. Respondents from 49 countries completed a survey of the International Union of Psychological Science on psychology education and training. In general, there are more similarities than differences between countries with developing and…

  9. Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Henders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

  10. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  11. Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries. ... regular institutionalized management in a participatory manner including all relevant ... of the advantage of planning a city, a definition and pros of urban economy in country ...

  12. A new estimate of carbon for Bangladesh forest ecosystems with their spatial distribution and REDD+ implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Biswas, Shekhar R.; Rashid, A. Z. M. Manzoor;

    2014-01-01

    in forest ecosystems. Using available published data, we provide here a new and more reliable estimate of carbon in Bangladesh forest ecosystems, along with their geo-spatial distribution. Our study reveals great variability in carbon density in different forests and higher carbon stock in the mangrove...... ecosystems, followed by in hill forests and in inland Sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the country. Due to its coverage, degraded nature, and diverse stakeholder engagement, the hill forests of Bangladesh can be used to obtain maximum REDD+ benefits. Further research on carbon and biodiversity in under......-represented forest ecosystems using a commonly accepted protocol is essential for the establishment of successful REDD+ projects and for the protection of the country’s degraded forests and for addressing declining levels of biodiversity....

  13. A methodology to estimate impacts of domestic policies on deforestation. Compensated Successful Efforts for 'avoided deforestation' (REDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combes Motel, P.; Pirard, R.; Combes, J.-L. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur le Developpement International (CERDI), 65 boulevard F. Mitterrand, 63000 Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2009-01-15

    Climate change mitigation would benefit from Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The REDD mechanism, still in discussion, would be in charge of distilling the right incentives and promoting the right policies for fostering forest conservation. The estimation of reduced emissions induced by the mechanism has been raised as an issue, either for issuing the proper amount of carbon credits or for providing appropriate compensations of foregone revenues and other costs to host countries. This estimation would be based on the gap between observed deforestation and a counterfactual value. Although any prediction of deforestation rates (i.e. business-as-usual scenarios) is challenging, and any negotiated target is subject to obvious political influence, these two ways have been prioritirized so far to determine the counterfactual value. In other words proposals focused on a results-based approach, the relevance of which is questionable because estimations of avoided deforestation are hardly reliable. With this approach, issuance of carbon credits and distribution of financial compensations could threaten respectively environmental integrity of the scheme and equity outcomes. Rather than considering overall deforestation (predicted and observed), we argue that a REDD mechanism would gain from linking distribution of carbon finance to real efforts (opposed to 'results') that developing countries implement for slowing deforestation rates. This would provide strong incentives to design and enforce suitable policies and measures. The methodology we present to measure these efforts (labeled Compensated Successful Efforts) is based on the rationale that overall deforestation is partly due to structural factors, and to domestic policies and measures. This typology differs from others presented in the literature such as proximate/underlying causes, or economic/institutional factors. Using an econometric model, our approach

  14. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  15. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  16. IMPLEMENTASI KEGIATAN REDD+ PADA KAWASAN KONSERVASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibowo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ adalah mekanisme yang sedang dibangun di tingkat global sebagai kegiatan mitigasi perubahan iklim sektor kehutanan.  Kajian ini dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan informasi tentang ketentuan/peraturan penyelenggaraan kegiatan REDD+ di tingkat nasional, aspek metodologi di tingkat global serta pembelajaran dari implementasi Demonstration Activities REDD di kawasan konservasi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa Pemerintah telah mengeluarkan berbagai peraturan dan petunjuk teknis terkait REDD+ termasuk pada kawasan konservasi. Namun sejalan dengan perkembangan yang terjadi, peraturan ini perlu diperbaharui atau direvisi. Metodologi implementasi REDD+ telah tersedia yang didasarkan kepada IPCC Guideline, dan tidak spesifik untuk kawasan konservasi. Penyelenggaraan kegiatan REDD+ di kawasan konservasi, selain menurunkan emisi dan adanya peluang  insentif  juga dapat menunjang kelestarian hutan, keanekaragaman hayati dan meningkatkan kehidupan masyarakat.  Meskipun demikian dijumpai hambatan dalam implementasi REDD+, dan diperlukan strategi ke depan agar REDD+ bisa diterapkan, dan  mencapai tujuan tanpa sepenuhnya bergantung kepada perkembangan negosiasi di tingkat global.

  17. REDD+ policy strategy in Cameroon: Actors, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somorin, O.A.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Arts, B.J.M.; Sonwa, D.J.; Tiani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is receiving increasing political and scientific attention as a climate change mitigation approach. The government of Cameroon has expressed an interest in participating in REDD+, and national deliberation on a policy strategy has

  18. Challenges of mega construction projects in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat Othman, Ayman Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Mega Construction Projects (MCPs) represent a strategic option towards achieving sustainable development objectives in developing countries. On the one hand, these projects are charaterised with the need for high design knowledge and technical skills; competent human resources and managerial capabilities as well as excessive cost investment. Conversely, developing countries experience shortage of many of these requirements, which obstruct the development of (MCPs)....

  19. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  20. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  1. Implications Of Payments For Ecosystem Services Based On The Redd Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina BRAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest degradation, through agricultural expansion, conversion to pastureland, infrastructure development, destructive logging, fires etc., account for nearly 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than the entire global transportation sector and second only to the energy sector. It is now clear that in order to constrain the impacts of climate change within limits that society will reasonably be able to tolerate, the global average temperatures must be stabilized within two degrees Celsius. This will be practically impossible to achieve without reducing emissions from the forest sector, in addition to other mitigation actions. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. “REDD” goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

  2. 基于社区的监测在避免毁林机制中的作用%Community-based Monitoring Under REDD+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小荣; 闫鼎羽

    2012-01-01

    Reducing deforestation and degradation, increasing forest carbon stocks and sustainable forest management in developing countries ( REDD+ ) means that periodic and systematic forest inventory is needed to quantify changes in forest carbon stocks. Currently, remote sensing can cost-effectively monitor deforestation, but the monitoring of forest degradation remains problematic. Measuring degradation poses a major challenge to the implementation of REDD + , and community=based monitoring can partly solve the problem. This paper focused on the community-based monitoring in the context of REDD+ , compared the data reliability and cost from community-based measurement and professional efforts, and discussed the merits and shortcomings of community-based monitoring. It was suggested that further efforts should be made to analyze the accuracy of community-based monitoring, to develop field guidelines and maximize the advantage of community-based monitoring under REDD+.%在发展中国家减少森林砍伐和退化、增加森林碳储存和开展森林可持续经营(REDD+),意味着各国必须周期性、系统性地开展森林清查,以量化森林碳储量的变化。目前的遥感技术可以经济合算地监测森林砍伐。但监测森林退化仍然比较困难,测量森林退化成为实施REDD+的一个主要挑战。基于社区的森林清查能够帮助解决这一问题。文中概述社区型监测在REDD+背景下的作用,比较社区型监测与专业技术人员开展森林清查的成本和数据可靠性,分析社区型监测的优缺点,认为需要进一步研究当地社区监测的准确性,完善实地操作规程,尽量利用社区型监测的优势实现REDD+。

  3. Capacity building for higher education in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    in the donor countries in order to merge the interests of the universities, the Ministry of Science/Education and the national/international donor agencies. It is argued that capacity building for higher education in developing countries should be a generally accepted part of the university strategy portfolio...... of relevant international capacity and institutional innovation in the donor countries. It is a process of mutual benefit for both recipient and donor countries....

  4. A Review of Strategies to Promote Road Safety in Rich Developing Countries: the Gcc Countries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khair Jadaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Road safety policies, strategies and action plans, along with trends in road traffic injuries (RTIs in the oil-rich Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC countries were examined to appraise their road safety work with an overall objective of identifying key measures and initiatives that would reduce RTA and their resulting consequences in these countries. Data on RTIs was obtained from police and from vital statistics and was analyzed. Research papers, policy documents, and strategies, obtained from relevant stakeholders in the six GCC countries, were reviewed and discussed. Traffic Safety Programs and action plans, which were the most fundamental documents in the development of the GCC countries’ road safety policies and strategies, were reviewed. Policy documents on road safety and traffic related issues were searched on the websites of related authorities. Published research on road safety in GCC countries was searched using available databases. Analysis of accident data shows that the fatality rates in all the GCC countries are much higher than developed countries with good safety records. The six administrations started the fundamental traffic safety programs to combat the increase in RTIs, with some succeeding in reducing RTI rates by implementing vast road safety improvements. However, RTIs increased again mainly because of increasing traffic volume and high-risk driving behavior. Developing and implementing national road safety strategies in some GCC countries was successful in reducing the RTI rates. The road safety situation in the six GCC countries was assessed showing high crash and fatality rates compared to developed countries. Most GCC countries still suffer from sustainable increase in traffic crashes despite the efforts to reduce their magnitude and severity. Some of these countries have developed and implemented national road safety strategies, while countries like Oman still need to develop such a long-term strategy. Following the

  5. Community Monitoring for REDD+: International Promises and Field Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Danielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Will community monitoring assist in delivering just and equitable REDD+? We assessed whether local communities can effectively estimate carbon stocks in some of the world's most carbon rich forests, using simple field protocols, and we reviewed whether community monitoring exists in current REDD+ pilots. We obtained similar results for forest carbon when measured by communities and professional foresters in 289 vegetation plots in Southeast Asia. Most REDD+ monitoring schemes, however, contain no community involvement. To close the gulf between United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change texts on involving communities and field implementation realities, we propose greater embedding of community monitoring within national REDD+ pilot schemes, which we argue will lead to a more just REDD+.

  6. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  7. The Financial and Economic Crisis and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gurtner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries were hit hard by the financial and economic crisis, although the impact was somewhat delayed. Every country had different challenges to master. The closer the developing countries are interconnected with the world economy, the crasser the effects. And the incipient recovery that is becoming noticeable is, for the time being, restricted to only a few countries and regions.The crisis was transmitted primarily by trade and financial flows forcing millions back into poverty. Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals is seriously jeopardised in many countries. Many developing countries did not and do not have the resources to stimulate the economy and protect their socially disadvantaged populations to the same extent as the industrialised countries. However, many countries have made considerable efforts to mitigate the effects. Developing countries have also increased their cooperation with one another and are urgently demanding a greater voice in global economic affairs.The industrialised countries are for the most part more concerned with their own problems. Their readiness to provide more extensive aid is limited. They are under pressure from the international institutions to relax their previous dominance in favour of the increasingly strong emerging countries. A shift in power and influence that was already noticeable before the financial crisis is deepening.

  8. Developing and evaluating rapid field methods to estimate peat carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Chimner; Cassandra A. Ott; Charles H. Perry; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    Many international protocols (e.g., REDD+) are developing inventories of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes at country and regional scales, which can include peatlands. As the only nationally implemented field inventory and remeasurement of forest soils in the US, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) samples the top 20 cm of organic soils...

  9. MNC Strategies and Linkage Effects in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    . It is hypothesized that compared to investments undertaken by MNCs following strategies of global integration, investments of MNCs pursuing local responsiveness create more jobs but imply less job upgrading in developing countries. The hypotheses are tested on a sample of Danish MNCs with extensive investments......The paper addresses the question of which implications MNC strategies have to FDI linkage effects in developing countries. Two contrasting MNC strategies reflecting an integration-responsiveness dichotomy are scrutinized as to their job effects on local linkage partners in developing countries...... in developing countries....

  10. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  11. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level.

  12. Exploiting Data for Supporting Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kalidien; R. Choenni

    2015-01-01

    The development in the field of ICT has opened doors for huge data collections. In order to take advantage of the huge data collections, research and development evolves in different directions, which are not necessarily divergent. We have set ourselves the question how developing and developed coun

  13. Restrictive Factors for Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bucur Ion; Bucur Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Economic growth reflects the ability of an economy to produce more goods, in the structure and quality demanded by consumers. Growth influence decisive the existing living standard in a country. Developing countries are characterized in a greater extent than developed countries by insufficient financial resources designed both to increase the volume of investment resources and their efficient use. Increasing economic resources requires investments and lead to increased production.

  14. Decentralisation in developing countries: preconditions for successful implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Olum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Decentralisation has been implemented and is being implemented in many developing countries without much success. Although several unique factors inhibit the implementation of decentralisation in individual countries, the paper argues that there are six pre-conditions that these countries should fulfill before decentralisation can be successfully implemented. These preconditions are: institutional mechanisms; creation of spaces for participation; political will and civil will; capacity development at the local level; careful implementation; and democratic governance.

  15. Benefits and Risks of Financial Globalization : Challenges for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits and risks that financial globalization entails for developing countries. Financial globalization can lead to large benefits, particularly to the development of the financial system. But financial globalization can also come with crises and contagion. The net effect of financial globalization is likely positive in the long run, with risks being more prevalent right after countries liberalize. So far, only some countries, sectors, and firms have ...

  16. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products.

  17. The Global Trends of the Industrial Development in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova V. Ye.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the global trends in the industrial development both in developed and developing countries. The study is based on the data of interbranch balances for 38 countries over the period of 1996-2011. In the selected groups of countries there have been studied: the dynamics and structure of the world industrial output, share of industry, dynamics and structure of the volume of industrial exports, dynamics of export orientation of the industrial production, dynamics of capacity of the domestic market for industrial products, structure of consumption of industrial products, dynamics and structure of the GDP of high-tech industries, dynamics of the share of the GDP of high-tech industries in the world industry GDP. There have been formed the rankings of top 20 producers, exporters and importers of industrial products in the world, leading countries in terms of capacity of the domestic market for industrial products, leading countries in terms of import dependence of the domestic market for industrial products in the world, leading countries in terms of the GDP volume of high-tech industries. Based on the conducted analysis it has been proved that the development of industry in developing countries is taking place in higher, as compared with developed ones, pace. High rates of industrial development in developing countries are ensured, first of all, by increasing their domestic market capacity. At the same time maintaining a high level of activity in the international market for industrial products still allows developed countries to keep the leading positions in rankings. The most industrially developed countries among the developing ones are Korea, China and India, and those among the developed countries are Germany, Japan and the United States. A significant advantage of the developed countries is observed in the production of high-tech products. Even considering the advantage in the GDP growth of high-tech industries in the

  18. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ghaiath MA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries.

  19. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  20. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaballa Romero, M.; Traerup, S.; Wieben, E.; Ravnkilde Moeller, L.; Koch, A.

    2013-01-15

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource needs estimates put forward in connection to REDD+. This report investigates the economics of implementing forest and REDD+ projects through eight case studies from Africa, Latin America and Asia, analyzing real forest and REDD+ investments. The report is part of efforts to share financial experiences and lessons learned with policymakers, project developers and stakeholders, with the objective to inform forest project and strategy development. It presents experiences and advice on the risks, costs and revenues of forest projects, thereby informing not only the development of future REDD+ initiatives but also the testing of advanced market commitments as a finance option for sustainable forest management. The findings in the report underline the fact that only through sound and transparent financial information will forest projects and national forest initiatives become interesting for private financial institutions and comparable with other investment opportunities. It is therefore important to include robust analysis of the operations business case and its financial attractiveness to commercial investors, early in the design process. As for the economics of forest and forest carbon projects, it appears that REDD+ payments alone, especially at current prices, will not deliver the revenues that cover all expenses of transparent and long-term mitigation of forest carbon emissions. Instead the findings underline the importance of building up forest operations which effectively manages risk and delivers several revenue streams. These findings are aligned with the advocacy efforts of UNEP and the UN-REDD Programme on multiple benefits and the combination of various funding and

  1. Waste biorefineries: Enabling circular economies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, A S; Rehan, M; Waqas, M; Naqvi, M; Ouda, O K M; Shahzad, K; Miandad, R; Khan, M Z; Syamsiro, M; Ismail, I M I; Pant, Deepak

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  3. Options for monitoring and estimating historical carbon emissions from forest degradation in the context of REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herold Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measuring forest degradation and related forest carbon stock changes is more challenging than measuring deforestation since degradation implies changes in the structure of the forest and does not entail a change in land use, making it less easily detectable through remote sensing. Although we anticipate the use of the IPCC guidance under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, there is no one single method for monitoring forest degradation for the case of REDD+ policy. In this review paper we highlight that the choice depends upon a number of factors including the type of degradation, available historical data, capacities and resources, and the potentials and limitations of various measurement and monitoring approaches. Current degradation rates can be measured through field data (i.e. multi-date national forest inventories and permanent sample plot data, commercial forestry data sets, proxy data from domestic markets and/or remote sensing data (i.e. direct mapping of canopy and forest structural changes or indirect mapping through modelling approaches, with the combination of techniques providing the best options. Developing countries frequently lack consistent historical field data for assessing past forest degradation, and so must rely more on remote sensing approaches mixed with current field assessments of carbon stock changes. Historical degradation estimates will have larger uncertainties as it will be difficult to determine their accuracy. However improving monitoring capacities for systematic forest degradation estimates today will help reduce uncertainties even for historical estimates.

  4. How Can Social Safeguards of REDD+ Function Effectively Conserve Forests and Improve Local Livelihoods? A Case from Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Harada

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The National REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation-Plus Strategy in Indonesia highlights the importance of local participation and the reform of land tenure in the success of forest conservation. National parks are a main target area for REDD+. National parks in Indonesia have been suffering from forest destruction and conflicts between governments and local communities. This study investigated: (1 the historical process of developing the REDD+ project in collaboration with multiple stakeholders including government authorities, local NGOs, and local people; (2 the social and economic impacts of the REDD+ project on local people; and (3 the local awareness of and motivations to participate in the REDD+ project in Meru Betiri National Park in Indonesia. Interviews of stakeholders including village leaders, NGO staff, and park staff were conducted to obtain an overview of the REDD+ project in the national park. Interviews with a questionnaire were also conducted among randomly selected heads of households who participated or did not participate in the REDD+ project and lived adjacent to the national park. Our analysis revealed that participants in the project obtained the right to use illegally harvested bared lands for intercropping while planting trees to recover forest ecosystems inside the national park. This opportunity could have contributed to a drastic increase in income, particularly for economically disadvantaged people, and to the recovery of forest ecosystems. Although local people did not fully recognize the meaning of REDD+ or carbon credits, they were enthusiastic to join in managing and patrolling forests because of their satisfaction with the income generated by the national park. However, the challenge is how both the recovery of forests and income generation from the project can be maintained in a situation of insufficient funding from donors and unsettled arguments about the benefit of sharing

  5. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects b...

  6. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  7. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...

  8. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  9. FOREIGN-EXCHANGE CONSTRAINTS AND DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LENSINK, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a model of developing countries in which a foreign exchange constraint and imported intermediates are central features, The model is used to carry out different scenarios with respect to developing countries' economic performance in the 1990s, A baseline simulation shows that the

  10. Perceived Requirements of MIS Curriculum Implementation in Bilingual Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeil, Magdy M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses additional requirements associated with implementing a standard curriculum of Management Information Systems (MIS) in bilingual developing countries where both students and workplace users speak English as a second language. In such countries, MIS graduates are required to develop bilingual computer applications and to…

  11. Contribution of livestock to food production in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FITZHUGH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global basis, livestock products - meat, milk, eggs and fibre - account for 40% of the value of total marketed agricultural product. Animal products provide essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals to help ensure nutritionally balanced diets. In developing countries, livestock traction and manure also contribute to food production through improved cultivation and soil fertility which increase crop yields. On average, the proportional contribution of livestock product to dietary calories and protein in developed countries is double that for developing countries. Demand for livestock products is fuelled by the population increase, income growth and urbanisation in developing countries. Therefore, over the past decade, consumption of livestock product has sharply increased in developing countries, while slightly decreasing in developed countries where consumption is already relatively high on average. Increased demand in developing countries increases income for producers, but also stresses the environment through pollution, soil erosion, overgrazing and deforestation. Research involving global partnerships of scientists and institutes can help ensure that the increased demands for livestock product in developing countries will be met in economically feasible and environmentally sustainable ways.;

  12. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  13. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INSURANCE INTERMEDIARIES IN THE DEVELOP EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nesterova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical and practical approaches in determining the features of insurance intermediation. It characterizes the traditional model of selling insurance products and modern multi-channel sales model of insurance services. It identifies the main legal acts that regulate the activities of insurance intermediaries in the European Union. In the article analyzed the activity of insurance intermediaries in the EU. The main channels of sales of insurance products are determined. The shares of premiums of insurance intermediaries in the volume of insurance premiums and in the GDP of the insurance markets of European countries are defined. The number of employees who are involved in insurance intermediary in the European countries is investigated. The European experience of insurance agents and insurance brokers in non-life insurance and life insurance is considered. It's analyzed the activity of insurance brokers in the Ukraine. The main trends and problems of the development of insurance intermediaries in the insurance market of Ukraine are defined.

  15. Development prospects of the banking industry in the new EU member countries and forthcoming member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Košak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bank consolidation has substantially decreased the number of banks in European banking, which has had important implications for the banking sectors structure in all EU member countries. The consolidation processes have had a tremendous impact on the developments in banking sectors of new EU member countries, wheremajor structural changes have been initiated mostly by new entrant banks from the old EU member countries. The future banking development in new EU member countries will very likely follow some main patterns known from the old EU members. Rather speculative conjectures, which are based on a comparison with banking sectors in other EU member countries indicate, that the total-asset-to-GDPratio in new member countries should further improve in the future. The banking sector growth will be based mostly on the growth of the credit to non-banking sector, while banks are not expected anymore to use non-bank deposits as a predominant way of funding. Instead potentials for alternative funding possibilities should be activated. Although the non-bank financial intermediaries in new EU membersrepresent a serious competition to banks, their relative underdevelopment prevents them from impacting the developments in banking sectors as known from old EU member countries.

  16. Nested governance for effective REDD+: Institutional and political arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kashwan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Forest Enhancement (REDD+ has become a central focus of global climate change mitigation efforts. Even though the international demand for forest-based carbon sequestration is the key driver of REDD+, forest protection strategies must be implemented on the ground. This cross-scale nature of REDD+ explains why scholars and policy makers increasingly favor nested governance arrangements over either fully centralized or fully decentralized REDD+ governance. The focus of the literature on nested REDD+ governance has mostly been on monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon emission reductions across sub-national, national, and international levels. We build on Ostrom’s principle of ‘nested enterprises’ to argue that REDD+ must be designed to systematically and formally link national policy reforms with the organization and execution of sub-national (regional and local forest conservation efforts led by forest users. We also contribute new insights on the political dimensions of nestedness in REDD+, with important roles for inter-community forestry associations and forest rights movements.

  17. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  18. PROCEEDINGS: Conference on Transportation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Sperling, Daniel; Mason, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Much of the developing world is experiencing rapid economic growth. Motor vehicle fleets in many megacities are doubling every seven years, creating a huge infrastructure backlog, escalating air quality problems, and imposing constraints on economic development. Besides rapid growth, the very context of transportation challenges is qualitatively different in the developing world. Leaded and unregulated fuels are a serious source of air pollution in cities like Bangkok, Lagos, and Jakarta. ...

  19. Economics of forest and forest carbon projects. Translating lessons learned into national REDD+ implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaballa Romero, Mauricio Ernesto; Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Wieben, Emilie

    The financial implications of implementing a new forest management paradigm have not been well understood and have often been underestimated. Resource needs for e.g., stakeholder consultation, capacity building and addressing the political economy are seldom fully accounted for in the resource...... and lessons learned with policymakers, project developers and stakeholders, with the objective to inform forest project and strategy development. It presents experiences and advice on the risks, costs and revenues of forest projects, thereby informing not only the development of future REDD+ initiatives......, it appears that REDD+ payments alone, especially at current prices, will not deliver the revenues that cover all expenses of transparent and long-term mitigation of forest carbon emissions. Instead the findings underline the importance of building up forest operations which effectively manages risk...

  20. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braithwaite, J. [Breeze International Environmental, Clayton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  1. Mobilising private adaptation finance: developed country perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The private sector is one of the sources of finance included in developed countries’ pledge in the UN climate negotiations to mobilise $100 billion annually by 2020 to support developing countries’ efforts to address climate change. For adaptation in particular, it remains unclear what

  2. Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dutschke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB, CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E, CarbonFix Standard (CFS, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, Global Conservation Standard (GCS, ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC, SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS. We developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1 poverty alleviation, (2 sustainable management of forests (SMF, (3 biodiversity protection, (4 quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5 monitoring and reporting, and (6 certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime.

  3. Technology development and technology gap among Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Moya, Edgar David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to study the source of the technology gaps amongst some Latin American countries and to identify whether a regional system of technological progress may be strengthened. ethodology: technology development within some Latin America countries was researched based on the technology frontier concept. In order to do that, the technological advancement of such countries was compared using standard variables and institutional systems. The concept and scope of the technology frontier, whic...

  4. An assessment methodology for developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    life-cycle assessment approach and an expanded definition of sustainability, ... However, these systems tend not to address social or economic aspects and ... development as “... improving the quality of human life while living within the ...

  5. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.

  6. Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A.R. Hosseinpoor (Ahmad); N. Speybroeck (Niko); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); J. Vega (Jeanette)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objectives of this study were to report on socioeconomic inequality in childhood malnutrition in the developing world, to provide evidence for an association between socioeconomic inequality and the average level of malnutrition, and to draw attention to different patterns

  7. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  8. Revenue Generation Capacity in Developing Countries: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical and human capital development in Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda using time-series ... education, reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, reducing child and maternal mortality, ... human capital investment in order to maintain social cohesion and political legitimacy. ...... European Economy Group-UCM and FUNCAS.

  9. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  10. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinot, E.; Chaurey, A.; Lew, D.

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Past donor efforts achieved modest results but often were not sustained or replicated, which leads now to greater market orientation. Markets for rural household lighting with solar home systems, biogas...

  11. Conduct of clinical trials in developing countries: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; Singh, Kavita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2009-07-01

    To provide a broad perspective of contextual factors involved in the conduct of clinical trials in developing countries. The quantity of research in developing countries continues to be inadequate, with clinical trials comprising a small fraction of the total research output. Most trials done in developing countries tend to be designed in developed countries and led by investigators in those nations. The main challenges in the conduct of trials in developing countries stem from the vulnerability of the populations due to illiteracy, poverty, limited research infrastructure, lack of sufficient numbers of experienced investigators and trained support personnel, and fragmented healthcare system. There is a need to formulate and conduct trials to test treatments that are context-specific and socially relevant. With careful planning in advance and shared partnership among sponsors, host-country research practitioners, government agencies and the community, many of the challenges facing clinical trial research can be overcome over the medium to long term. This would enable conformity to contemporary guidelines in both letter and spirit and hopefully develop research questions addressing the needs of developing countries.

  12. Sickle cell disease: management options and challenges in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Daniel; Akoto, Alex Osei; Ocloo, Delaena; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku

    2013-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In a developing countries like Ghana, new-born screening is now about to be implemented on a national scale. Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on early counselling, new-born screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  13. Sickle Cell Disease: Management options and challenges in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ansong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Disease (SCD is the most common genetic disorder of haemoglobin in sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary focuses on the management options available and the challenges that health care professionals in developing countries face in caring for patients with SCD. In developing countries like Ghana, newborn screening is now being implemented on a national scale.  Common and important morbidities associated with SCD are vaso-occlusive episodes, infections, Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS, Stroke and hip necrosis. Approaches to the management of these morbidities are far advanced in the developed countries. The differences in setting and resource limitations in developing countries bring challenges that have a major influence in management options in developing countries. Obviously clinicians in developing countries face challenges in managing SCD patients. However understanding the disease, its progression, and instituting the appropriate preventive methods are paramount in its management. Emphasis should be placed on newborn screening, anti-microbial prophylaxis, vaccination against infections, and training of healthcare workers, patients and caregivers. These interventions are affordable in developing countries.

  14. Globalization and the Least Developed Countries: Potentials and Pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most notable changes in the world economy during the past three decades has been the diverging trends in the growth of the developing countries. Compared to East Asian countries that have integrated well into the global economy, those of Sub-Saharan Africa have remained stagnant and have

  15. THE PROBLEM OF EXTERNAL DEBT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    to be not very profitable, or even unprofitable at all, and in some cases, external ... of trade for debtor countries on the international commodity market did not evoke ... 2) Protectionist policy on the market of developed countries,. 3) Wavering ...

  16. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  17. Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyses the impacts of the Commission's July 2004 proposal for sugar policy reforms on developing countries. The study uses three approaches that complement each other: model simulations, literature review and country case studies. Model simulations indicate that the consequences of the

  18. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, S.; Mores, S.; Bonifacio, A.; Chancellor, T.; Condori, B.; Crespo-Perez, V.; Hobbs, S.; Kroshel, J.; Ba, M.; Rebaudo, F.; Sherwood, S.G.; Vanek, S.J.; Faye, E.; Herrera, M.; Dangles, O.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countrie

  19. National innovation system in less successful developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intarakumnerd, Patarapong; Chairatana, Pun-arj; Tangchitpiboon, Tipawan

    2002-01-01

    This paper, using Thailand as a case study, aims at understanding the national innovation system (NIS) in developing countries which are less successful in technological catching-up. In contrast to developed countries, the development level of Thailand’s NIS does not link to its economic structur...... on factors contributing to the long-running perpetuation of weak and fragmented NIS. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B; Hochard, Jacob P

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world's 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries.

  1. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility...... of existing techniques. Our results consistently show that the sensitivity of reported profits to profit-shifting incentives is negatively related to the level of economic and institutional development. This may explain why many developing countries opt for low corporate tax rates in spite of urgent revenue...

  2. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  3. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  4. Diarrhea among children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataro, James P

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to stand among the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Although the introduction of oral rehydration and other case-management strategies have reduced acute diarrhea fatalities, many of the survivors develop persistent diarrhea and/or deficiencies of growth and cognition. Thus understanding the true global burden of diarrhea requires attention to acute diarrhea as well is its sequelae. To understand the etiology of moderate to severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia we performed a comprehensive case-control study of children under 5 years of age at seven sites. Each site employed an identical case-control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. Results of the studies will inform diarrhea prevention and management efforts worldwide.

  5. Optics education in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2005-10-01

    An optics laboratory plays a critical role in optics education. A major challenge for optics educators in Africa is the shortage or non-availability of laboratory teaching equipment. Optics teaching equipment is beyond the budget of most universities in the developing world such as the new National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe. The paper details a successful strategy - local fabrication/assembling of optics laboratory teaching aids - adopted by the Applied Physics Department at Zimbabwe's National University of Science and Technology. Students and technical staff under the guidance of an academic member of staff do equipment fabrication and assembling. The paper describes some of the project-type set-ups for performing experiments on (1) laser light scattering and impurity determination; (2) industrial imaging inspection (3) light transmission and reflection and (4) refractive index measurement.

  6. Creating Social Safeguards for REDD+: Lessons Learned from Benefit Sharing Mechanisms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many studies on benefit sharing mechanisms (BSM and the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programme (REDD+ focus on poverty alleviation and livelihood development. However, relatively few studies incorporate an integrated livelihood framework. This study employs the sustainable livelihoods framework to assess the impact of BSM in Vietnam. The lessons learned could be used in creating social safeguards for REDD+. The communities in Central Vietnam involved in BSM were impacted by the programme on various dimensions. These dimensions, expressed in different types of capital, are interconnected and contribute to a person’s well-being. While the communities have restricted access to their natural forests, they benefited in terms of income diversification, knowledge improvement and network expansion. On the other hand, they faced food insecurity, they were more vulnerable to natural hazards, and their human, social and cultural capital faced risk of deterioration.

  7. Comparison of real development levels of countries: Genesis and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prekajac Zora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of levels of development among countries is usually done by reducing values in national currencies with a common denominator, using the official exchange rate. Because of its unreality, the values calculated in this way do not illustrate real relations between compared countries. That brings about the launching of the UN International Comparison Project (latter Programme with two fold aims: developing a method for international comparison of real domestic product which could be applied to a number of very heterogeneous countries, and the comparison of growing number of very different countries. Until now six phases of comparisons are finished. Taking into consideration problems that appeared in the realization of the VI ICP phase as well as quality improvement proposals, a decision has been made to launch a new, global round for 2003-2006. Comparison will cover 150 countries (the widest coverage ever. This will give global character to the comparison, which was the end cause of the ICP.

  8. Acute viral bronchiolitis and its sequelae in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Teper, Alejandro; Colom, Alejandro J

    2002-12-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) is a common disease found throughout the world. Various aspects of it are being studied: its epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Most of these studies are being conducted in developed countries, with only a few taking place in developing countries. Risk factors such as poor nutrition, an adverse environment and early weaning should be studied where these features are common. Treatment aspects such as cost-effectiveness in low income settings need further study. Use of ribavirin and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-immunoglobulin are good examples. Post-bronchiolitic sequelae also need to be studied in low income countries. There is evidence that bronchiolitis obliterans is unusually frequent in some Latin-American countries such as Argentina and Brazil. It will be helpful to undertake combined studies in countries with the same socio-economics, investigating the preventive and management aspects of AVB and its sequelae to reduce the morbidity and mortality.

  9. Energy and the oil-importing developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkerly, J.; Ramsay, W.

    1982-05-07

    The article discussed the problems those countries have in securing adequate and reliable quantities of energy to meet minimal economic needs and still maintain development rates. A number of alternatives are available; if possible, each country might use a mix appropriate to its own resource base and level of development. An increase in export earnings might be achieved in many countries (and may be the only answer for countries poorly endowed with energy resources). The countries with fossil fuel reserves and hydroelectric resources need to press ahead with their development. Many countries should pay more attention to biomass, particularly those in which it is their most plentiful fuel resource. Attention should be paid to conservation by increasing the efficiency with which energy is used by the reorientation of development strategy because of higher energy prices. The World Bank has estimated that by 1990, savings in the cost of oil imports from an aggressive conservation and fuel switching policy might be as great as a maximum effort to increase oil production. By 1990, oil bills might be reduced by as much as $30 x 10/sup 9/. The international community can help this process by technical assistance, better money management, and by expansion of capital assistance to oil-importing developing countries.

  10. Economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Schou, Jesper S.

    2010-01-01

    -the silent water user. A promising way of placing aquatic ecosystems on the water agenda is by economic valuation of services sustained by ecosystems. In developing countries, the livelihoods of rural people often depend directly on the provision of aquatic ecosystem services. In such situations, economic...... valuation of ecosystem services becomes particularly challenging. This paper reviews recent literature on economic valuation of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries. "Market price" is the most widespread method used for valuating marketed ecosystem services in developing countries. "Cost based......" and "revealed preference" methods are frequently used when ecosystem services are non-marketed. A review of 27 existing valuation studies reveals a considerable range of estimated total economic value of aquatic ecosystem services in developing countries, that is from US$30 to 3,000/ha/year. The paper concludes...

  11. The effects of globalization on child labor in developing countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hakan Acaroglu; Ozcan Dagdemir

    2010-01-01

    ...) can be expressed as a U shape. The study indicatesthat the child labor increases in the developing countries whose PCGDP levels are above 7 500USD since the net effect of globalization is positive for the positive substitution...

  12. Photovoltaics for rural electrification in developing countries a road map

    CERN Document Server

    Urmee, Tania; Holtorf, Hans-Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This guide will greatly improve the success rate of solar energy projects in remote communities in developing countries, drawing on the authors' own case studies to generate comprehensive, step-by-step procedures that replicate proven real-life strategies.

  13. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  14. Intelligent physical blocks for introducing computer programming in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Adrew C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the evaluation of a novel affordable system that incorporates intelligent physical blocks to introduce illiterate children in developing countries to the logical thinking process required in computer programming. Both...

  15. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  16. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... in water systems of the developing countries, often with poorly- managed ... the case study, followed by the research methodology used in ..... Utilities must promote and support sub-metering as a ... The decision as to which.

  17. Macroeconomic Stability in Developing Countries: How Much Is Enough?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Montiel; Luis Servén

    2006-01-01

    Over the 1990s macroeconomic policies improved in most developing countries, but the growth dividend from this improvement fell short of expectations, and a policy agenda focused on stability turned...

  18. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural facto...

  19. Capital Flight and Transfer from Resource-Rich Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Demachi, Kazue

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of international resource price movements on capital outflows from resource-rich developing countries (RRDCs) by distinguishing capital flight and capital transfers. The volume of capital flight and transfers are calculated and their determinants are analyzed using macro-panel data constituting 21 resource-rich developing countries from 1990 to 2011. Through the regression analysis, the linkage between capital flight and resource revenue as well as that betwe...

  20. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  1. Growth and project finance in the least developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lisbeth F. la Cour; Jennifer Müller

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of project finance on economic growth in the least developed countries (LDC). Inspired by the neoclassical growth model we set up an econometric model to estimate the effects of project finance for a sample consisting of 38 of the least developed countries using data from the period 1994-2007. The results of our study suggest, that project finance has a significant positive effect on economic growth and therefore constitute an important source of ...

  2. Learning New Technologies by SMEs in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji; Lal, Kaushalesh

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on new field data, examines the ways in which small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in selected developing countries learn to use and augment their core capabilities with new technologies. This paper presents three findings. First, there is clear evidence of increasing complexity in the adoption and use of ICTs among developing country firms. Second, climbing the technological ladder requires skills upgrading through explicit learning of the new technologies. Third, firm perfo...

  3. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; Barker, S; Hamilton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through...

  4. Incubators as tools for entrepreneurship promotion in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akcomak, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on incubators in developed and developing countries. We show that the concept of incubators has evolved in time according to market and firm needs. Contemporary successful incubators are profit-oriented, provide a wide range of services, focus more on intangible business services, and employ qualified managers and support staff. By drawing lessons from country experiences we assess the appropriateness of incubators as a tool for entrepreneurship promotion in ...

  5. The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Jayachandran

    2014-01-01

    Is the high degree of gender inequality in developing countries--in education, personal autonomy, and more--explained by underdevelopment itself? Or do the societies that are poor today hold certain cultural views that lead to gender inequality? This article discusses several mechanisms through which, as countries grow, gender gaps narrow. I argue that while much of the GDP/gender-inequality relationship can be explained by the process of development, society-specific factors are also at play...

  6. On fair, effective and efficient REDD mechanism design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The issues surrounding 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD) have become a major component of continuing negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper aims to address two key requirements of any potential REDD mechanism: first, the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) REDD credits; and secondly, the sustainable and efficient provision of emission reductions under a robust financing regime. To ensure the supply of MRV credits, we advocate the establishment of an 'International Emission Reference Scenario Coordination Centre' (IERSCC). The IERSCC would act as a global clearing house for harmonized data to be used in implementing reference level methodologies. It would be tasked with the collection, reporting and subsequent processing of earth observation, deforestation- and degradation driver information in a globally consistent manner. The IERSCC would also assist, coordinate and supervise the computation of national reference scenarios according to rules negotiated under the UNFCCC. To overcome the threats of "market flooding" on the one hand and insufficient economic incentives for REDD on the other hand, we suggest an 'International Investment Reserve' (IIR) as REDD financing framework. In order to distribute the resources of the IIR we propose adopting an auctioning mechanism. Auctioning not only reveals the true emission reduction costs, but might also allow for incentivizing the protection of biodiversity and socio-economic values. The introduced concepts will be vital to ensure robustness, environmental integrity and economic efficiency of the future REDD mechanism. PMID:19943927

  7. On fair, effective and efficient REDD mechanism design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Mykola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The issues surrounding 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD have become a major component of continuing negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. This paper aims to address two key requirements of any potential REDD mechanism: first, the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV REDD credits; and secondly, the sustainable and efficient provision of emission reductions under a robust financing regime. To ensure the supply of MRV credits, we advocate the establishment of an 'International Emission Reference Scenario Coordination Centre' (IERSCC. The IERSCC would act as a global clearing house for harmonized data to be used in implementing reference level methodologies. It would be tasked with the collection, reporting and subsequent processing of earth observation, deforestation- and degradation driver information in a globally consistent manner. The IERSCC would also assist, coordinate and supervise the computation of national reference scenarios according to rules negotiated under the UNFCCC. To overcome the threats of "market flooding" on the one hand and insufficient economic incentives for REDD on the other hand, we suggest an 'International Investment Reserve' (IIR as REDD financing framework. In order to distribute the resources of the IIR we propose adopting an auctioning mechanism. Auctioning not only reveals the true emission reduction costs, but might also allow for incentivizing the protection of biodiversity and socio-economic values. The introduced concepts will be vital to ensure robustness, environmental integrity and economic efficiency of the future REDD mechanism.

  8. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  9. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  10. On the effects of monetary policy shocks in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data for a sample of developing countries, the time-series evidence indicates the allocation of monetary policy shocks, both expansionary and contractionary, between price inflation and output growth. Subsequently, cross-country regressions evaluate factors that underlie the difference in these allocations and their implications. The real effects of monetary shocks increase as the elasticity of aggregate demand increases with respect to monetary shocks. Nonetheless, capacity constraints hamper the output adjustment to monetary shocks and increase price inflation. Across countries, trend output growth increases with the output response to monetary shocks. Consistent with the stabilizing function of monetary policy, the variability of output growth decreases in the face of monetary fluctuations across countries. In contrast, monetary fluctuations increase the trend and variability of price inflation across countries.

  11. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  12. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  13. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Syud A [Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hertel, Thomas W, E-mail: sahmed20@worldbank.or [Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample-particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa-with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  14. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  15. Outsourcing Strategies of Emerging Country Firms : Are they Different from Developed Country Multinationals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleury, A.; Arkader, R.; Grössler, A.; Timenes Laugen, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze differences in the sourcing strategies of manufacturing firms from emerging and from developed markets. More specifically, we test whether manufacturers from emerging markets have other objectives when sourcing from within their countries or from international

  16. Outsourcing Strategies of Emerging Country Firms : Are they Different from Developed Country Multinationals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleury, A.; Arkader, R.; Grössler, A.; Timenes Laugen, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze differences in the sourcing strategies of manufacturing firms from emerging and from developed markets. More specifically, we test whether manufacturers from emerging markets have other objectives when sourcing from within their countries or from international

  17. Operationalizing the Definition of Forest Degradation for REDD+, with Application to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Barquero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of defining and quantifying forest degradation is a major constraint in the implementation of the international mitigation mechanism Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+. Our aim is to develop an operational framework for defining and quantifying forest degradation at a local level for early REDD+ projects and for national REDD+ programmes, through a ground level approach. We critically review and discuss national and international definitions of forest and of forest degradation, and then analyze the main difficulties in making these operational, evaluating the key elements and threshold values that are used, and contextualizing them using Mexico as a case study. We conclude that, given the lack of historical biomass data and the limited capability for monitoring degradation using remote sensing, forest degradation is best measured against a local benchmark that represents areas of low or no degradation that have comparable biophysical characteristics. Use of benchmarks of this type could offer a quick-start option for local assessment and construction of reference levels for forest degradation. These could be refined as more data become available and could eventually be integrated into national monitoring systems.

  18. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  19. Corporate Taxation and BEPS : A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; Mosquera, Irma

    The aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these differences.

  20. Corporate Taxation and BEPS: A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Burgers (Irene); I. Mosquera (Irma)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these

  1. Status of National Minorities in Developed European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Raduški

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary geopolitical changes, interethnic conflicts and clashes, and the connection between minority and territorial problems considerably influence the quality of inter-state relations and the preservation of global peace and security. National problems and ethnic confrontations found a firm ground on the territory of the Balkans, although they are known in democratic West-European countries as well, despite high standards in respecting human rights. However, even though they deserve special attention due to their seriousness, they remain exclusively under those countries’ jurisdiction, as opposed to countries in transition that are in the focus of interest and intervention of the international community. In developed countries, the method of regulating the minority question greatly depends on the position of that country on the world economic and political scene, apart from numerous historical and political factors. In each of these countries, there are specific models of coexistence of majority and minority population conditioned by numerous factors, so there does not exist a universal model that would be valid for all countries. Respecting basic human rights, as well as national minority protection, represent the basic factors of the stability, and democratic and socio-economic development of every country.

  2. Energy and environmental consciousness. Differences between advanced and developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Takashi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to understand how much differences there are between advanced countries and developing countries in terms of environmental and energy consciousness. We are experiencing now a big dilemma of the human desire to continue to exist and, at the same time, to develop the economy against the worsening of the Earth's environmental conditions. Understanding international differences of environmental and energy consciousness is a short way to solve this dilemma. The results of the present study were that peoples from advanced countries feel that science and technology are sometimes unreliable, while those from developing countries, are willing to rely upon them. However regardless of the country, people share the same consciousness about Earth's environment. In both, advanced and developing countries, people are reluctant to give up living comforts, unless this leads to a higher standard of living. Based on this result, the author would like to conduct another survey concerning the consciousness of future lifestyle. (author)

  3. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  4. Financial Frictions and Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Standard theory of small open economies predicts a smooth path for consumption and investment over time, and procyclical current account balances and employment. This contrasts with the data for emerging countries, where consumption, investment and employment are highly procyclical and volatile, and the current account balance is counter cyclical. Previous studies have reconciled theory and data using different households preferences for emerging countries vs. developed ones, either a lower i...

  5. Economic Rationale for Industrial Policy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Matyáš, David

    2012-01-01

    This thesis goes through basic principles of industrial policy in developing countries and analyses examples of recent industrial policies in BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) in the last two decades. The analysis shows the coexistence of unsuccessful and fruitful stories of industrial policy implementation. In the text, I focus especially on the last two decades. I recognize that industrial policy can have a positive impact on economy in some cases, but on the other hand, gove...

  6. Globalisation and Developing Countries - a Shrinking Tax Base?

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of globalisation on tax bases of countries at varying stages of development. We see globalisation as a process that induces countries to embrace greater trade and financial integration. This in turn should shift their tax revenue from 'easy to collect' taxes (tariffs and seigniorage) towards 'hard to collect' taxes (value added and income taxes). We find that trade and financial openness have a positive association with the 'hard to collect' taxes, and a negati...

  7. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As developing economies[1] around the world become more socially affluent in the coming decades, the incidence of cancer-related mortality is expected rise significantly owing to a combination of lifestyle changes and multiple environmental factors (Figure 1. Based on statistics from the World Health Organization, developing countries accounted for nearly 72% of cancer mortality in 2008 even though the average disease incidence in these countries is lower compared to that of high-income nations[3]It has been projected that up to 60% (ca. 15–20 million of new cancer cases will occur in developing countries by the year 2020[4-6], causing more deaths than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined. In the past, cancer management in developing countries has focused heavily on disease prevention, general awareness improvement, and early detection, while deprioritizing treatment and research efforts as a result of limited resources[7]. However, given the severity of the situation, it is now necessary to recalibrate our focus and reprioritize the investment of valuable resources in the fight against cancer.With respect to cancer research in developing countries, a major challenge faced by international researchers is the lack of reliable data[6], along with a limited research output from the developing world, which hampers our general understanding of the capability of these countries in dealing with the cancer pandemic. From 2011 to 2015, the average combined research output from developing countries constituted only 20% of the total publication output of the world’s top 100 most published countries in the field of oncology (Figure 2. Nonetheless, developing countries have recorded an impressive 20% average year-on-year increase in terms of their publication output during this period, and five of these countries contributed to more than three quarter of the total number of papers published (Figure 3.In contrast, developed nations only registered a 4

  8. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  9. A cost effective and operational methodology for wall to wall Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and carbon stocks estimation and mapping: Nepal REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H., Sr.; Ganguly, S.; Zhang, G.; Koju, U. A.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Nemani, R. R.; Manandhar, U.; Thapa, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal is a landlocked country with 39% forest cover of the total land area (147,181 km2). Under the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and implemented by the World Bank (WB), Nepal chosen as one of four countries best suitable for results-based payment system for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+) scheme. At the national level Landsat based, from 1990 to 2000 the forest area has declined by 2%, i.e. by 1467 km2, whereas from 2000 to 2010 it has declined only by 0.12% i.e. 176 km2. A cost effective monitoring and evaluation system for REDD+ requires a balanced approach of remote sensing and ground measurements. This paper provides, for Nepal a cost effective and operational 30 m Above Ground Biomass (AGB) estimation and mapping methodology using freely available satellite data integrated with field inventory. Leaf Area Index (LAI) generated based on propose methodology by Ganguly et al. (2012) using Landsat-8 the OLI cloud free images. To generate tree canopy height map, a density scatter graph between the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) estimated maximum height and Landsat LAI nearest to the center coordinates of the GLAS shots show a moderate but significant exponential correlation (31.211*LAI0.4593, R2= 0.33, RMSE=13.25 m). From the field well distributed circular (750m2 and 500m2), 1124 field plots (0.001% representation of forest cover) measured which were used for estimation AGB (ton/ha) using Sharma et al. (1990) proposed equations for all tree species of Nepal. A satisfactory linear relationship (AGB = 8.7018*Hmax-101.24, R2=0.67, RMSE=7.2 ton/ha) achieved between maximum canopy height (Hmax) and AGB (ton/ha). This cost effective and operational methodology is replicable, over 5-10 years with minimum ground samples through integration of satellite images. Developed AGB used to produce optimum fuel wood scenarios using population and road

  10. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  12. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  13. Endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression and transiently decreases mTORC1 signaling in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Miki; Tsunekawa, Haruka; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Murakami, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Working muscle conserves adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for muscle contraction by attenuating protein synthesis through several different pathways. Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is one candidate protein that can itself attenuate muscle protein synthesis during muscle contraction. In this study, we investigated whether endurance exercise induces REDD1 expression in association with decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex I (mTORC1) signaling and global protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. After overnight fasting, rats ran on a treadmill at a speed of 28 m/min for 60 min, and were killed before and immediately, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after exercise. REDD1 mRNA and corresponding protein levels increased rapidly immediately after exercise, and gradually decreased back to the basal level over a period of 6 h in the gastrocnemius muscle. Phosphorylation of mTOR Ser2448 and S6K1 Thr389 increased with the exercise, but diminished in 1–3 h into the recovery period after cessation of exercise. The rate of protein synthesis, as determined by the surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) method, was not altered by exercise in fasted muscle. These results suggest that REDD1 attenuates exercise‐induced mTORC1 signaling. This may be one mechanism responsible for blunting muscle protein synthesis during exercise and in the early postexercise recovery period. PMID:25539833

  14. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  15. REDD policy impacts on the agri-food sector and food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The REDD policy which preserves, enables substantial emission reductions. Since agricultural production and area expansion is a primary driver of tropical deforestation, REDD policies might limit the expansion possibilities of agricultural land use and therefore influence competitiveness, agricultur

  16. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  17. Interest rate derivatives in developing countries in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Cerovic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still the main problem for the interest rate derivatives development is the lack of basic conditions, including inadequate measurement of interest rate risk exposure, underdevelopment of financial markets in general and especially of market instruments that underlying derivatives, weak and/or inadequate infrastructure and legal framework, misunderstanding and lack of experience in operations with financial derivatives and the complexity of the derivatives accounting.

  18. Options for improving effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Marion S; Cowley, Daniel; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Hutton, Melanie L; Lyras, Dena; Kirkwood, Carl D; Buttery, Jim P

    2016-11-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in young children due to diarrhea and dehydration. Over 85% of deaths occur in developing countries. In industrialised countries, 2 live oral rotavirus vaccines licensed in 2006 quickly demonstrated high effectiveness, dramatically reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis admissions in many settings by more than 90%. In contrast, the same vaccines reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis by only 30-60% in developing countries, but have been proven life-saving. Bridging this "efficacy gap" offers the possibility to save many more lives of children under the age of 5. The reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in developing settings may be related to differences in transmission dynamics, as well as host luminal, mucosal and immune factors. This review will examine strategies currently under study to target the issue of reduced efficacy and effectiveness of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing settings.

  19. Industrial Clusters and Social Upgrading in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    In this article, we explore the relationship between industrial clusters and social upgrading in developing countries. Our article focuses on the hitherto little-considered influence of the economic and regulatory environment on the social upgrading of a cluster and on its governance system....... In doing so, we develop an analytical framework that seeks to explain how the enabling environment and different actors in cluster governance can either facilitate and/or hinder the process of social upgrading in cluster settings in developing countries. Finally, the conclusion outlines our main findings...

  20. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  1. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    . The main research question is why it is so difficult for new entrepreneurs to enter markets, or in other words, why are the barriers to entry seemingly higher in developing countries? Development writers such as Hernando de Soto and Daron Acemoglu suggest that this question is closely related...... such as competition policy. The model is tested using the World Bank's BEEPS dataset which is a repeated cross section survey of firms across countries in development and transition. This data gives access to observe among other firm size and whether firms pay a bribe or not. This data is combined with Stephan Voigt...

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAGU OLIMPIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the aim to highlight the impact of innovation on sustainable development in Eastern and Central European countries. In this wiew, a sinthetic measure of sustainability in these countries is calculated, taking into account ten statistical indicators (related to socio-economic development, sustainable consumption and production, social inclusion, demographic changes, public health, primary energy consumption, share of renewable energy in final consumption energy, sustainable transport, official development assistance granted to these countries from EUROSTAT database. A comparative analysis of the level of sustainability during 2005-2014 in Eastern and Central Europe is followed by an analysis of the impact of innovation (measured by eco-innovation index on sustainable development, using panel data techniques. The findings show that eco-innovation had a positive impact on sustainability in these countries in the examined period.This result could be used as a rationale for policy makers from these countries in designing measures for eco-innovation stimulation, aiming in this way to move forward for achieving the planned national targets within the European Union Sustainable Development Strategy (EU-SDS.

  3. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  4. Developing countries and the aircraft industry: match or mismatch?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2001-01-01

    For many industrially developing countries, technology transfer is seen as a road towards technological and economic development. Indonesian experiences with the aircraft industry suggest that the transfer of technology in this sector is extremely difficult, and even if technology is actually transf

  5. What can be learned from the history of developed countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  6. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  7. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  8. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  9. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  10. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  11. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    of existing techniques. Our results consistently show that the sensitivity of reported profits to profit-shifting incentives is negatively related to the level of economic and institutional development. This may explain why many developing countries opt for low corporate tax rates in spite of urgent revenue...... needs and severe constraints on the use of other tax bases....

  12. Extent and evaluation of protection in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kol (Jacob)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTariff protection and nontariff barriers are higher in developing countries than in industrial nations. The tendency of protection to decline with a higher level of development can be explained by the role of import taxes in government revenue, by export pessimism, and by differential tr

  13. Model-based scenarios for rural electrification in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, B. van; Schers, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Promoting access to modern energy forms in developing countries to replace traditional fuels is high on the political agenda. This paper describes the development and application of a global model for rural electrification. The model is used to assess future trends in electrification, and the associ

  14. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  15. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  16. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  17. Global aspects of cardiothoracic surgery with focus on developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzella, A Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of cardiothoracic disease continue to increase globally, especially in emerging economies and developing countries. Cardiothoracic surgery is also growing despite limited access, availability of surgical centers, political and cost issues. The increase in atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, trauma, and thoracic malignancies is a more urgent problem than realized in these emerging economies and developing countries, or low- and middle-income countries. A determined focus and cooperation between the preventive and curative elements of care is warranted. This represents a paradigm shift to develop a consensus that fosters a multi-integrated disease-specific approach that includes prevention, promotion, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. In addition, the concept or acceptance of surgery as a necessary component of public health policy is critical to improving overall global healthcare.

  18. Practising cloud-based telemedicine in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    In industrialised countries, telemedicine has proven to be a valuable tool for enabling access to knowledge and allowing information exchange, and showing that it is possible to provide good quality of healthcare to isolated communities. However, there are many barriers to the widespread implementation of telemedicine in rural areas of developing countries. These include deficient internet connectivity and sophisticated peripheral medical devices. Furthermore, developing countries have very high patients-per-doctor ratios. In this paper, we report our work on developing a cloud-based health information system, which promotes telemedicine and patient-centred healthcare by exploiting modern information and communication technologies such as OWL-ontologies and SQL-triggers. The reason for using cloud technology is twofold. First, cloud service models are easily adaptable for sharing patients health information, which is of prime importance in patient-centred healthcare as well as in telemedicine. Second, the cloud and the consulting physicians may locate anywhere in the internet.

  19. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  20. Modeling Fractal Dimension Curve of Urban Growth in Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    The growth curve of fractal dimension of cities can be described with sigmoid function such as Boltzmann's equation and logistic function. The logistic models of fractal dimension curves have been presented for the cities in developed countries. However, these models cannot be well fitted to the observational data of fractal dimension of urban form in developing countries (e.g. China). By statistic experiments of fractal parameters, we find that the quadratic Boltzmann's equation can be used to describe fractal dimension change of Chinese cities. For the normalized fractal dimension values, the Boltzmann's equation can be reduced to a quadratic logistic function. In practice, a fractal dimension dataset of urban growth can be approximately fitted with the quadratic logistic function. Thus, a series of models of fractal dimension curve can be proposed for the cities in developing countries. The models are applied to the city of Beijing, Chinese capital, and yield satisfying trend lines of the observational dat...